Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out

Higher Education - Tulane University

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 39

									                   Higher Education
Bicycle Safety for Colleges and Universities



                                                   Tulane University
                                         Office of Environmental Affairs


                                Regional Planning Commission
         Jefferson, Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard and St. Tammany Parishes
                                               New Orleans, Louisiana

                                                                 July 2004
This document was prepared by:

   Audrey Warren, Adam Davidson,
   Alexandra Cervenka and Liz Davey
   Tulane University
   Office of Environmental Affairs
   104 Alcee Fortier Hall
   New Orleans, Louisiana 70118

   Karen Parsons, AICP
   Regional Planning Commission
   1340 Poydras Street, Suite 2100
   New Orleans, Louisiana 70112

The preparation of this document was made possible
through a grant from the U.S. Department of Transpor-
tation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
     CONTENTS


1    Grant Identifier

2    Ten Easy Actions to Promote Bicycle Safety on Campus

3    Why Bicycle Safety at Colleges and Universities?

4    Chapter 1 Getting Started

 8   Chapter 2 Planning Your Program

13   Chapter 3 Assessments and Evaluation

19   Chapter 4 Educating Everyone

21   Chapter 5 Educating Drivers

23   Chapter 6 Educating Bicyclists

27   Chapter 7 Helmet Promotion

33   Chapter 8 Conclusion

34   History of the Partnership

35   Sample Annual Budget

36   Acknowledgements
1
    NEW ORLEANS METROPOLITAN
    BICYCLE SAFETY PARTNERSHIP PILOT
    PROGRAM                  NHTSA Grant #DTHN22-02-H-55097



    This toolkit for was produced under the auspices of a grant to the Regional Plan-
    ning Commission for Jefferson, Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard and St. Tam-
    many Parishes (RPC), the Metropolitan Planning Organization for the New Orleans
    urbanized area, from the Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic
    Safety Administration grant program supporting initiatives to implement the Na-
    tional Strategies for Advancing Bicycle Safety in accordance with the Transporta-
    tion Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998).

    From the perspective of public agencies wishing to advance bicycle safety policies,
    targeting colleges and universities makes sense. Colleges and universities generally
    have a higher proportion of cyclists than the general population, and outreach and
    planning are easier to tackle because they have a densely assembled population of
    riders and well-established internal communication networks. Increasingly public
    sector goals are focused on reducing cycling fatalities and injuries, which occur
    most frequently within the metropolitan rather than rural areas. College campuses
    represent organized, mature communities integrated within the metropolitan fab-
    ric that are easily approached and whose administration is familiar with building
    partnerships. A college or university bicycle safety program may be a good place to
    a begin bicycle safety program in your community if you do not already have one.
    It will support and complement many public sector safety goals and many lessons
    learned may be replicated in other institutional venues.

    This toolkit is one resource that MPOs and other public agencies can offer universi-
    ties and other institutions as they seek to build partnerships to enhance bicycle
    safety in their community.

    James H. Harvey
    Program Manager

    Karen Parsons
    Program Coordinator
TEN EASY ACTIONS TO PROMOTE                                                  2


    BICYCLE SAFETY ON CAMPUS
 Form a working group to implement bicycle safety education projects on
 your campus.


 Use the Catch & Release Bike Census to measure the number of bicy-
 clists you have on your campus, and the Bicycle Behavior Observation
 to measure their safety practices as they ride.


 Contact your Metropolitan Planning Organization or local bicycle plan-
 ner for information about bicycle planning and education efforts in your
 area.


 Work with your Parking Office to distribute information about sharing
 the road safely with bicyclists with your university parking permits.


 Create a Bicycle Resource Map that stealthily delivers some simple rules
 for safe bicycling.


 Visit your local bicycle shops, check out their selection of bicycle
 helmets and lights, and talk with them about ways to work together to
 promote the use of lights and helmets.


 Work with your Public Safety department to offer a basic bicycle safety
 course at the beginning of each semester.


 Meet with your university photographer and publications director to tell
 them about your campaign, the basic rules of bicycle safety, and offer to
 help stage photo shoots of bicyclists riding right on your campus.


 Use a simple, positive encouragement event like “Project Donut” to
 begin to communicate the important of helmet use on campus.


 Take your Campus Planner on a bicycle tour of your campus. Offer to
 help identify a system of safe bicycle routes on your campus and make
 needed improvements.
3
    WHY BICYCLE SAFETY AT COLLEGES
    AND UNIVERSITIES?

    Many college students rely on a bicycle as their main form of transportation. Some
    are banned from bringing a car to campus, and some can’t afford to own, insure
    and park a car. Some choose to bike because it is a quick and convenient way to
    get around campus and the surrounding neighborhoods. Students come to college
    from communities that may or may not have had good bicycle safety education
    programs. Many student bicyclists are returning to bicycling after a few years of
    driving the family car. They can benefit a great deal from some consistent, helpful
    reminders as they raise their seat posts and get rolling on their bikes again.

    Because college students are young adults in the process of creating life-long
    skills and habits, they will carry the lessons of your program into the future. Any
              students you involve in the implementation of your bicycle safety pro-
              gram will bring an understanding of bicycle and alternative transporta-
              tion to their professional and civic lives.

             A university bicycle safety education program can also reach beyond
             the university campus and nearby neighborhoods to help to create a
             community where bicycles can safely share the road. College and uni-
             versities are large employers with strong communication networks. The
             bicycle safety messages you communicate on your campuses will ripple
             throughout your community, as staff and faculty take them home, apply-
             ing them to driving and bicycling in their own neighborhoods.

              And finally, a bicycle safety education program is the foundation of any
             university bicycle enforcement or encouragement program. Before you
    can ticket a bicyclist for illegal riding or a motorist for endangering a cyclist, you
    must make information on how to ride and drive responsibly available on your
    campus. Before you can encourage people to give up their parking space and ride
    a bike, you have to give them some guidance on how to ride safely.

    This toolkit outlines a year-long process of creating and implementing a bicycle
    safety program at Tulane University, located in New Orleans, Louisiana. With
    a grant from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the assis-
    tance of our Metropolitan Planning Organization, the Regional Planning Com-
    mission, we spent a year brainstorming, planning and implementing a bicycle
    safety campaign for our campus.
    This toolkit outlines the entire
    process—from assessing the
    behaviors of bicyclists in and
    around campus to forming an
    advisory committee to running
    projects. You may find it easi-
    est to start with one or two of
    the projects described in this
    toolkit. As one of the student
    authors described, we see it as
    a “bicycle safety buffet”—take
    as much or a little as you see
    fit for your campus.
           CHAPTER 1 GETTING STARTED                                                                       4




Starting a campus-wide bicycle safety program may be an intimidating project at
first. In a short survey of Public Safety Officers from other campuses in New Or-
leans, many wrote that a bicycle safety education program would be worthwhile to
reduce parking demand and to improve safety and access around campus. However,
they cited some key barriers to starting a program:

      There is no organized interest group to develop the program.
      There is a lack of information on how to get started.
      A bicycle safety program is a low administrative priority.
      There is a lack of secure bicycle parking.
      There is a lack of safe systems of bicycle routes off and on campus.

This chapter presents strategies for handling some of these initial barriers and get-
ting started.

Forming a Working Group
Regardless of whether your project will be run by volunteers or paid employees, it
is essential that there is one cohesive working group to take the lead on designing
and implementing the bicycle safety campaign. Our core working group was a team
of 3-4 paid student employees and two university staff members—an environmen-
tal programs coordinator and a Public Safety officer. We met regularly for one hour
each week to review the previous week’s work, make planning decisions,
and assign tasks. Students worked an additional 5-10 hours per week on
                                                                                Potential College or University Bicycle
various aspects of the program.
                                                                                 Safety Education Program Partners
The involvement of your campus Public Safety office in the planning and             Public Safety
implementation process is crucial. Campus police are already regularly in-          Student Affairs/Dean of Students office
teracting with bicyclists around issues of enforcement and bicycle theft. It        University Communications
is the department that people think of when they think of bicycle safety.           Environmental Health & Safety
When we asked “Where would you go to get bicycle safety information?”               Environmental Sustainability office
on our online survey, 47% of people spontaneously wrote in “Public Safe-            Exercise and Sports Sciences
ty” or “Tulane Police.” The next highest response was “I don’t know.”               Environmental Studies
Some large universities have offices that deal exclusively with Parking and         Urban Planning and Architecture
Transportation Services; these departments are also obvious homes for               Public Health
bicycle safety education programs.

Your working group should include a staff or faculty member who has experi-
ence in education, communication and/or programming. In our case, this person
was the campus Environmental Coordinator, a staff person who promotes efforts to
make the university more environmentally-sound. The Dean of Students’ office and
University Communications (your publications and/or public relations department)
have the most experience communicating to students and employees. You may also
find a potential partner in an academic department that has an interest in urban
planning, public health, or environmental sustainability.

We have found that paid student team members are essential to a successful pro-
gram. Students have great ideas, diverse skills, and come from different corners of
the university, country, and world. Working on a bicycle safety education program
5   gives them an opportunity to develop leadership skills and valuable experience with
    project management. Creating student positions in bicycle safety education also
    helps train the next generation of bicycle planners and educators. Hiring the stu-
              dents as employees recognizes that they are providing a needed service to
              the university, and it raises the level of professionalism of the team. Ad-
              ditionally, because the demands of school create the need to continuously
              reprioritize responsibilities, you will have more consistent participation in
              the project if the students’ involvement is more than just an extracur-
              ricular activity. If funding issues prevent you from hiring students, then
              consider having their efforts count towards class credit or projects.

