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                             Agenda Item:          ATCM 10
                             Presented by:         Argentina
                                 Original:   Spanish, English




  Report on Antarctic tourist flows and
cruise ships operating in Ushuaia during
 the 2010/2011 austral summer season




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Report on Antarctic tourist flows and cruise ships operating in
   Ushuaia during the 2010/2011 austral summer season

Summary
This paper provides information about the flows of passengers and vessels that visited Antarctica during
2010/2011, operating from the port of Ushuaia.


Introduction
Ushuaia (54º 48’ S - 68º 19’ W), located at the southern tip of South America, is the most active gateway city
to Antarctica in terms of Antarctic shipborne tourism, and it concentrates more than the 90% of the
worldwide Antarctic tourist activity.
The development of airport and port infrastructure in Ushuaia has contributed to facilitate operations of
Antarctic cruise ships. This, in addition to the short distance between Ushuaia and the Antarctic Peninsula,
has allowed tour operators to extend their Antarctic operating schedules.
With respect to the vessels that operate from Ushuaia, a distinction should be made between those that make
landings and those of a much larger size which just sail Antarctic waters without landing passengers.
Similarly, a further distinction should be made between those large vessels which arrive in Ushuaia as part of
a more extended South American itinerary, and those which call in Ushuaia as the port of base from which
they run their Antarctic voyages. In general terms, these operations refer to passenger turnaround, port and
land services as well as the general supply of provisions and tourist services. Also, at the beginning and at
the end of the Antarctic season most vessels arrive at the port of Ushuaia and/or depart on a positioning
voyage from or towards other destinations.
In order to present the status of Antarctic tourist flows of visitors and vessels in Ushuaia in the 2010/2011
season, data was collected from the manifests provided by cruise ships to Prefectura Naval Argentina
(Argentine Maritime Authority). This information was compared to itineraries provided by tour operators on
their websites, and to data obtained from enquiries whenever needed.


Brief review of the Antarctic tourist flows and cruise ships which operated through
Ushuaia during the 2010/2011 austral summer season
Antarctic tour operators started operating at the port of Ushuaia on October 12th 2010, when the IB Kapitan
Khlebnikov (Quark Expeditions) set sail from Ushuaia for Antarctica, and finished on March 27th 2011 with
the arrival of the MV Ushuaia (Antarpply Expeditions) and the MV Sea Spirit (Quark Expeditions) from the
Antarctic Peninsula.
Out of 1951 scheduled Antarctic voyages calling at the port of Ushuaia, 1852 were actually run by 29 vessels,
including the SV Bark Europa and the MY Hanse Explorer. January was the busiest month as regards the
number of Antarctic voyages (30 %) followed by February (25 %) and December (23 %) (See figure 1).




1
    Information provided by Port Administration (Ushuaia).
2
    Voyage cancellations were due to incidents, technical problems, and / or bad weather conditions.

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             Figure 1. Number of Antarctic voyages through the port of Ushuaia per month.
                                  Ushuaia, 2010/2011 summer season




                   Source: data collected from 2010/2011 manifests, Argentine Maritime Authority.

A total of 33.656 visitors went to Antarctica through Ushuaia during the 2010/2011 season. Of these, three
categories may be identified: a) those that both departed from and returned to the port of Ushuaia, b) those
that either departed from or arrived in Ushuaia -that is to say, passengers who were in Ushuaia once either on
the arrival or departure- and c) those that visited Ushuaia in transit on their way to or from Antarctica,
embarking or disembarking at other ports (See table 1).

In the first case, passengers were counted only upon departure from Ushuaia. In the second case, several
vessels either started or finished their voyages in other ports, and some visited Antarctica as part of the
voyage of the beginning or end of the season, and then operated from Ushuaia the rest of the season. In this
instance the passengers who arrived at or departed from the port of Ushuaia were taken into account. Finally,
the vessels in transit carried more than 500 passengers and cruised in Antarctica only without making any
landings. Their visit to the Antarctic Peninsula was just part of a longer voyage in South America or a more
extensive itinerary. Passengers in transit were counted upon arrival or departure, depending on the East or
West direction of the cruise ship when calling at the port of Ushuaia.

