How to combat the tobacco epidemic

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					Tobacco Control in the
  World and Turkey

       Prof Elif Dagli
     Marmara University
•   ERS
•   UICC
•   IUATLD
•   FCA
A report on EU Tobacco control
           Aspect report
• Prepared for and financed by the
  commission
• A collaboration of 4 organisations, 8
  authors, 24 experts and 25 national
  counterparts
• Released in October 2004
Thailand ad ban
       Effective tobacco control
                policies
•   Higher prices
•   Smoking bans and restrictions
•   Media campaigns
•   Advertising bans
•   Prominent warning labels
•   Smoking cessation support

    Source: World Bank 2003
       Price increases
According to the World Bank,
price increases are the most
effective and cost effective
deterrent.
Marlboro Retail Price
1 JANUARY 2006           (in € / 20)
                                                                                                            € 4.10


                                                                                          € 4.26

             € 7.57


                                                                     € 8.02


                                                                                                                 € 1.73

                                                                                                                 € 1.08
                      € 6.35                                        € 4.16

                                       € 7.36                                                               € 1.23

                                                        € 4.00
                                                                                                   € 1.78
                                                      € 4.00         € 4.47
                                                      € 3.50
                                                                              € 2.07
                                                                                                   € 1.85
                                       € 5.00
                                                           € 4.06             € 3.70
                                                                                                   € 2.14
                                                                              € 2.25


 € 2.90                                                              € 3.80
            € 2.75




                                                                                                        € 2.80

                 EU - 25
€ 1.95                                                                                 € 3.49
                 EFTA                     Other EU Accession
                                                                                                                          € 3.92
                                    Decrease of cigarette sales in
                                              France
                                                                                                         « Offensive
                                                                                                              »
                                                 Evolution des ventes et de la prévalence du tabagisme
                                                                                                            -13,5%
                                   50    88,3                                                                     90
         Prévalence du tabagisme




                                                 86,1
                                                                                                                 -12%




                                                                                                                       Cigarettes vendues en
                                                         82,9    83,8    83,7    82,5    83,5
                                   45                                                                              85
                                                                                                  80,5
                                                                                                                  80




                                                                                                                              milliards
                                   40
                                        36,5%
                                                                        34,5%                                     75
                                   35                                                                      69,6
                                                                                                         30,4%    70
                                   30                                                                             65
                                   25                                                                             60
                                        1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000    2001    2002     2003
Source
:
INPES
  The illegal tobacco trade and
               health
• Undermines tax policies
• Makes cheaper cigarettes available,
  mainly to low income smokers
• Does not respect product regulations
  (particularly in case of counterfeit
  tobacco products)
The illegal tobacco trade: a new
             concern

The illegal tobacco trade is an
important source for financing of
organised crime and terrorist
organisations.
          Our estimate
A cautious estimate of the illegal
cigarette trade is 8% of the world
cigarette sales or 440 billion cigarettes,
which represents a yearly loss of 33
billion dollar.
What can be done at international
             level?
           The FCTC
If tobacco smuggling is to be
tackled successfully, it will
require international
collaboration. The most likely
mechanism for achieving this
is the Framework Convention
on Tobacco Control (FCTC)
  The risks of passive smoking

Article 8 of the WHO Framework
Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)
recognizes that scientific evidence has
unequivocally established that
exposure to tobacco smoke causes
death, disease and disability. Passive
smoking currently kills 79,000 EU
citizens a year.
Worst-case scenario
1993-2000
“If one assumed that smoking
 restrictions and social acceptability in
 Europe reach the same levels as they
 have in North America, it could result in
 a market drop of 150 billion units by the
 end of the decade.”
  Source: PM 1993
         The Irish market
“Overall, we believe the ban has
probably reduced consumption by 5%.
It will also make recruiting new
smokers, and marketing to all smokers,
much harder, we believe.”
Citigroup Smith Barney, 9 September 2004
Volumes in pubs in Ireland during the period
          1995-2005 (1995=100).
             29 March 2004.
120
                                        117,2117,7
115                                114,7          114,3                                   Smoking ba
                              112,6
110                                                                   109,6
                       108,4                                                              Volume
105
                103,5                                                     103,9     104

100      100

 95

 90
      1995   1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001    2002       2003   2004   2005


                           source : central statistics office of
                                         Ireland
                CIGARETTES SOLD IN ITALY. PERIOD 1990-2005

             104.000
                                                                                                       102.932
             102.000                                                                  101.595
                                                                                                            101.582
             100.000                                                                        100.354
                                                                                                                 98.846
              98.000
tonnellate




              96.000                                                                   95.886
              94.000
                                                                                                                         92.822
              92.000
                       90.901                                                    91.005
                                           89.454     89.852
              90.000
                       89.111                                89.361     89.230
              88.000              88.407     88.669
              86.000
                   1989         1991       1993           1995        1997          1999        2001      2003        2005        2007
                                                                             Anni
             2005/2004

                                                      -
Smoke free countries in 2008




                            0




                                0




                                    € 1.18
                                             0


      EU -
      25
      EFT       Other EU
      A         Accession
Health warnings
Evidence from Canada, Brazil and
Australia shows that the large
warnings with photos introduced
recently are effective in discouraging
smoking and increasing public
awareness of the health effects of
smoking.
First European pictorial health
           warning
    Tobacco control scale
•   Prices : 30 points
•   Smoking restrictions/bans: 22 points
•   Tobacco control funding : 15 points
•   Ad ban: 13 points
•   Smoking cessation : 10 points
•   Labelling: 10 points
    Source: ENSP 2004
TCS scores 1 July 2005.

				
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posted:2/1/2013
language:English
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