              As your team works together, you will start to divide and delegate the
              routine work of keeping a program going. One staff person served as our
              group coordinator. She called and ran the meetings, handled the stu-
              dents’ timesheets, got the bills paid, and reviewed all written materials.
              The Public Safety officer attended working group meetings as his changing
              shift schedule allowed, and taught all of our bicycle safety classes.

    Creating Student Positions and Supervising Students
    To find student employees, we wrote a job description, publicized it widely through
    student listserves and with flyers, received letters of interest, and conducted in-
    terviews. We selected students based on their experience, the thoughtfulness and
    creativity of their ideas for improving bicycle safety, and their enthusiasm. Out of
    this process, we have a team of students majoring in a variety of disciplines—Po-
    litical Science, Environmental Studies, Public Health, Architecture, and American
    Studies—that all pertain to bicycle policy, planning and education.

    Students are placed on the payroll through our student employment office, with
    a wage of $7.50/hour for undergraduates; $8.50 for graduate students. It costs at
    most $600 a semester to pay a student employee, $150 for students with Work-
    Study as part of their financial aid package. Each student establishes a regular
    schedule for 5-10 hours of work in our office, and works some extra hours as
    needed for events and classes.

    The working group meets once a week for an hour. We report on progress and del-
    egate tasks for the upcoming week; we also discuss and decide major policy issues
    and strategies. In between, we communicate with each other via email.

    A few tips for creating student teams:

          Giving the student members the title of “Student Bicycling Planning Spe-
          cialist” or “Bicycle Education Specialist” gives them an official, describ-
          able role in the program, and it will look good on a resume.

          Require students to immediately establish a schedule of at least 5 hours
          a week when they will be in the office working. Students will get things
          done faster and do better quality work when in an office at a regular
          time, with someone nearby to answer questions.

          Provide students with a workspace and computer, which they can share.
          They need internet access, and basic software for creating documents,
          presentations, and spreadsheets.

          Get everyone’s schedule at the beginning of the semester, and set a time
          for a regular weekly working group meetings. If you do not schedule a
      regular meeting time, you will spend more time setting up meeting times              6
      than getting work done.

Meet Your President
To secure university administration’s support for our program, we met with Tulane
University President Scott Cowen to brief him on the project. To arrange the meet-
ing, we sent him an email describing the project and requesting a meeting. He re-
plied that he would meet with us, and we arranged the meeting with his assistant.
At the meeting, the students in our working group briefly summarized our work
to date, described the current state of bicycling and bicycle safety on campus, and
gave him a general overview of our plan for educating the campus about the basics
of bicycle safety.

He had several questions about bicycling on campus, and asked us about the early
results of our assessments of numbers of bicyclists on campus. He agreed to help
us recruit advisory committee members by sending a letter of endorsement of the
project under his signature. He also suggested two additional advisory committee
members. He gave his blessing to sending an all-campus email about the project
out on “Tulane Daily News,” an email listserve that sends a brief campus news item
to the entire Tulane community every day.

It is valuable to the team and the advisory committee to know that the initiative
has the support of the university president. His endorsement helps people recog-
nize bicycle safety as a significant university issue (as opposed to a special inter-
est group or recreational program). As team member Audrey Warren describes, “It
planted a seed.”

Contact Local Bicycle Planners
As you get started, you should identify and contact the bicycle planners in your
local and regional government to learn as much as possible about the status of bi-
cycling routes and safety issues in the community. Let them know of your interest
in promoting bicycle safety, and ask them about bicycle planning in your region,
existing local bicycle safety resources and potential partnerships that might help
your effort.

We worked closely with our Metropolitan Planning Organization. Metropolitan
Planning Organizations (MPOs) are regional boards that set local policy on “region-
ally significant” transportation issues. They exist in urbanized areas with popula-
tions of over 50,000. The MPO formulates the transportation plan for the region
and prioritizes projects for motorized and non-motorized transportation. They are
selected by the local jurisdictions, certified by the state and derive their authority
                     from the federal transportation program established under the
                        Transportation Equity Act of the 21st Century (TEA 21) and
                          its predecessor the Intermodal Surface Transportation Ef-
                           ficiency Act (ISTEA). Their ties to various local, state, and
                            federal agencies make MPOs especially helpful collabora-
                            tors.

                        Generally, MPOs are known for evaluating and planning
                      transportation projects that require capital investment, es-
                  pecially infrastructure projects. However, they are increasingly
recognizing that bicycle education is a part of fulfilling their mission to reduce
congestion, reduce pollution, and improve the health and quality of life of the com-
munity. Bicycle safety education and improved law enforcement are critical ingre-
7   dients for increasing bicycle use and reducing incidents. Safety education and law
    enforcement programs must be implemented as the physical network of bike routes
    and paths is expanded and the bicycle miles traveled increases. Metropolitan Plan-
    ning Organizations can fund planning efforts and capital projects that support local
    organizations with a role to play in bicycle safety.

    If you live in a rural area, you may have a multi-county regional commission en-
    abled under state law to create regional development plans. They are called Plan-
    ning and Development Districts (PDD’s). They have broad jurisdiction to do plan-
    ning in the areas of economic development, land use, transportation, housing, and
    the environment. Their geographical districts cover the entire state and include the
    urbanized areas. Both the MPO and the PDD are central clearinghouses for federal-
    aid funding for eligible transportation projects, and they work with other state,
    federal and local agencies in planning and developing programs.

    If you live in a city, you may also have a bicycle planner or coordinator in your city
    government. Also, every state is required to have a Bicycle and Pedestrian Coordi-
    nator. They are usually located in Department of Transportation. This person may
    be able to update you on bicycle planning and safety initiatives in your area, and
    direct you to local planners who may be of assistance.

    Your local planner may modify their planning initiatives and projects in ways to
    support your efforts. In some cases no city or regional bicycle plan may exist or it
    may inadequately address the different components of bicycle safety (education,
    enforcement, engineering and evaluation). Should this be the case, you have an
    opportunity to help formulate public policy through your involvement with local
    and regional government. You can encourage a bicycling component in your local
    transportation plan, or work to expand the policies put forth in your current city,
    regional or state bicycle plan.

    Building a Program
    Expect to start small and to grow. Our program began with an enthusiastic staff
    person and two freshmen—none of whom had any experience in bicycle safety or
    planning. Each project that we did helped us find people who wanted to contrib-
    ute their expertise. Each project that we did attracted more interested bicyclists
    and more ideas and resources for future projects. A large number of the projects
    described in this toolkit involved talking with on-campus entities such as Public
    Safety, the bookstore, Campus Recreation, and University Communications. The
    gradual growth of the program and campus bicycling allowed time for key campus
    organizations to get familiar with the idea of bicycle safety education and to begin
    to address bicycling and bicycle safety in their own planning.
                                CHAPTER 2                                                                     8

                    PLANNING YOUR PROGRAM
In the beginning of your program, you have to go through some process of brain-
storming potential projects and deciding what you are going to do. It could be a
simple as reading this toolkit and choosing one or two activities to do on your
campus this semester, or it could be a more comprehensive brainstorming and plan-
ning process that brings together representatives from all over campus to help you
create and prioritize projects.

Defining Your Message
As a first step, your team must decide on the key points you want your bicycle
safety education campaign to communicate. Beginning our planning phase with a
discussion of the basic messages we wanted to communicate ensured that our ma-
terials and activities were focused and consistent. It also brought out our different
perspectives and pushed us to keep discussing and researching until we could all
agree on a simple list of key points that we wanted everyone on campus to know.

We started by looking at state drivers’ manuals and exemplary bicycle educational
materials to gather ideas about key topics in share-the-road education campaigns.
Then we discussed these education points in the context of our local con-
cerns. For example, in New Orleans there is a common misconception about
whether a bicyclist should ride with or against traffic. Cyclists are often               Tulane University
spotted riding against traffic, even on busy streets. So we choose one of our      Bike Safety Campaign Messages
target points to be “Ride on the right, in the direction of traffic”. In other We want to teach bicyclists to
cities, this may not be a problem.                                                Ride on the right side of the road.
                                                                                         Ride with lights at night.
Our target points are very simple, with four strategic messages each for bi-
                                                                                         Wear a helmet.
cyclists and motor vehicle drivers. We felt that with the amount of resourc-
es available to implement the campaign, we would be able to adequately                   Ride predictably.
address all eight points using various media outlets and intervention tech-
                                                                                  We want to teach drivers to
niques. Of course this means that we could not focus on every safe riding/
                                                                                         Acknowledge that cyclists have the right
safe driving issue that we wanted to, but through the process of choosing
                                                                                         to ride on the road.
our education points, we came to a consensus about which topics were
                                                                                         Give room and slow down when passing
most relevant to our campus. It is important to know that we emphasized                  cyclists.
how to ride, as well as the use of safety equipment like helmets and lights.             Check for cyclists before opening doors.
                                                                                         Check for bikes before turning left or
Bicycle Advisory Committee                                                               right or backing up.
Because our program was a pilot program, it needed to involve university
members in an active way by giving them a voice in our planning process and a
stake in our projects. We created a Bicycle Advisory Committee composed of stu-
dents, faculty, and staff from a variety of departments that could effectively com-
municate messages about bicycle safety with the university community at large.

To get started, we brainstormed a list of potential people and departments that
influence the bicycle safety culture on campus. We sent invitation letters to these
individuals or to the Chairs/Directors of the offices or departments, asking them to
participate or send a representative. The President’s office also set a letter encour-
aging them to participate. In some instances the Chair or Director appointed an
enthusiastic bicyclist on their staff or faculty.
                9                       To get the committee started, we prepared a presentation that gave some back-
                                        ground, introduced ourselves, and presented our basic message—the four points
                                        we wanted to communicate to drivers, the four points we wanted to communicate
                                        to bicyclists. We also gave some background on projects underway at the regional
                                        and state level to improve bicycle safety. The last slide was titled “What’s Needed?
                                        Ideas!” The presentation helped focus the committee on brainstorming ideas for a
                                        campus education campaign. From here the committee took off, with over an hour
                                        of discussion and ideas. We recorded every suggestion.