      Table 1. Discrimination according to ships’ itineraries. Ushuaia, 2010/2011 summer season

                            ARRIVAL IN AND            ARRIVAL IN OR            IN TRANSIT IN           TOTAL
                           DEPARTURE FROM            DEPARTURE FROM               USHUAIA
                               USHUAIA                   USHUAIA
    NUMBER OF                      18.030                    1.179                  14.447              33.656
     VISITORS
 PERCENTAGE OF                       54                         3                     43                  100
    VISITORS
    NUMBER OF                       162                        13                     10                  185
     VOYAGES

                 Source: data collected from the 2010/2011 manifests, Argentine Maritime Authority.

Antarctic visitors travelled in tourist vessels of different sizes. A distinction is made in relation to the


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provisions of Measure 15 (2009) adopted in the XXXII Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting. Therefore,
taking into account the average number of passengers on board, it is noticed that 76 % (22 vessels) belong to
cruise ships which carried up to 500 or fewer passengers whereas 24 % (7 vessels) correspond to vessels that
carried more than 500 passengers. An average number of crew members and passengers3 as well as the
number of voyages per vessel are presented in table 2; and in figure 2 passenger averages per vessel are
shown.

             Table 2. Average number of crew and passengers per vessel and number of voyages.
                                   Ushuaia, 2010/2011 summer season


                                                      AVERAGE CREW              AVERAGE      NUMBER OF
                            VESSEL                     PER VOYAGE              PASSENGERS     VOYAGES
                                                                              PER VOYAGE (a)
                     MV Akademik Ioffe                         47                   117           9
                MV Akademik Sergey Vavilov                     43                   113           8
                    MV Antarctic Dream                         34                    69          13
                      SV Bark Europa (b)                       54                    ---          5
                         MV Bremen                             107                  129           4
                         MY Clelia II                          66                    93           6
                        MS Expedition                          54                   132          13
                          MV Fram                              71                   224           9
                        MV Hanseatic                           126                  148           4
                     MY Hanse Explorer                         15                     9           4
                   IB Kapitan Khlebnikov                       62                   127           3
                        MV Le Boreal                           146                  195           7
                    MV Marina Svetaeva                         39                    96           8
               MS National Geographic Explorer                 85                   164          10
                       MV Ocean Nova                           32                    75           7
                        MV Plancius                            41                   105          12
                      MV Polar Pioneer                         24                    56          11
                        MV Polar Star                          35                    93           8
                     MV Prince Albert II                       120                  124           9
                        MV Sea Spirit                          68                   105           8
                       MV The World (c)                        267                  221           2
                         MV Ushuaia                            35                    81          15
                    MS Crystal Symphony                        571                  817           1
                         MV Infinity                           906                 1996           2
                         MV Insignia                           393                  677           1
                       MS Prinsendam                           454                  735           1
                   MV Seven Seas Mariner                       446                  639           1
                       MV Star Princess                       1058                 2489           2
                        MS Veendam                             561                 1305           2

Note: vessels that carried more than 500 passengers are highlighted in grey; (a) staff members are also included in the
average number whenever they were listed on the passenger manifests; (b) the SV Bark Europa declares to be a training
boat and takes only trainees on board, who were included on the crew list; (c) this vessel is not strictly a tourist ship, but
a residential ocean liner.
Source: data collected from the 2010/2011 manifests, Argentine Maritime Authority.


                   Figure 2. Average number of passengers carried per vessel on each voyage.
3
    The average of transported passengers is taken into account (not the total capacity of the vessel).

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                                       Ushuaia, 2010/2011 summer season




Note: (a) the SV Bark Europa declares to be a training boat and takes only trainees on board, who were included on the
crew list; (b) this vessel is not strictly a tourist ship, but a residential ocean liner.
                     Source: data collected from the 2010/2011 manifests, Argentine Maritime Authority.

