Learning Center
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out

Art Nouveau


									                                     Art Nouveau

•   1880-1914
•   “the new art” – being different from what has happened before
•   Against the machine and mass produced
•   Wide spread style:
       1. Belgium – Horta
       2. England – Beardsley
       3. France – Lalique
       4. US – Tiffany and Sullivan
       5. Austria – Klimt
       6. Spain – Gaudi
•   Characteristics:
     1. line – decorative, curving, undulating (whiplash curve)
     2. organic motifs – vine and plant
     3. elongated forms
     4. stylized
     5. unity of ornamentation and structure
     6. attention to positive and negative space
     7. wrought iron and glass
Hotel van Eetvelde
  Art Nouveau
 Casa Mila
Art Nouveau
Sagrada Familia
Guell Park
                      Frank Lloyd Wright

• Organic Architecture
  1. unity of structure and nature
  2. organic materials
  3. interrupt the environment as little as possible
  4. shapes of structure similar to landscape
  5. senses connect to landscape

• Prairie Houses
  1. reflect the landscape of the Midwest
  2. long, low, horizontal lines
  3. natural materials
  4. open interior
           Robie House
Organic Architecture/Prairie House
Organic Architecture
                                        Art Deco

•  1918-1939
•  Between 2 world wars
•  Derived from 1925 Paris International Exhibition of Decorative and Modern Industrial Arts
•  Europe and US
•  Influenced by:
  1. Art Nouveau abstraction
  2. Cubism fragmentation
  3. De Stijl geometry
  4. Frank Lloyd Wright
  5. machine age efficiency
  6. streamlined shapes of oceanliners
• Skyscrapers:
  1. American cities growing
  2. steel, reinforced concrete and glass
  3. unadorned and functional
  4. horizontal and vertical beams support structure not wall
  5. American millionaires sought highest building – achievement of commerce
Chrysler Building
    van Alen
    Art Deco

•   1919 Gropius is appointed Director of the Weimar School of Arts and Crafts in Germany
•   Renamed Das Staatliche Bauhaus (“State School of Building”)
           shortened to Bauhaus
•   Goal was to train artists, architects and designers to accept and anticipate 20c. Needs
    1. importance of strong basic design, composition and color theory of 2-D and 3-D
    2. craftsmanship
    3. unity of art, architecture and craft
    4. emphasis on a thorough knowledge of machine age technology and materials
    5. to produce successful designs one had to understand industry and mass production
    6. worked on mass produced items to improve and simplify them
    7. stressed industrial and mechanical processes as related to sculpture and craft
    8. create designs free of ornamentation
    9.used engineering principles to create objects that linked people to the new
    technological world
•   Bauhaus moves to Dessau, Germany - new school Shop Block
Shop Block
                        International Style/ De Stijl

•   1917-1931
•   Netherlands and Holland
•   Influences: Neoplasticism and Frank Lloyd Wright
•   Defined blocks of space
•   No ornamentation
•   Boxlike, concrete, glass and steel (avoided natural materials)
•   No façade
•   Must walk around to comprehend space
•   Entirely abstract
•   Straight lines, right angles, primary and neutral colors
     Schroeder House
International Style/De Stijl

•   1905-1910
•   Inspired by Gauguin
•   “wild beasts” – because of their use of shocking colors
•   Goal is to make strong presentation of emotional reaction to subject
    through color and linear pattern
•   Bold, intense, clashing colors
•   Flat, simple shapes
•   Not concerned with perspective or light
•   Distorted perspectives
Harmony in Red

•   Years just before WWI
•   Depicted feelings about the injustices of society
•   Begin to paint what we feel and think not just what we see
•   Based on stresses and alienation
•   Focus on abstracting images and design
Death and Life
Bride of the Wind
                          The Bridge (Die Brucke)

                                                    Street, Berlin

•     1905 Dresden
•   Influenced by Munch, van Gogh and Gauguin
•   Against the economic and social conditions
       of Germany before WWI
•   Used art to speak out about the social
•   Preparing a way fro a more perfect age by
       forming a bridge from the old to the new
                The Blue Rider Group (Der Blaue Reiter)

•   Munich 1911 – 12
•   Used art to turn away from the social conditions
•   Tendencies toward abstraction to evoke non-visual phenomena and sensation

•        Great Blue Horses                          Improvisation 28
            Marc                                      Kandinsky

       The Great Blue Horses                        Improvisation 28
            Marc                                       Kandinsky
   La Place

•   Inspired by Cezanne
•   A reductive analysis of the optical world into angular color planes
•   Multiple perspectives

•   Analytical Cubism
     - to analyze the forms of the subject from every possible vantage point and
    combine the various views into one pictorial whole

•   Synthetic Cubism
     - paintings are constructed from objects and shapes cut from paper or other
    materials to represent parts of a subject
     - added texture and dimension
     - relationship between surfaces
     - depth through overlapping
     - collage (“papier colle” – stuck paper)
                       Analytical Cubism

