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ADVANCED SMART CREDENTIAL CUM UNIQUE IDENTIFICATION AND RECOGNITION SYSTEM

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ADVANCED SMART CREDENTIAL CUM UNIQUE IDENTIFICATION AND RECOGNITION SYSTEM Powered By Docstoc
					  International Journal of
                              JOURNAL OF and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-
 INTERNATIONALComputer EngineeringCOMPUTER ENGINEERING
  6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME
                             & TECHNOLOGY (IJCET)
ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online)
Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), pp. 97-104
                                                                              IJCET
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijcet.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2012): 3.9580 (Calculated by GISI)                  ©IAEME
www.jifactor.com




  ADVANCED SMART CREDENTIAL CUM UNIQUE IDENTIFICATION
            AND RECOGNITION SYSTEM. (ASCUIRS)

                        Mr.Lokesh S. Khedekar 1 , Dr.A.S.Alvi 2
                PRMIT&R,Badnera,Amravati,India,lokeshkhedekar@gmail.com 1
                PRMIT&R,Badnera,Amravati,India,abrar_alvi@rediffmail.com 2


  ABSTRACT

          Today barcode system is very popular to identifying a unique product. Many
  organizations are using this technique for identifying a unique product. Tracking these items
  has historically been done by the use of bar-code technologies, which suffer from lack of
  efficiency, robustness, difficulty in automation, inability to have secure or dynamic data, etc.,
  whereas the 2D Data matrix has the ability to overcome several of these limitations over
  barcode This paper presents a comparative basis for the Advanced Smart Credential cum
  Unique Identification and Recognition System via 2D Data matrix versus other technologies
  such as barcode and QR code.

  Keywords: Barcode, Data Matrix, Encoding, QR Code, SCUIRS.

  I.      INTRODUCTION

          This proposed paper is related with the implementation of a product that will combine
  the power of graphical representation and the power of random numbers and characters for a
  unique ID. Combination of both Unique ID and Unique image will help a user to identify the
  product from other products and store its information accordingly. ASCUIRS will not only
  give you a complete solution to product identification but can facilitate you with one more
  option. ASCUIRS will also act like a Security system. The basic idea behind the designing of
  ASCUIRS is to use the feature of Unique numbers combined with unique images and form a
  unique combination that will help in recognizing the product or a user or any item in
  inventory.

  1.1       Existing Systems
  1.1.1     Barcode System
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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-
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          There are a variety of methods you can use to print BarCode [1]. We recommend the
lowest cost alternative to get started – a barcode font. Barcode fonts give you an inexpensive
and flexible way to print labels quickly with high resolution and a low initial investment. The
location barcode is important because the goal of the inventory system is to know not only
what you have, but to be able to tell accurately where it all is. You can get creative with the
location barcode.
          The first barcode was developed by Bernard Silver and Norman Joseph Woodland in
the late 1940’s and early 1950’s. The first commercial use of barcodes was by the
RCA/Kroger system installed in Cincinnati on the call of the National Association of Food
Chains (NAFC). However it was not widely used until the Universal Product Code (UPC) [2]
was introduced into America and adopted by the U.S. Supermarket Ad Hoc Committee.
Today’s barcodes have two forms: one dimensional (1D) barcode and two dimensional (2D)
barcode [3][4]. The 1D barcodes use bars and gaps to encode identification information such
as serial numbers. The 2D barcodes [5] consist of more complicated patterns and may encode
up to 4K bytes of data. Figure 1 shows the 1D barcodes. Although 1D is the more prevalent
barcode used in daily life.




                           Figure 1. 1D Barcode and 2D Barcode
Figure 2 illustrates a basic barcode system. Barcodes are read or scanned by a barcode reader
and the reader is connected to a computer. The operator has to physically align/point the
barcode reader with/to the barcode to read the identification information. The software
running on the computer processes the identification information picked up by the scanner.
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is usually used to control the scanner in more
automated process such as production line. The primary scanning technology for barcode is
LED (Light-Emitting Diode). More advanced scanning such as CCD (Charge-Coupled
Device), Laser, and Imager are used in industry automatic processing.




