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									                ITEC 1220
POLITICS AND ECONOMICS OF INFORMATION
              TECHNOLOGY




 FINAL ADVOCACY
     PROJECT




                  By:

               ASSETS
            CEO: Scott Gross
ABSTRACT
        Every person needs to get from place to place. People need to get to work, go to the store
and make social visits. Most us either have a car or are able to use the local public transportation
service. Unfortunately, there are people with a physical or mental disability which prevents them
from being able to board a standard bus or live too far to get to a bus stop. In 1990, the
Americans with Disability Act required all cities with a fixed bus route service to provide curb-
to-curb bus service for these people.
        The Albany, NY region has been providing this type of service well before this law was
passed, however since then there has been a large increase in demand for this service. In order to
keep up with this new demand, we are proposing a complete IT solution in order to improve
customer service and the over all experience of riding on CDTA's paratransit service.
        In order to do this, we plan to implement a web portal to request transport instead of just
over the phone. Also, in order to minimize wait time and miscommunication among passengers,
there will be a way to inform them of schedule changes and when the bus arrives through an
automated phone call, e-mail, and SMS messaging.

BACKGROUND
        The failure of many urban and suburban transportation systems to meet the needs of
many disabled citizens led policy makers to establish specific provisions regarding access to
fixed-route transportation. Thus, the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) brought
enormous change to the transportation industry as well as the lives of many disabled Americans.5
The regulation ruled out that busses purchased by a public transit agency for use in fixed route
service after that date had to be accessible to disabled persons, such as wheelchair users.
        These agencies are required to provide paratransit service, which is a specialized, curb-
to-curb and demand responsive service that “mirrors” their fixed-route service in terms of service
times and areas.12 It is a service on a reservation basis specifically for people with disabilities. To
have access to the service, all clients must have been found eligible beforehand, according to the
ADA guidelines.3 Those qualified under the guidelines are individuals who are unable, as a result
of a physical or mental impairment (including a visual impairment), to board, ride or disembark
from any public transportation in the fixed route system which is accessible to individuals with
disabilities. It is also available for the disabled that cannot get to boarding/alighting locations on
the fixed-route. 1
        The need was stated in the 1998 Louis Harris and Associates ADA survey indicating that
“over 30% of unemployed disabled Americans identified inadequate transportation as a
significant barrier to employment.” 3 We are well aware that citizens with disabilities are among
the most vulnerable members of society. It has been difficult for them to be fully included in
community life due to their limitations. Thus, it is necessary to help these physically disabled to
overcome such barriers and with the help of paratransit service, it will ensure their successful
inclusion to be able to contribute as full citizens in the workplace and community.
        Furthermore, ADA had implemented a policy regarding the "next-day" service
requirement that requires “the entity [public transit agency] to schedule and provide paratransit
service to any ADA paratransit eligible person at any requested time on a particular day in
response to a request for service made the previous day.” In fact, US Department of
Transportation issued a formal memo affirmatively stating its support for the rights of disabled
persons to next-day paratransit service, “transit providers must design, fund, and implement
programs to meet 100% of the anticipated demand for next-day paratransit service.” 15
        At present, the Capitol District Transportation Authority (CDTA) has the monopoly as
the sole agency that runs fixed-route bus services in Albany and the surrounding suburban area.
On February 28, 1981, even years before the ADA regulations were introduced, CDTA came up
with the initiative to provide a new demand-based paratransit service operation known as STAR
(Special Transit Available by Request) for the disabled. It began in Albany and expanded to Troy
and Schenectady.1 It gives affordable curb-to-curb transportation to people whose disabilities
prevent them from using the fixed-route bus system. It is available during the same days and
hours as any CDTA normal route bus and operates anywhere up to ¾ of a mile away from the
standard bus route. As indicated by the ADA paratransit eligibility, anyone with disabilities that
is unable to use the normal CDTA fixed-route buses is eligible for STAR.
        When it first started, STAR had only a few clients. The dispatchers and schedulers
basically waited for people to make trip requests. However, things have picked up considerably
over the years. Nowadays, STAR handles about 500 to 600 trips a day with heavier demands
during morning and afternoon rush hour.8 Started with only two buses, it currently has about 28
specialized vehicles assigned to this service becoming the fastest growing segment of the CDTA
travel market.1 Currently, STAR uses the interactive voice recognition (IVR) system to provide
customer information and the TRAPEZE software that has a highly specialized suite of programs
for managing fixed route transportation systems.11 To make reservations, customers are required
to call-in (1 to 14 days beforehand, “next-day rule”) to provide the dispatchers with the desired
pick-up times and location. The scheduler will then input this information into the software for
scheduling. Then the clients will have to call back to confirm their trips. When interviewed, the
scheduler admits that the current system used to obtain and arrange all trips requires a great deal
of man power and very time consuming.10 To keep the busses running in a timely fashion STAR
