CO2 RACE CARS by bIh8WL9h

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									   CO2 RACE
     CARS



        Year 7 2009 Semester 1


Student Name:____________________________________

Teachers Name: _________________________________




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                  Table of Content




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      Design and Technology Room Rules




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What is C02 Racing?
It's often described as Pinewood Derby on steroids! Small wooden cars race
in pairs down a special track — except the track is level, cars are powered by
escaping carbon dioxide (not gravity), and there's more speed!

A few more details:

      Students convert a wedge-shaped piece of wood (about 300mm in
       length) into a sleek racecar body using hand or power tools. Paint,
       wheels, and axles are added to make the cars roadworthy.




      A pair of cars are placed on a 20.0 meter racetrack (track can be on
       the floor or a special elevated surface), and CO2 cartridges are inserted
       into holes in the rear of each car.

      Cars are fitted to launching devices that puncture the cartridges to start
       the race.

      The cars speed down the track and cross the finish line in slightly more
       than one second!
      Race times are recorded to determine race pairings for a final round.




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                        What is design?




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               CO₂Race Car Terminology

 A
Aerodynamics
The properties and forces produced as an object moves through the air, or a stream
of air moves around an object.

Aesthetic
Describing an object's visual appeal or attractiveness.

 B
Band Saw
A bench-mounted or freestanding power tool used to make precise, curved cuts and
is ideal for rough shaping CO2 car bodies.

Bracket
A method of organising competitions and determining race pairings. Bracket design
varies with the number of competitors and the number of losses required to eliminate
a competitor from the competition.

 C
Christmas Tree
An assembly of lights oriented in two vertical columns. Used near the starting line of
drag racing and CO2 racing to signal the start of the race.

CNC Mill
A computer-interfaced machine used for shaping processes. Sequences of cutting
tool movements are controlled by a variable computer program. CNC stands for
computer numerical control.

CO2 Cartridge
A small, sealed, metal tube that contains compressed carbon dioxide. CO2 cartridges
are used to propel racecars down the track.

Confined
Restricted to a limited space. In the same way a prisoner is confined in a jail cell,
carbon dioxide is confined in a sealed cartridge.

Coping Saw
A small hand-held saw with a narrow blade, useful for making curved cuts in wood.
Good for rough shaping racecar bodies if a band saw is unavailable.




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D
Decelerate
The act of slowing a moving object. In CO2 racing, a car must be safely decelerated
after it crosses the finish line.

Drag

Force that resists an object's movement through the air. The more the object disrupts
the laminar flow of air around it, the more drag is developed.

Dragster

A racecar that races a short distance on a straight track. CO2 racecars are often
referred to as dragsters.

Drill Press

A bench-mounted or freestanding power tool used for drilling precise holes.
Particularly useful for drilling properly aligned axle holes in the car body.

E
Eddies
Turbulent flow of air that moves in a random tumbling, or circular, pattern.

Elevated Track
A freestanding racetrack surface that is roughly the same height as a table top.
Spectator viewing is greatly enhanced with an elevated track.

 F
Finish Gate
Race system component that is located on the finish line of the racetrack. As the two
cars speed through the gate, individual sensors detect their presence, stopping the
system's electronic timers.

Firing Pin
Part of launch pod assembly with sharp pointed end that punctures a hole in cars'
CO2 cartridges to start a race. Made of hardened steel.

Flow Visualisation
A feature of some wind tunnels that involves the introduction of a visible vapor into the
moving airstream. This enables racers to see how their car performs in an airstream.
Drag-inducing body features can be easily identified.

Friction
Force that resists relative motion between two objects in contact.



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 H
Hot Wire Foam Cutter
A device for cutting polystyrene that employs a thin, electrically heated wire that melts
the foam.

Hybrid Car
A CO2 racecar design in which two wheels are housed inside the body and two are
mounted externally.

 I
Inertia
Property or tendency of an object at rest to remain at rest unless acted upon by a
force.

L
Laminar Flow
A straight, layered flow of air that is free of turbulent motion.

Launch Pods
Devices that start a race by puncturing the cars' onboard CO2 cartridges. Each car,
with its nose on the starting line, is fitted to a launch pod prior to racing. An electronic
signal from the race system triggers the two launch pods at the same instant.

