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					   Developing Intercultural
Communication competence in EFL

               Wu, Fang-Hui ( Judy)
        University of Durham (England) EdD
         University of Ulster ( N.I) TESOL
•   To explore what ‘culture’ and ‘intercultural
    communication’ (IC) mean (why, what, and how)

•   To discuss how we can use materials and activities
    to develop our Ss’ IC

•   To share practical activities to help ss
•   To discuss our own choices and activities

      What is culture?
What culture lessons have you
done in your English lessons?
 Any good/ bad experience?

What is culture?

 Activity: What much do you know?

• Work in pairs ! Please walk around
  in the library and write down the
  answers to the questions which are
  on the 6 walls.
• 8 mins 

          Video Clips
• 20121028 TVBS 一步一腳印 發現新台灣 勇
  闖台南以色列味 
• 【冰原歷險記4】冰原漂移舞教學影
• Noam Chomsky vs Gangna style
                          WHY ?
       We are all connected in different ways
Socially - media and internet
Culturally- movements of people
Economically- trade
Environmentally- sharing one planet
Politically- international relations
4 good reasons:
• IC is in the national curriculum
• Ss need to explore their values
• Ss are curious about the world
• Ss need to develop their thinking skills
    How does Culture Emerge in the
          EFL Classroom?
                 Rules of interaction /
                 issues of politeness and directness

                                                       How Values and
Declarative and                                        beliefs influence
Procedural knowledge         Culture                   interpretations
                                                       of behaviour
about the
target culture

                  Connotations of words/
                  Expressions / proverbs

American & British English Differencces


How to understand the difference between the
UK and Great Britain 
 Italian speaks English – Cultural Misunderstanding

 Gestures around the world   (6:55)
16 Rude & Interesting Gestures Around the World: explained
by Skyscanner (2:04)
Cross Cultural Differences In Body Language by Image
Matters Asia
Different skills from different

 What : Intercultural Communication
Intercultural communication is how people from
  different cultures find ways to communicate
  with each other.
It is also about understanding people with
  different opinions, viewpoints and values.
It is the recognition of one’s own culture,
  acceptance of cultural differences and the ability
  to empathize with and respect different cultures
Link: Intercultural Communication Adventure with
  Little Pilot
 Attitudes of curiosity and               Knowledge of products
         openness                            and practices

           Intercultural Communicative Competence
                         Byram (1997)

Skills of interpreting and                  Skills of discovery and
  relating documents                              interaction

                              Critical Cultural
                  3. Skills
                  Interpret e

2. Knowledge      5. Critical cultural 1. Attitudes
Of the self and   awareness            2. Relating self
other, of                              3. Valuing other
individual and

                  4. Skills
                  Discover and
Knowledge and        Skills                Values and
Understanding                              Attitudes

social justice and   critical thinking     sense of identity
equity               arguing effectively   and self esteem
diversity            challenging           empathy
globalisation and    injustice             commitment to
interdependence      respect for other     social justice
sustainable          people                value and respect
development          cooperation and       for diversity
peace and conflict   conflict resolution   concern for
                                           belief -people can
                                           make a difference

Integrating IC Is           Is not
Developing critical         Not too difficult for ss of
thinking skills             English to understand
Equipping ss with IC        Not mostly about other
knowledge, skills and       places and people
                            Not telling people what to
Showing how IC is part of   think and do
everyday life
                            Not an extra topic to fit
Understanding how we        into the English curriculum
relate to each other as
human beings

               Cultural Differences
(1) HSBC Culture differences                       ( 6:42)

1. Time, feet and gesture ( America vs Japan, Thailand, Greece)
2. Parking ( Germany vs France)
3. Personal space (Europe)
4. Wrong flowers ( Italy)
5. Winning ( America vs Japan)
6. Eating ( English vs Chinese)
7. Washing machine ( India)

(2) Italian fashion house in India
(3) God grew tired of us“
(4) The Differences between West & East
                     HOW ?
• Contextualising to Taiwan/ other cultures and
• Engaging ss using realia, real world examples and
• learning together in pairs and groups
• developing literacy and oracy skills
• developing emotional literacy and thinking
                             HOW ?
Oral Activities                  circle time, role play, drama,
                                 cooperative games, songs,
ICT activities                   tele & video conferencing
Writing activties                wall displays, web pages
Thinking skills activities       mysteries, ranking
cross-curricular links           music, dance
school linking projects
         IC in TEYLs – HOW ?