Furthermore, 15 vessels ran regular voyages to and from Antarctica operating throughout the season from
Ushuaia, and they account for 52 % of the total number of vessels. Each vessel made between 7 and 15
voyages to Antarctica, as indicated in figure 3. These vessels carried an average number of 117 passengers
per voyage, ranging from 224 to 56, these being the highest and lowest number of passengers on board (see
table 2). It is worth noticing that the MV Ocean Nova had a different operational activity in December and
January when she conducted some voyages from 25 de Mayo Island, embarking passengers whose arrivals
and departures were from Punta Arenas (Chile) by airplane. On December 10 th she left Ushuaia carrying
passengers towards South Shetland Islands, and returned to the port of Ushuaia on January 24 th, also carrying
passengers from Antarctica. From then onwards she continued operating from Ushuaia.


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               Figure 3. Vessels that made most voyages to Antarctica operating regularly.
                                    Ushuaia, 2010/2011 summer season




                 Source: data collected from the 2010/2011 manifests, Argentine Maritime Authority.

With regard to vessels in transit in Ushuaia, most of them are large cruise ships, which cruise Antarctic
waters but do not make passenger landings in Antarctica. As it has been previously stated, these cruise ships
are on itineraries round southern South America or on more extensive voyages, and on certain itineraries,
they include a visit to Antarctica. Most of these cruise ships run “pendular” voyages along Beagle Channel
to connect ports located by the Atlantic and Pacific oceans and to visit Antarctica either from the Atlantic or
from the Pacific. Table 3 below provides an overview of the deployment of these cruise ships through
Ushuaia including the number of crew and passengers per voyage and indicating if the visit to Antarctica was
before or after the port call in Ushuaia.

                        Table 3. Cruise ships that carried more than 500 passengers.
                                    Ushuaia, 2010/2011 summer season

                                 ARRIVALS IN USHUAIA                        DEPARTURES FROM
       VESSELS                                                                  USHUAIA
                                Date         Crew      Passengers       Date     Crew   Passengers
                             dd.mm.yy                                dd.mm.yy
 MS Crystal Symphony             ---           ---          ---       27.01.11    571      817
      MV Infinity             07.02.11        897         2001           ---      ---       ---
      MV Infinity             20.02.11        915         1991           ---      ---       ---
     MV Insignia              29.01.11        393          677           ---      ---       ---
    MS Prinsendam             16.02.11        454          735           ---      ---       ---
 MV Seven Seas Mariner           ---           ---          ---       07.02.11    446      639
   MV Star Princess           02.01.11       1055         2482           ---      ---       ---
   MV Star Princess           19.01.11       1061         2495           ---      ---       ---
     MS Veendam                  ---           ---          ---       27.12.10    564      1328
     MS Veendam               17.01.11        558         1282           ---      ---       ---

Note: Only the Antarctic voyages are presented above and it is indicated whether visits to Antarctica were made before
or after the port call in Ushuaia.
Source: data collected from the 2010/2011 manifests, Argentine Maritime Authority.

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As regards visitors who went to Antarctica through the port of Ushuaia, the nationalities of passengers were
counted. In this respect, 80 nationalities were identified. Most of the passengers are from the United States,
followed by Australia, United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, China, Japan, Netherlands, France and
Switzerland, among others. Percentages are presented in figure 4.

                  Figure 4. Main nationalities of Antarctic visitors. Ushuaia, 2010/2011 season




                    Source: data collected from the 2010/2011 manifests, Argentine Maritime Authority.

It has been possible to identify expedition staff members4 who may be included either on the crew or on the
passenger lists. Keeping a direct relationship with passengers, staff members perform different roles, such as
expedition leaders, naturalist guides and lecturers, and are in charge of leading passengers during the landing
activities. For this reason, only staff members on board vessels which carry up to 500 passengers have been
considered. It has been noted that staff are not always identified on the manifests and sometimes their
positions on board are not stated. Staff members are not always specified, in several cases they are listed on
the passenger manifest, in some cases they are on the crew list, and on some occasions, they are listed on
both, as shown in table 4. It is worth acknowledging the role of expedition staff as regards Measure 15
(2009) adopted in the XXXII Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, which recommends a ratio of one guide
every 20 passengers. Also, it could be noted that in some cases the presence of an ice master is stated on the
manifests.