                                                The committee provided a viewpoint that was ‘outside the box’ of a bicy-
                                                  cling advocate, and gave us many ideas that we wouldn’t have thought
Tips for Forming an Advisory Committee             of ourselves. It also provided a knowledgeable and informative test au-
  Include a cross-section of university mem-
                                                   dience for the programs that allowed us to deliver better information
  bers.                                            to the university community. Working as a group, they gave us useful
  Encourage student involvement.                   advice on how to engage the school and what administrative channels
  Provide a common bicycling experience for        were available to us. Additionally, the committee added a new level
  the members, such as a class.                    of legitimization to our programs, as the ideas were no longer of one
  Avoid convening at non-critical points in        group, but a synthesis of many university departments.
   the program implementation.
                                                    We asked all of the committee members to participate in a basic bicycle
                                                  safety course, because we wanted to ensure that everyone understood
                                        the basics of bicycle safety and could be a knowledgeable spokesperson. This ex-
                                        perience gave members a chance to improve their bicycling skills. It provided a
                                        common experience on which members could base their deliberations. They also
                                        gave us valuable feedback on how to improve this course for use with students in
                                        the future.

                                        To our surprise, some committee members initiated projects outside of committee
                                        meetings. For example, a member of University Communications had the idea of
                                        writing a first-person article about her experience taking the bicycle safety course
                                        for the university employee newsletter and university website. Another member
                                        has spearheaded an effort to install Air Machines for pumping tires on campus.
                                        Even though we only asked for a commitment to attend 2-3 meetings, several
                                        members wanted to be much more involved.

                                       Despite the vast potential displayed by the committee, we faced challenges in main-
                                       taining the interest of all of the committee members. A weakness of the committee
                                                               was its low amount of response from the initial invitee’s list
                                                                   and a dwindling return rate of members to meetings and
Pros and Cons of Using a Bicycle Advisory Committee                activities over time. A possible solution to maintaining
Advantages                                                         the enthusiasm level would be to open up a few seats to
   Test audience for programs
                                                                   the wider university public, thus attracting self-selected
   Bring issue to the wider university
                                                                   members who would naturally exhibit higher levels of en-
   Ability to ‘think outside the box’
                                                                   thusiasm. This could also draw more students into the
   Enhances legitimacy of program by seeking input
                                                                   committee.

Disadvantages                                                    Maintaining interest in the committee is also dependent
    Maintaining interest among many members is a chal-           on the quantity and quality of work that is needed by the
    lenge                                                        committee. Asking for too little help can be as detrimen-
    Can slow down program implementation by adding an-           tal as asking for too much. In order to maintain interest,
    other layer of development
                                                                 members must feel that their time is well spent, thus it
                                                                 is important that the committee is convened at moments
                                                               when their input can shape the direction of the group.
Prioritizing Actions                                                                                                    10
After our first Bicycle Advisory Committee meeting, we tried to organize and pri-
oritize all the different ideas. We talked about which ideas were most appropri-
ate to each audience—bicyclists, drivers, and both. We discussed how much time
each would take to implement and how much they would cost. We talked about
which would convey the clearest message, which would get the most attention,
and which would be the most fun. Each one of us identified the ideas that most in-
terested us. From this discussion we sorted and prioritized the ideas into an initial
plan of action, shown in the accompanying table. Through this organizing process,
we ensured that we had balanced our proposed activities to target both drivers and
bicyclists.



                          Tulane Bike Education Campaign Plan
                                                            Target Audience
                                 Cyclists                          Drivers                           Both
                       Negotiate with bookstore         Collaboration with parking       Initiate branding campaign.
                       to sell bicycle items (bicycle   services to include safe driv-   Develop campaign name,
                       “kit,” helmets/bells/lights,     ing around cycling compo-        logo, mission statement, pic-
                       etc.)        , ¢,T               nent.      , ¢,T                 tures, press kit, etc.   , ¢,T
  Start
  immediately          Bike maintenance demo - Ev- Parking fine discount (begin          Tulane homepage pictures
                       ery Friday in April T, , ¢,☺ process)      , ¢,T                       ,¢
                       Giveaways for cyclists wear-                                      PSA poster campaign
                       ing helmets $, T, ,☺                                              $,    ,     , T,
                                                                                         Tulane talk, Payroll message
                                                                                              ,¢
                       Work with bike registration      Maps for drivers (mode of        X-games demo $, T, ,☺
                       T,¢,                             delivery for safe driving mes-
                                                        sage) T,¢,
 Target next           Tulane “pride” bike helmets,
 school year           bells, lights T,
                       Work with Tulane pediatri-
                       cians T,    ,¢,


 Resources: T=time intensive         $=expensive       ¢=cheap
 Activities:   =high profile   ☺=fun             =reaches large audience           =conveys clear message



Bike Shop Diplomacy
Some campaign ideas involved our local bike shops. Because of the relatively high
bike use by college students, bike shops naturally congregate around university
campuses. The bike shops closest to campus generally serve the majority of stu-
dent and faculty needs, making them a perfect point of entry for your campaign.
Creating alliances with these stores can greatly increase the reach and impact of
your campaign. But first, you must cultivate enthusiastic working relationships
with the business owners and employees. Here are some tips on the fine art of bike
shop diplomacy.

Get to know your local bike shop culture. Each bike shop has a slightly different
philosophy about business, bicycling, customer relations, etc. Some shops tend to
favor the high-end cyclist, specializing in expensive, high-quality parts and equip-
11   ment. Others tend to have a larger-community feel, making more of an effort to ac-
     commodate the novice cyclist and casual rider. These two types of stores may have
     very different notions of what a safety campaign should entail, and you will have
     to develop an individual working style for each one. If you don’t know the owners
     already, stop by on a slow day (NOT during the first few weeks of school) and intro-
     duce yourself and your program. Make a mental note of the shop space, inventory
     and enthusiasm of the staff so that you can work with their strengths later on.

     Make it easy for bike shops to participate in your campaign. Come to them with
     simple, well-defined ways that they can be a part of the program, such as passing
     out a pre-made flyer, or pledging to promote bicycle helmets to every customer. Let
     them know about your events. Ask them to be part of your bicycle advisory com-
     mittee, but don’t exclude them from future opportunities to participate if they are
     unable to be part of the initial planning phase.

     Be consistent and fair with your communications. Bike shops are usually small,
     family-owned businesses with tight profit margins. The easiest way to foster ill will
     is to appear like you, as a powerful university entity, are unfairly assisting a com-
     petitor or using your influence to funnel business away from theirs.

     Don’t ask for donations, or at least not at first. Even larger cities usually can’t sup-
     port more than a dozen bike shops, so each one must field numerous requests for
     all types of donations. You should start by establishing a good working relationship,
     based on mutual goals and values. Try to make this partnership beneficial for every-
     one by asking for assistance that doesn’t cost a lot and has the potential to posi-
     tively impact their business. Offer to promote them as a sponsor of your program.

     Thank your local bike shops for their support. Make sure that they are listed as
     sponsors or partners in all pertinent publications and then drop off multiple cop-
     ies to the shop as they are printed. You may even consider presenting them with
     a formal acknowledgment of your partnership that they can display in their store,
     such as a plaque or framed certificate.

     Funding Your Program
     The program presented in this toolkit was designed to be inexpensive. The tasks
     can be done by current staff within the framework of their existing job descriptions,
              using equipment and materials that most offices already have on hand.
              Most of the labor is done by students. Also, the program can be sized
              according to the resources available to you. Running the Project Donut
              helmet promotion, for example, costs about $200 for a month-long pro-
              motion. Hiring a student employee for a year ranges from $300-$1500,
              depending on the number of hours worked and the work-study aid avail-
              able to the student. Printing a color brochure to distribute with annual
              parking permits costs about $1000. A sample annual budget is included
              at the end of this toolkit.

               As you develop your initial plan, think of potential partners within the
               university for each component, and ask them to contribute. Different
               departments can spend money on different types of uses. For example,
               Housing and Residence Life may have funding for programs advertised in
               the residence halls, a Dean’s office may support a student worker, or Pub-
             lic Safety may contribute to a printing. As your program grows, document
     your successes and you may be able to convince your administration to regularly
     budget funds for bicycle safety.
Public safety funds may also be available to build a bicycle safety program. Your       12
Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) can help you apply for state safety
funds. Every state has a designated agency to handle Section 402 funds, which are
used to reduce traffic accidents and deaths and to collect and report traffic related
deaths and injuries. Collaborate with your MPO and designated state agency to see
how your program can be structured to ensure it is eligible for these funds.

There are many small-scale revenue opportunities for an entrepreneurial campus
bicycling organization. We sell bike maps and helmets at every event, and earn
enough to support a student work study position. The Bicicleta Club of Catalunya,
which promotes bicycling at universities in Barcelona, Spain, holds a bicycle sec-
ond-hand market every fall and spring. They invite retailers and individuals to sell
used bikes, and take a 5% commission.
13
     CHAPTER 3
     ASSESSMENTS AND EVALUATION
     As you get started, you will need to know how bicyclists are currently riding on
     your campus. That way you will be able to measure whether your education cam-
     paign has had an impact on bicycling on campus. The only way to assess this is
     to develop a monitoring and evaluation program from the onset of your program.
     Broadly, this means translating your general expectations of the program (improv-
     ing bike safety), to more specific, quantifiable goals (for example, increase the num-
     ber of people who use lights at night by 15%). Being able to gauge the effectiveness
     of your program can help you design better education interventions in the future
     and bolster any requests for funding by proving need. We found that our baseline
     data has been helpful for advocating for improvements in bicycling facilities on
     campus, and it has allowed us to monitor changes in bicycling over time.

