Intelligence by bIh8WL9h

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									Intelligence:
 Intelligence is part of a much larger field of psychology that
  studies individual differences
 As human beings we have many similarities but we also have
  many differences in terms of behaviour – for example:
     Abilities
     Beliefs
     Attitudes
     Motivations
     Emotional characteristics
     Personality traits
     Psychophysiologically i.e. chronobiological type: owl, lark, cat
     Intelligence


 Naturally we are intrigued by our differences more so than by our
  similarities

 Individual differences are the result of biological and
  environmental factors and their complex interaction
Defining Intelligence:
 Abilities, skills and achievement

 Difficult to find an all encompassing definition of intelligence:
 Different cognitive attributes may be valued differently across
  cultures

 Hunter gather societies for example may value abilities related to
  cooperative behaviour and the development of successful hunting
  skills
 Maritime societies (e.g. South Pacific) may place greater value
  spatial abilities and intelligence underlying the development of
  navigational skills

 An Early definition of intelligence: the capacity to understand
  the world and the resourcefulness to cope with its challenges
  Note: central to this definition is the concept of adaptability and
  even creativity (divergent thinking)

 What constitutes resourcefulness and rationality can differ from
  culture to culture e.g., North Americans’ emphasis on verbal
  abilities and problem solving don't necessarily constitute good
  coping strategies in other cultures

 Many early intelligence tests focused heavily on language and
  verbal performance


History of Intelligence Tests:
 Intelligence tests have existed for over 100 years.
 First tests developed by Galton (1884), who noticed some families
  were smarter and some were stronger than others. He believed
  intelligence was inherited and fundamentally related to
  sensory/perceptual proficiency (note relation to info processing
  approach)


Modern intelligence tests
 Binet (1881) is seen as the originator of modern intelligence tests
      French academic living in Paris interested in individual
       differences
      fascinated by differences in the behaviour of his 2 daughters
      1905 commissioned by French Government to develop
       intelligence tests
      Government wanted to be able to stream children in public
       school system
      Government decided slow learners (retarded) would no
       longer be educated at home
      Binet's test had 30 questions focused on specific abilities:
       reasoning, problem solving, memory, imagination
      His test did not include perceptual motor skill abilities


 In 1916 Lewis Terman, Stanford University modified Binet's test
  for North America by testing thousands of children and
  establishing societal norms for knowledge in various age
  categories


 German psychologist, William Stern came up with the idea of
  expressing intelligence as a quotient
                       IQ=MA/CA X 100
 Problems with US government using intelligence tests in the
  1930’s to screen immigrants coming to North America

 Test validity
 Since the 1930's Weschler, Cattlell, Thurston and others viewed
  intelligence as mode up of several components or dimensions
 Factor analysis has been used as a statistical method to identify
  the various dimensions or types of intelligence
 Gardner identifies 8 types of intelligence: linguistic, biological,
  logical - mathematical, spatial, musical, body kinetic,
  intrapersonal (self), interpersonal (others), naturalist, (possibly
  existential)
 Some research has suggested that there may be as many as 30
  dimensions underlying intelligence

 Many psychologist also believe that in addition to there being
  several dimensions to intelligence, there's also a single
  intelligence factor - some have called this a G factor

 A G factor is advocated because many who score high on several
  dimensions of intelligence usually score high on virtually all
  dimensions – perhaps there really are ‘intelligent people’
 The extreme opposite occurs with Savant Syndrome
 Sternberg agrees with multiple intelligences but organizes them
  around 3 main themes

   Analytic intelligence (academic problem solving)
   Creative intelligence (dealing with novel situations and
    generating novel ideas and solutions
   Practical intelligence – street smarts


 Many argue that the components of Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory
  are not as independent as advocated
Information processing approach:
 Looks at specific fundamental processes e.g. encoding,
  comparison, retrieval, motor response
 Attempts to determine if these processes correlate with
  intelligence
 The fundamental importance of processing speed (r = +0.4 to
  +0.5) with intelligence test scores
 Recent studies using PET scans indicate an efficiency model of
  intelligence


Emotional Intelligence

 Generally, traditional intelligence tests are good predictors of
  academic performance but not of later success in life

 Emotional intelligence scores, however, do predict life
  success - Cantor & Kihlstrom (1987)
 Emotional intelligence is also called Social Intelligence
 Predicts well to success in life – friendships, family, work
  satisfaction and performance
 Four dimensions - the ability to:
   perceive emotions (to recognize them in faces, music and
    stories)
   to understand emotions (to predict them and how the
    change and bled)
   to manage emotions (to know how to express them in
    varied situations)
   to use emotions to enable adaptive and creative thinking


Genetics and Environment
 Genetics sets a foundation for the development of intelligence
 Estimates are that the genetic contribution to intelligence is
  between 50 to 75% (identical twin studies)
 The real complexity, however, is that early life experiences are
  critical for setting up the attributes that allow for the genetic
  contributions to intelligence to unfold

 Hence, experience is a critical factor inherent to intelligence
 Research on culture and intelligence yields reliable differences but
  the source of these differences is likely related to different
  environmental experiences

 Research on sex differences in intelligence also yields reliable
  differences but the variation within sexes is larger than between
  sexes
 In many cases differences observed between sexes seem to have
  the potential to disappear with changing environments – for
  example, spatial abilities

								
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