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IJRSAT [International Journal for Research in Science & Advanced Technologies] is an international open access, interdisciplinary, bimonthly, peer reviewed, Indexed and referred journal. IJRSAT is an online journal having full access to the research and review paper. The journal also seeks clearly written survey and review articles from experts in the field, to promote insightful understanding of the state-of-the-art and application trends. The journal aims to cover the latest outstanding developments in the field of engineering sciences and Technology. )
BHANU* et al. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR RESEARCH IN SCIENCE & ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES ISSN 2319-2690 ISSUE-1, VOLUME-3, 096-099 QoS based Delay-Constrained AODV Routing in MANET Mr. Bhanu Pratap Singh1, Mr. Mubeen Khan2 1 M.Tech Scholar, Medicaps Institute of Technology & Management, Indore, India 2 M.Tech Scholar, Medicaps Institute of Technology & Management, Indore, India 1 email@example.com 2 firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract- MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Network) is a self a network and the number of hops to each destination and organizing and self configuring network without the save them in their routing tables. New route broadcasts need of any centralized base station. The nodes of mobile contain the address of destination, the number of hops to reach ad-hoc network are mobile and battery constrained. As the the destination, the sequence number of the information nodes have limited battery resources and multi hop routes are receive regarding the destination, as well as a new unique used over a changing network environment due to node mobility, it requires energy efficient routing protocols to limit the sequence number for the new route broadcast . In this power consumption, prolong the battery life and to paper a new scheme used that is Energy efficient routing, it improve the robustness of the system. These limitations result deals with efficient utilization of energy resources. By long processing delays in a relay/forwarding node. In order to controlling the early depletion of the battery, adjust the power alleviate these issues, we propose a solution based on cross-layer to decide the proper power level of a node and incorporate the MAC design, which improves the coordination between MAC low power strategies into the protocols used in various layers and routing layers using an idea we call “virtual link". The of protocol stack. There are little issues and solutions which virtual link idea was implemented and tested in an ad hoc wireless network. This paper evaluates the performance of witnesses the need of energy aware routing in ad hoc wireless various ad-hoc routing protocols such as DSDV, AODV, networks. DSR, TORA and AOMDV in terms of energy efficiency The paper organization is as follows: related work is described and it also proposes a new routing algorithm that in section 2. Routing protocol and AODV routing is described modifies AOMDV and it provides better performance in section 3 and proposed scheme is described in section 4 and compared to all the above protocols. Simulation is done using 5.Network simulation results are presented in section 6 NS-2(version NS -2.34). followed by conclusions and future work in section 7. Keywords— MANET, Energy Efficiency, Routing, AODV, Urgent Packets. II. RELATED WORK I. INTRODUCTION Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks:-Mobile Ad-hoc A Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of networks are self-organizing and self-configuring multihop wireless nodes that can dynamically set up anywhere without wireless networks, where the structure of the network changes using pre-specified network infrastructure. It is an dynamically. This is mainly due to the mobility of the nodes autonomous system in which mobile hosts connected by . Nodes in these networks utilize the same random access wireless links are free to move anywhere in the network. The wireless channel, cooperating in an intimate manner to topology of such networks is dynamic in nature. Due to the engaging themselves in multihop forwarding. The node in the limited wireless transmission range several intermediate nodes network not only acts as hosts but also as routers that route can be used. Route establishment is done with a minimum data to/from other nodes in network. In mobile ad-hoc overhead and bandwidth consumption. AODV is perhaps the networks there is no infrastructure support as is the case with most well-known routing protocol for MANET , which is a wireless networks, and since a destination node might be out hop-by-hop reactive (On demand) source routing protocol, of range of a source node transferring packets; so there is need combines DSR and DSDV mechanisms for routing, by using of a routing procedure. This is always ready to find a path so the on-demand mechanism of routing discovery and route as to forward the packets appropriately between the source maintenance from DSR and the hop-by-hop routing and and the destination. Within a cell, a base station can reach all sequence number from DSDV. For each destination, AODV mobile nodes without routing via broadcast in common creates a routing table like DSDV . It offers quick wireless networks. In the case of ad-hoc networks, each node adaptation to dynamic link conditions, low processing and must be able to forward data for other nodes. This creates memory overhead, low network utilization, and determines additional problems along with the problems of dynamic unicast routes to destinations within the Ad-hoc network topology which is unpredictable connectivity changes. .Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) routing Properties of Ad-Hoc Routing protocols protocol is a typical routing protocol for MANETs, which is based on the Distributed Bellman-Ford algorithm . In The properties of Ad-Hoc Routing protocols are : DSDV, each route is tagged with a sequence number which is i). Distributed operation: The protocol should be distributed. It originated by destination, indicating how old the route is . should not be dependent on a centralized controlling node. All nodes try to find all paths to possible destinations nodes in Nov-Dec 2012 Edition Page 96 BHANU* et al. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR RESEARCH IN SCIENCE & ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES ISSN 2319-2690 ISSUE-1, VOLUME-3, 096-099 This is the case even for stationary networks. The dissimilarity each destination. Many routing protocols including is that the nodes in an ad-hoc network can enter or leave the Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV)  and network very easily and because of mobility the network can Fisheye State Routing (FSR) protocol  belong to this be partitioned. category, and they differ in the number of routing tables manipulated and the methods used to exchange and maintain ii). Loop free: To improve the overall performance, the routing tables. With on-demand driven routing, routes are routing protocol should assurance that the routes supplied are discovered only when a source node desires them. Route loop free. This avoids any misuse of bandwidth or CPU discovery and route maintenance are two main procedures: consumption. The route discovery process involves sending route-request iii). Demand based operation: To minimize the control packets from a source to its neighbour nodes, which then overhead in the network and thus not misuse the network forward the request to their neighbours, and so on. Once the resources the protocol should be reactive. This means that the route-request reaches the destination node, it responds by protocol should react only when needed and should not uncasing a route-reply packet back to the source node via the periodically broadcast control information. neighbour from which it first received the route-request. When the route-request reaches an intermediate node that has iv). Quality of Service Support: Some sort of Quality of a sufficiently up-to-date route, it stops forwarding and sends a service is necessary to incorporate into the routing protocol. route-reply message back to the source. Once the route is This helps to find what these networks will be used for. It established, some form of route maintenance process could be for instance real time traffic support. maintains it in each node’s internal data structure called a Problems in routing with Mobile Ad hoc Networks route-cache until the destination becomes inaccessible along the route. Note that each node learns the routing paths as time i). Asymmetric links: Most of the wired networks rely on the passes not only as a source or an intermediate node but also as symmetric links which are always fixed. But this is not a case an overhearing neighbour node. In contrast to table-driven with ad-hoc networks as the nodes are mobile and constantly routing protocols, not all up-to-date routes are maintained at changing their position within network every node. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)  and Ad-Hoc ii). Routing Overhead: In wireless ad hoc networks, nodes On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV)  are examples of on- often change their location within network. So, some stale demand driven protocols. In proposed simulation we use the routes are generated in the routing table which leads to reactive AODV routing protocol because this is on demand unnecessary routing overhead. routing protocol. No routing table will created by that over head in the network reduces and efficient then table iii). Interference: This is the major problem with mobile ad- driven/proactive routing protocol. hoc networks as links come and go depending on the transmission characteristics, one transmission might interfere III. AODV ROUTING PROTOCOL with another one and node might overhear transmissions of In this section we describe the routing process of normal other nodes and can corrupt the total transmission. AODV routing protocol . It does not maintain routes from iv). Dynamic Topology: Since the topology is not constant; so every node to every other node in the network rather they are the mobile node might move or medium characteristics might discovered as and when needed & are maintained only as long change. In ad-hoc networks, routing tables must somehow as they are required. The key steps of algorithm used by reflect these changes in topology and routing algorithms have AODV for establishment of uncast routes are explained to be adapted. For example in a fixed network routing table below. updating takes place for every 30sec. This updating frequency A. Route Discovery might be very low for ad-hoc networks. Routing Protocol for When a node wants to send a data packet to a destination MANET node, the entries in route table are checked to ensure whether there is a current route to that destination node or not. If it is The routing protocols proposed for MANETs are generally there, the data packet is forwarded to the appropriate next hop categorized as table-driven and on-demand driven based on toward the destination. If it is not there, the route discovery the timing of when the routes are updated. With table-driven process is initiated. AODV initiates a route discovery process routing protocols, each node attempts to maintain consistent, using Route Request (RREQ) and Route Reply (RREP). The up-to-date routing information to every other node in the source node will create a RREQ packet containing its IP network. This is done in response to changes in the network address, its current sequence number, the destination’s IP by having each node update its routing table and propagate the address, the destination’s last sequence number and broadcast updates to its neighbouring nodes. Thus, it is proactive in the ID. The broadcast ID is incremented each time the source sense that when a packet needs to be forwarded the route is node initiates RREQ. Basically, the sequence numbers are already known and can be immediately used. As is the case used to determine the timeliness of each data packet and the for wired networks, the routing table is constructed using broadcast ID & the IP address together form a unique either link-state or distance vector algorithms containing a list identifier for RREQ so as to uniquely identify each request. of all the destinations, the next hop, and the number of hops to The requests are sent using RREQ message and the Nov-Dec 2012 Edition Page 97 BHANU* et al. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR RESEARCH IN SCIENCE & ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES ISSN 2319-2690 ISSUE-1, VOLUME-3, 096-099 information in connection with creation of a route is sent back The simulation described in this paper was tested using the ns- in RREP message. The source node broadcasts the RREQ 2 test-bed that allows users to create arbitrary network packet to its neighbours and then sets a timer to wait for a topologies . By changing the logical topology of the reply. To process the RREQ, the node sets up a reverse route network, ns-2 users can conduct tests in an ad hoc network entry for the source node in its route table. This helps to know without having to physically move the nodes. Ns-2 controls how to forward a RREP to the source. Basically a lifetime is the test scenarios through a wireless interface, while the ad associated with the reverse route entry and if this entry is not hoc nodes communicate through a wireless interface. Here we used within this lifetime, the route information is deleted. If are taking the some essential simulation parameters. The the RREQ is lost during transmission, the source node is results are calculated on the basis of these parameters . allowed to broadcast again using route discovery mechanism TABLE I . SIMULATION PARAMETERS FOR CASE STUDY IV. PROPOSED SCHEME Number of nodes 8 Ad hoc wireless networks are power constrained since nodes Dimension of simulated area 800×600 operate with limited battery energy. If some nodes die early Initial node energy ( joules) 100 due to lack of energy, they cannot communicate with each Threshold value(joule) 20 other. Therefore, inordinate consumption of nodes’ energy Minimum threshold value(joule) 1 should be prevented. In fact, nodes residual energy utilization Simulation time (min) 100 after threshold should be increase the energy utilization of Radio range 250m networks. Here we proposed a new energy utilization scheme Traffic type CBR, 3pkts/s in MANET which reduces delay and utilizes remaining Packet size (bytes) 512 energy. In this scheme we set a threshold value for energy consumption by mobile nodes in our network. If the energy Maximum Speed (m/s) 35 level of any node/s in the network reaches to threshold level Node movement random that are participated in communication means it will be active Tx energy consumption 1.5J in the network. But here we apply one condition, number of Rx energy consumption 1.0J nodes that having a energy remaining after threshold value is Idle energy consumption 0.017J also utilized in communication. According to our proposed Sleeping energy consumption 0.001J approach a new energy aware efficient routing to make aware our network about the energy of nodes by that we remove the A. Scenario for Connection Establishment problem of suddenly loss of session to recognize the Here we show the snap shot of eight nodes they are sensing unfaithful nodes and extend the life cycle of network. the neighbour for establish connection between the source nodes to destination node through intermediate nodes. In this V. PROPOSED SCHEME BASED AODV ROUTING scenario the yellow colour nodes are having a sufficient Now based on this scheme AODV generate a RREQ message energy for communication. to their neighbours if node energy is greater than threshold value then establish connection and forwarded request up to destination. Then all the nodes send back the RREP message to their sender according to energy condition criteria. The numbers of nodes in the network are only take part in communication if they have a sufficient energy except the urgent packet condition. From a functional point of view, proposed algorithm can be considered to consist of two main units. One of these units handles the energy conservation operation. This is done through managing the nodes’ energy level periods. The other unit or aspect of the algorithm takes care of supporting the routing protocol, as far as energy management decisions are concerned. It helps to ensure the routing protocol makes routing decisions that serve a specific goal. For example, whenever possible, nodes carry out routing duties that are proportional to their energy levels compared to each other. Figure-1 shows the interactions of algorithm with the network and MAC/PHY layers. VI. SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT AND RESULTS Figure 1Nodes are sensing their neighbour to establish connection. Nov-Dec 2012 Edition Page 98 BHANU* et al. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR RESEARCH IN SCIENCE & ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES ISSN 2319-2690 ISSUE-1, VOLUME-3, 096-099 this work. After execution tcl script, .tr (TRACE) files and .nam (NAM) files have been generated and simultaneously packets movement between the nodes in NAM (network animator) has been visualized. In this paper, AODV B. Packet Delivery Ratio Comparison routing protocol using different parameter of QoS metrics With the help of AWK tool, we have obtained this graph. If have been simulated and analyzed. packet delivery ratio is higher it means our performance is A proposed scheme has been utilizes power status of each best. mobile node and alternate paths. This scheme will give best result in the network where no of nodes are more (>50). This scheme can be incorporated into any ad hoc on-demand routing protocol to improve reliable packet delivery in the face of node movements and route breaks. Alternate routes are utilized only when data packets cannot be delivered through the primary route In future we apply our concept with all different MANET protocol like DSR, DSDV and OLSR. In future we also use various energy depletion parameters and simulate our work so in future rectified result get from our proposed module. REFERENCES  Forman G., Zahorjan J. The challenges of mobile computing. IEEE Computer 1994; 27(4):38-47.  Perkins C. Ad Hoc Networking: Addison-Wesley: 2001; 1-28.  S.Singh S, Woo M, Raghavendra C. Power-Aware Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.Proceedings of Int’l Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom’98) 1998. C. Remaining Energy Analysis  Girling G., Wa J, Osborn P, Stefanova R. The Design and Implementation of a Low Power Ad Hoc Protocol Stack. Proceedings Here we show the analysis of Remaining Energy in case of of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference 2000. Eight nodes. Here we analyze that in case of energy  L. M. 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CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK The entire simulations were carried out using ns 2.31 network simulator which is a discrete event driven simulator developed at UC Berkeley as a part of the VINT project. By using CYGWIN command shell has been executed successfully in Nov-Dec 2012 Edition Page 99
"IJRSAT Issue 1-Volume 3-QoS based Delay-Constrained AODV Routing in MANET"