     We developed several methods for assessing the bicycle safety culture of our cam-
     pus. Due to time and resource constraints, we only chose to utilize an online
     written survey and direct observation surveys. We also conducted a campus-wide
     bicycle census, even though it measured ridership rather than the effectiveness of
     our safety education campaign. Useful qualitative information can also be gathered
     by interviewing key informants, such as bicyclists, bike shop employees, and cam-
     pus police. Details of the online survey, the direct observation surveys and the bike
     census are given in the following sections.

     Bicycle Behavior Observations
     We called our most basic and useful assessment tool the Bicycle Behavior Observa-
     tion (BBO). In the BBO, we observed the actual behaviors and patterns of bicyclists
     on the Tulane University campus and along the streets at the perimeter of the
     University. It is very easy, quick and inexpensive to conduct, as an observer stands
                          outside with a check sheet, recording the behavior of bicyclists
                          as they pass. Numbers aside, doing a BBO is a great way to
                          learn more about the range of bicyclists on your campus—after
                          an hour of watching bicyclists pass, we didn’t feel like a small
                          special interest group anymore!

                        To begin with, the surveyor selects a point near an intersec-
                        tion and creates a mental, two-dimensional plane that traverses
                        the street and the sidewalk. She then records the behavior of
                        each bicyclist who “breaks the plane.” The observation point is
                        moved slightly away from the intersection so that the observer
                        only counts bicyclists traveling on one street, but the observer
                        is able to watch how the bicyclist behaves at the intersection

                          We limited the observation data fields to gender, direction of
     travel, whether they were riding on the street or the sidewalk, helmet use, behavior
     at traffic signal, and use of lights. An optional notes field was included so the ob-
     server could make additional comments. The observer also noted every 10 minute
     interval of time to help in determining when there was the most bicycle traffic.

     Before the actual BBO surveys, we created three documents to facilitate the sur-
     vey. The first was a helpful reminder sheet to assist in the training of the volunteer
     observers and to answer possible questions that come up in the field. The second
was the cover sheet to accompany each observation and was intended to pro-                        14
vide a quick summary of the results of the observation. The final document was a
spreadsheet of the actual data to be collected. (Copies of each are posted on the
http://bike.tulane.edu web site in Word and Excel, so you can download and modify
for your own use.)

There is a certain minimum sample size required in order for the results of these
observations to be statistically meaningful. For our survey, we calculated the mini-
mum sample size necessary to be 95% certain that our population
proportion (for helmet usage, gender, etc.) was representative of the
total cycling population at Tulane (+/- 5%). This minimum sample
size was 385 observations. Depending on your own data needs, you
may have to collect more or less observations to produce meaning-
ful results, but this is a good ballpark figure. Consult with someone
in your statistics department for a more comprehensive treatment
of sample size calculations.

The first official BBO survey was conducted on December 5, 2002
on the Tulane University Uptown Campus. Over the eight hour ob-
servation time, divided among six observers, 450 bicyclists were
observed. Subsequent observations were conducted around the
campus perimeter in the months of February and March.

The results of this behavior observation led to the discovery of several key facts
about the bicycle culture on the Tulane University campus. The vast majority (ap-
prox. 75%) of bicyclists are male. Almost all (95%) ride without the protection of
helmets, approximately a quarter disobey traffic signals and though most, surpris-
ingly, ride with traffic, 20% ride on the sidewalk. These last results are somewhat
distorted by the fact that our campus infrastructure sometimes forces bicyclists to
ride on the sidewalks or against the flow of traffic.

In discussing these results, we realized that the same bicyclists may behave differ-
ently on campus than they do on city streets. University campuses often have a
protected, park-like feel to them, with slow, controlled traffic and bicycling on side-
walks condoned. When we repeated the BBO survey on city streets at the campus
perimeter, we found that 8.5% of bicyclists wore helmets, 7% rode against the flow
of traffic, and 19% rode on the sidewalk.

Catch and Release Bike Census
Knowing the number of cyclists on campus can help to direct targeted interven-
tions, monitor changes in ridership, and can be used as an advocacy tool for greater
accommodation of bicycles on campus. Using this census method, we found the
bicycle population on Tulane University’s uptown campus to be ~1,300, which
means that about 10% of our students, faculty and staff ride their bikes on campus!
Furthermore, now that we have a baseline number, we can conduct annual counts
to determine whether there are more or less cyclists each year, and monitor any
long-term trends in cycling on campus.

The census is conducted using the capture-recapture model of estimating popula-
tions.1 This method assumes a fixed, geographically constrained population, which
is appropriate for describing the population of cyclists on most campuses. Two sur-


1
  Donald J. Bogue, Eduardo E. Arriaga, and Douglas L. Anderton, Readings in Population Research
Methodology, vol. 1, Basic Tools (United Nations Population Fund, 1993).
15   veys are conducted to estimate the population size—the first being the ‘capture’
     survey and the second the ‘recapture’. During the capture survey, the total bicycle
     population is counted and tagged. During the second survey, the entire bicycle
     population is counted again and the number of bicycles with tags are noted. Using
     a simple formula, total population is estimated from the three fields of information:
     the total number of unique bikes counted in the first round, total number of unique
     bikes counted in the second round, and the number of bikes that appeared in both
     rounds.

     Estimating the cycling population on campus is far easier than estimating the cy-
     cling population of a city because of some of the unique features of universities:
     1) college campuses are geographically well defined and small enough to canvas
     sufficiently, and 2) bicycle usage tends to be higher on campuses when compared
     to the city as a whole. Because this method uses direct observations as opposed
     to self-reported bicycle usage, it provides a truer estimate of the total number of
     cyclists when compared to written or verbal surveys using a random sample.

     There are a few limitations to the census method. The census method of popula-
     tion estimation cannot determine how often people ride their bicycles. Daily com-
     muters are counted the same as occasional riders who happen to park their bikes
     on campus. In the same vein, those students who use campus racks as long-term
     storage for their bicycle are counted in the survey even though they rarely, or
     never, ride their bikes on campus.

     Scheduling Census Days
     It is improbable that the entire bicycle population of the university will be present
     on campus at any one time. Otherwise, it would only be necessary to do one single,
     thorough count to estimate the entire population. In order to get the best estimate,
                     it is important to count as many of the total bicycles on campus as
                       possible over the two sampling days.

                      On Tulane’s campus, students usually have classes that meet on
                      a Tuesday/Thursday or Monday/Wednesday/Friday schedule and
                      therefore the cyclists on campus on Mondays may not be the
                      same bicycles that you observe on a Tuesday. For these reasons,
                      we choose to conduct our two surveys at different times on dif-
                      ferent days, when different classes were in session. Both surveys
                      were conducted during normal business hours to account for staff
                      and faculty who bike to campus.

                      We recruited enough volunteers to tag and count all the bicycles
                      at the major campus bike racks during one class period on each
                      census day, so that the majority of bikes would be stationary
                      while we tagged. Tagging goes quickly—a well-organized team of
                      5-6 can get a lot done in an hour!

     Tagging
     After some trial and error, we determined that putting stickers under the seat was
     the most effective way to tag the bicycles. Most people never even knew that any-
     thing had been affixed to their bicycle. We chose fluorescent, ¾” round stickers
     purchased from an office supply store. The bright color made it easy to identify
     tagged bicycles on our second survey.

     Almost all bicycle seats are constructed with a hard plastic base. When the under-
     side of the seat is clean, it makes a very effective surface for adhesion. When it’s
caked with mud, it’s pretty lousy. So the first protocol was to wipe the underside of   16
any muddy or dusty seats with a rag before tagging. Those seats that do not have
a hard plastic base (such as cruiser seats with spring armature
or leather racing saddles) or those with under-the-seat storage
bags need to be treated differently. We attached the sticker to
the seat post of any bicycle that could not accommodate a tag
on the seat itself.

It is unlikely that you will be able to count every bicycle on
campus in just an hour. But if you are strategic about where you
sample, you won’t have to worry about catching every last bike
to get a good estimate. So before you start out, here are some
questions to ask yourself to help get a sense of where your time
and manpower resources would best be spent:

      Where are the biggest hubs for bicycle parking?
      Where are the most active parking spots (i.e. with the
      highest turnover)
      Are there areas for bicycle parking that are restricted (ex.
      indoor bike rooms, gated parking areas)?

Prioritize your surveying so that you hit, at least, the biggest racks on campus,
preferably those with high parking turnover. You might find these types of racks in
front of the student union, the library, academic buildings with many classrooms,
or the student recreation center. Although the bike racks in front of the student
housing buildings may appear full, make sure that the majority of the bicycles are
in active use before you label those racks a priority. An “active” bike gets used,
and moved, at least once or twice a week. The principle of this catch and release
sampling method is that the bikes have time to sufficiently mix between counts,
so try to get the most number of active bicycles as possible. Separating the results
from each parking area will make it easier to track down mistakes, and you will have
numbers that can also be used for planning adequate bicycle parking.

Recounting
Both surveys are very easy to conduct, but the second survey is even more rapid
than the first. We used mirrors to check under the seats to identify whether a
bicycle had been tagged during the previous survey. On this second day of the cen-
sus, we counted the total population of bikes on campus, as well as the number of
bicycles that had tags from the first census day.

Analyzing the Data
Using the following simple formula, we can estimate the total population given the
figures from both surveys.