requests passengers to be at the requested pickup locations 10 minutes before the scheduled pick
up time. The drivers are required to wait for up to 5 minutes at each location.7
        According to Jack Reilly, the deputy director of CDTA, STAR currently does not have a
convenient way to inform the passengers of updated pickup time information. This leads to a
high level of inefficiency among the bus routes, as well as limiting the distance from the normal
bus routes that the STAR buses can operate within. 8 CDTA needs a way to increase efficiency
and increase the range that buses can travel outside normal bus routes. They also need a better
approach so as to take in a larger number of clients and for more proficient data entry. 10 This
will allow them to reach a greater number of disabled riders, thus increasing the quality and
relevancy of the STAR system. Paratransit requires special attention in designing an IT solution
to best serve its customers. With the ever increasing number of disabled users, the challenge will
be to serve these community members throughout this large, sprawling suburban region with the
most up-to-date system and services that complies with the ADA rules and regulations for more
satisfaction towards the clients.3 There is currently no system that exists to fulfill these needs.
        It is with over 20 years of experience and dedication that allows STAR to continuously
improve its services to the disabled community. It is making a significant effort to boost its
paratransit service to match the growing needs of its society, always trying to provide an
effective service enabling their clients to improve and maintain quality of life.7 The demand for
paratransit services nationwide has been on the increase since ADA's passage, and shows no
signs of slowing down in the near future.8 With regard to mobility and satisfaction, it is expected
that riders with the greatest need for accessible transit will be more critical when the service fails
to meet their needs. Clearly, people with the greatest need for accessible transit as addressed in
the ADA will demand their rights to access and mobility in the community. Transit providers
like STAR wanting satisfied consumers must understand the “unique needs and composition of
their new market; giving consideration to age, disability, and mobility in the design and delivery
of service.”2 Responding to changing demands for paratransit service is a continuous process,
and the need for a more efficient and high-quality service is likely to increase as the U.S.
population ages.
          In 1997, The News Journal exposed a state-run paratransit system under fire from its
clients. 'They've taken me places before, and I'd have to wait for more than an hour for them to
come back and pick me up,' explained one user. Others complained about being unable to access
the telephone-based scheduling system, the alleged unfairness of the 'did-not-go' (DNG) policy
and the apparent lack of concrete rules for both riders and administrators.2 According to a
satisfaction survey on public transportation for the disabled, 20.8% of the riders expressed their
dissatisfaction with the service’s promptness (wait time for pick-ups) and 17% stated their
frustrations with the scheduling system. 11.3% riders seemed unhappy with the communication
system and 10.4% felt discontent with the services provided including the Did Not Go (DNG)
and trip cancellation policies.2 The message was clear: The system which many seniors and
people with disabilities depend on for their basic mobility faced with both rising demands and
costs, was perceived by many to be unreliable, lacking clear direction on key issues of service,
and in dire need of reform. “You can measure how satisfied customers are with your product,
service, company, and personnel by considering how well their expectations are being met and
what is important to them (Jonathan Barsky, 1995) Quality, in the final analysis, is defined by
customers (Murphy & Taylor, 1995).” 2
         There have been a few systems developed for different applications with similar
approach as the STAR system, with each having its own strengths and weaknesses. None truly
combine all features of what STAR requires to become more efficient and easier to use with the
increase in the number of users.
        The HereComesTheBus school bus notification system, designed by Everyday Wireless
provides sensors to inform school children when their buses arrive at their respective bus stops.
This system has real-time bus distance, estimated time of arrival to eliminate the wait by tracking
the position of every bus and transmitting precise location information to a receiver in a student’s
home. Students will be able to tell precisely when to catch the bus.1
        Paratransit, Inc. was incorporated as a private nonprofit corporation to provide demand-
responsive transportation service to individuals and agencies serving people with disabilities and
the elderly within the Sacramento County urbanized area. The Mobile Data Computer (MDC)
system was installed on their vehicles to track more accurately the services provided. The use of
radio communications along with interface software to track exact arrival and departure times,
cancels, and no shows, presented them with real time data for observation. 13
        Toronto Para Transit owns and operates wheelchair accessible transportation vehicles in
Toronto. They currently use Global Positioning System (GPS) to improve quality of services,
which allows the dispatch team to monitor and view the entire fleet of vehicles. There is also a
central messaging database set-up to relay messages to driver through radio frequencies. Their
friendly customer service team will help find appropriate times for bookings and timeframes for
pick-ups and drop offs. 14
        Thus, the goal of our project is to develop an excellent model of an upgraded and more
efficient transportation service initiative, focusing on improving the current STAR system. It will
cater to the disabled community that has expanded tremendously over the years, service by
improving the IT solution to best serve the clients. It will be designed to conform to the ADA
guidelines, especially the regulated “next-day rule”.

