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					Solution Description to Assist Grantseekers in Developing Proposal Narratives Internet Protocol (IP) Telephony and Emergency Notification

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Solution Type: Internet Protocol (IP) Telephony/Emergency Notification Grantseeker Type: Municipality or Local Law Enforcement Agency IP Telephony boasts a number of everyday benefits. Integrating data, voice, and video over a single network can save thousands, even hundreds of thousands, of dollars and run software to streamline essential functions. But it is in the event of a man-made or natural crisis that Cisco’s IP Telephony solution distinguishes itself as a disasterresilient communications tool and an instrument for delivering multi-source emergency notification. Need <<Description of the need/problem addressed by the solution>> Tip: Add information here relating to local needs surveys and threat assessments, particularly those relating to emergency notification and vulnerabilities in the local communications infrastructure. Across the country, state and local emergency preparedness plans call for a hardening of the communications infrastructure against disaster. This requirement to support telecommunications security as a critical infrastructure is extended by a desire to use new technologies to enhance and expand the ability of the agency to notify selected or mass groups in the event of a man-made or natural emergency. Natural and man-made disasters such as floods, storms, nuclear and chemical accidents, fires, civil disorder, earthquakes, and terrorist attacks have the potential to cause power and telephone outages in the communities they strike. Effective response capability requires that all those involved in the response, including fire, police, medical, and other governmental agencies maintain their ability to communicate despite a failure locally of one or more telephone systems. In addition to providing a disaster-resilient communications system, IP Telephony is a solid foundation for an intelligent emergency notification solution. Emergency notification can be used to immediately disseminate important information to public sector employees, including public health and safety officials who need access to realtime information in the event of an incident or event. Emergency notification to pagers, mobile phones, and personal digital assistants (PDAs) can be critical in emergency situations.

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Emergency notification over IP telephony accommodates a variety of input sources and types of information, which could ultimately work with those provided by outside digital sources such as the Emergency Alert System (EAS), National Weather Service’s (NWS) NOAA Weather Radio (NWR), and Amber Alert, the early warning system available for use by law enforcement to alert the public when a child has been kidnapped and the police believe the child is in danger. <<Independent justification for addressing the need/problem>> Tip: Add information here from local, regional, and statewide public safety, critical infrastructure security, and emergency operations plans In a study conducted by the Department of Computer Science at Columbia University, IP telephony was recognized for providing an opportunity to enhance existing emergency services by creating more functional, robust, and flexible systems, with benefits that include:  “Device neutrality. The system can migrate to new devices, including IP telephones, 3G wireless handsets, and embedded devices, without being explicitly extended to handle them. More information, specifically targeted. EAS provides limited information that’s hard to extend without upgrading end systems. SIP event notifications can carry detailed information tailored to different needs — ranging from alerts issued in multiple languages to those targeted to a small population during localized emergencies. We could also embed the system with an RPC-like mechanism so that the alert could trigger appropriate action in automated systems. Stronger authentication. The existing authentication mechanism relies on manual codebooks and the difficulty of spoofing an over-the-air signal. However, it would be relatively easy to drive past an EAS receiver with a small transmitter and distribute a false alarm. Our mechanism can use true cryptographic authentication, which is more amenable to automated processing and less likely to be spoofed. Lower resource consumption. A one-minute alert call consumes about 480 Kbytes (one way), while an alert notification is at most a few hundred bytes long. Our system can thus use the same amount of bandwidth to reach 1,000 times more people in the same time period. It can also leverage Web hosting and similar facilities with abundant bandwidth. Integration with current systems. Feeding EAS and the emergency digital information system into the SIP emergency alert system would be a straightforward process. Combining the systems would allow officials to reach more people, such as those on

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computers who are not listening to the radio or watching TV. Moreover, because we can narrowly tailor the system’s reach, it can easily integrate less urgent alerts, such as traffic accidents or other police activity.  Out-of-area notification. Current notification systems assume that only those in close physical proximity of the emergency event need to know about it, but that is not always the case. People might need to be informed when they are traveling, for example, if their homes are threatened in some way.‖1