              ^ = (2X + X + X )2
              N0     11  12  21


                             4X11
17       Where ^ 0 = population estimate
               N
         X11 = population captured in both surveys (bike counted with tags
               during second survey)
         X12 = population captured exclusively in second census
         X21 = population captured exclusively in first census
         X22 = population not captured in either survey

         Note:     X11+X21= Total # of bikes surveyed in first round
                   X11+X12= Total # of bikes surveyed in second round

                                                  First Survey
                                                 in         out



                           Second Survey
                                           in
                                                 X11       X12


                                                 X21       X22
                                           out


     Accounting for Abandoned and Unused Bicycles
     This bicycle estimate does not take into consideration bicycles that have been
     abandoned, or are not in use. At Tulane, the Department of Public Safety is in
     charge of cutting the locks on all bikes that are deemed abandoned at the end of the
     semester. They provided us with an average number of bicycles that were collected
     over the last few years. We used the upper estimate of 300 bikes impounded and
     subtracted this from our raw bike population estimate of 1,600 to arrive at our final
     estimate of 1,300—a number we quote almost every time we talk about bicycling
     on Tulane’s campus.

     It is important to develop a standard protocol for dealing with inactive and aban-
     doned bikes before you start the survey. You will encounter some bicycles that are
     obviously no longer functioning due to stolen parts or flat tires. You will also see
     some rusty and neglected bikes that may, or may not, be in use. If you decide to
     discount certain bikes during the course of your surveying, make sure that every
     surveyor is aware of a standard protocol for assessing questionable bicycles. For
     our survey, we counted every single bicycle we saw, regardless of condition, and
     then used the number from Public Safety to account for those that may have been
     abandoned.

     Online Survey
     We chose to use an online survey as our primary tool for determining the aware-
     ness level of cyclists and drivers on campus regarding safe share-the-road prac-
     tices. Teasing out the difference between what people know versus what people do
     helped us determine whether it was more appropriate to conduct an education or
     behavior modification campaign. In addition to these specific knowledge/behavior
     questions, we included some more general queries that would assist us in develop-
     ing our programs such as “what are the greatest barriers to cycling in the city?” and
     “where would you go on campus to get information on safe cycling?”
The survey was designed to test both drivers and cyclists on our basic safety mes-                          18
sage. After respondents submitted their answers, an answer key appeared on their
computer screens, with carefully written explanations of safe driving and bicycling
practices. Both the survey text and the online version were user-tested by our ad-
visory committee prior to its release and their suggestions were incorporated into
the final design.

The actual survey webpage and the accompanying data base for mon-
itoring responses were created by the Computer Operations Core of                   Tips for Creating A Survey
the Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane. It was built us-
ing Microsoft IIS Server to host the web pages, Microsoft SQL Server           Make it short (a few minutes or less to
                                                                               complete) and advertise that it is brief.
to create and host the database file(s) and Macromedia ColdFusion
Server to implement the interface. They chose the MS SQL Server                Make it easy to get to. If it’s online, adver-
over a simpler implementation using Microsoft Access in order to be            tise electronically so that people can go
ready for thousands of responses and hundreds of simultaneous re-              directly to your site.
sponse sessions. Once the SQL database file was populated, it was              Give a prize that everyone would want. A
exported and elementary statistics were applied to extract meaning-            bike tune up may not appeal to a motorist.
ful metrics on the answers and the actual number of surveys taken.             Make a space in the survey where respon-
If you don’t have the technical capability to build your own online            dents can give additional comments.
survey, there are a number of reasonably-priced services available,
such as Zoomerang.com.                                                         Pretest with people in your target audi-
                                                                               ence who have not worked on the survey.
The primary advertisement for the story was as a news item on the              If your survey is online, hire a professional
Tulane Daily News all-campus listserve. This listserve is adminis-             to design the mechanics.
tered by University Communications, and sends one news item by                 Ask respondents if they would like to
email to all Tulane students and employees each day. The news item             receive email about upcoming campus bike
on Bicycle Safety described our grant and asked people if they were             events.
“a bicycle hero or a bicycle hazard.” The email provided a direct link
to the survey. That same week, this same text appeared on the Tulane
homepage website as a headline news story with a dedicated link.

The responses gathered on an online survey will almost always include self-selec-
tion bias because people that are inclined to devote time to answering a survey may
be categorically different from the general public. For example, you may see an over
representation of people who are passionate about cycling, or passionately critical
of cycling. Given the limitations of our survey method, we were careful to refrain
from stating that these results reflected a true, representative cross-section of the
Tulane community.

We learned a lot about people’s perceptions and behaviors, but perhaps the most
informative responses came from the additional comments section. One hundred
and fifty people chose to elaborate on their feelings by writing additional, often
passionate comments. The comments ran the gamut from bike rack inquiries to
complaints about cyclists who don’t follow the rules of the road. It allowed us to
get a better understanding of how the general population of Tulane University feels
about bicycling and sharing space with bicyclists on campus.

Those respondents who indicated that they would like to receive information about
cycling events on campus and entered their emails formed the base of our bicycling
listserve. About 150 of 800 respondents asked to receive future email announce-
ments.
          19
                                       Chapter 4
                                       Educating Everyone
            BikeTulane                 A number of our strategies attempted to raise the profile of bicycles and bicycle
                                       safety on campus. We tried to ensure that images of bicyclists in our materials
                                       and in campus publications always conveyed the message that bikes belong on the
                                       roads, and suggested how they should behave there. Every image reproduced, every
                                       logo designed, every mention in a campus publication or email is an opportunity to
                                       teach people the basics of bicycle safety.

                                       Choosing a Name and Logo
                                       As we are a team of students and staff from different offices, we needed to give our
                                       campaign a name and logo. The name “Bike Tulane” began as one of several options
                                       jotted down during a brainstorming session among the student workers and pre-
                                       sented to the Bicycle Advisory Committee. “Bike Tulane” clearly conveyed the focus
                                       of the group in a simple and localized way.

                                       We wanted our logo to convey our safety message and show the transit mix of New
                                       Orleans with a bicycle figured prominently. The logo features the city in the extreme
                                       background, then a streetcar (the famous St. Charles Streetcar passes our cam-
                                       pus), followed by an automobile, and finally a bicyclist in the foreground. The logo
                                       teaches bicycle safety by displaying the cyclist moving in the direction of traffic, on
                                              the right side of the street, and wearing a helmet, while also normalizing the
                                                  image of a cyclist on the city streets.
      Tips for Developing a Logo
                                                 From this conception came a “rough” version of the logo using computer
Use your logo to visually communicate
your safety message.
                                                 clipart. We searched for the most representative and appealing designs
                                                 in the public domain and then organized them into an attractive manner
Localize your name and logo.                     to serve as the logo. We took the supplementary step of localizing the
Make sure that your name and logo are            logo by recoloring the streetcar from its default red, to a green similar in
simple, yet communicate something about          color to the streetcar that travels in front of the university. The resulting
your group.                                      color mix was one of olive, light blue, and white—the school colors of
Clipart is an excellent resource for creat-      Tulane University!
ing a logo when there is limited time or
money to work with a graphic artist.              The current version of the logo enhances the core mission of Bike Tulane
                                                  by demonstrating our education goals in the design, while at the same
                                                time representing local flavor and remaining simple.

                                       Working with University Communications
                                       One of the biggest hurdles to educating both cyclists and drivers is “normalizing”
                                       safe cycling practices. Part of our education strategy is to increase the visibility of
                                       safe cycling images—regular people, wearing everyday clothing, riding correctly,
                                       wearing helmets, and looking good. At a university, you can do this by working
                                       with the staff of an office typically known as “University Communications.” They
                                       are writers, designers, photographers, and public relations professionals who pro-
                                       duce the university web site and university-wide publications, such as admissions
                                       materials, alumni magazines, and faculty/staff newsletters. Together they provide
                                       us with many of the images we picture when we think of life at our university.

                                       We were able to schedule a modest photo shoot with our university photographer
                                       free of charge. Most universities have a dedicated professional staff photographer
who covers events and provides stock images for the major media publications on                          20
campus. She took pictures of bicyclists riding correctly on one of the busy streets
that intersects campus, as well as images of helmeted bicyclists locking and un-
locking bicycles. In addition to getting some fantastic stock photos of bicyclists
on Tulane campus for use in our education campaign, the images became part of
Tulane’s photo archive. Our photographer is often asked to supply filler pictures for
various Tulane publications, and she informed us that these bicycle pictures could
turn up in unsuspecting places around campus.

In another example, a writer on the University Communications staff served on
our advisory committee. She took our bicycle safety course and wrote
a first-person account of the class for the employee newsletter. In
telling about the class and how it changed how she felt about rid-   Tips for Creating and Maintaining a Website
ing on the streets of New Orleans, she shared a lot of the course       Designate one person to periodically and
information with a large audience, and encouraged others to take a      consistently update website.
class. The story was published with a large photo of a helmet-wear-     Make sure it’s localized, include campus
ing bicyclist on the cover of the newsletter.                           and city specific pictures and information.
                                                                              Design in a way that non-web designers
Working on specific projects with University Communications staff
                                                                              can update easily.
gets them familiar with the components of bicycle safety, and in
just a short time we’ve seen safe bicycling incorporated into univer-
sity publications in surprising ways. A neighborhood map distributed
to freshmen, for example, included the local bicycle path, with a helmet-wearing
bicyclist speeding along it. University Communications staff also often handle all-
campus listserves and relations with the local media, so they can be very helpful in
publicizing events to a larger audience.

Website
Students rely on university websites to accomplish a variety of tasks, from reg-
istering for classes to conducting research for a paper. In such a setting, having a
website that provides a range of information from events to research can serve as
an invaluable tool for reaching a university community.