PROBLEM DEFINITION
        Disabled people have to get around just like everyone else. They need to visit family and
friends. They must go out and do everyday tasks just like everyone else. Unfortunately it is often
much harder for them to do so because of their handicap. Even though there is a high demand for
the STAR bus system, we found out from the research we conducted that there are some features
that could be improved.

Problem 1 : Limited Method for Reservation, Cancellation & Confirmation

        First of all, we found out that currently the only way to make reservations, confirmation
and cancellations on the STAR bus system is through the phone. Recently, STAR added a touch
tone phone option to confirm the rides that the passengers reserved for. Although using the
telephone is a good form of getting information from the passengers, it is not able to maximize
the number of reservations that could be done in other ways. By using the current system, a
passenger making a ride reservation will have to wait for a long while to talk to a dispatcher as
lines are limited and busy. This will be more frustrating for a customer who only calls just to
confirm their rides, which will only take about 2 minutes but have to wait for at least 10 minutes.
        According to Debra Hamilton, who is a user of the system the customer has to wait for a
dispatcher to be available to take the call. This is because the line would be busy especially at
peak times. She also mentioned that the customers would actually have to check with the
dispatchers a few times a day in order to confirm their ride. Despite the fact that constant calls to
the dispatchers can be annoying for her, it is necessary for her to it as the schedule changes a lot
of time. During an interview with another user of the system, Karl Brown, he said that in order to
get the specified pick- up time he wants, he would have to book a ride up to 2 weeks in advance.
As two weeks is actually a long time, emergencies and changes of plan can happen. Brown and
Hamilton agree that this make it harder for them to plan their day ahead, especially 14 days prior.

Problem 2: Real Time Changes

         The problem is that their current system doesn’t allow for real time changes, which
makes it difficult to adjust the schedule or to adjust to the current conditions of the route, such as
traffic.

a) Cancellations & No Shows
        It is the job of the operator to take calls from those wishing to be picked up and to
schedule the routes using the routing program. Cancellations are examples of a real time change
in the bus system. The cancellations may not be processed immediately because in order to do so
the operators would have to relay the new information to the driver, and notify all their affected
customers of the new pickup times. Failure to cancel a scheduled ride or to keep a transportation
appointment could have a negative effect on the schedules of other riders by not allowing STAR
to schedule other riders in place.
        The bus drivers also cannot access first hand to any cancellation or route changes as they
need to call up the dispatchers or wait for their call to receive these information. In the end, what
happen would be that they would arrive late at pick-up locations and would waste time waiting
for someone at a curb when the person actually has cancelled the ride. Customers who are late
also contribute to an off track bus schedule. The problem is that they do not know when exactly
the bus would come as the bus would be late most of the time.
        Passengers do not have the privilege to know where their buses are and what the
schedules are like. In many cases, buses are late. Brown in his interview said that the bus would
most of the times be very late, up to an hour window. Because he needs the ride, he would still
wait for the bus but without verification whether the bus would be on time or even wouldn’t even
come. In short, there is no way for a user to know where the bus is at or even how late the bus
will be.