                    Figure 2 Basic Barcode System 2D Barcode System


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Barcodes can be printed from most printers. 1D barcodes usually have coded readable ID
printed along with the barcode. Barcodes can be read by barcode scanners which we see at a
typical Point of Sale (POS) in retail stores. The barcode can be printed from any black/white
printer. Since the barcode can be directly printed on an object or on paper label, the cost for a
barcode is typically less than 1 cent [6].
Disadvantage of Barcode System:
Barcodes are graphic images featuring a series of lines or bars, of varying thickness,
positioned parallel to each other in such a way that a scanner passed along the image will
translate their thickness and spacing with relation to each other as a series of numbers or
code.
This code is then interpreted by customized software to produce pricing and stocking
information in an effort to assist in the automation of the retail sales and stocking processes.
It is a very efficient and effective system, but, like any other method of tracking inventory, it
is not foolproof.
Pricing Discrepancies and Scanning Problems
When discounts apply to bar-coded merchandise, store employees may forget to code in the
discount price. This, in turn, can lead to confusion and delays at the checkout counter,
inconveniencing the customer, the checkout clerk, and other customers waiting in line. If a
barcode can't be scanned, for any reason, the clerk must then read the corresponding numeric
code and enter it manually. Because clerks have become used to scanning barcodes quickly
and automatically, without any additional effort on their part, their lack of practice in manual
code entries may potentially cause them to be slow and/or inaccurate in entering the
information, further delaying the checkout process.
Label Damage
Barcodes that are printed on a torn section of packaging, or that have been smeared, smudged
or otherwise damaged, will present additional scanning problems. If the corresponding
numeric code is also illegible due to damage, the checkout process can be significantly
delayed while another package of the same merchandise is located and brought to the
checkout counter for scanning.
Financial and Equipment Costs
For businesses that are not already equipped for barcode checkout, the cost of the equipment
necessary to implement the new system can be prohibitive. Other delays can occur in training
employees to adapt to new equipment, and expensive printers must be purchased to print
coded labels for any merchandise that doesn't come prepackaged with a barcode already on it.
Dot matrix and ink jet printers, for example, are generally incapable of printing finely-
detailed barcodes.
1.1.2        QR Code
              QR Code (abbreviated from Quick Response Code) is the trademark for a type
of matrix barcode (or two-dimensional code) first designed for the automotive industry. The
QR barcode [7] is a two dimensional symbol developed by Denso Wave in 1994. More
recently, the system has become popular outside the industry due to its fast readability and
large storage capacity compared to standard UPC barcodes. The code consists of black
modules (square dots) arranged in a square pattern on a white background. The information
encoded can be made up of four standardized kinds ("modes") of data (numeric,
alphanumeric, byte/binary, Kanji), or through supported extensions, virtually any kind of
data.
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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-
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The code contains information in both the x-axis and y-axis, whereas traditional barcodes
contain data in one direction only. The outer range is the quiet zone. The upper-left, upper-
right, and left bottom square areas of QR code [8] are used for position detection and pattern
separators for positioning.
Figure 3 depicts basic block diagram of QR Code scanning with any image capturing device.




                                     Figure 3 QR Code


Advantage of QR codes
   There is no need to write vital details down. A simple scan captures the desired
information.
   QR Codes can be used to store addresses and URLs that can appear in magazines, on signs,
buses, business cards or just about any product that users might need information about.
Disadvantages of QR codes
   Users must be equipped with a camera phone and the correct reader software that can scan
the image of the QR Code. Currently only Smartphone’s are technically equipped to do this.
Many users that have mobile phones that have cameras are unable to get QR reading software
for their phones.

II.    GENERAL STRUCTURE

                2-D bar code consists of a certain white and black geometric modules that
alternately arrange in the vertical and horizontal directions according to certain rules see
Figure, and it is a symbol with large capacity for storing information. As the 2-D bar code
with smallest size in the world, data matrix code is widely applied to electronic product
components. 2-Dbar code recognition technology shows great commercial value, and at
present, most COTS (commercial of the shell) recognition algorithms are proprietary and
protected by patents, so the 2-D bar code recognition technology is in a great demand for
researching. Figure Data matrix structure shows the principle of a Data matrix barcode. The
image shows an annotated Data matrix where the finder and synchronization patterns have
been highlighted.




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                                         Figure 4.Data Matrix

III.     PROBLEM DEFINITION
                When user will store the product information the unique ID will be generated. This
Unique ID will be Tier 1 identification for the product information. Entering this Unique ID as an
Input to our Selective algorithm will generate a unique Image for that particular ID. This Unique
image will act as Tier 2 identification for product information. This image will be hash mapped to the
User Unique ID and both will be used to identify product information. When identifiers are used
solely within a database, their generation should be left to the database itself.

3.1              ASCUIRS Working
       To generate a unique image from a unique ID and to map the image to a specific item in an
       inventory.
       When user will store information about a product or person a unique ID will be generated.
       This Unique ID will be Tier 1 identification for the User or Object.
       Entering this Unique ID as an Input to our Selective algorithm will generate a unique Image for
       that particular ID.
       This Unique image will act as Tier 2 identification for User or Object.
       This image will be hash mapped to the User Unique ID and both will be used to identify an
       object.

 3.2           Proposed Dataflow Diagram




                                 Figure 5.Dataflow Diagram

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      •   GUI:
          Graphical User Interface will be used to gather information regarding the inventory
      from the user.
          GUI will consist of components to take inventory information and details from the
      user, components to save, edit, retrieve (searching) and delete the information. GUI will
      also contain a separate module for Unique ID (generated by the database and encrypted
      by selective algorithm) passing to generate an unique data matrix image.