Our aptly named website, Bike.tulane.edu, provides information for cyclists on
destinations near campus, safety, local bicycling laws, and helmet guides, in addi-
tion to local activities and events. We included a research section
to make available the student research and policy recommen-
dations completed in the past, and to give our site something               Pros and Cons of Creating a Website
that can’t be found anywhere else! The Rides and Events sec-          Advantages
tion serves as one of the main communication tools of the                  Can reach a large audience.
website.                                                                   Cheap if production is in-house.
                                                                            Able to present unlimited amounts of infor-
One goal of the website was to deliver a safety message to its              mation.
visitors. However, a blatant safety focus would put off some                Students can be talented website designers.
visitors, causing them to write off the site as just another trea-      Disadvantages
tise on why to wear a helmet. For this reason we decided to                 Requires maintenance.
spread the safety message throughout the website. For exam-                 Time intensive to develop.
ple, the buttons on the home page “roll over” to show different             Requires promotion to attract people to it.
pictures of helmeted bicyclists.

One of the strengths of the website is the volume of information that can be pre-
sented as opposed to a flyer. With a website, there is much more room to go into
greater detail.
             21
                                        Chapter 5 Educating Drivers

                                       One of our program’s main goals is to educate Tulane drivers about how to share
                                       the road with bicyclists. Our basic strategy for reaching these drivers was to ad-
                                       dress them at a point of contact where the majority of University drivers must
                                       go—the Traffic and Transportation Office for their yearly parking permit.

                                       “Driving with Everyone” Brochure
                                               Because Tulane parking permits are handed out with printed materials, we
                                                  decided to print a brochure of safety information for drivers. It was de-
Tips for Creating a Driver’s Safety Brochure       signed to simply inform drivers of the rights and expectations of bicy-
                                                   clists. The language was kept simple and polite, with an emphasis on
   Condense your message - make it clear and
                                                   practical tips. For example, we gave three steps for passing a bicyclist
   concise. If you need room for an explana-
   tion, find ways to make the most basic part     and three actions to avoid. While the main text is fairly descriptive, a
   of your message stand out.                      four point summary was provided on just the inside cover to introduce
                                                   the points of the brochure and to get our message across to those read-
   Use pictures.
                                                   ers who just skim the text.
  Involve other university departments and
  community organizations.                      Attention was also paid to the layout to make sure that it was readable
  Work with the campus traffic authority for    and looked interesting. We used a number of pictures from the Pedes-
  campus specific information and distribu-     trian and Bicycle Information Center Image Library, www.pedbikeim-
  tion of the safety brochure.                  ages.org. The site allows you to use images free for educational pur-
                                                poses, provided that you credit the site and photographer. As we build
                                               up our own image library, we hope to eventually replace the brochure
                                      photographs with images of bicyclists and drivers sharing the road safely here in
                                      New Orleans.

                                       Enough copies were printed to be distributed by the traffic office with each parking
                                       permit. In the long term, the information written for drivers could be incorporated
                                       into the Parking Regulations, and other materials routinely printed for Tulane park-
                                       ing permit holders.

                                                       Color printing is expensive—about $1000 —no matter how few
                                                       copies you have run. Initially we hoped to find a co-sponsor for
                                                       the brochure, and saved space on the back of the brochure for a
                                                       sponsor’s logo. The search proved much more difficult than antici-
                                                       pated. While we saw sponsorship as a good opportunity for certain
                                                       organizations, such as insurance companies, to promote safety and
                                                       reach an audience of potential customers, they ultimately saw a
                                                       relatively high cost compared to other advertising mediums. In the
                                                       future we will attempt to partner with another interested organi-
                                                       zation earlier on in the process. A black and white or two-color
                                                       version of the brochure could be printed or photocopied at much
                                                       less expense.

                                                        Overall the “Driving with Everyone” brochure should not be thought
                                                       of as a stand-alone safety program. By placing the concepts of shar-
                                                    ing the road safely into the minds of the drivers, it serves as the foun-
                                       dation of a number of programs targeted towards drivers.
How to Reach Drivers                                                                  22
Pass out with parking permits. Distributing the brochure with parking permits
gave us an easy way to ensure that the majority of Tulane drivers received basic
safety information about driving near bicyclists. Timing is crucial—
your brochure has to be printed and delivered to the parking
offices several weeks before the new permits take effect, usually
in early August.

Pass out as drivers exit campus parking lots. To remind drivers
of the brochure’s message, we distributed the brochure to driv-
ers leaving our largest parking garage at the end of day. Public
safety officers and students worked together, handing each driv-
er the brochure and reminding them of the importance of driving
safely near bicyclists. It was a very easy educational event to
organize, and could have easily been a media event appealing to
local television stations.

Organize a bicycle safety driver’s test, with parking permit
prize. We also hope to use the brochure as the basis of a bicycle
safety driver’s test, which Tulane drivers could take online. An-
swering all the questions correctly would qualify entrants to win
a parking permit for the following year! We loved the idea of a parking permit as a
prize, as it follows the basic principle of our driver’s education campaign—educat-
ing drivers at the points where they interact with the university as drivers. How-
ever, as parking permits are one of the most contested issues on campus, it can be
a long process to obtain one as a prize. On our campus, a free parking permit has
to be approved by a University Senate committee!



    Pros and Cons of Developing a Safety
           Brochure for Drivers
    Advantages
        Easily distributable
        Reaches a wide audience
        Provides a clear and concise message
        Serves as a base for educational
        events and publicity
        Provides an opportunity for outside
        funding
    Disadvantages
        Can be expensive
        Low interactivity
        Reinforcement needed to make
        the lessons permanent
           23
                                          Chapter 6
                                          Educating Bicyclists
                                          This chapter describes bicycle safety literature and events that target campus bi-
                                          cyclists. You’ll find information on our helmet promotion campaign in the next
                                          chapter. Many of these projects are similar to educational projects developed by
                                          other bicycle safety educators, but we tailored them to a university audience. Oth-
                                          ers were “localized” to our neighborhood, and gave students and staff the basics of
                                          bicycle safety as they helped them find their way around campus neighborhoods.

                                                                            Bicycle Resource Map
How to Create a Bicycle Resource Map for your Campus
                                                                            Our bicycle resource map was the key printed edu-
Survey the community to find all things bike related. That doesn’t          cational tool directed towards bicyclists. It maps the
mean just listing all of the bike shops near campus. Be creative! You
                                                                            bike shops, bike paths, air pumps and stores that carry
can include things like gas stations that give free air, public water
fountains, cafes that allow you to bring your bike onto their patio
                                                                            bicycle accessories near the university. It was designed
(so you don’t need to carry a lock), or streets that are especially         to orient new students and faculty to the cycling re-
scenic.                                                                     sources on and around campus, and also to function
                                                                            as a vehicle for delivering our four key safety messages
Gather the names, telephone numbers and hours of operation for
                                                                            directly to the Tulane cycling community.
all relevant businesses.
Identify a map maker. The final map could be hand drawn or                  If designed correctly, a map is not merely a transient
created using a GIS (geographic information system) computer                flyer, to be read just once and then discarded. A map
program. It is too difficult to learn GIS for a project such as this, so    gets filed away for further use in the future, passed
if you can’t locate an expert on campus who is willing to work with
                                                                            on to friends, and photocopied and distributed by the
you, it is better to find an artist who will be able to hand render
your map. Find out who produces the maps of your campus.                    businesses that are represented on it. It is a resource
                                                                            that people seek out, drawing more visitors to our
Write the text for your safety message. Keep the wording simple             website and creating a stronger cycling presence on
and short.
                                                                            campus. This persistence makes a map an excellent
Create your map. If you’re working by hand, start off by simply             vehicle for a safety message.
tracing the major streets from a local map. Don’t provide unneces-
sary or excessive information or your map will be visually confusing    We partnered with a local non-profit, the Greater New
and difficult to use. The final product should be easy to photocopy.    Orleans Community Data Center (GNOCDC) to create
Make lots of copies and give them to every cyclist you see. Don’t       the map. GNOCDC provides technical support to non-
forget to drop off copies at all of the businesses featured. If you     profit organizations that seek to use local data to im-
have a good digital version, put it on your website, but make sure      prove their services. GNOCDC provided their expertise
that the file is not too large to download easily, and that the final   in information design and GIS (geographic information
printout is readable. Give copies to other campus agencies (like        systems) mapping to create a simple, single-page map.
Public Safety and Student Health) who can hand them out.
                                                                        To identify possible partners who could help you pro-
                                                                        duce a bicycle resource map, talk with the offices that
                                                                      produce maps of your campus. If you do not have access
                                           to GIS expertise, a graphic designer may be able to produce a useful guide to your
                                           neighborhood streets and locations.2

                                          The text of the map was carefully written to carry the credibility and usefulness
                                          of the map itself into the communication of the safety message. The main text of
                                          the map gives a frank assessment of local cycling conditions, good and bad. It’s
                                          written in an honest and straightforward way, as if a new classmate or colleague


                                         2
                                          Our partners at the Greater New Orleans Community Data Center have published a useful account of
                                         creating the Bicycle Resource Map. See Denice Warren and Allison Plyer, “Mapping Bicycle Resources,”
                                         Greater New Orleans Community Data Center, www.gnocdc.org/articles/bikemap.html 17 August 2003.
asked one of us “Is New Orleans a good place to bike?” The “Bicycling tips for New                       24
Orleans” are highlighted in an inset box. They include our campaign’s
key safety messages, each followed by a locally-relevant explanation.
They are not presented as generic “safety tips.” The reminder to wear               Tulane Bicycle Resource Map
a helmet is placed last in the list of tips—a position that will make it               Includes the Following
stand out to readers, but not discourage them from reading the rest             How and where to register your bike on
of the list.                                                                    campus.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Location, hours of operation, and phone
One positive outcome of this project has been strengthening our                                                                                                                                                                                      numbers of new and used bike shops
relationship with local bike shops. These small businesses are of-
ten called on by the cycling community to make donations of time                                                                                                                                                                                     Location of gas stations with air pumps
or money without any significant return. By including information                                                                                                                                                                                    Location of drugstores that carry bike acces-
about these shops on our resource map, we have the opportunity                                                                                                                                                                                       sories
to give a little something back. Once the map was published, we                                                                                                                                                                                      Location of dedicated bike/pedestrian paths
revisited all of the bike shops to drop off a few copies and a letter
requesting that they assist us in our safety campaign by specifically                                                                                                                                                                                Suggested route for traveling to/from bike
promoting helmet and lights. All of the owners were extremely ap-                                                                                                                                                                                    shops
preciative of the free advertising and we were able to discuss our                                                                                                                                                                                   Alerts of streets to avoid
safety campaign in more detail.                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Brief statement about the state of cycling in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     New Orleans
Bike Class                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Tips on cycling specifically tailored to New
We felt that an on-the-road course was an essential part of a cam-                                                                                                                                                                                   Orleans, including the four main safety mes-
pus bicycle safety program. For this portion of the project we en-                                                                                                                                                                                   sages for cyclists


