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					    GIS-Based Water Information
     System Application in PWA


      Prepared by: Basheer Ahmed Obaid

       GIS Department - Palestinian Water Authority




                        May 2006
1
Introduction
   This paper displays new technique
    about the integration of applications
    of geographic information systems
    and Water Information System in The
    Palestinian Water Authority (PWA)




2
   it explain the Link between ArcGIS
    9.1 and Oracle Enterprise Edition10g
    using ArcSDE Server and Oracle
    Spatial to integrate the PWA system.




3
   Also this paper displays the
    implementation steps of the project
    and shows the importance of GIS
    technique in the PWA Departments.




4
    Palestinian Water Authority
 The Palestinian Water Authority is a
  governmental institution that was established
  in 1995 to be the regulatory body of the water
  and wastewater sector in Palestine.
 It is responsible of ensuring sustainable
  development of the water sector in Palestine




    5
GIS Department


   Follow Strategic Planning Directorate




6
GIS Department at PWA

GIS Sections:

     Mapping Section
     Digitizing Sections
     Remote Sensing Section




8
                         ‫مهام دائرة نظم المعلومات الجغرافية‬

               ‫1. اإلشراف على تطوير نظم المعلومات الجغرافية.‬
               ‫2. التنسيق مع المؤسسات لتطوير النظم والخرائط.‬
          ‫3. متابعة المشاريع المتعلقة بنظم المعلومات الجغرافية.‬
    ‫4. اإلشراف على إصدار الخرائط الالزمة وتدقيقها واعتمادها.‬
            ‫5. متابعة التكنولوجيا الحديثة لتحديث نظم المعلومات‬
                                                     ‫الجغرافية.‬
                       ‫6. اإلشراف على تحديث المعلومات دوريا.‬
    ‫7. اعداد الخرائط الكنتورية بالتعاون مع الدوائر المعنية بذلك.‬
‫9‬
       What is GIS?
     A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a
     collection of computerized maps and
     databases that are linked together for the
     purpose of storing, retrieving, managing and
     analyzing information.




10
 Definition of a GIS
    A system of hardware, software, data, people,
     organizations and institutional arrangements
     for collecting, storing, analyzing and
     disseminating information about areas of the
     earth.
     (Dueker and Kjerne 1989, pp. 7-8)




11
Geographic Integration of Information
                                         Administrative Boundaries
                                                  Utilities

                                                 Zoning
                                                Buildings
                                                 Parcels
                                              Hydrography
                                                 Streets
                                            Digital Orthophoto

• Data is organized by layers, coverages or themes with each layer
representing a common feature.
• Layers are integrated using explicit location on the earth’s
surface, thus geographic location is the organizing principal.
    The Purpose of a GIS
 allows the geographic features in real world
  locations to be digitally represented so that they
  can be abstractly presented in map form, and can
  also be worked with and manipulated to address
  some problem and also can be used for:
 Operational Management
 Decision Support System




    13
What does GIS do?
GIS is a powerful tool which can:

     Create Maps

     Integrate Information

     Visualize Scenarios

     Resolve Complex Issues

     Present Ideas


15
     Develop Effective Solutions
     Benefits of GIS
Less Data Redundancy
More Timely Information
Easy Analysis of Information
Adaptable to Change
Valuable Tool for Decision Management




16
      What does GIS do?




17   Database: Not Easy to Interpret
Did you Know?
      Approximately 80% of ALL data stored
        is related to a geographic location.


                                        Databases
                                        80%


Maps 20%




18
     Classifications of information
19
GIS: historical background
This technology has developed from:
  – Digital cartography and CAD
  – Data Base Management Systems

                  ID    X,Y       ID ATTRIB
     1            1                1
                  2                2
         2        3                3
             3



     CAD System        Data Base Management System
Applications of GIS

  Geographic information system is an
   integrated collection of computer
   software and data
  used to view and manage
   information about geographic places,
   analyze spatial relationships, and
   model spatial processes

 21
22
Spatial and Attribute Data
   Spatial data (where)
    – specifies location
    – stored in a shape file in Arcview
   Attribute (descriptive) data (what, how
    much, when)
    – specifies characteristics at that location,
      natural or human-created
    – stored in a data base table
Concept of
Vector and Raster                                                                    Real World