b) Bus Navigation and Road & Weather Condition
       Another aspect of the current system that needs attention is from the bus driver’s part.
Although the bus drivers should be experts when navigating their vehicle on the road, they can
also get lost sometimes. For the time being, the drivers are not able to acquire updated
information on current road condition. This often leads them into traffic jams and also to roads
with bad conditions such as potholes and uneven road.
       Unexpected bad weather also may arise anytime without any warnings. During severe
weather, such as ice and snow storm, STAR service may be delayed or canceled. According to
Brown, he wasn’t picked-up from his location because STAR cancelled the service due to a snow
storm. Brown had no way in knowing that his ride was cancelled and was frustrated because he
was not informed of it.

c) Safety & Emergencies
        The only form of communication the buses have with the outside world is a phone. So, in
case the phone is damaged or not working and the bus would be stranded somewhere with no
form of communication, there will be no other way to contact authorities. The buses which are
not equipped with any tracking device will be hard to find if there were any emergencies such as
bus break down, accidents or any medical problems faced by the driver or passenger.
        These factors will make the passengers worry about their safety. Accidents happen, and
the STAR service should also assume what the worst could happen in order to handle those kinds
of problems or come up with a backup plan.

Problem 3: Level of Service Provided

        The customer service phone line that the STAR system provides does not actually serves
the customers up to the bus’s operating hours which ( from 5 am to12 midnight ). According to
Brown said that the phone line closes when the office hours ends, which is at 5 in the evening.
Emergencies such as late cancellations are hard to do as no customer service is available.
        Even though there is a link in the current CDTA website which was to serve as an online
customer service section, it doesn’t help a passenger who does not have access to a computer at
late hours at nights. As a result, the customers miss their busses as they can’t inform the system
they would be a little late. If they could do this, the drivers can bend the 5 minutes waiting policy
they have to an extra period so the customers won’t be stranded without any rides to their
location. Jesus Garcia, author of ADA Transportation: A Right and a Responsibility posted a
question which is in relation with this problem “But is the service, where available, really
meeting our needs?”

Problem 4: Increase Demand in STAR Service

        The government recently passed a law that requires STAR to provide next day services to
the disabled. This law greatly impacts the number of passengers that STAR will have to service
each day. In order to accommodate the new demand, the administration of CDTA will have to
create a more effective system to allow for the increase in the number of passengers per day. A
more effective system means they will be able to service more customers making it easier for
them to get where they need to go when they need to be there. The easier it is for the
handicapped to get around, the more willing they will be to go out.

SOLUTION
        Our solution to this problem will be to create a truly integrated user-friendly IT-solution
for both the customers and the operators of the STAR system. It will completely revamp the
existing system with causing as little retraining as possible for the operators and schedulers.

Solution 1: Web-portal for reservation, cancellation and confirmation

This solution will handle:
    Limited methods for requesting a trip

        We are introducing an Information Technology (IT) solution that will allow passengers to
request a trip online. There will be a web-portal that will enable registered users to submit
request through the system. The website would require the users to enter:
            1. Name
            2. Paratransit ID
            3. Pickup address & Phone number
            4. Pickup time
            5. Destination Address & Phone Number
            6. Email (if available)
        There will be extra room to enter any special instructions that the driver may need to
know. The design of the site will also be based on research gathered from interviewing users to
determine all their various needs. The users who do not have computers would still be able to
reserve through the phone lines.
        For frequent users, they will have the opportunity to preset their pickup and destination
location. For example, Hamilton said that she always comes to work in RPI and go back home.
Instead of keying the full address of these two places, she could save the information and by
doing so, presetting the pickup and destination location. This feature will be programmable
through the website. It will also propose a more user-friendly interface.
        On the backend of the systems, the operators will have a new web-based entering system
to use for phone calls. This will then enter the passenger data into a new database, which
connects to both the internal website as well as the external one. This ease of use and reduced
work load will result in few operator needed during peak hours so they can concentrate on other
activities.
         Customers can also cancel their trip by going online. The cancellation would go straight
into the database which will update the schedule. When this happen, there would be open spaces
for other customers to request a trip on the same day.
         What this website will do in helping STAR and users is maximizing reservations as
requests can be made both through the phone and online. Other than that, it will give
accommodation to changes, rider-determined or preset pick-up times, shortness of reservation
time and ease of procedures.