                                                                                                                                                                                     bike.tulane.edu
                                                                                                                                                                                     Visit our website for bicycling workshops and bike rides


  Campus Area Bicycle Resources                                                                                                                                                       Bicycling tips for New Orleans:
                                                                                                                                                                                         Start off easy. Ride near campus
  New Orleans can be one of the best places to ride a bike. Warm weather,                                                                                                                until you get familiar, then start to
  beautiful tree lined streets, and historic neighborhoods mean that a bike                                                                                                              explore. Ride with an experienced
                                                                                                                                                                                         friend or with a club ride to learn the
  can be the most enjoyable way to get around this town. You'll find coffee                                                                                                              best routes across town.
  shops, grocery stores, and live music venues all within a 20-minute bike
                                                                                                                                                                                         Know your bike resources.
  ride from Tulane campus. And, Audubon Park and the Mississippi River                                                                                                                   Use this map to find the bike
  Trail (a.k.a., the levee) offer bike/pedestrian paths free from cars.                                                                                                                  resources near campus where you can
                                                                                                                                                                                         buy a helmet or fill your tires.
  Unfortunately, New Orleans can also be one of the worst places for
                                                                                                                                                                                         Ride predictably. Obey traffic
  cycling. Drivers have a reputation for being careless, the surface                                                                                                                     laws and don't weave in and out of
  conditions of the road are at times laughable, and there are great                                                                                                                     parked cars.
  misunderstandings amongst cyclists about the rules of the road. That's                                                                                                                 Ride with traffic. Riding on the
  why we've put together these tips on how to safely ride your bike in the                                                                                                               right gives drivers a longer time to see
                                                                                                                                                                                         you and make room. If you aren't used
  Big Easy. Laissez les bon temps rouler!                                                                                                                                                to riding on the right, practice on
                                                                                                                                                                                         quiet roads to build your confidence.
                                                                                             GNO Cyclery
                                                                                             1426 S. Carrollton, 861-0023                                                                Ride with a light at night -
                                                                                                                                      CL




                                                                                             M-F 9:30-6; Sat 9-5                                                                         white for the front, red blinky for the
                                                                                                                                         A




                                                                                        Chevron Gas Station                                                                              back. If you need convincing, notice
                                                                                                                                        IBO




                                                                                      N 1400 S. Carrollton                                                  Adam's Bicycle World
                                                                                                                                                                                         how hard it is to spot the cyclists
                                                                                                                                           RN




                                                                                    O                                                                       3137 Calhoun, 861-0032
                                                                                 LLT Open 24 hours                                                                                       without lights at night on St. Charles.
                                                                                                                                             E




                                                                               O                                                                            M-Sat 10-6; Sun 12-5
                                                                             RR                                                                                                          Wear a helmet. Wearing a helmet
                                                                           CA                                                                              Shell Gas Station
                                                                     Walgreens                                                                                                           reduces your risk of serious head
                                                                     715 S. Carrollton, 861-2787                                                           6201 S. Claiborne
                                                                                                                                                           Open 24 hours                 injury by 85%! Doctors can fix a
                                                                     Everyday 7am-Midnight
                                                                                                                                                                                         broken bone, but not a broken brain
                                                                                                                                        Register your bike w/ TUPD in
                                 Shell Gas Station                                                                                                                                       (and isn't your brain the main reason
                                                                                                                          WI            the Public Safety Office
                                 600 S. Carrollton                                                                          LL                                                           you came to Tulane?)
                                                                                                                               OW       Diboll Parking Garage, 865-5424
                                 Open 24 hours
                                                                                                                                        M-F 8:30-4
         Mis sissi




                                                                                                                          Tulane Bookstore
                                                                                                               FR         University Center, 865-5913
                                                                                                                  ER
                                                                                                                     ET M 8-7; T-Th 8-6; F 8-5; Sat 11-4
                   ppi Ri




                                                                                                                Check for campus bike events at                                              New bike shop (w/ accessories & repairs)
                                                                                                                the Office of Environmental Affairs
                         ver Trail (~15 mile paved bike pa th)




                                                                                                                201d Alcee Fortier, 865-5145                                                 Used bike shop
                                                                                              ST
                                                                                    AY




                                                                                                                M-F 9-5
                                                                                                   CH
                                                                                  DW




                                                                                                     AR                                                                                      Gas station with air pump
                                                                                                       LE
                                                                               OA




                                                                                                              S
                                                                              BR




                                                                                                                                                                                             Accessories
                                                                                                                                                                                             Campus offices
                                                                                                                                                         ON
                                                                                                                                                     ERS
                                                                                                                N




                                                                                                                                                                                           NAPOLE
                                                                                                                                                    JEFF
                                                                                                              OU
                                                                                                           LH




                                                                              Audubon Park
                                                                                                         CA




                                                                                                                                                                                                 ON




                                                                                                                                             BP Gas Station
                                                                                                                           TE




                                                                              Au                                                             5023 Magazine Street
                                                                                                                        STA




                                                                                dub                                                                               St. Vincent De Paul Store
                                                                                   on L oop                                                  M-F 8-6
                                                                                                                                                                  4935 Magazine, 899-3407
                                                                                                                                                                  M-Sat 10-5
                                                                                                        CAM                                                                 Orphan Books (and Bikes)
                                                                                              MA               P
                                                                  Audubon Zoo                      GA                                                                       4729 Magazine, 891-2626
                                                                                                        ZIN
                                                                                                           E                                                                M-Sat 11-6; Sun 12-5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Camp or Magazine?
                                                                                                                        Herwig's Bicycle Store
                                                                                                                        5924 Magazine, 897-2311                                                                         In uptown, avoid riding on
                                                                                                                        T-F 9:30-5; Sat 9:30-3:30                                    New Orleans Pawn               Magazine, which is narrow
                                                                                 TC
                                                                                    HO                                                               RAM Bikes and Repairs           4730 Magazine Street, 899-3576 and busy. Camp provides
                               "The Fly"                                               UP
                                                                                          ITO                                                        5115 Magazine, 666-2244         M-F 9:30-5, Sat 10-3           a wider, quieter back way
                                                                                              U   LAS                                                T-F 10-4:30                                                        to Magazine shops.
  Mi
    ss




                                                                                                                                                   Walgreens
             si
       is




                                                                                                                                                   5300 Tchoupitoulas, 899-0022
                               pp                                                                                                                  M-Sat 8-10; Sun 9-9
                                                                 iR                                                                   Oshman's
                                                                    iv   er                                                           5300 Tchoupitoulas, 895-7791                                                     Created by Joy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Bonaguro & Denice
                                                                                                                                      M-Sat 9-9; Sun 10-7                                                              Warren, August 2003
  Sources: Tulane Office of Environmental Affairs (bike resources), US Census (streets and river), ESRI StreetMap (landmarks)                                                                                          <www.gnocdc.org>
           25                         listed the expertise of Lt. Stanly Cosper, Sr. from Tulane Public Safety. Lt. Cosper is
                                      a certified Police Cycling instructor and teaches police cycling courses on Tulane’s
                                      campus. Our advisory committee took his course, and then recommended that we
                                      offer a shorter version of it to the general campus community.

                                                 In City Cycling 101, a four-hour time period is divided between an in-
Tips for Offering a Bicycle Safety Class         class session and an on-the-road portion for practicing the techniques
Make it fun. When you learn something            learned in the class. The topics of the in-class session focused on a video
that’s fun, it makes it easier and you re-       from the League of American Bicyclists, with some information on gen-
member it longer.                                eral maintenance and important safety equipment. Some students found
Hands-on is very important. Everyone is          the video to be too long and the least interactive of the in-class activi-
there to ride. Spending time in a park-          ties. Other students enjoyed it and were surprised by how much they
ing lot with cones gives participants a          learned.
challenge and allows them to learn skills
before hitting the streets.                      In the skills session of the on-the-road portion of the class, participants
 Ride as much as possible, and tailor the        learned how to make emergency turns, techniques for hopping curbs,
 ride to each group’s need. Ride where the       and emergency braking.
 students ride.
Enforce safety. Always wear your helmet
                                                 The feedback we received from participants indicated that the tour out-
and obey the rules of the road.                  side campus was popular, especially the conclusion of the ride when
                                                 participants and Lt. Cosper stopped for snowballs (the New Orleans ver-
To find qualified instructors, contact the       sion of a snow cone!). However, for some of the participants with more
League of American Bicyclists or the In-
                                                 experience, the road portion was too long and limited to already familiar
ternational Police Mountain Bike Associa-
tion.
                                                 places.

                                                 Lt. Cosper has a few points for those at other institutions for teaching a
                                              bicycle safety class. If possible, a Public Safety officer should be involved, so
                                      bicyclists learn the rules and laws from the people who enforce them.