                 Raster Representation                                     Vector Representation
         0       1       2       3    4    5       6       7   8       9
     0                                                 R T
     1                                         R                   T
     2       H                                 R
                                                                           point
     3                                         R                                        line
     4                               R R
     5                       R
     6               R               T T               H
     7               R               T T                                      polygon
     8       R
     9       R
24
     Arial Photo



      Digitizing


                         Information
      AutoCAD
                           System



                   GIS



25
26

     Aerial Photo Integration
27
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Geographic Information Technologies
   Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
    – a system of earth-orbiting satellites which can
      provide precise sub-cm location on the earth’s
      surface (in lat/long coordinates or equiv.)
   Remote Sensing (RS)
    – use of satellites (and aircraft) to capture
      information about the earth’s surface

         GPS and RM are sources of input data for a GIS.
    32
GPS Satellite System

•    26 satellites orbit the earth
•   altitude ~20,000 km
•   12-hour period circular paths
•   6 orbital planes
•   continuous signal transmit
•   at least 4 satellites visible at
    all times from any point on
    the Earth’s surface, usually
    (5-7 most of the time)
Global Positioning System (GPS)




34
Global Positioning System (GPS)




35
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38
                                                  GPS Signals
• Used of Atomic Clocks which provide a highly accurate radio
  signals.
      – Use of four satellites enables position and time on surface to be
        determined  (x,y,z)
• Six orbital planes equally spaced (60° apart), and inclined at
  about 55° with respect to the equatorial plane (5-7 satellites
  visible from any point on earth)


     GPS readings adjusted using
       –   Ground stations
       –   Another GPS receiver
     Accuracy
       –   ± 2 cm to ± 10 m



 39
Remote Sensing
   Satellite measurements of solar energy on the surface of
    the earth (electromagnetic radiation)
   Landsat (US)
    – Polar orbit
    – Altitude of 705 km
    – 16 day cycles
   SPOT (French)
    – Polar orbit
    – Altitude of 832 km
    – 26 day cycle


    40
 Remote Sensing
 Source    of information on:
      – Land Use
      – Vegetation Type and
        Distribution
      – Surface Waters
      – Groundwaters
      – Monitor Change




 41
Aerial Photographs
 Taken from above the surface of the earth
   – Balloons, planes, helicopters
 Roads, buildings, fields, forests
 Vegetation, soils and geological formations
 Shapes of objects
 Resolution
   – 0.025 mm +



42
     GIS-Based Water Information
               System
          GIS-PWA System




43
GIS-Based Water Information System Objectives

   Building an integrated GIS - Water
    Information System within PWA
   Harmonize existing datasets and strengthen
    GIS based information services.
   Design an Oracle spatial program which has
    ability to link between the GIS and Oracle
    database and conversion the database to
    spatial data using ArcSDE according to
    defined coordinate system
  44
                           Upgrading GIS-Based Water Information System in
                                     Palestinian Water Authority



                            User     User                                                                      User    User               User




                                       Hub                                                               Hub



                                                                                                                                 PWA Ramallah
      PWA Ramallah                    Router                                                            Router                     Elbeerh
      Resources Dept.




                                                                                                  bps
                                                                                             82k
                                                                    PWA WAN




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                                               12
                                                8k




                                                                                           Lin
                                                    bp
                                                     s




                                                                                      se d
                                                         Le
                                                          as




                                                                                     Lea
                                                              ed
                                                               Li
                                                                   ne
                                                                              Router

                                                                                                                         User           User




           Licensed site           PWA Gaza                                   Hub
                                                                                                                                User




                                                                                                                         User             User




                                                                                                                                         GIS-Based
                                                                                                                                            Water
                                                               Web-Based Application                                                     Information
                                                                                                                                       System in PWA



                                                               Spatial Database Engine
                                                                        ArcSDE                                                         Server GIS




                                                                                                                       XML
                                                                        Oracle 10g                                     MS
                                   AutoCAD
                                                                        Enterprise                                    Access
                                                                                                                                       Geodatabase
                                     Files
                                                                         Edition
                                                                        Database

