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					Course Topics:
 Antecedents to Chiropractic Practice
 Chiropractic History and
 Antecedents to Chiropractic
     Metaphysical Constructs
     Biological Constructs
Chiropractic Philosophy

 Philosophy - the
    “love of wisdom”

(or the love of “discourse”)
Philosophy is like working at
a massive jigsaw puzzle: our
inability to put the puzzle
together does not lie in the
fact that certain pieces are
missing, but rather that we do
not know how they fit
together- what the finished
picture should look like.
There are 15 dots. Where does a
16th dot “fit?”
Where does a 16th dot fit?
What is the missing letter?

What is the missing letter?

What is the missing letter?

Philosophy provides a
template, or a paradigm
to use in understanding
how facts relate; this
gives meaning to reality
Philosophy is not “knowledge
of new fact” but is “new
knowledge of fact”; a deeper,
more profound knowledge of
the facts we already have, and a
way to integrate new facts that
are discovered with what we
already know
   “An attempt, using reason alone, to
    gain an understanding of ourselves
    and of the world we live in. It is a
    search for what is the best kind of
    life to lead and what ideals are best
    worth pursuing.”

S. M. Engel, The Study of Philosophy
“The purpose of philosophy:
 To enhance our
 understanding of life, to
 ennoble our minds, and to
 make our hearts better.”

Richard Taylor, American scholar and
Philosophy’s Main Areas:





Philosophy’s Main Areas:





 Ontology-   nature of being
  or reality
 Cosmology- origin and
  structure of the universe
 Teleology- study of first
Karl Sabbagh (Author of The
Riemann Hypothesis):
The human brain and its products are
incapable of understanding the truths
about the universe

“Our brains may never be well-
enough equipped to understand the
universe and we are fooling ourselves
if we think they will.”
  Metaphysical Doctrines:



  (aka “physicalism”)
 allabout matter
 mind/spirit/soul is an aspect
  of or function of the
 can become dogma-
  scientific “exclusionism”

 Mind/spirit  is reality, but
  immaterial in nature
 Objects of perception (matter)
  are only ideas of the perceiving
 Matter is a creation of mind
Mind/spirit= immaterial
Not a physical phenomenon
No location, no physical
Not limited by time/space
Mind/spirit= essence
(not physical)
Eternal, unchanging,
Concept more basic than
 Examples:

 7, seven, VII, seiben
 acorn, sapling, tree, stump
 embryo, fetus, child, adult, corpse

The concept, not the symbols,
is the essence, or reality
Attributed to Descartes
Reality has two elements
 (mind and matter) and
 functions on two levels
 (mental and physical)
Two “types” of Dualism:
“property” dualism
“substance” dualism
Materialistic or physicalistic
metaphysics tended to lead
to “property” dualism:

Mind    is a “property” of the
  body; it is epiphenomenal;
  mind does not cause bodily
  activities; it is an effect of
“property” dualism:
 Body gives rise to the mind
 So, when the body dies, the
  mind ceases to exist
 The mind is to the body as
  smoke is to fire
Idealistic metaphysics tended
to lead to “substance”

Mind,   distinct from the
  body, is a real substance
  which can cause things to
  happen by acting
“substance” dualism:
 The   mind can exist
  independent of the body
  (i.e., after death)
 Tends to support a theistic
  view; mind becomes equated
  with the soul or spirit
“The brain is not the mind-it is
 that which is used by the

 Edgar Cayce
The dilemma: what is the
relationship between body
and mind?
 How   can matter (body) affect
  the immaterial (mind)?
 How can the immaterial
  (mind) affect matter (body)?
Descartes had no ultimate
answer to the body/mind
 BJ  Palmer labeled this the
  “Great Divide” and
  attempted to resolve this with
  the Triune of Life
 Intelligence   (mind) gives the
 Matter/energy (body) expresses
 Force (interaction) links
  intelligence with matter
BJ: this is “Bridging the Great
This could be termed
dualistic interactionism:

 The body and the mind are
 mutually interactive and
 interdependent; one can’t
 exist without the other
Metaphysical statements:

 “only  matter, never mind”
 “only mind, never matter”

Metaphysical statements:
 “mind  from matter” (property
 “mind in matter”

  (substance dualism)
 “mind and matter” (mind/body)

  (dualistic interactionism)
“Words of wisdom on this
 “our ideas about the objective
 character of the physical world,
 and hence of the nature of truth,
 have been revised. In other words,
 mind looks less psychic and matter
 looks less materialistic…”

Max Delbruck, Nobel Prize-winning
“Physics was given the task of
examining the physical world. And
its job is complete. It’s examined
the physical world and found that
there’s nothing there.”

David Finkelstein, Astrophysicist
“There is nothing; and even
if there were, we couldn’t
know it; and if we knew it,
we couldn’t communicate

Gorgias, 4th Century B.C.
Greek philosopher
“The world itself, it is said by
some, is … an inkblot in which
different people see different forms,
symptomatic of the psychology of
their own fantasizing minds.”

Dr. Joseph Campbell
“Today there is a wide measure of
agreement, which on the physical
side approaches unanimity, that the
stream of knowledge is heading
toward a non-mechanical reality;
The universe begins to look more
like a great thought than a great

   Sir James Jeans (1937)
“…there are plenty of pieces to play
with, … (but ultimately) we know
now for sure that we do not know at
all what matter is. It is not even
clear where we should draw the line
around a set of phenomena and say
‘these are to do with material

   Graham Cairns-Smith
“If the universe is a universe
of thought, its creation must
have been the action of

  BJ Palmer
Einstein on the most
important question facing the
human race:

  “Is the universe friendly?”
“I want to know how God created
the world. I am not interested in this
or that phenomenon, in the
spectrum of this or that element; I
want to know his thoughts. The rest
are details.”

“God does not play dice with
the universe.”

Albert Einstein
“We only have to know that
the process means us no

  Irving Oyle
The point is:
 The current metaphysical view of
 reality from the perspective of
 physics and chemistry is more
 energy-based (less materialistic,
 hence more idealistic); while from
 the perspective of biologists, it is
 still more materialistic or
 physical, often to the point of
    Chiropractic Philosophy Applications:
 BJ Palmer termed the mind/body dilemma
  the “great divide”
 BJ felt that the Chiropractic Triune of Life
  “bridged the great divide”:
  1. Intelligence provides the form
  2. Matter/energy (material) expresses the
  3. Force links intelligence with matter
(this is essentially dualistic interactionism)

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