           Table 4. Expedition staff reported on the manifests. Ushuaia, 2010/2011 summer season

                           CREW            PASSENGER             CREW AND             WITHOUT
                            LIST              LIST               PASSENGER             DATA
                                                                   LISTS

                            17 %                37 %                 6%                   40 %


                    Source: data collected from the 2010/2011 manifests Argentine Maritime Authority.

Table 5 shows an overview of tour operators, their domicile, ships, ship owners, ship management
companies and registers for the 2010/2011season. A total of 27 tour operators operated Antarctica from
Ushuaia: 23 are located in countries which are Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Argentina, Australia,
Chile, Germany, France, Netherlands, Norway and United States) and 4 in one country which is not a


4
    Also hotel managers and chefs are included in this group .


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Consultative Party (Canada). Besides, there are other companies and organizations which subchartered
vessels and/or booked cabins and made one or more voyages to Antarctica.
According to the registers of vessels that operated Antarctica throughout this season from Ushuaia, it may be
observed, on the one hand, that 4 are Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (France, Netherlands, Norway
and Russian Federation) and, on the other, that 9 do not belong to an Antarctic Treaty Party (Antigua and
Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Liberia, Malta, Marshall Islands and Union of the Comoros)
(See figure 5).

   Table 5. Overview of tour operators, domicile, vessels, owners, ship management companies and
                            registers. Ushuaia, 2010/2011 summer season




      TOUR OPERATOR                                                  OWNER AND SHIP
      NAME            DOMICILE            VESSEL                  MANAGEMENT COMPANY(a)                         REGISTER
   Abercrombie        United States        Le Boreal        Compagnie des Îles du Ponant (France)                 France
      & Kent                                                Compagnie des Îles du Ponant (France)
 Antarctic Shipping      Chile        MV Antarctic Dream    Drumright Investment Corp. (Chile)                     Belize
                                                            Antarctic Shipping S.A. (Chile)
  Antarctica XXI         Chile          MV Ocean Nova       Nova Cruising Ltd. (Bahamas)                         Bahamas
                                                            International Shipping Partners (United States)
      Antarpply        Argentina          MV Ushuaia        Ushuaia Adventure Corp. (Argentina)                 Union of the
    Expeditions                                             Antarpply S.A. (Argentina)                            Comoros
       Aurora           Australia      MV Polar Pioneer     JSC Polar Shipping (Russian Federation)               Russian
    Expeditions                                             JSC Polar Expedition (Russian Federation)            Federation
  Celebrity Cruise    United States       MV Infinity       Infinity Inc. (United States)                          Malta
         Line                                               Celebrity Cruises Inc. (United States)
  Compagnie des          France          MV Le Boreal       Compagnie des Îles du Ponant (France)                 France
   Îles du Ponant                                           Compagnie des Îles du Ponant (France)
  Crystal Cruises     United States   MS Crystal Symphony   Crystal Ship Ltd. (Bahamas)                          Bahamas
                                                            Crystal Cruises Inc. (United States)
  GAP Adventures        Canada           MS Expedition      The Expedition Shipping Company Ltd. (Liberia)        Liberia
                                                            V-Ships Leisure S.A.M. (Monaco)
   Hapag Lloyd          Germany           MV Bremen         Hapag Lloyd Ltd. (Bahamas)                           Bahamas
   Kreuzfahrten                                             Hapag Lloyd Aktiengesellschaft (Germany)
                                         MV Hanseatic       Bunny’s Adventure and Cruise Shipping Company        Bahamas
                                                            Ltd. (Bahamas)
                                                            Hapag Lloyd Aktiengesellschaft (Germany)
  Holland America     Netherlands       MS Prinsendam       HAL Antillen N.V. (Netherlands Antillen)            Netherlands
        Line                                                Holland America Line Inc. (United States)
                                         MS Veendam         HAL Netherlands N.V. (Netherlands)                  Netherlands
                                                            Holland America Line Inc.(United States)
 Hurtigruten Group      Norway             MV Fram          Hurtigruten ASA (Norway)                              Norway
       ASA                                                  Hurtigruten ASA (Norway)
     Lindblad         United States      MS National        Lex Explorer LLC (United States)                     Bahamas
   Expeditions                        Geographic Explorer   Lindblad Expeditions (United States)
  Oceania Cruises     United States      MV Insignia        Insignia Vessel Adquisition Llc. (United States)     Marshall
                                                            Prestige Cruise Sevice Llc. (United States)           Islands
     Oceanstar          Germany       MY Hanse Explorer     Hanse Explorer GmbH & Co. (Germany)                 Antigua and
                                                            Harren & Partner Ship Management GmbH & Co.          Barbuda
                                                            (Germany)
    Oceanwide         Netherlands        MV Plancius        Balder Nieuwland B.V. (Netherlands)                 Netherlands
    Expeditions                                             Oceanwide Marine Services B. V. (Netherlands)
    One Ocean           Canada        MV Marina Svetaeva    JSC Marine Company Sakhalin-Kurily (Russian           Russian
    Expeditions                                             Federation)                                          Federation
                                                            JSC Polar Shipping (Russian Federation)
     Polar Star         Canada           MV Polar Star      Karlsen Shipping Norway A.S. (Canada)                Barbados
    Expeditions                                             Martin Karlsen (Canada)
  Princess Cruises    United States    MV Star Princess     GP3 Ltd. (Bermudas)                                  Bermudas
                                                            Princess Cruise Line Ltd. (United States)