<<Other contextual drivers for implementing the solution>> Tip: Add here anything that is happening around the region that supports your desire to install a Cisco IP Telephony Solution at this time. Examples may include a county-wide emergency planning initiative, availability of additional purchasing power by joining with surrounding towns to purchase the solution, etc. Approach <<Less technical description of the solution>> Tip: Add details here on the specific number of phones you expect to install and how you plan to use the network for internal and external communications. Any details you have at this point will help explain your specific plans for the funding. IP telephony refers to the technology for transmitting voice communications over a network using the Internet Protocol (IP). Built on the Cisco AVVID network infrastructure, Cisco IP Telephony solutions leverage a single network infrastructure for the transmission of data, voice, and video traffic to deliver fully integrated communications. Cisco IP Telephony solutions enable the agency to realize the significant benefits of a converged network (including increased productivity, business flexibility, and reduced operational costs). IP telephony is disaster-resilient because of its ability to route around system faults. The speaker’s voice is transmitted through packets of data, each with the destination embedded in the packet. If one route to the destination is down, the packet takes another route until it reaches the receiver on the other end of the line as long as the portion of the network is IP enabled, has a redundant path, and uses routing protocols with the ability to converge a change in the network topology with sufficient speed. Emergency notification over IP telephony also provides valuable added functionality. Since all the information traveling over the network is digital, emergency notification

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can extend to pagers, cell phones, and personal digital assistants (PDAs), providing outreach to an entire community. Depending on the nature of the emergency, the emergency notification dispatcher can send alerts out to selected contacts, in the fire or police departments, for example, or to school or hospital administrators. The software basis for IP telephony also allows for development and integration of a number of agency-specific functions that can improve the efficiency of the agency overall. Elements of IP Telephony Infrastructure The infrastructure component includes public switched telephone network (PSTN) gateways, analog phone support, and digital signal processor (DSP) farms. The infrastructure can support multiple client types such as hardware or software phones. Infrastructure also includes the interfaces and features necessary to integrate legacy PBX, voice mail, and directory systems. <<Note: Typical products used to build an infrastructure include Cisco voice gateways (non-routing, routing, and integrated), Cisco switches, Voice application systems.>> IP Phones Cisco IP Phones are a full range of intelligent communication devices designed to take advantage of the power of the agency’s data network while providing convenience and ease-of-use. Each phone has an Ethernet connection. The phone derives both its power and ability to communicate across this link. IP phones provide the functionality of a traditional telephone, as well as more sophisticated features, such as the ability to access online phone directories, an agency intranet, or the World Wide Web. <<Note: Typical user instruments include Cisco IP Phones and Cisco IP SoftPhones.>> Cisco CallManager At the heart of the IP telephony system is Cisco CallManager, the software-based call processing agent. Cisco CallManager software extends enterprise telephony features and capabilities to packet telephony network devices such as IP phones, media processing devices, voice-over-IP (VoIP) gateways, and multimedia applications.

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Additional services such as unified messaging, multimedia conferencing, collaborative contact centers, and interactive multimedia response systems interact with the IP telephony solution. The system also includes voice-enabled routers and gateways, inline powered Ethernet switches, power sources, and PSTN circuits

<<Advantages over other alternative solutions>> Tip: Discuss what other technology enhancements you have considered locally and why you chose the Cisco solution. With traditional circuit-based telephone systems, connection depends on solid lines from point to point. As a result, traditional voice telephone systems are at high risk for ―single point of failure.‖ By comparison, with IP Telephony that is end-to-end IP with redundant paths and fast converging routing protocols, voice calls travel across IP networks as packets that contain their own routing information and are far less prone to failure in the event of a disaster. What differentiates Cisco’s emergency broadcast is the Content Transformation Engine (CTE) in Cisco’s own XML-based emergency notification system. The Cisco Content Transformation Engine provides a high-performance, appliance-based solution that delivers web-based applications and data to a variety of devices including Cisco IP Phones, Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and Voice XML (VXML) browsers. The solution recognizes specific Web-enabled devices such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDA's), mobile phones and IP phones, and customizes the delivery of information to give users the right form of data to optimize their experience. Whether content is on the Internet or inside of an organization’s Intranets and Extranets – the agency network administrator can enable access to this data by installing Cisco CTE 1400s in front of the agency content servers. Needed information can now be extended to new devices providing the ability to work more effectively and efficiently than other communications and emergency notification systems.

