Learning is best defined as by keara

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									1. Learning is best defined as: a. any behavior emitted by an organism without being elicited b. a change in the behavior of an organism c. a relatively permanent change in the behavior of an organism due to experience d. behavior based on operant rather than respondent conditioning 2. In Pavlov’s original experiment with dogs, the meat served as a(n): a. CS b. CR c. UCS d. UCR 3. In Pavlov’s original experiment with dogs, the tone was initially a(n) ______stimulus; after it was paired with meat, it became a(n) ______ stimulus: a. conditioned; neutral b. neutral; conditioned c. conditioned; unconditioned d. unconditioned; conditioned 4. In order to obtain a reward a monkey learns to press a lever when a 1000 Hz tone is on, but not when a 1200 Hz tone is on. What kind of learned behavior is this? a. extinction b. generalization c. acquisition d. spontaneous recovery e. discrimination 5. When a conditioned stimulus is presented without an accompanying unconditioned stimulus, ______ will soon take place. a. generalization b. discrimination c. extinction d. aversion e. spontaneous recovery 6. In Pavlov’s original experiment with dogs, salivation to meat was the: a. CS b. CR c. UCS d. UCR 7. For the most rapid conditioning, a CS should be presented: a. about 1 second after the UCS b. about ½ second before the UCS c. about 15 seconds before the UCS d. at the same time as the UCS e. only after the UCR has been observed 8. During extinction the __________ is omitted; as a result, the _______ seems to disappear: a. UCS; UCR b. CS; CR c. UCS; CR d. CS; UCR

9. In Watson’s experiment with Little Albert, the loud noise was the _____ and the white rat was the ________. a. CS; CR b. UCS; CS c. CS; UCS d. UCS; CR e. UCR; CR 10. In which of the following may classical conditioning play a role: a. emotional problems b. the body’s immune response c. how animals adapt to the environment d. helping drug addicts e. all of the above 11. In Pavlov’s studies of classical conditioning of a dog’s salivary responses, spontaneous recovery occurred: a. during acquisition, when the CS was first paired with the UCS b. during extinction, when the CS was first presented by itself c. when the CS was reintroduced following extinction of the CR and a rest period d. during discrimination training, when several conditioned stimuli were introduced 12. You always rattle the box of dog biscuits before giving your dog a treat. As you do so, your dog salivated. Rattling the box is a(n) _______; your dog’s salivation is a(n) ____. a. CS; CR b. CS; UCR c. UCS; CR d. UCS; UCR Identify the schedule of reinforcement that is being used. a. fixed ratio b. fixed interval c. variable ratio d. variable interval 13. Every 10th shopper who enters the story is eligible for a coupon for 50% off. 14. The school bell rings every 49 minutes, signaling the end of class and time for students to move on to their next class. 15. Ben went to Las Vegas to play the slot machines, hoping to win a fortune and to pay of his mortgage. The slot machine he was playing paid out after the first pull of the arm, and then again after the twenty-first pull, and then again after the eightyseventh pull. 16. After every twenty-fifth car sold, salesmen at Freeman’s Ford receive a $1000 bonus.

17. Two groups of rats receive classical conditioning trials in which a tone and electric shock are presented. For Group 1 the electric shock always follows the tone. For Group 2 the tone and shock occur randomly. Which of the following is likely to result: a. the tone will become a CS for Group 1 but not Group 2 b. the tone will become a CS for Group 2 but not Group 1 c. the tone will become a CS for both groups d. the tone will not become a CS for either group 18. Last evening May-ling ate her first cheeseburger and french fries at an American fast-food restaurant. A few hours later she became ill. It can be reasonably expected that: a. May-ling will develop an aversion to the sight of a cheeseburger and french fries b. May-ling will develop an aversion to the taste of a cheeseburger and french fries c. May-ling will not associate her illness with the food she ate d. May-ling will associate her sickness with something she experienced immediately after she became ill 19. The type of learning associated with Skinner is: a. classical conditioning b. operant conditioning c. respondent conditioning d. discrimination conditioning 20. Which of the following statements concerning reinforcement is correct: a. learning is most rapid with intermittent reinforcement, but continuous reinforcement produces the greatest resistance to extinction b. learning is most rapid with continuous reinforcement, but intermittent reinforcement produces the greatest resistance to extinction c. learning is fastest and resistance to extinction is greatest after continuous reinforcement d. learning is fastest and resistance to extinction is greatest after intermittent reinforcement 21. The highest and most consistent rate of response is produced by a ________ schedule: a. fixed-ratio b. variable-ratio c. fixed-interval d. variable-interval 22. A response that leads to the removal of an unpleasant stimulus is one being: a. positively reinforced b. negatively reinforced c. punished d. extinguished

23. One difference between classical and operant conditioning is that: a. in CC, the responses operate on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli b. in OC the responses are triggered by preceding stimuli c. in CC the responses are automatically elicited by stimuli d. in OC the responses are extinguished by a negative reinforcer 24. Punishment is a controversial way of controlling behavior because: a. behavior is not forgotten and may return b. punishing stimuli may create fear c. punishment often increases aggressiveness d. all of the above reasons 25. Which of the following is an example of reinforcement: a. presenting a positive stimulus after a response b. removing an unpleasant stimulus after a response c. being told that you have done a good job d. all of the above are examples 26. Shaping is a(n) _______ technique for _________ a behavior: a. operant; establishing b. operant; suppressing c. classical; establishing d. classical; suppressing 27. For operant conditioning to be most effective, when should the reinforcers be presented in relation to the desired response: a. immediately before b. immediately after c. at the same time as d. as least a half hour before e. in any of the above sequences 28. In distinguishing between negative reinforcers and punishment, we note that: a. punishment, but not negative reinforcement, involves the use of aversive stimulus b. in contrast to punishment, negative reinforcement decreases the likelihood of a response by presentation of an aversive stimulus c. in contrast to punishment, negative reinforcement increases the likelihood of a response by presentation of an aversive stimulus d. in contrast to punishment, negative reinforcement increases the likelihood of a response by the termination of an aversive stimulus 29. Paying workers only after a specific number of products have been made in an example of what type of reinforcement schedule: a. fixed-interval b. variable-interval c. fixed-ratio d. variable-ratio