Lift
Aerodynamic force that pushes upward on a body as it moves through an airstream.
Airplane wings generate lift; racecar bodies may also generate lift, positive or negative
(downward force) as they move down the track.

 M
Monofilament Line
A single strand line used to prevent speeding C02 cars from soaring off the track. The
line is threaded through two screw eyes mounted to the underside of a car body, and
then it is stretched tight and anchored on extreme ends of the track.

 P
Polystyrene
A solid, expanded plastic foam material that is soft and lightweight. Commonly
referred to by the trademarked name Styrofoam™.



Power Plant
The CO2 cartridge onboard a racecar. The power plant housing is the body material


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that surrounds the cartridge.




Pressure
A measurement of force per unit of area. In a sealed CO2 cartridge, pressurised
carbon dioxide gas exerts an equal force in all directions to the inner surfaces of the
cartridge.

Production
Phase in the design process when the final version of a product is manufactured.
Production follows the design, prototyping, and testing phases.

Prototype
A one-of-a-kind, pre-production version of a product. Used to test for design flaws so
they can be corrected before the product is mass produced.

R
Rail Car
A CO2 racecar design in which wheels are mounted on the outside of the car body.

 S
Screw Eyes
Small screws with an enclosed ring on one end. Two screw eyes are mounted on the
bottom of CO2 racecars to accommodate the racetrack's guideline.

Shell Car
A CO2 racecar design in which all four wheels are housed inside the body of the car.

Specifications
Set of very specific requirements for a project or competition, often including a set of
measurements.

Staging Area
The area of the racetrack before the starting line, on the extreme end. Pairs of cars
are placed in this area (after they are threaded onto the monofilament guideline) to
await their turn to race. The staging of cars saves time during a racing competition.

Stationary
Not moving, sitting still.

Symmetry
To have balance, or to have the same shape or size on opposite sides.

T
Thrust
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Force that propels an object, sets it into motion, or keeps it moving.

Thumbnail Sketch
A small, quick sketch used to rapidly communicate ideas.

Tolerances
An acceptable variance from a specified measurement. Used to determine the
minimum and maximum measurements.



Traction
Friction between a car's tires and the road surface. Traction allows the wheels/tires to
propel a car forward without the wheels spinning in place. In CO 2 racing, the wheels
do not propel the vehicle, so increasing traction is not necessary.

Turbulence
Property of an airstream moving in a swirling or tumbling fashion; see also Eddies

V
Volume
The amount of physical space occupied by an object or substance.

W
Wedge Car
A racecar with external wheels that has a triangular wedge body shape.




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                        Playdough Recipe




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               CO2 Terminology Puzzle




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                 CO2 Crossword Puzzle




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              CO2 Tools and Techniques




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   CO2 Tools and Techniques Cross Word
                  Puzzle




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                Graphical Drawing Skills




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The Design Process
Whether it’s passenger cars, food processors, or toys, the process employed
for product design is very similar to the one used by students creating CO 2
cars.

The design process usually includes the following steps:
   1. Brief.
   2. Research and Investigation.
   3. Ideas and final idea.
   4. Planning / Making.
   5. Final Evaluation.

Every design starts with an idea, which is often conveyed to other design
team members by means of a quick sketch. As the design concept develops,
a more formal design drawing is made. Then it’s time to build a prototype to
test the design's appearance and functionality.

The prototype may even be exposed to a small group of consumers, so the
design team can evaluate their reaction: Do they like the product? Would they
consider purchasing one? After the first round of testing is complete, changes
are often made to the design.

This may require the construction of a second, modified prototype and further
testing. The prototype testing process is repeated until the design team has
developed the idea into a viable product that they think is desirable to the
consumer.

If the design concept survives to this point, the product enters the production
phase. A manufacturing plant must be tooled to produce the product. In the
same way that students use a band saw or a drill to build their racecar,
manufacturers need special tools to make products. Often, special molds (for
making plastic parts) and dies (for stamping metal) must be built.

If all the steps, from the initial design idea to final production, have been
executed well, the product will be a success!




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            Specifications and Tolerances
Students designing and building CO2 racecars experience the same challenge
faced by many engineers: working with specifications and tolerances.

      Specifications are a detailed set of requirements. Specifications can
       be measurements, capabilities, or limitations on a product’s size,
       weight, or functionality. Often a designer is handed a set of
       specifications before he or she begins a project. Product X must be
       able to do this, go this fast, and be roughly this size. The challenge for
       the designer is to be creative and develop an innovative, effective
       solution while working within the established parameters.