Solution 2: GPS & Real Time Tracking and Wireless Communication

This solution will handle:
    Updates in change in schedule
    Updates in road and weather condition
    Bus navigation
    Bus tracking
    Safety and emergency

         We are proposing the use of Vehicle Location Information(AVL). This system will
integrate the use of Global Positioning System (GPS). It will allow position determination. This
will provide the bus system and the users with any real time tracking in order to re-scheduling
due to real time changes.
         The driver will have a computer display inside the vehicle with a digital connection with
the main office to receive updates to the schedule in case there is a cancellation. The display will
have each passengers information ( pickup and destination address, etc ). This will also provide
useful and accurate statistics to monitor performance and bus status. The data connection and
positioning will need to be created for the STAR system. This application will need to be able to
handle feedback from the driver to alert the passengers when it is ready to proceed to the next
stop.
         Real-time knowledge of vehicle location or bus tracking system improves the utilization
of mobile assets, thereby improving customer service and operating efficiency. Bus routes and
real time bus tracking will be available to the passengers on the website in order for them to
estimate the arrival of the bus.
         GPS improves driver and passenger safety, by allowing the driver to summon help
quickly in the event of an emergency situation, by pressing a hidden switch. This, in turn, makes
it easier for the employers to attract and retain drivers. Similarly, in many types of remote field
work, GPS is used to ensure the safety of workers by directing assistance accurately.
         In addition to the GPS program, a central messaging database has been set-up to relay
messages to driver through radio frequencies. These services provide safety measures for
customers and drivers while in transit.
Solution 3: Rider Notification

This solution will handle:
    Avoid customers from being late or waiting too long for the bus

        In conjunction of the use of GPS and wireless communication, we propose a
method of notifying passengers when the bus would arrive. We suggest notification through e-
mails, paging device, Short-Message-System (SMS) via cell phone or automated phone call. This
choice of notification will be determined by the user at their convenience. This feature will be
accomplished by using the GPS system as it involves real time tracking. The notification will
come 10 minutes before the bus would arrive. When Brown and Hamilton were presented with
this idea, they were excited of this feature as it would help them to be more organized. Below are
a few more benefits of the rider notification feature (http://herecomesthebus.com/parents.html):
             1. Avoid waiting outside in the rain, snow, cold and dark
             2. Spend more time in safety and comfort of current location
             3. Know exactly when bus is coming
             4. Avoid the shock factor of a bus pulling up unannounced
             5. Avoid waiting time anxiety if bus is late
             6. Receive advanced warnings that will allow passengers to get ready at a relaxing
                pace

Solution 4: Enhancement of Customer Service

This solution will handle:
    Provide customer service until bus operating hours
    Give chance for customers to make comments and complaints

        In order to provide customer service up until the operating hours of the bus (5 am
– 12 am). We are going to setup a phone line for passengers to call up and ask the whereabouts
of their buses. The operator will update on the status of the bus after checking with the new bus
tracking system. This will give a more satisfaction to the need of the customers who are uneasy
with the lateness of the bus.
        We are proposing that STAR would announce from local radio or television station of
any cancellations of service in cases of emergencies such as snow or ice storms. Any bright
ideas, concerns, complaints, or commendations can be made through a link in the website, the
customer service line and also through letters to STAR. What we propose to do is have a small
team of personal advocate to respond to these complaints or comments.
        In short, renewed customer service plan will show courtesy and friendliness of phone
operators, ease of getting clear information on service, responsiveness to complaints and
suggestions as well as follow-up procedures.
IMPLEMENTATION PLAN
Phase One – Research and Impact Studies

Part One – Community Impact Studies

         In the first phase of the project, our team will conduct extensive and exhaustive studies
on the community, and the impact that the improvements to the STAR system will have on the
targeted community. The project can only be successful if the features we are giving to the local
community are the best fit and actually affect those who we are targeting. As such, it is essential
that we have as much data on the target population as we can. Interviews seem to provide a
human touch to the data, as opposed to a poll or a survey, and since our project focuses on the
interaction between humans and transport systems, it is necessary to get the raw physical and
emotional reaction to the project’s ideas.
         During this phase, we will be providing community incentives for participating in our
studies in order to gain a wider sample size. This community incentive will also help promote
initial awareness about the system and how it can help the community itself.