“We never present Intercultural Communication as
   information. We want to know what kids are
  feeling about their own world and help them to
  understand it better. We allow the YLs to decide
 what they want to be in a local and global sense.”

       - Teachers, Pimlico Academy London, UK
                         CC UK visit
 ‘When we were leaving the school and saying goodbye to each other, an
  English girl came up and gave one of my students a hug to show friendship.
  My student was shocked and did not know how to react. I noticed the girl
  was feeling a bit embarrassed. One of my female students tried to explain
  the cultural differences, how Taiwanese friends don’t usually hug. After all
  the explanations from each other, I saw they were all laughing. I could tell
  from my student’s shy face, he wanted to try and show his respect for
  English culture – he slowly opened his arms and gave her a hug back. I was
  really touched to see this scene. The understanding of differences and the
  respect for the different cultures just happened outside the classroom.’
When teenagers from England, South Korea and Taiwan meet, their
  horizons and minds expand as they find common ground Connecting

Teachers’ belief and observation

“Wenever present Intercultural Communication as
 information. We want to know what kids are
 feeling about their own world and help them to
 understand it better. We allow the students to
 decide what they want to be in a local and global

      - Teachers, Pimlico Academy London, UK
Learning preferences: Multiple
   Intelligences ( Diversity)

HOW ? Activities ideas
Oral Activities              circle time, role play, drama,
                             cooperative games, songs,

ICT activities               tele & video conferencing

Writing activties            wall displays, web pages

Thinking skills activities   mysteries, ranking

cross-curricular links       music, dance

school linking projects      Choices
             How : Using Photos
Why                         What
stimulate ss to respond /   start with familiar places
question                    (e.g. families in Taiwan
build ss’ background        use good quality images
knowledge                   set context
create interest             give accurate information
develop visual literacy     encourage ss to personalize
expose ss to people and     make links to ss’ own lives /
places globally             experiences
help ss understand and
respect difference
     Ex : 4 Fab Photo Activities:

• Changing situations
• Beyond the frame
• Putting yourself in the picture
• Links and commonalities
IC in TEYLs – HOW ?
                    How: using realia

is interesting and enjoyable
brings cultures alive
develops YLs’ observation skills
encourages further research (internet)
develops respect and care for other
people’s things

                   HOW ?
Lesson Plans: Your World, My World
• ss love learning from other ss
• Looking at other ss’ lives & reflecting on own
  lives and world around them
• Children from Ethiopia, Russia, Brazil & India
• Themes: myself, caring and sharing, helping
  others, friendship, responsibility
           IC in TEYLs – HOW ?
Your World, My World - Lead in:
• show Peter’s Projection world map

• highlight geographical features

• ask YLs what it might be like to live there
        HOW ?- a jigsaw reading
Lesson 1: Lesson plan sharing
• use PowerPoint photos to lead in
• set up jigsaw reading using grid
• Ss read then group and exchange info
• Ss personalise by completing own profiles on
• Ss post their profiles to class blog / site/ or oral
                  Lesson Plan ideas
Lesson Plan                           IC Theme / Aims
2. Looking at our names               Importance of not calling people
                                      unkind names
3. All in a day                       Similarities and differences
                                      between people around the world
4. Look what I can do!                Feeling positively about ourselves
5. Exploring family                   Similarities and differences
                                      between families
6. Our friends and us                 Exploring how friends care for each
9. Our dreams                         Planning for the future
10. The futures tree                  Caring for the environment
Lesson Plans from Oxfam Education
For teachers:
For ss:
Dances of the world
Tutor: Els van Oudheusden
Refreshments & networking!