      Tolerances are usually dictated to control the quality of a product. No
       two parts are ever made exactly the same. There are minute
       differences (perhaps a few millimeters) in the measurements of two
       similar parts. Some variance in measurement is considered
       acceptable, as long as it’s not too great. A tolerance is an acceptable
       variance from the specified measurement




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           Building a CO2-Powered Racecar
Producing a CO2 racecar is a process with many steps. Each step requires a good
deal of planning and effort. Hopefully, at the end of the project, you'll have a sense of
accomplishment for a job well-done.

Designing a CO2 Racer
Before putting pencil to paper, consider these important points:

      Are you required to follow a set of specifications?

      Is your grade on this project dependent on the car’s performance or
       appearance?

      What is most important to you: speed at any price, show-stopping good looks,
       or some combination of the two?

If you're in it for the speed, know that the following design factors have an enormous
impact on performance: weight — the lighter, the better; aerodynamics — you want
your car to cheat the wind; and rolling resistance — less is more!

There's more information about performance factors in the Testing section.

Rules & Specifications

      Establish guidelines for scoring and determining event winners. Quite
       often, it’s not merely the fastest car that wins a racing event. While track
       performance is a major part of the scoring, other factors may come into play,
       such as vehicle appearance, finish quality and the quality and accuracy of the
       car drawing. (Competitors are often required to submit a detailed, two-view
       drawing of their car.)

      Ensure safe racecar construction. Many of the specifications for the car
       body measurements are designed to prevent parts of the car from detaching
       as the car rockets down the track. Minimum and maximum body length,
       wheelbase, power plant housing thickness, and car weight are a few
       examples. Any violation of the specifications is grounds for disqualification.

      Ensure fairness. All competitors receive a complete set of rules and
       specifications prior to the design and construction of their cars, giving all an
       equal opportunity for victory.

Make sure you have a complete list of the rules. Get familiar with them and
refer to them frequently during the process of designing and building your car.


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                   Co2 Dragster Specifications
Item                         Dragster                         Min.    Max.
Dragster Body
 A     Dragster Body Length overall                          275mm 305mm
 B. Dragster Body Height at rear with wheels                          75mm
 C. Dragster Body Mass / Weight with wheels                   45g     170g
 D. Dragster Body Width at axles - front and back            35mm     42mm
 E. Dragster Body Width including wheels                              90mm
Axles / Axle Holes / Wheelbase
 F. Number of Axles                                            2        2
 G. Bottom of axle hole above bottom of dragster              5mm     10mm
 H. Rear axle hole from rear of dragster                      9mm     100mm
 I.    Wheelbase                                             105mm 270mm
Spacers / Washers / Clips
 J.                       Spacer Washers                                8
 K.                     Axle clips or similar                           8
Power Plant (Co2 Cartridge Hole)
 L.                 Power Plant: Depth of Hole               50mm     52mm
          Power Plant: Housing Thickness (Around entire
M.                                                           3.0mm
                            housing)
       Power Plant: Housing (Diameter) - Please use a 3/4"
 N.                                                          19.5mm
       Drill for best results
       Power Plant: Lowest point of chamber diameter to race
 O.                                                          26mm     36mm
                       surface with wheels
Screw Eyes
 P.             Screw Eye or Eyelet inside diameter          5.0mm 8.0mm
 Q.        Screw Eyes (2) distance apart at farthest point   155mm 270mm
Wheels
 R.                   Wheels: Front Diameter                 32mm     37mm
 S.         Wheels: Front Width at surface contact point     2.0mm 5.0mm
 T.                   Wheels: Rear Diameter                  30mm     40mm
 U.         Wheels: Rear Width at surface contact point      15mm     18mm




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Thumbnail Sketching
                              Now is the time to get some of those racecar
                              design ideas — undoubtedly floating around in
                              your head — on paper. The best way to start is
                              with concept sketches, also known as thumbnail
                              sketches. Thumbnails are small, quick sketches
                              used by engineers and designers to rapidly
                              communicate ideas. They should not be detailed
                              or even carefully done.

Be sure to experiment with different ideas and be as creative as possible.

Design Sketching
On a clean sheet of paper, sketch your favorite design from the thumbnail
sketches on a larger scale with more detail. Draw the top and side views.