30. Putting on your coat when it is cold outside is a behavior that is maintained by: a. discrimination learning b. punishment c. negative reinforcement d. classical conditioning 31. On a variable interval reinforcement schedule, reinforcement is given: a. in very small amounts b. after an unpredictable number of behaviors c. after a predetermined number of desired behaviors d. after a predetermined amount of time has elapsed e. after an unpredictable amount of time has elapsed 32. Leon’s psychology instructor has scheduled an exam every third week of the term. Leon will probably study the most just before an exam and the least just after an exam. This is because the schedule of exams is reinforcing studying according to which schedule: a. fixed-ratio b. variable-ratio c. fixed-interval d. variable-interval 33. Online testing systems and interactive software are applications of the operant conditioning principles of: a. shaping and immediate reinforcement b. immediate reinforcement and punishment c. shaping and primary reinforcement d. continuous reinforcement and punishment 34. Dealership employees have been informed that all salespersons who sell five cars on Monday will be entered into a drawing for a $1000 bonus. The owners have used a ________ reinforcement schedule to encourage higher sales. a. fixed-interval b. fixed-ratio c. variable-interval d. variable-ratio 35. You are expecting an important letter in the mail. As the regular delivery time approaches you glance more and more frequently out the window, searching for the letter carrier. Your behavior in this situation typifies that associated with which schedule of reinforcement: a. fixed-ratio b. variable-ratio c. fixed-interval d. variable-interval

36. Jack finally takes out the trash in order to get his father to stop pestering him. Jack’s behavior is being influenced by: a. positive reinforcement b. negative reinforcement c. a primary reinforcer d. punishment 37. From a casino owner’s viewpoint, which of the following jackpot-payout schedules would be the most desirable for reinforcing customer use of a slot machine: a. variable-ratio b. fixed-ratio c. variable-interval d. fixed-interval 38. The manager of a manufacturing plant wishes to use positive reinforcement to increase the productivity of workers. Which of the following procedures would probably be the most effective: a. deserving employees are given a certificate of appreciation at the end of the year b. a productivity goal that seems attainable, yet is unrealistic, is set for each worker c. employees are given immediate monetary bonuses for specific behaviors related to productivity d. employees who fail to meet standards of productivity receive pay cuts 39. Bill once had a blue car that was in the shop more than it was out. Since then he will not even consider owning blue or green colored cars. Bill’s aversion to green cars is an example of: a. discrimination b. generalization c. latent learning d. shaping e. spontaneous recovery 40. Reggie’s mother tells him that he can watch tv after he cleans his room. Evidently, Reggie’s mother is attempting to use _______ to increase room cleaning: a. operant conditioning b. secondary reinforcement c. positive reinforcement d. all of the above 41. Which of the following is an example of shaping: a. a dog learns to salivate at the sight of a box of dog biscuits b. a new driver learns to stop at an intersection when the light changes to red c. a parrot is rewarded first for making any sound, then for making a sound similar to “Laura”, and then for “speaking” it’s owner’s name d. a psychology student reinforces a laboratory rat only occasionally, to make its behavior more resistant to extinction

42. Lars, a shoe salesman, is paid every two weeks, whereas Tom receives a commission for each pair of shoes he sells. Evidently, Lars is paid on a _____ schedule, and Tom on a ____schedule: a. fixed-ratio; fixed-interval b. continuous; intermittent c. fixed-interval; fixed-ratio d. variable-interval; variable ratio e. variable-ratio; variable interval 43. In the acquisition stage of classical conditioning: a. the UCS must be presented prior to the CS in order to “prime” the subject b. the CS must be presented after the CR, otherwise the CR will not be learned c. the CS must be present prior to the UCS in order to create anticipation in the subject d. only an UCS can evoke a CR; subjects must learn to respond before it becomes a natural response e. the CS must be presented no more ½ second after the UCS in order for it to be effective 44. Which of the following statements is false: a. the CR will get weaker after less parings of the CS and the UCS b. the CR will get weaker after longer periods of extinction c. the CR will get stronger as periods of extinction get longer d. the CR will get stronger as pairing of the CS and UCS increase 45. The fact that Stan was taught to look both ways before crossing the street extended to his looking both ways before walking down hallways or crossing sidewalks indicates that ______ has taken place: a. discrimination b. generalization c. acquisition d. positive reinforcement e. punishment Match each of the following psychologists to the appropriate theory below. a. Mary Ainsworth b. BF Skinner c. Harry Harlow d. John Watson e. Noam Chomsky 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. A securely attached child separated from their parent will show signs of stress. Children become more attached to mothers who hold and comfort them. Children have inborn, natural grammar skills. Conducted an experiment on Little Albert, who generalized his fear of white rats. Shaped rat behavior through the use of a food level and food pellets

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