Les Demoiselles d’ Avignon                 The Portuguese
      Picasso                                  Braque
   The Bather
Analytical Cubism
                               Synthetic Cubism

Still Life with Chair Caning                  Three Musicians
          Picasso                                 Picasso
The Table
•   Opposed Synthetic Cubism in that it was too decorative and out of touch with the
    machine age
•   Inspired by machines and industrialism
•   Clean, functional lines of machinery, the pure forms of its parts should direct the
    artists subject matter and design
•   Cylindrical and tubelike motifs                          The City
     suggest machine parts like pistons                        Leger
     and cylinders

•     Analytical Cubism with representation of movement
•     Representation of multiple views of a single movement
•     Forms disappear behind the blur of movement

    Nude Descending A Staircase          Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash
        Duchamp                                   Balla
Unique Forms of Continuity in Space
                                  Abstract Formalism
•   Suprematist Philosophy – “supreme reality in the world is pure feeling which
    attaches to no object, thus calls for new non-objective forms.”
•   Basic form is the square and its relatives the rectangle and straight line
•   Could be understood by all people because it required no special education to
    comprehend its symbols
•   Using shape and form                             Suprematist Composition: Aeroplane Flying
      to represent feeling and mood                              Malevich

•   Constructing or building a sculpture piece by piece instead of carving or modeling
    in the traditional way
•   Synthetic plastic materials such as celluloid, nylon and lucite are used
•   Translucent materials were used to allow
      space to flow through and around material                         Column
•   Don’t have to walk around – can see through                          Gabo
      to experience space, volume and mass

•   Because of the unhappiness and disharmonies
     of daily life one cannot achieve balance and
     harmony                                        Composition in Blue, Yellow and Black
•   Balance and harmony lie beyond the                         Mondrian
      physical world
•   Can create balance and harmony by the use
       of 3 primary colors (ryb), 3 primary
        values (bwg) and 2 primary
         directions (hv)
•   Power of the line and color balances with
     the large blank areas

•   Artists must direct art toward the
     creation of useful products for the          Monument to the Third International
     new culture                                              Tatlin
•   Abandon abstract art fro functional
         art (industrial design)
•   Art should be functional, not just
         something to look at
                              Organic Formalism

•   Human and plant origins
•   Simple, clean lined

      Hanging Spider                          Bird in Space
         Calder                                  Brancusi
Human Concretion   Three Forms
     Arp            Hepworth
Reclining Figure   Jack in the Pulpit IV
   Moore                 O’Keeffe
•   “dada” – french word for child’s hobby horse – a word chosen at random to signify
    the insignificance of society
•   Born of the social, economic and political calamities of WWI
•   Consisted of groups of deserters of the war who fled to Zurich, Switzerland
    (writers, artists, and musicians) who were united in their horror of the war and
    disgust for society and humanity
•   Rebellious attitude
•   “ready-mades” – using everyday objects in unrealistic ways

             Bicycle Wheel                       Gift
                 Duchamp                        Man Ray

•   Escape the real world through dreams and fantasy
•   Putting unrelated objects or images together in odd combinations
•   Exploration of the subconscious (Freud – “Interpretation of Dreams”)
•   Techniques: scale, levitation, juxtaposition, dislocation, transparency and

                                                Persistence of Memory


Two Fridas
Falling Angel   Death and Fire
 Chagall           Klee
                           20c. Photography
• Using photography as a creative outlet not just as a documentation of
• Double exposure and double printing to manipulate images
• Representation of objective art and social issue

• Fought to have photography accepted as a fine art like painting, sculpture,
• Photo-Session Group – traveling exhibitions in US and loan collections to
• “291 Gallery” – exhibited avant garde                 Steerage
        photography, painting and sculpture
         from US and Europe

• During the Depression worked for the FSA (Farm Security Administration)
• Took photographs of the plight of migrant workers and sharecroppers of
• Published photos in newspapers and took them to the government to help
   create emergency programs to aid farm families

    I saw and approached the hungry and desperate mother, as
    if drawn by a magnet. I do not remember how I explained my
    presence or my camera to her, but I do remember she asked
    me no questions. I made five exposures, working closer and
    closer from the same direction. I did not ask her name or her
    history. She told me her age, that she was thirty-two. She
    said that they had been living on frozen vegetables from the
    surrounding fields, and birds that the children killed. She had
    just sold the tires from her car to buy food. There she sat in
    that lean-to tent with her children huddled around her, and
    seemed to know that my pictures might help her, and so she
    helped me. There was a sort of equality about it.
                              Objective Realism

• Subject is the loneliness and isolation of modern life in the US
• Buildings, streets and landscapes are curiously muted, still and filled with
  empty spaces
• Motion is stopped and time is suspended
• Indifference of characters to one another and the echoing spaces around
  them evoke the loneliness of modern humans

To top