Make light projection lines from one view to the other to help you locate axle
holes and other features of your design. Show the location of hidden details
(such as the cartridge hole) by using dashed lines.




Are you required to follow a set of specifications? If so, obtain the list of specs
and read it. While doing so, look at your design sketch to see how each spec
applies to your design. You may find it necessary to take notes or even
change your design


Working Drawing
The working drawing is a precise, 1:1 scale drawing that describes your car
and its features. Working drawings should have top and side, or profile, views.
An accurate working drawing is important for two reasons: 1) A copy of the
working drawing serves as a template for rough-cutting your car blank. 2) You
will be required to submit your working drawing. It will be part of your
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assessment and even be scored for competition points (ask your teacher
about this).




Use a sheet of grid paper intended for the working drawing. Start by
measuring and drawing the top and side views of the car blank, and then
accurately locate the power plant housing on your drawing.

Be sure to refer to the specifications sheet as you go.




Prototyping
Prototyping involves the construction of a three-dimensional model of your
design. In this case you can use playdough to build your prototype.
Prototyping is a quick way to put your design ideas to test. It gives designers
the opportunity to make changes if necessary before the final version is
produced.




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Car Construction: Make Some Dust!

Transferring Design to Body Blank
Cut out the top and side (profile) views from a copy of your working drawing.
Then, carefully trace the outline of the views onto the wood blank.




Drilling Axle Holes
                                          1. Transfer the axle hole locations
                                             onto the blank by using a sharp
                                             pointed tool such as an bradawl to
                                             puncture through the template
                                             and into the wood blank.

                                            2. Lay the car blank on its side and
                                               drill the axle holes. Axle holes
                                               should be drilled perpendicular to
                                               the car’s longitudinal axis in order
       for the car to roll freely and straight down the track. A drill press is
       highly recommended because it makes drilling perpendicular holes a
       cinch.

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Rough Shaping Your Car Body
                                                       1. If you haven’t drilled
                                                          the axle holes yet,
                                                          do this before
                                                          shaping the body.

                                                       2. Teacher only to
      use a band saw to roughly shape the blank:
                                  a. Turn the blank on its side and cut out
                                     the profile view first.

                                      b. Fit the waste pieces and working
                                         piece back together and secure
                                         them by wrapping two bands of
                                         masking tape around the assembly.

                                      c. Set the blank assembly upright and
             cut out the top view.

         d. Remove the masking tape and discard all the waste pieces.




   3. Smooth the corners of your car body. Use a bench-mounted sander,
      wood rasp, files, or rough sandpaper (80 grit) to smooth the car to its
      basic rounded shape.


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                                        4. Periodically check your car
                                           against the spec sheet to make
                                           sure the car is still within
                                           tolerances. When weighing your
                                           car, put the wheels, axles,
                                           washers, screw eyes, and any
                                           other necessary hardware on the
                                           scale along with the body.

   5. If your design calls for a hollowed-out body, a high-speed rotary multi-
      tool works nicely. A variety of milling and sanding bits are helpful for
      making cavities in the car body. Whenever using power tools to shape
      the car body, go slowly and cautiously. It’s very easy to remove too
      much wood and ruin your car!



Fine Shaping Your Car Body
                            At this point, your car has assumed its basic
                            shape. Now you’re at the stage that separates the
                            really fine cars from the mediocre cars. Extra time
                            and effort spent during the fine shaping, or pre-
                            painting, stage have a huge payoff in the curbside
                            appeal of the final product.

Use sandpaper to remove unwanted bumps and irregularities from the body.
Use progressively finer grit paper as you go. For example, you might start with
80-grit paper (very course, removes a lot of material) and progress to 220-grit

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                                    (fine paper for smoothing surfaces).

                                    Check your car for symmetry, and sand
                                    the body as needed. Also, exposing your
                                    car to bright light can help reveal
                                    imperfections that need attention.




Painting Your Car Body
                                    As in the fine shaping stage, extra
                                    patience and effort put into the finishing
                                    stage can pay big dividends. Be aware
                                    that using several coats of paint can add
                                    weight to your car.

                                     1. Insert a wood dowel into the power
                                         plant housing of the car body. This
      makes a very convenient handle for turning the body to paint it from all
      angles.