HP/Compaq ProLiant ML350 G3
          Server
                        GIS-Based
                           Water
ArcGIS Desktop                                Web-Based Application
                        Information
                      System in PWA




                        PWA Network




                    Spatial Database Engine
                                                              Server GIS
                             ArcSDE




                                                     Excel

         GIS Data
                       Oracle 10g                   sheets   Geodatabase
                          with                        MS
           Files                                    Access
                         Oracle
                        Spatial
                  GIS-PWA System
     Database             PWA Database
     Engine                Oracle 10g
                          Oracle Spatial




     GIS Server       Spatial Database Engine
                              ArcSDE



     GIS                   ArcGIS 9.1
47   Application
GIS as Decision Support System tools
in PWA

    Spatial decision support systems
     (SDSS) are designed to help
     decision-makers solve complex
     spatial problems.



48
SDSS will need to
 provide for spatial data input
 allow storage of complex structures
  common in spatial data
 include analytical techniques that are
  unique to spatial analysis
 provide output in the form of maps
  and other spatial forms

49
     Using of GIS in Water Quality




50
     51
 Contouring map for Water Quality Chloride concentration in Gaza Strip in 2004 using
spatial analysis.
   52
contouring map for Water Level in Gaza Strip using spatial analysis
     Rainfall Station




53
GIS-PWA System Development
Process
 Phase I: Strategic Planning
 Phase II: GIS Design
 Phase III: Implementation Stage




54
55
     GIS-PWA System Software
          Applications




56
     Software for GIS:
   ESRI, Inc., Redlands, CA
     –   clear market leader with about a third of the market
     –   originated commercial GIS with their ArcInfo product in 1981
     –   privately owned by Jack Dangermond, a legend in the field
     –   Strong in gov., education, utilities and business logistics
   MapInfo, Troy N.Y.
     – Aggressive newcomer in early 1990s, but now well-established.
     – Strong presence in business, especially site selection & marketing, and telecom
   Intergraph (Huntsville, AL)
     –   origins in proprietary CAD hardware/software
     –   Older UNIX-based MGE (Modular GIS Environment) evolved from CAD
     –   “new generation” GeoMedia product based on NT is now their main focus
     –   strong in design, public works, and FM (facilities management)
   Bentley Systems (Exton, PA)
     – MicroStation GeoGraphics, originally developed with Intergraph, is now their
        exclusive and main product..
     – Strong in engineering; advertises itself as “geoengineering”
   Autodesk (San Rafael, CA)
     – Began as PC-based CAD, but now the dominant CAD supplier
     – First GIS product AutoCAD Map introduced in 1996
     57
     – Primarily small business/small city customer base
System Software

 ArcGIS 9.1 Software
 ArcSDE Server
 Oracle Enterprise Edition 10g




58
ArcGIS 9.1 Software

    ArcGIS is an integrated collection of
     GIS software products for building a
     complete GIS Project.




59
60
Levels of ArcGIS
 ArcView – View data and do edits on
  shape files and simple personal
  geodatabases
 ArcEditor – do more complex edits
  on enterprise geodatabases
 ArcInfo – the full system, with access
  to workstation ArcInfo

61
62
               Arc Map
View
and
edit
data            Analyze data
                (Geoprocessing)




  63
 Create maps
                                      Graphical
                                      previews

            View data
     (like Windows Explorer)
                               Arc Catalog

                                        Tables



64
       Metadata
           Arc Toolbox




     Map Projections



65
ArcSDE Software




66
Our focus




 67
     GIS-PWA- System
         Achievements




68
Create Unique Base map for Gaza Strip and West
     Bank ( Water Information)




      Gaza Strip                 West Bank
69
     Unique Base Map

                       Palestine




70
Dynamic Link of water Information
 between PWA Departments.




71
– Dynamic Integration of Water Quality and Water
  Level databases with ArcGIS




                               Water Level
                               Chloride Concentration
                               Nitrate Concentration
                               Rainfall Intensity




 72
Water Networks:
  – Water Networks will be Dynamic integrated
      with Oracle Core Database within GIS
      environment. Transferring and updating of all
      Water Network components from AutoCAD
      to ArcGIS 9 according to correct Coordinate
      system. This component includes Pipes,
      Pumps, Valves, Reservoir and etc.