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Note: (a)company in charge of technical and crew issues.
     TOUR OPERATOR                                                   OWNER AND SHIP
     NAME           DOMICILE           VESSEL                     MANAGEMENT COMPANY(a)                          REGISTER
     Quark         United States   MV Akademik Ioffe     P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology Russian             Russian
   Expeditions                                           Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)                 Federation
                                                         P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology Russian
                                                         Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)
                                     MV Akademik         P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology Russian             Russian
                                     Sergey Vavilov      Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)                 Federation
                                                         P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology Russian
                                                         Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)
                                     IB Kapitan          Far Eastern Shipping Company (Russian Federation)         Russian
                                     Khlebnikov          Far Eastern Shipping Company (Russian Federation)        Federation
                                    MV Ocean Nova        Nova Cruising Ltd. (Bahamas)                              Bahamas
                                                         International Shipping Partners (United States)
                                     MV Sea Spirit       TN Cruise (Denmark)                                      Bahamas
                                                         International Shipping Partners Inc. (United States)
  Rederij Bark      Netherlands     SV Bark Europa       B.V. La Constance Maatschappij tot Exploitatie van      Netherlands
  Europa B.V.                                            Onroerende Goederen (Netherlands)
                                                         BBZ- ISM (Netherlands)
  Regent Seven     United States     MV Seven Seas       Oceania Cruises Inc. (United States)                     Bahamas
  Seas Cruises                         Mariner           V-Ships Leisure UK Ltd. (United Kingdom)
   ResidenSea      United States     MV The World        The World of Residensea II Ltd. (Bahamas)                Bahamas
                                                         Barber Ship Management Ltd. (United States)
    Silversea      United States   MV Prince Albert II   Silversea Discoverer Shipping Co. Ltd. (Bahamas)         Bahamas
     Cruises                                             V-Ships Leisure S.A.M. (Monaco)
 Students on Ice      Canada          MV Ushuaia         Ushuaia Adventure Corp. (Argentina)                     Union of the
                                                         Antarpply S.A. (Argentina)                               Comoros
     Travel        United States      MY Clelia II       Lindos Maritime Ltd. (Greece)
   Dynamics                                              Goodwin Sands Marine (Liberia)                             Malta
  International
 Zegrahm & Eco     United States     MV Sea Spirit       TN Cruise (Denmark)                                      Bahamas
   Expedition                                            International Shipping Partners Inc. (United States)
Moreover, other companies and organizations which subchartered vessels and/or booked cabins to conduct Antarctic
voyages were identified: Cheesemans’ Ecology Safaris (United States) Waterproof Expeditions (Netherlands),
Marathon Tours & Travel (United States), 2041 (United States), among others.
Source: data collected from the 2010/2011 manifests, Argentine Maritime Authority, tour operator websites and
requests to different experts when necessary.


