fiero6 im intro by bIh8WL9h


									Introduction, Instructor’s Manual Resources

Study Questions
1. Describe the primary characteristics of Paleolithic and Neolithic cultures, citing similarities
   and differences.
2. Why did early people originate forms of sacrifice and rituals?
3. Distinguish between hominid, Homo habilis, and Homo sapiens.
4. Give a rough description of the sequence of tool making. What does each tool add to human
   control over nature?
5. What was the relative span of time occupied by Homo sapiens in the life of the species
6. What is the Rosetta Stone? Why was its discovery so significant?
7. What makes the Neolithic Age “revolutionary”?
8. Put into your own words the term sympathetic magic.
9. What do all the “creation myths” in the introduction have in common?

1. The reconstruction of prehistory depends on “documents,” such as tools made of durable
   materials like stone. How might this basis of evidence distort our view of cultures remote in
   time? What aspects of early human life have left no records?
2. The earliest tools were made of perishable materials (baskets, fabric, digging sticks).
   Describe their function and importance to the community.
3. When asked what distinguishes existing hunter/gatherers from urban societies, one feature
   Margaret Mead singled out was that the former could not imagine learning anything from a
   book. Have we personally learned what is most important to living from books?
4. Give a general description of the new tool kit required by an agricultural society. How did
   these tools extend control over nature?
5. Survey the art in the introduction: How are people and nature depicted? Do you see any
   significant changes in the art that comes from the transition to urban life?
6. What circumstances contributed to the development of writing? What purpose did it serve?
   Did the entire population master this new technique?
7. Make two lists describing “art” as conceived and executed by early humans and how we
   think of “museum art.” Include (a) who makes it, (b) for what reason, (c) who owns it,
   (d) where it is displayed, (e) what it is made out of.
8. Research the tribes of people still living by hunting and gathering, and describe the
   environment in which they live.
9. What other creation myths can you uncover? How do they compare with those in the
   introduction? What role does the union of male and female deities play in some creation

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Strategies for Discussion/Lecture
1. Some time should be spent with the term “sympathetic magic” as basic to ritual, both ancient
   and modern. What is the relationship between ritual and myth? The word mythos is defined
   by some anthropologists as the “spoken part of the ritual”; why is this so? Do we still
   celebrate rituals of seasonal change? Rites of passage in our individual lives? How do these
   contribute to our well-being? To our sense of “control” over time and nature?
2. What can we reliably assume about the roles males and females might have played in
   prehistoric culture? Keep in mind Challenge question 1, regarding the physical record: have
   we lost the physical evidence of important human activities in the remotest times? A brief
   lecture might even take the form of a “thought experiment” like this: “Let us imagine that
   writing and musical notation/recordings do not exist; what effect would that have on the
   survival into the future of what we consider our present-day culture?”
3. It is often said that the need for survival and security were the driving forces of humankind’s
   earliest development, during which time the ideal self consisted in fertility for women and
   physical prowess for men. Only slowly did the community and community values come to
   play a dominant role. This theme might be carried through the treatment of Chapters 1
   through 7 of this textbook.

Introduction, Audiovisual Resources
Video/CD-ROM Sources

ARCHEOLOLOGY: Quoting the Past
  (1987) UC

  A tour of Altamira and the magnificent cave paintings. 26 min.; FFH

IRAQ: Cradle of Civilization
   (1991) 60 min., color; IM

  Series of eight one-hour programs. Examines physical evidence of ancient societies along
  with contemporary cultures to give insights into the evolution of humankind and societies.

  43 min., color; IFB

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