73
    Wastewater Networks:
     – Wastewater Networks also will be Dynamic
       integrated with Oracle Core Database within
       GIS environment. Transferring and updating of
       all Wastewater Network components from
       AutoCAD to ArcGIS 9 according to correct
       Coordinate system. This component includes
       all Pipes, Pumping stations, Valves, and etc.




74
    Wells:
     – There are two categories of wells: Municipal
       wells and Agriculture wells which will be
       Dynamic integrated with Oracle Core Database
       and GIS environment according to coordinate
       system.




75
    Projects:
      – Located of all Existing and Future projects on
        ArcGIS within Oracle Core Database system
        related to Palestinian Water Authority.




76
    Water Quality and Water Level Maps:
     – Dynamic Integration of Water Quality and
       Water Level databases with ArcGIS




77
    Metrological Data
     – Dynamic integration of Metrological Data with
       GIS environment including Station locations,
       rainfall data and evaporation data.




78
79
Fig. shows the location of Wells based on Oracle PWA System.
80
     Fig shows the Map Query in ArcGIS 9.1
81
     Fig shows the GeoStatistical in ArcGIS9.1
82
     Fig . shows the Arial Photo in ArcGIS 9.1
     Oracle Enterprise Edition 10g as a
                  Database




83
Oracle Enterprise Edition 10g will be the Database since it has
  ability to deal with GIS component by Oracle Spatial
  Extension in Oracle Enterprise Edition 10g .

Database component will be as following points:
 Install and deploy Oracle Core Database (OCD) on PWA
  Server
 Design an Oracle spatial program which has ability to link
  between the GIS and Oracle database and conversion the
  database to spatial data using defined coordinate system.
 Transfer and customize data from all databases in WB &
  Gaza to the core database at PWA.



84
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     Sample Screen about Metrological Station
     Location, X, Y Coordinate shown in picture
     which it is dynamically connected to ArcGIS9.1
87
    GIS-PWA System Requirements:
      Item       Description
      Software
                 ArcGIS ArcInfo renewal of maintenance agreement including upgrades and
      1          telephone support by GSE for both Gaza and Ramallah Maintenance
                 Agreement.
      2          ArcSDE Server
      3          Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition
      4          AutoCAD 2004
      Hardware
      1          Server
      2          Computers
      Maps
      1          Arial Photo Maps
      2          CAD Drawings
88
Obstacles to using GIS Technology effectively in
Palestinian Institutions:

The following factors all relate to the GIS technology in
    Palestinian Institutions:

1.    Using of GIS just as Storage database tool.
2.    Resources are not allocated in such a way as to
      meet the IT/GIS priorities for service development.
3.    High Cost of GIS Software
4.    Inadequate hardware




 89
     Continue
5.        Absence of clear data standards. The development
          of common standards that can be used by all local
          planning authorities and other organizations is the
          key issue that needs to be addressed.
6.        Data quality
7.        Inadequate training
8.        No clear plan for implementing GIS-IT




     90
       Conclusions
          and
     Recommendations




91
Conclusions & Recommendations
1.   The paper presented and illustrates a new
     technology using GIS software in order to
     assist in developing a Information System
     related to PWA.
2.   PWA using update GIS technology since there
     is a dynamic System between the PWA-
     Database and ArcGIS using ArcSDE and Oracle
     Spatial.
3.   GIS was useful in Management of large data
     sets as GIS proved to be efficient in managing
     large amounts of Water data such as the PWA
     database.

92
Continue
4.   GIS Technology is required in Decision Support
     System DSS to reach to the optimal Decisions
     and Solutions.
5.   It would be recommended to prepare a clear
     strategy planning to use GIS Technology in
     Palestinian Institutions related to that.

6.   Preparing training courses to staff resources to
     be able to implement new systems using GIS
     Technology.



93
     Tank You




94

				
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