   *15 mins*
Activity: Do these images represent the UK for you?
                  Think – pair - share
            HOW ?using photos/ PPT
Why                                   What
 to develop ss’ understanding and     Some Questions :
 openness towards others who are      1.What can we see in the photo/
exposing YLs to authentic materials
                                      2.What does this tell us about _____?
observing photos and asking
questions                             3.Can you think of other people who
questioning the context in texts /    do _______ ?
comparing similarities and            Other example
differences with Hong Kong            English Slang
researching on the internet           Harry Potter
participating in exchanges
     HOW ?--- Games

China Schools Pack, BBC: 5 fun activities
• counting
• classroom games
• playground games
• leisure time
• Beijing Olympics & London
HOW ?- cultural exchange projects
Example 
In Vietnam
In Korea
In the UK
In Hong Kong
            During these years
(1) 2008-09 : Korean ss came to New Taipei
(2) 2009-10:Taiwanese ss went to Korea
(3) 2010-11: Taiwanese & Korean ss went to the UK
(4) 2011-12: Taiwanese went to Vietnam
(5) 2012-13: Taiwanese & UK visit
              ( Huilian vs Cumbria)
Some examples SS report
  Vietnamese girls      ss reflection
ss reflection
      Platforms for Cooperation
•   (1) E-pals
•   (2) iEARN + training Webinar
•   (3) British Council
•   (4)中小學國際教育網站
•   (5) BBC world class
4 steps to run the project
WEEK      DATE                             TOPIC
 1     0210 -- 0216   Preparing-- Introducing the project, grouping
 2     0217 -- 0223   Topic Writing-- Introduce Myself
 3     0224 -- 0301   Topic Writing -- Introduce Myself
 4     0302 -- 0308   Group Discussion-- Introduce Myself
 5     0309 -- 0315   Mailing Introduce Myself
 6     0316 -- 0329   mid-term exam (I)
 7     0330 -- 0405   Information Searching -- group task
                      Information Searching & Organizing-- group
 8     0406 -- 0412
 9     0413 -- 0419   Drafting the Writing Topic
 10    0420 -- 0426   Drafting the Writing Topic
 11    0427 -- 0503   Revising the Writing Topic
 12    0504 -- 0510   mid-term exam (II)
 13    0511 -- 0517   Making Web Page for the Writing Topic
 14    0518 -- 0524   Making Web Page for the Writing Topic
 15    0525 -- 0531   Revising & Mailing the Writing Topic
Group             Writing Topic       Group Members

  1     School Routine / Regulation

  2     Outside School Surroundings

  3     School Holidays

  4     School Staff

  5     School Facilities

  6     Learning Subjects
(1) E-Pal
(2) iEARN :
Professional training webinar
         (3) British council
(4) 教育部補助中小學國際教育提供SIEP撰寫諮詢服務
(5) BBC World Class

    Some Great Examples in Taiwan
Kindergarten          Cats
Elementary Schools    1. Caroline (iEARN)
                      2. Annie (iEARN)
                      Taiwan and Germany

                      3. Cindy

Junior High Schools   1. Chere (iEARN)Chere Lin: -->教學
                      逍遙遊 --> My School, Your School
                      2. 蘇信滿老師 (iEARN)
                      3.林彥良老師 Eric ( CCOC)
                      4.呂佳玲 Leo and Fortuna
Senior High School    task-based lesson plans
          And other countries
• Bear Project report
• AFS Intercultural Fair Express Cut in HK 
• UK: culture week ( photos)

     Others think about Taiwan
• Taiwan Treasure Box Shared With Second
• ROC 100 Centenary Celebration Project