   2. Use a spray can or brush to apply paint to the body. Spray light coats
      and wait several minutes between coats to allow the paint to dry.

Final Assembly:
Mounting Wheels and Hardware
Don’t overlook the importance of this stage. A huge factor in race
performance is how smoothly the car rolls down the track. Some meticulously
shaped cars have failed to finish races because of improperly installed
hardware!

   1. Gather your hardware: two axles, two straw bearings, four wheels, four
      washers, and two screw eyes. Depending on the configuration of the
      car body, different hardware might be required.




   2. Check your spec sheet for rules about wheels, axles, washers, and
      spacers.


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                          3. Carefully mount the wheels and axles as
                                                                dictated by
                                                                your
                                                                design. Be
                                                                careful not
                                                                to damage
                                                                the fragile
                                                                   car body
                                                                   during
                                     installation.

                                 4. Roll test the car on a smooth, horizontal
                                    surface. The car should roll freely, and
                                    the wheels should spin without
                                    restriction. Make adjustments if
      necessary.

   5. Install the screw eyes on the underside of the car body. Important:
      Plan the location of the screw eyes so the guideline does not rub
      against the car body or wheels.



Performance Testing
Aside from weight, two of the main factors in race performance are rolling
resistance and aerodynamic drag.

Testing for Rolling Resistance
                                    The items in this list are potential sources
                                    of rolling resistance. Be sure you test for
                                    each one.

                                        Surface friction between two
   surfaces moving relative to one another – Examples include the wheels
   and axles, or the axles and car body. Test for spinning friction by rolling
   your car down a ramp and observing how far the vehicle travels. Another
   (perhaps less scientific) method is to spin the wheels while holding the car
   in an inverted position and note the time that has elapsed when the wheels
   come to a stop.




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Experiment                  with different
bearing                     materials or
use a lubricant             such as dry
powder                      graphite to
improve performance.



   Improper wheel alignment – This happens when axle holes are not
    drilled straight. (Stated more precisely, straight means the holes should be
    perpendicular to the car’s longitudinal axis.) Roll the car forward on a flat
    smooth surface. It should go fairly straight. If the car veers drastically to
    the right or left, there’s a good chance the wheels are misaligned.

   Careless location of screw eyes – The guideline can actually drag on
    the body or wheels of the car as it moves down the track, causing a great
    deal of friction. Invert your car and thread an 450mm length of
    monofilament line (fishing line) through both screw eyes. Pull the line taut,
    and move it back and forth. If the movement of the line is restricted,
    consider relocating one or both of the screw eyes.

   Wheel imperfections – Small imperfections from the molding process
    may be found on the rolling surface of a wheel. Examine your wheels and
    carefully remove any imperfections with fine-grit sandpaper.




Design Brief



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                        Design ideas




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                        Modelling




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                        Final Design Idea




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Steps of Construction.
As you are making your CO2 car write down the steps that you go through and the
problems you have in making your car.

   1. ……………………………………………………………………………………….

   2.……………………………………………………………………………………….
   3.………………………………………………………………………………………
   4.………………………………………………………………………………………
   5.………………………………………………………………………………………
   6.………………………………………………………………………………………
   7.………………………………………………………………………………………
   8.………………………………………………………………………………………
   9.………………………………………………………………………………………
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   10.      ……………………………………………………………………………………

   11.      ……………………………………………………………………………………

   12.      ……………………………………………………………………………………

   13.      ……………………………………………………………………………………

   14.      ……………………………………………………………………………………

   15.      ……………………………………………………………………………………

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   31.      ……………………………………………………………………………………

   32.      ……………………………………………………………………………………

   33.      ……………………………………………………………………………………

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   34.      ……………………………………………………………………………………

   35.      ……………………………………………………………………………………

   36.      ……………………………………………………………………………………

   37.      ……………………………………………………………………………………

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   40.      ……………………………………………………………………………………

   41.      ……………………………………………………………………………………

   42.      ……………………………………………………………………………………
  ……………………………………………………………………………………




Report on how you considered safety
throughout this project




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Testing information




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                        Final Evaluation


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You need to evaluate how well your overall
product looks. How easy it was for you to make
the product. Talk about how fast your car is and
whether or not it has met the design brief as far
as speed and movement. Ensure that your
evaluation is detailed and specific in relation to
your car.

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                        Final Product

      Insert a picture of the final product.




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