Comparison of the last three seasons

According to the data that has been collected from Ushuaia since the 2008/2009 summer season, it is
possible to make some comparisons of the overall numbers of the last three seasons.

Out of the three seasons, the total number of passengers to Antarctica through the port of Ushuaia hardly
shows variations. The 2009/2010 season presents a minor decrease with respect to the previous one (about
6%), but in the following season there is an increase of 0,38%. However, the most significant difference
appears in the ratio between the number of visitors aboard vessels which carried more than 500 passengers
and those that carried less than 500. In this respect, comparing seasons 2008/2009 to 2010/2011, the former
category (vessels that carried more than 500 passengers) has increased the total number of passengers in 52%
and the latter (those that carried less than 500 passengers) decreased 27% (See figure 6).

Similarly, the regular voyages and the total number of voyages conducted thoughout the season can be
compared. There is a decrease in the overall number of voyages (about 20%), as well as a drop in the total
number of regular voyages (See figure 7).



                      Figura 5. Registers of vessels. Ushuaia, 2010/2011 summer season


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                Source: data collected from the 2010/2011 manifests, Argentine Maritime Authority.


Figure 6. Comparison of the number of passengers in the 2008/2009, 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 summer
                                         seasons. Ushuaia




Source: data collected from the 2010/2011 manifests, Argentine Maritime Authority and from ATCM XXXII IP
119 Report of activities of Antarctic tourism cruise ships operating from Ushuaia during Austral summer season
2008/2009 and ATCM XXXIII IP 129 Report on Antarctic tourist flows and cruise ships operating in Ushuaia during
the 2009/2010 Austral summer season.




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Figure 7. Comparison of the number of voyages for the 2008/2009, 2009/20010 and 2010/2011 summer
                                        seasons. Ushuaia




Source: data collected from the 2010/2011 manifests, Argentine Maritime Authority and from ATCM XXXII IP
119 Report of activities of Antarctic tourism cruise ships operating from Ushuaia during Austral summer season
2008/2009 and ATCM XXXIII IP 129 Report on Antarctic tourist flows and cruise ships operating in Ushuaia during
the 2009/2010 Austral summer season.




Concluding remarks
The information presented in this document contributes to identify the vessels which operated in Antarctica
and which called at the port of Ushuaia in the 2010/2011 summer season, the number of voyages that took
place, passengers and their nationalities, average number of crew per vessel, expedition staff, tour operators,
vessel owners, ship management companies and the registers of ships.

Besides, some comparisons with the two previous seasons could be made. The total number of passengers in
the 2010/2011 season has only increased 0,38% compared to the previous season, without reaching the total
number of the 2008/2009 season, showing in this case a slight difference. However, a significant increase in
the number of passengers aboard vessels that carried more than 500 passengers could be clearly seen with
29% increase with respect to the previous season and 52% when compared to 2008/2009. This increase
keeps an inverse ratio with the number of visitors aboard vessels that carried less than 500 passengers since,
in this case, there is a decrease of approximately 27% when comparing the last season (2010/2011) to the
first (2008/2009). The total number of voyages as well as vessels has declined showing a variance of 20% for
the former and 19% for the latter between the 2010/2011 and 2008/2009 seasons.

The information presented in this paper contributes to the assessment of ship-borne tourist activities in the
Antarctic Peninsula region, focusing on the flows of Antarctic visitors and vessels that operate in the port of
Ushuaia during the austral summer seasons.




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