• Group discussion project
• What do you think about Taiwan?
• When Sweet potatoes meet potatoes?
• 彰化縣國際教育全球資訊網 CIEN
• 彰化縣國際教育暨英語教學資源中心
• 中小學國際教育資訊網 (教育部設置)
• 美國資料中心
• Info USA
• Follow Me to 瓜地馬拉:馬雅文化之旅
• 部落格
• Global Voices全球之聲
• FB
• 國家地理
  DAY 為11月11日
• 世界各國國歌mp3下載~
• National Anthems
• Multicultural Education
• Multicultural Education through Miniatures -- International
  children's stories, activities, and culture Multicultural
  Education through Miniatures is a website designed for
  children and teachers. It contains stories, activities, and
  pictures of handcrafted figures from all over the world.
  Students are encouraged to use the photos and information in
  their school reports
Mike Lockett Taiwanese folk stories, videos
• 桃園縣認識世界
• 繪本閱讀 : ex. Henry‘s freedom box
• Superb resources and materials for storytelling with diversity
• Tim Sheppard‘s Storytelling Links for Storytellers
• Great online materials from the British Council Teaching English
• 國際新聞讀報站
• Chimamanda Adichie: The danger of a single story

  Critical Questions about FOOD
• What do our attitude to food tell us about ourselves and
  our society?

• Why are there so many food diets across the globe?

• Why do we use our hands / fork & knives / chopsticks to

• Why do we take 2, 3, 5 meals a day?

=> Food culture is the set of rules that naturally regulates the
  consumer’s relationship to food.
• Geography and climate
• Human & natural resources
• Culture / lifestyle
• Economic conditions
• Techniques / Know how / Recipes
• Religion, customs & habits
              WHY IS FOOD CULTURE
•   Willingness to share : make others aware, discover, respect differences, restore the
    culinary proudness people tend to forgot in our fast paced world.

•   Have one’s food culture recognized as part of a broader cultural identity

•   Gastronomy is part of the cultural heritage: a common asset, an identity mark to
    cherish. Pass on food custom & know how,

•   Authentic cultural / travel experience through which foreigners can approach the
    culture of a given country => ‘taste a society’.
                    FRENCH & INDIAN FOOD CULTURES
Respect of                   Wine tasting,                                   Culture of tea,                  Respect of
tradition                 passion for cheese                               blending of spices                 tradition

Variety of                                                                                                    Variety of
regional     Various ingredients and preparation techniques following local sourcing with fresh ingredients   regional
cuisines                                                                                                      cuisines
             AOCs (controlled term of origin) are French     To combat adulteration and falsification the
             certification granted to certain French         tea board of India administers the Darjeeling
             geographical indications for agricultural       certification mark & logo. Darjeeling Tea is
             products (wine, cheese, vegetables…) to         cultivated, grown, produced, manufactured
             protect them from falsification and attest of   and processed in tea gardens in a selection of
             their authenticity and origin. These labels     estates in the district of Darjeeling.
             guaranty the quality and production
             standards of the selected products.
             Baguette is a staple food in France             Breads are staple foods in India

             Anise based liquor as a refreshing drink        Anise is used as a mouth freshener at the end
             during summers                                  of meals.

                              Cultural Differences Video
                Food Projects
•   Food in every country ( from Fortuna)
•   Talk about food
•   Food cooking day
•   Lunch box menu ( Eric) worksheet
•   Daily dose of school dinners( UK girl)
•   Food debate on BBC world class ( Tina)
•   School Diary in Brazil
             Make a difference
  e=KidsActivities 雖然是關於收養小孩的網站,但是

• Adoption Cultures Alive! Free Kid's Coloring Pages,
  Maps, Cultural Learning Center for adoptees
The sun did not shine.          Too wet to go out
It was too wet to play.         And too cold to play ball.
So we sat in the house          So we sat in the house.
All that cold, cold, wet day.   We did nothing at all.

I sat there with Sally.         So all we could do was to
We sat there, we two.           Sit! Sit! Sit! Sit!
And I said, "How I wish         And we did not like it.
We had something to do!"        Not one little bit.

                                From “The Cat in the Hat” by Dr.
Thinking about all the things we have talked about today
TEDxWanChai - Freddy Law - Intercultural Exchange

Be the candles
Any questions? And thank you

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