      •   Selective algorithm for Unique ID encryption:
          This algorithm will be a modified version of 56 bit key DES algorithm.
          The selective algorithm will be used to encrypt the unique ID before been passed on
      for conversion into data matrix image.

      •   Selective algorithm for unique image
          The algorithm will encode the pre encrypted Unique ID and a data matrix will be
          generated that will be used for printing or publishing as required by the user.

      •   Storage of Unique ID:
          Database will store inventory information and details and a Unique ID will be
          generated and associated with every record.
          This Unique ID will act as Tier 1 identification for the record.

      •   Web server process and retrieval:
          A portal will be established which will contain the GUI and the entire process of
          storage of Data and retrieval along with data matrix image generation and publishing
          process.

IV.       PROPOSED SYSTEM

      •   Web Portal:Web portal will contain a module that will take an input from the client
          which will be a data matrix image.

      •   Data inventory: Tables, relations related to items will be stored in data inventory.
          Data inventory is nothing but a set of tables that will contain records about items and
          its detailed information.

      •   Database: Information entered by the administrator will be stored in the database.
          This information will be stored in the form of a tuple. Each tuple will have a unique
          ID associated with it.

      •   Unique ID: This will be a 16 bit ID generated by the database (MySQL) and it will be
          used to identify the tuple in case of searching.

      •   Unique ID passed to (selective) algorithm: The algorithm will encrypt the Unique ID
          generated by database (MySQL). This encrypted key or string will be further passed
          on to another selective algorithm to create a unique image (i.e. Data Matrix image).
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   •   Unique image ready to publish: Unique image created by the selective algorithm can
       be either published or printed by the administrator.

   •   Capturing unique image: The image i.e. published or printed by the administrator can
       be captured by the user and sent back to the web portal through an HTTP response.

   •   Clipping: Since the captured image will vary in size, it needs to be clipped and exact
       Data Matrix needs to be extracted out of the captured image. Clipping will help to
       extract the exact image and pass it on to the web portal.




                                Figure 6.Proposed System.


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     •   Uploading of Image: An FTP request to the server will carry the clipped image that
         will be used to map with the database to find the related record or information.

     •   Sending information back to client: If mapping returns a record, then it will be sent
         back to the client (i.e. browser of phone or computer system) and this will complete
         the process.

V.       CONCLUSION

        Using this image through scanner or mobile phone camera we can decompile
product’s information. The product’s information can be accessed anywhere if the database is
stored and accessed through a web server. This ensures portability and security since the
unique number will only be known to the organization. Organization will be using a unique
image to access their product information or person or object. A new algorithm is proposed
here which is a hybrid model for data hiding in data matrix and provides decoding algorithm
which is independent of image orientation in any direction and de noising is one of the main
advantages of this. It runs at 640×480 resolution for real time scenarios. For practical
implementation dimensions of data matrix image is 420×420 includes finder pattern of 10×10
ad size of squares is 20×20.This proposed system provides an accuracy of 97.6%.

REFERENCES

[1] On The Creation of Automatic Identification and Data Capture Infrastructure via RFID
Xiaoyong Su, Chi-Cheng Chu, B.S. Prabhu, RajitGadhUniversity of California, Los Angeles
UCLA-WINMEC RFID Lab http://winmec.ucla.edu/rfid420 Westwood Plaza, UCLA, Los
Angeles, CA 90095
[2] GS1 US, The Universal Product Code, http://www.uc-council.org/upc_background.html
[3] Multi-color 2D datamatrix codeswith poorly readable colors Urška Bogataj1, Tadeja
Muck, BrankaLozo ,ArjanaŽitnik.
[4] YongyueYang ,Guang Zhu and Peng Wang, “Reading system for 2D code based on
machine vision”, ICEMI ,2009
[5] Zhi Liu, HerongZhengWenting Cai, “ Research on Two- Dimensional code positioning
approach based on Convex hull algorithm”, International Conference on Digital Image
Processing, 2009
[6]     J. Abernethy, Widener Liberary: Book Identification – Bar Codes & RFID, An
Engineering           Science          96          Report,          M17,            1995,
http://www.deas.harvard.edu/courses/es96/spring1995/barcodes_rfid/abernethy.html
[7] Wen-Yuan Chen, Jing-Wein Wang; “Nested image steganography scheme using QR-
barcode technique” Optical Engineering 48_5, 057004 _May 2009_Vol. 48(5).
[8] Wakahara, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Noriyasu; “Image Processing of 2-Dimensional
Barcode”, Conference on Network-Based Information Systems (NBiS), 2011 14th
International.




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