Part Two – Interviews and Research on Current Implementation

        Our team will also be interviewing those who are on the other side of the operation, those
who oversee the day to day managerial operation of the STAR system, since it will be necessary
to providing low cost plan, we cannot hope to create a low cost plan without researching the way
CDTA/STAR works behind the scenes, the daily nuts and bolts business that runs the entire
system. This data will encompass less people in regard to interviews, but we will cover each
person in much greater detail, including as much supporting data as we can find on their job and
function.
        The goal in this phase of the project is very similar to a government audit, in that we are
trying to obtain a concrete snapshot of the financial aspects of the business, except we are
looking to help CDTA by providing a low cost enhancement to their services.
        Once we have a concrete set of data from the interviews and audit process, we now have
a good basis to formulate a research team to analyze the data collected as well as provide overall
guidance to the project on future stages. Essentially this research team is a permanent fixture,
which will act as a quality control agent to make sure our current project goals are aligned with
the interests of the people who will be using the system as well as not becoming inflated in price,
to stay in line with the interests of the CDTA.

Phase Two – Development

Part One – Construction of Development Team

        This development team will be comprised of between 4 to 8 people, and these people will
be skilled in various areas such as programming and interface design as well as computer
networking and communications. All will be highly qualified and capable of doing the job. Also,
they will be selected from the local community so as to improve the image of the project to the
local community.
Part Two – Design and Development Process Initiation

         Our team will use an iterative development process. The newly formed team will spend
its entire time developing a prototype for release into user testing and the feedback process. They
will base their software off of the results gained from Phase One, and flesh out a prototype which
addresses the concerns of groups, the community, as well as CDTA. This preliminary prototype
will then be released back to CDTA and the community to be tested and feedback gained from
that process.
         Once that feedback phase is completed, the design team will take the prototype and revise
it according to the comments garnered from that phase. That new prototype will be released back
into user testing and feedback, to continue the iterative cycle. This method will ensure our
project gains robustness as the project continues rather then becoming mired down with feature
bloat. The research team will help with the user testing and feedback stage as well as provide
quality control to the design process to further ensure a good robust project by the end of the
development lifecycle.

TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION
        There are three major technical aspects of this proposal, the passenger interface, the
scheduler's system, and the bus implementations. The passenger interface will be a web portal
consisting of many new features compared to the current CDTA website. The scheduling system
will be the most complicated aspect of the system because there has to be a way to get the
current system, which CDTA does not want to change at this time to communicate with the new
web site. Finally, there is the computer interface and data link into the actual buses, this is
currently being implemented into the entire CDTA fleet of busses, so only the interface and
specialized software needs to be developed.
        The STAR section of CDTA's website will consist of a log in page for each passenger
once they have been certified for use of the system. There will be a profile page which will
consist of all relevant information regarding the passenger including recent trips, favorite places
to go and all relevant statistics. There will be a reservation page where the passenger can request
a pick up time and location. Another page will have the option to cancel a current reservation.
        The scheduling system will basically connect the website to the current scheduling
software, which was bought from a software vender. It will take the data from the website and
intelligently decide how to input it in the current software. By writing the code to decide all the
options from the data collected from the website, a user will be able to schedule a request
without any human intervention. This will highly reduce the time to schedule passengers who
use the web site.
        Each bus will be equipped with an LCD displayed provided from the standard fleet
overhaul. The software that needs to be design will replace the current system they use: paper
and radio communications. This system will have the daily manifest and a GPS guidance system
to help find hard locations. It will have the options to enter in no shows, time of pick up, how
long the driver had to wait at each location, and display real-time traffic reports.
      DIAGRAM OF TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION



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RESOURCE REQUEST
Description                                 Quantity     Price          Total        Comment #

Phase 1 - Part 1:

Community Impact Studies:                                                                        1
Survey Groups                                  4        $25,000.00    $100,000.00                1
Free Food For Participation                    1       $100,000.00    $100,000.00                1
Community Trails and Training Sessions        12         $5,000.00     $60,000.00                1

Interviewer Salaries                           4        $15,000.00     $60,000.00                2

Phase 1 - Part 2:

CDTA Supplemental Benefits:                                                                      3
Participation Bonuses                          5         $7,000.00     $35,000.00                3

Research Team Salaries                         4        $45,000.00    $180,000.00                4

Phase 2:

Solution #1
HP rx5670 - IA64 Server                        1        $43,137.00     $43,137.00             5
Web Developers                                 4        $50,000.00    $200,000.00             6
Oracle 9i Database Software                    1        $15,000.00     $15,000.00             7
CCNA Qualified Network Specialist              1        $55,000.00     $55,000.00             8
Database Administrator                         1        $70,000.00     $70,000.00             9
Apache Web Server                              1             $0.00          $0.00            10

