The Age of Exploration by b8OQ7P


									The Age of
Countries Leading Exploration
   Portugal
     PrinceHenry the Navigator
     Bartholomeu Dias

     Vasco da Gama

     Pedro Cabral

   England
     James Cook
     Henry Hudson

     John Cabot
Countries Leading Exploration
   Spain
     Christopher Columbus
     Ferdinand Magellan

     Hernán Cortés

     Francisco Pizarro

     Francisco Vásquez de Coronado

     Juan Ponce de León

     Vasco Núñez de Balboa

     Hernando de Soto
Countries Leading Exploration
   France
     Jacques Cartier
     Samuel de Champlain

     Giovanni da Verrazano

     Jacques Marquette

     Louis Joliet

     Robert la Salle

   Netherlands
     Henry   Hudson
What made Europeans explore?
   they wanted an all water route to Asia
     overland trade with Asia was expensive
     science and technology improved sea travel

   “God, gold, and glory”
     increased trade, more territory, wealth (gold)
     fame and power (glory)

     spread of religion (God)
Where did Europeans explore?
   North America
     Bahamas and other Caribbean islands
     the eastern United States

     Great Lakes and the Mississippi Valley

     northeastern Canada

     southwestern United States

   Central and South America
     Mexico
     Peru

     Brazil

     southern tip of South America
Where did Europeans explore?
   Africa
     Azores, Cape Verde Islands
     southern tip of Africa/Cape of Good Hope

     east African trading posts

   Asia
     India
     islands of the Indian Ocean

     Philippines

   Oceania
     Australia
     New Zealand
Where did Europeans Explore?
Wind and Ocean Currents
    Technology, Science, and
 compass   – magnetized needle to
  determine direction
 astrolabe – invention in which
  sailors used sun and stars to
  determine latitude
 cartography – mapmaking → new
  data from new technology improved
  the quality and accuracy of maps
    Technology, Science, and
 rudder  – flat, moveable piece at the
  rear of a ship that improved steering
 caravel – new lightweight ship that
  many explorers used to sail the
 gunpowder – explosive mixture of
  chemicals that explorers used to
  take captives
    What do you think?
 Europeans   used new technology to
 dominate the world. What aspects of
 life in the New World did Europeans
 change? Write your answers in your
  ideas   to consider
    politics/government
    economics/business
    culture
Europeans Use Technology to Expand
          Their Influence
   economics
     philosophy of mercantilism
     development of enterprises to benefit Europe (such as
   culture
     spread of Christianity (forced and voluntary)
     adoption of western European ideas like private property

   politics
     lands came under control of European countries
     colonists established European-style governments
              Types of Colonies
   trading-post colonies
     outposts set up for the purpose of trade
     French colonies were primarily trading-posts

   plantation colonies
     characterized by large estates growing 1 or 2 cash
     slave labor used to farm the land

   settler colonies
     territories were governed by the home country
     wanted to attract large numbers of people to
      establish control of the region
              Types of Colonies
   New Spain
     ruled by viceroys (royal governors)
     encomienda system – used Native Americans
      as slaves
   New France
     small  population
     mainly fur trappers and Catholic missionaries

     lived among the Native Americans and
      respected their culture
                  Types of Colonies
   English colonies
     some started for profit (Jamestown) and some started for
      religious reasons (Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay)
     all wanted charters that stated rights and freedoms
           Mayflower Compact
     small farms in the north, large plantations in the south
     colonies had royal governors but also had
      representative assemblies
     took Dutch territory New Amsterdam, renamed New
      York, in 1664 and also took most of New France after
      the French and Indian War (1756-1763)
Guided Reading for workbook p. 29-33

   What were 2 reasons Native Americans did
    not make good slaves?
     they were not immune to diseases and died
      by the thousands
     they knew the land and often ran away

   What was the Atlantic slave trade?
     thecapture and transport of Africans into
      bondage in the Americas
Guided Reading for workbook p. 29-33

 What  three groups of people used
  Africans as slaves?
   otherAfricans
   Muslims

   Europeans
Guided Reading for workbook p. 29-33
   Sketch a diagram of triangular trade.

                             Europe         clothing,
 sugar, molasses,                           manufactured
 rice, tobacco, furs,                       goods, guns,
 indigo, raw                                alcohol

    Americas                                  Africa
                        enslaved Africans
Guided Reading for workbook p. 29-33
   Define and describe the Middle Passage
     the middle part of the triangular trade in which
      African slaves were brought to the Americas
     conditions aboard the ships were cramped, hot,
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
   European countries involved:
     Portugal

     Spain

     Netherlands

     England

   a growing need for labor in the New World
    led to the plantation system
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
   African nations participated in the slave trade
    for the following reasons:
     it was lucrative (it produced wealth)
     many nations saw it as a way to weaken rival tribes

   effects of slave trade on African nations
       removal of large segments of the population
          10-20 million died
          20-30 million were direct or indirect victims

     nations became dependent on slave trade
     led to a constant state of warfare between tribes
      seeking to capture humans to sell into slavery
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
   resistance to the slave trade took many forms:
     moving villages
     creating defense structures

     buying back captured family members

     warfare

     mutiny on slave ships
           Amistad
        European Influence in Asia
   Portugal led European expansion into Asia
   religions clashed in the region
       Christian missionaries from Europe
       Asians already practicing Hinduism, Buddhism, Shintoism,
        or Confucianism
       Arabs converted many Asians to Islam
   Japan and China practiced isolationism
       Japan feared Christianity as a threat to power
       China welcomed the Jesuits (Catholic missionaries) at first
        for their knowledge but expelled them by the early 1700s
       trade was allowed in few places – Nagasaki Harbor in Japan
        and Macao in China
        European Influence in Asia
   Europeans were more successful controlling the
    spice trade on the islands of southeast Asia
   Spain created a valuable trade link in the
       missionaries had great success converting people to
        Catholicism there
   Europeans had limited influence on mainland
    Asia for much of the 1500s to the 1700s
European Expansion and Business
 Columbian Exchange connected 4
  continents: the Americas, Europe, and
 trade patterns and ways to earn wealth
  were drastically changed
 governments became more involved in
  business ventures, like colonies
European Expansion and Business
European Expansion and Business
   theory of mercantilism – plan for nations to gain
    power through wealth by building up a supply of
    bullion (gold and silver) through trade
   increased buying and selling of goods (commerce)
    led merchants to make decisions based on supply
    and demand
   new type of businessman emerged: the
   governments encouraged entrepreneurs to invest
    in joint-stock companies (see p. 667 in your
European Expansion and Business
   What were the effects of this new commercial
     rise of the middle class – group of people, mainly
      merchants and artisans, who made their money by
      investing or working in commerce and trade
     the “seeds of capitalism” were beginning to be sown
         build up money (capital) to invest
         middle class support of business

         raw materials

         markets to sell goods

         belief in free enterprise

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