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Outcomes <<Narrative description of outcomes/benefits to be accrued by the customer as a result of implementing the solution>> Tip: Relate the outcomes you expect to accrue as a result of the new technology to your initial discussion of needs, the more local the better. The network-based routing methods of IP Telephony will result in decreased vulnerability of the communications architecture to man-made and natural disasters. With increased disaster resilience comes improved reliability and infrastructure security. Because the system is digital and works in tandem with the Internet, the agency can expect improved emergency notification capability, primarily for public sector notification with the potential of working with the Emergency Alert and National Weather System data. The impact of the enhanced capability will be reflected in improved awareness, within and outside the agency, of threats, crises, and crisis instructions, which will ultimately reduce costs of life and property in the event of a disaster or other emergency. By combining voice and data services, IP telephony offers long-term savings over traditional switched networks. In some cases, cost reductions occur in less costly line charges. Also potentially less costly is the ability to reroute some LATA and long distance charges over the same circuit upon which one’s data is carried. Other governments have realized significant cost savings by moving to IP Telephony:
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Alaska’s new converged communications approach will save the state $12.8M over five years while implementing an entirely new technical infrastructure that provides advanced services statewide like IP telephony and video conferencing, not simply dial tone. In Texas the state’s converged infrastructure enabled the statewide deployment of 211 (Information Referral Network) for only $1.2 million, with a two-year pay back for a 25-contact-center solution. The City of Dallas, TX effectively purchased its first city-wide data infrastructure with its existing telecommunications budget. For approximately $5 million/year,

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the new converged infrastructure supports enterprise-wide applications like elearning as well as IP telephony and customer contact centers. <<Chart further detailing expected outcomes, suggested indicators, targets, and timeframes>> Tip: If you have specific (measurable) expectations, replace the more general outcomes here with specific measurements you will report to the funder at the end of the funding period. Specific outcomes and indicators include: Outcomes Decreased vulnerability of the communications architecture Indicators Reduced system failure Targets/Performance Less system downtime, particularly in the event of a disaster, compared with the previous system Higher numbers and types of people who can be notified, compared with the previous system Higher numbers and types of information, compared with the previous system By When In the event of a disaster

Improved emergency Number and types of notification people who are able capability to be notified in the event of an emergency Improved emergency Number and types of notification streams of capability information that are available to the emergency notification agency Reduced cost of Ongoing cost of operating and telephony maintaining the agency’s telephone system

At the completion of system installation

At the completion of system installation

Less cost of operation, compared with the previous system

Varies

The purpose of the new technology is to improve the effectiveness and reliability of communications generally and emergency notification in particular. Once the system has been implemented in all proposed areas, the agency can expect expanded outreach capability and less downtime in the wake of a disaster. If the desired outcomes are not met after six months, staff should be interviewed to

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determine what barriers are keeping them from maximizing the potential of the system. If necessary, the design team will make system alterations. Should the barrier be one of user comfort, staff should be retrained. As the creation of the system will be a team approach, so will its success. All parties involved should be informed as to the progress and success of implementing the new system. Activities <<Suggested activities for implementing and monitoring the adoption and results of the implementation>> Tip: Based on your conversations with your Cisco Account Team and System Integrator, and your product requirements and design documents, detail the steps you plan to follow to implement the solution, including who will be responsible for what (by name or title). Using requirements documents and system design materials already developed by Cisco and the System Integrator, the agency will purchase and, with the System Integrator, install the equipment and software that will provide the basis for the IP telephony and emergency notification systems. Once the network is in place, the agency will begin to engage in extensive training on the system. The System Integrator will provide all staff with an orientation to the system. The Cisco certified training center will provide training on the use and user maintenance of the Cisco equipment. Finally, the agency will participate in training on any third party hardware and software via the third party’s recommended channels. Network support staff will receive additional training from Cisco on how to configure network infrastructure components, determine the necessary redundant and backup WAN connections, and investigate WAN connectivity alternatives, such as satellite transmission services dedicated to video broadcast streams as the primary, inter-site transmission medium. The agency chief or his or her designee will assume primary responsibility for the implementation of the new system by monitoring all rollout activities and tracking the indicated objectives. (S)he will also document training and orientation activities and

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report problems and progress to the funder, following the funder’s reporting requirements. In addition to the current staff, no additional personnel will be needed to effectively operate and manage the system. Future Funding <<Suggestions for documenting ongoing funding potential for the project (often required by funders)>> Tip: Most Federal programs will not place a great deal of emphasis on this point, but state and local funders will want you to demonstrate your plan for ensuring the continued maintenance of the technology. Initial funding will allow the agency to develop system specifications, purchase the required hardware and software, and pay for any necessary first-year technical support. The initial implementation constitutes a one-time expense that will save money on an annual basis. After the first year, any ongoing support costs will be absorbed into the budget of the agency. Other sources of ongoing funding include local foundations, other government funding, or other campaign funds.

Resources Cited
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―Providing Emergency Services in Internet Telephony,‖ Henning Schulzrinne and Knarig Arabshian, IEEE Internet Computing, May/June 2002, pp. 39-47.

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