Solution #2
GPS/AVL System Cost For 20 Busses             20        $50,000.00   $1,000,000.00           11
GPS/AVL LCD Displays For 20 Busses            20           $250.00       $5,000.00           12

Solution #3
SMS Server/GPS/AVLS Connection Software        1       $100,000.00    $100,000.00            13
Microsoft Exchange 2000 E-mail Server          1         $5,000.00      $5,000.00            14

Solution #4
Additional Busses                              1         $1,000.00      $1,000.00            15
Verizon Installation - 5 More Phone Lines      3        $25,000.00     $75,000.00            16
Salary - Star Schedulers For Phones            2        $35,000.00     $70,000.00            17
Salary - Tech Support(phone)                   2        $40,000.00     $80,000.00            18
Radio Station Fee's                            1             50,00     $50,000.00            19

Total                                                                $2,304,137.00
1. We will be providing incentives fro community members to participate in interviews.
    Incentives include, winning a free trip, cash prizes, coffee cups, etc.
2. We will need to pay people to conduct interviews in the community; their salary is above the
    average, $15,000 that these positions typically would pay.
3. CDTA employees who participate in the more in-depth interview ill be entitled to
    supplemental benefits. Additional days off, bonus, etc. They may choose from many options.
    This figure budgets for that.
4. The research team will have 4 members, with an average salary of 45,000 each.
5. Quote for comparable server from HP.com
6. We will pay web developers the high end of their average salary because the user interface is
    so important.
7. We will need a database server to host the information on the web, store user names, routers
    and other info.
8. We will be using a Cisco certified network specialist for networking design issues( integrating
    the system into the existing network)
9. We will be using a database administrator to handle database integration issues
10. We will be using the free Apache web-server to serve the new CDTA star site, apache is a
    free web sever used by 70% of the websites in the world
11. This is the cost for the GPS system that will be mounted into every bus(20 total busses)
12. This is the cost of the interactive displays that go with the GPS system described above
13. The SMS software provides a interface to the GPS systems on the busses and is crucial for
    notifying customers of issues/delays etc
14. Exchange lets us send out notifications via e-mail, if we choose, other forms of notifications
    are supported under the SMS software
15. We will be evaluating the growing needs of the community and order up to two more Star
    busses as needed
16. We will be adding 5 more phone lines, 3 to allow more scheduling via phone, two for web
    support
17. Salary for 3 phone schedulers
18. Salary for 2 phone-tech support people
19. Fee we must pay the radio stations to notify the public when services are un-available due to
    weather
REFERENCES

1.    Capitol District Transportation Association (CDTA) Special Transit Available by Request
      (STAR) http://cdta.org/STAR%20Homepage.htm
2.    Denson, Carol R. PUBLIC SECTOR TRANSPORTATION FOR PEOPLE WITH
      DISABILITIES: A SATISFACTION SURVEY, Journal of Rehabilitation, 00224154, Jul-
      Sep2000, Vol. 66, Issue 3
3.    Duffy, Jim. Florida is the Paratransit State, June 2001
      http://www.masstransitmag.com/articles/2001/mt_06-01/mt_06-01_03.htm
4.    Everyday Wireless LLC. Here Comes the Bus http://herecomesthebus.com/work.html
5.    Garcia, Jesus. ADA Transportation: A Right and a Responsibility
      http://enabledonline.com/BackIssues/April-May2001/text/editorial5.html
6.    Interview with Debra Hamilton, a STAR user
7.    Interview with Gary Cook, The STAR Manager of CDTA
8.    Interview with Jack Reilly, the Deputy Director of Planning and Development of CDTA
9.    Interview with Karl Brown, a STAR user
10.   Interview with the STAR Scheduler at CDTA
11.   Interview with Thomas Guggisberg, IT Manager of CDTA
12.   Moakley, Terry. ALL ABOARD, WE Magazine, 10929533, Nov/Dec98, Vol. 2, Issue 6
13.   Paratransit Inc. http://www.paratransit.org/html/news.html
14.   Toronto Accessible Transit – Toronto Paratransit http://www.t-p-t.com/about.html
15.   U.S Department of Justice Apellate Section. DOT Strongly Supports the Right of People
      with Disabilities to Next Day Paratransit Service http://www.dredf.org/DOTBrief.html

								
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