Organelles

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					     Organelles:
AP Biology Chapter 6
Try to print these out as the handout
 option and turn them into flash cards. I
 hope that you will be able to visually
 recognize the structures and learn about
 their functions.

Enjoy!
The Cell

Basic Unit of Life
Bounded by a Plasma Membrane and
 encloses the nucleus and cytoplasm.
Organelles are specialized bodies in the
 fluid matrix of the cytoplasm.
These notes are to help you understand
 these parts and their role in living systems.
Nucleus: Genetic Library of the Cell
                    Contains most of the
                     genes in a Eukaryotic
                     Cell
                    Enclosed in a Nuclear
                     Envelope
                    Contains Chromosomes
                     and Chromatin.
                    Houses the Nucleolus
                    Directs protein synthesis
                     through messenger RNA
                     (mRNA)
Nuclear Envelope and Pores
Chromatin vs Chromosomes
Nucleolus
             Contains ribosomal
              RNA. (rRNA)
             Manufactors small
              and large ribosome
              subunits.
Ribosomes
 Carry out Protein
  synthesis.
 Free Rib. in Cytosol.
 Bound attached to ER
 Can switch back and
  forth to satisfy the
  protein needs of the
  cells.
Endomembrane System:
                Collection of
                 membranous parts of
                 the cell.
                Protein synthesis,
                 transport, metabolism
                 of lipids,
                 detoxification.
                Vesicles: sacs made
                 of the membrne.
Endomembrane

1. Nuclear Envelope
2. Endoplasmic Reticulum
3. Golgi Apparatus
4. Lysosomes
5. Vacuoles
6. Plasma Membrane*
Endoplasmic Reticulum

Network of membranes encompassing the
 nucleus.
Ridges called cisternae (liquid reservoir)
 and gaps called lumen (cavity).
Continuation of the nuclear envelope.
Broken into two sections, Smooth and
 Rough.
Smooth ER
 Synthesis of Lipids
  Oils, steriods,
    Phospholipids
 Detoxification
  Liver Cells
 Storage of Calcium
  Muscles
Rough ER
            Ribosome’s attached
             (Hence rough)
            Protein synthesis
            Helps protein
             conformation
            Makes glycoproteins
            Produces the plasma
             membrane.
Insulin
Golgi Apparatus
                   Accepts vesicles from
                    ER
                   Manufacture, modify,
                    warehouse, sorting,
                    shipping.
                   Specialized for
                    secretion
                   Cis-face accepts and
                    trans-face secretes.
                   Adds molecular ID
                    tags (zip code).
Lysosomes
             Vesicle of hydrolytic
              enzymes (animal)
             Produced by the ER
              and packaged by the
              Golgi
             Intracellular digestion
             Recycle Cellular
              Material
Tay-Sachs (missing lipid enzyme)
Vacuoles: Diverse Compartments
                  Commonly found in
                   plants and fungi
                  Hydrolysis (similar to
                   lysosome)
                  Reservoir of
                   Organic/Inorganic
                   Material
                  Major role in the
                   growth of plants.
Mitochondria: Maker of ATP
                  Site of Cellular
                   Respiration.
                  Found in most Eukaryotes
                  Double Membrane
                   Cristae (Surface area)
                   Matrix
                  Contain own DNA,
                   enzymes, and ribosomes.
                  Maker of ATP (Chp. 9)
Chloroplasts: Catchers of Light
 Site of Photosynthesis
 Found only in plants
 Contain chlorophyll,
  enzymes, ribosomes,
  and DNA.
 Chapter 10.
 Double membrane
 Contain thylakoids,
  granum, and covered
  by stroma.
Peroxisomes: Oxidators
                   Help with metabolism.
                   Transfers hydrogen’s
                    to oxygen to make
                    oxygen compounds.
                   H2O2  H2O
                   Commonly found in
                    liver cells.
                   Prepare fats for
                    mitochondria.
Cytoskeleton:
         Support, mobility, Regulation
Cytoskeleton – Unique but similar

1. Microtubules
2. Microfilaments
3. Intermediate Filaments
Microtubules
                Hollow tubes of
                 protein (tubulin)
                Frame of cilia and
                 flagella.
                Compression
                 resistent.
                Link organelles and
                 act as a sidewalk.
Microfilament
 Made of the protein
  actin (muscles)
 Contract to move cell
  fluid  movement
 Contraction can lead
  to movement of
  cytoplasm in plants
  (cytoplasmic
  streaming)
Intermediate Filaments
 Proteins used for
  support and structure.
 Stabilize organelles
  and form the nuclear
  lamina (inside cover
  of the envelope.
Importance of Cytoskeleton
Review
Extracellular: Outside but important

Cell Wall
Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
Intercellular Junctions
Cell Wall
 Additional
  extracellular support
  in plants.
 Start with Primary
  Wall  leading to
  Secondary.
 Walls come together
  to stabilize plants.
ECM
Intercellular Junctions
 Plasmodesmata
 Allows materials to
  pass from one plant
  cell to another.
Intercellular Junctions

				
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