                                      An ongoing problem with bicycle safety classes is getting people to sign up! Our
                                      first class was filled, but later classes had just a handful of people. It’s important
                                      to offer classes at the beginning of the semester, before students have mid-terms
                                      and major projects due. For future classes we have talked about offering weekend
                                      classes that would not interfere with people’s work and school schedules. For em-
                                                   ployees, a weekend ride for parents and kids might be attractive Parents
                                                   could attend the classroom part of the course over a lunch hour dur-
                                                   ing the week, then bring their children for a weekend ride. By working
                                                   with residence hall advisors (RAs) and other Housing & Residence Life
                                                   staff, the bike class could be offered as a social or health program for
                                                   students living in the dorms. We also hope to partner with our student
                                                   recreation center and the Wellness Program to have our class listed on
                                                   their schedule of programs. Presenting the class as a tour, as well a
                                                   safety class, may help boost attendance.

                                                   Bike-specific Advertising
                                                   Every campus has its traditional routes for advertising to students—
                                                   all-campus emails, student newspapers, information kiosks, depart-
                                                   mental electronic postings, etc. In our campaign we utilized several of
                                                   these resources, but found that they were insufficient when it came to
                                                  directly targeting people who use bicycles on campus. In addition to
                                      creating an email list of over 300 interested cyclists, we used some bike-specific
                                      advertising techniques.
Bike Flyers                                                                              26
We found bike flyering to be more effective than simply flyering at kiosks and
information boards around campus. This involved creating mini-flyers that could
be stapled to bike handlebars, thereby targeting only cyclists. For special events,
we made strip flyers (5/page) with information on front and back. The front had a
teaser message (ex. City Cycling 101: a free 4 hour workshop) and the back con-
tained specific information about the event or service.

Using 1-2 students, we would pick a one-hour slot when classes were in session
to flyer all of the bikes on campus. By working during a time when bicycles tend to
be stationary, we reduced the number of cyclists who got flyered twice. In order to
maintain the effectiveness of this type of advertising, we also chose to reserve bike
flyering for special events only. The last thing we wanted was to upset the cycling
community by bombarding them with unsolicited advertisements.

Chalking
Our campus permits advertising with chalk on campus sidewalks. We chalked near
bike racks and along bike routes for next-day events.

Bicycle Billboard
We would place a large sandwich-board type sign out in high-traffic areas to an-
nounce upcoming events. In the future, we would like to dedicate one bicycle to
advertising. This could anything from painting a bicycle in bright colors and hang-
ing an all-weather sign in the triangle of the frame, or putting on front or rear bas-
kets and creating a mobile kiosk of sorts, with flyers, brochures and sign-up lists.
The bike could be used as a ‘company car’ by project staff, or just parked at a high
volume bike rack on campus.
27
     Chapter 7
     Helmet Promotion at
     Colleges and Universities
     Our initial observations of bicyclists on campus found that helmet use was ex-
     tremely low—around 4-5%. Observations of bicyclists wearing helmets on the
     perimeter of campus were slightly higher at 8.5%. With our census figure of 1,300
     bicyclists on Tulane’s uptown campus, this meant that only 50-100 bicyclists us-
     ing our campus wear helmets.

     Almost everyone we spoke with expressed skepticism that college students would
     ever wear helmets, and for a while even our own student team members avoided
     working on helmet promotion. As we reviewed the literature and spoke with local
     and national authorities, we realized the need for creative ideas and some dedi-
                   cated effort promoting helmet use to college students. College stu-
                      dents are a large population of bicyclists who are responsible for
                      themselves for the first time in their lives, and they are forming
                      lifetime habits. While college students are notorious risk takers,
                      that doesn’t mean that we shouldn’t make an effort to help them
                      be safer on their bikes.

                       We began by investigating ways to make helmets easier to pur-
                       chase on campus, offering discounts, or developing a special uni-
                       versity-branded helmet. As we talked with potential partners,
                       many were very helpful but extremely skeptical. We realized that
                       we needed to take a step back and start by talking directly with
                       students about their helmet preferences, and by working to en-
                       sure that local shops had an appropriate selection available. We
                       needed to try to grow the number of helmet-wearing bicyclists
                       on campus from an extreme minority to a moderate minority.
                       Students don’t want to stand out, so it needs to be more routine
                    to see helmeted bicyclists on and near campus. After looking at
     the literature and much discussion, we developed a very simple positive enforce-
     ment program to begin to make bicycle helmets more visible on campus. We
     also worked on reducing the time and monetary barriers to acquiring helmets by
     offering cheap helmets for sale on campus and encouraging local shops to carry
     appropriate stock.

     What Students Think about Bicycle Helmets
     We ran a focus group in a Tulane residence hall to learn more about why Tulane
     students don’t wear bicycle helmets, and what might motivate them to wear
     them. We worked with a resident advisor to set it up and publicize it to the
     students, and served them all pizza. Because the resident advisors are required to
     offer a health and wellness program for the students living on their floor, our focus
     group gave them a new and easy program to offer. Twelve undergraduate students
     (eight men and four women) participated.

     Of the twelve students, ten didn’t own a helmet and only three had worn a helmet
     the last time they rode a bike. One wore a helmet “because in California it is the
     law.” When asked to explain a situation in which they would definitely wear a
helmet, the students answered: “riding down a mountain,” “doing tricks,” “after a                         28
friend had an accident,” “on the street,” “if I was just biking,” and “in areas of high
police.” When asked to explain a situation in which they definitely
would NOT wear a helmet, they answered: “riding to class in the
morning,” “anytime I’m not on a motorbike,” “when you don’t feel
you’ll be put into danger.”

Those who said they would never wear a helmet explained: “I felt
ridiculous,” “not for leisure, (it) takes away from the relaxing,” “I
would want to lock the helmet to the bike,” “helmets would draw
too much attention,” “unless I know I might get hurt.”

We brought in examples of the exact models that are sold in the
stores around campus to gather information about which specific
features students liked and disliked. Of the helmets we showed
them, they unanimously disliked the inexpensive helmet that had
white styrofoam showing, calling it “goofy.” Their favorite helmets
were light gray and dark gray. Response to a bright red “skater-
style” helmet was split—some really liked it, some thought that
red was too bright. We also asked “how many colors would you
need to decide on a helmet?” The women in the group said that the optimal number
of color choices is five; the men felt like they could choose from two or three. One
said “I might want my helmet to match my bike.”

From the discussion, we noticed a trend of students saying they would wear a hel-
met if they felt like they were going into a dangerous situation or if they had a friend
who had been in an accident. The students all agreed that they did not want to call
attention to themselves by wearing a helmet. One young man equated wearing a
helmet to being dressed as a circus clown.

Helmet Literature Review
Reviewing the literature on helmet promotion, we found that few studies of the ef-
fectiveness of helmet promotion programs included bicyclists over age sixteen. The
studies available for adults associated with bicycle helmet use are largely limited
to studies of the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in injury prevention. From the
literature on children, we learned that providing helmets had little effect on the
likelihood of usage; however, the literature showed that positive reinforcement had
influenced an increase in helmet usage.3

Local Availability
Student team members visited local bicycle and sporting goods stores to see what
styles and colors of helmets were available near campus. They wrote up their ob-


3
 There is an excellent overview of studies of the effectiveness of bicycle helmet education programs on
the website of the Harborview Injury Prevention & Research Center. “Best Practices: Bicycle Injuries”
Harborview Injury Prevention & Research Center <http://depts.washington.edu/hiprc/practices/topic/bi-
cycles/index.html>
A.N. Kim, F.P. Rivara, and T.D. Koepsell. “Does Sharing the Cost of a Bicycle Helmet Help Promote
Hel-met Use?” Injury Prevention 3, no. 1 (1997): 38-42.
P.C. Parkin, X. Hu, L.J. Spence, K.E. Kranz, L.G. Short, and D.E. Wesson, “Evaluation of a Subsidy Pro-
gram to Increase Bicycle Helmet Use by Children of Low-income Families,” Pediatrics 96 (1995): 283-
287.
P. Rouzier and V.A. Alto, “Evolution of a Successful Community Bicycle Helmet Campaign,” Journal of
the American Board of Family Practice 8, no. 4 (1995): 283-287,
                             29                                           servations in a “Helmet Shopping Guide” that we posted on our website. We hope
                                                                          that the guide will make it easier for campus bicyclists who do want to buy a helmet
                                                                          to find a helmet they like to wear, and that it will give our local bike shops greater
                                                                                     visibility. The Helmet Shopping Guide also offers some gentle feedback
                                                                                     on how the shops are doing in the areas the student team members
                                                                                     thought were important—price, available styles and sizes, and attention
                                                                                     to helmet fit. During their visits to the bicycle shops, the students had
                                                                                     a chance to talk with the store owners and managers about promoting
                                                                                     student helmet use.

                                                                                    The students had some interesting observations about the selection and
                                                                                    display of helmets in the local stores. They noted that there tended to
                                                                                    be just one or two models (and sometimes just one color) available in
                                                                                    the lower price range ($30), and that the largest selection of styles and
                                                                                    colors were in the more expensive models for serious bicyclists. They
                                                                                    also noted that helmets were often displayed in unattractive ways, and
                                                                                    were sometimes even hard to find. As we develop the program further,
                                                                                    it will be important to inform local bike shops of our findings of student
                                                                                    likes and dislikes, to help them choose an inventory of helmets that best
                                                                          appeals to college students.

                                                                          Incorporating Bicycle Helmets into a University’s Images
                                                                          We arranged a photo shoot with our university photographer to take pictures of
                                                                          faculty and staff bicyclists wearing helmets and riding their bikes in safe ways,
                                                                          which helped us begin to develop a portfolio of pictures. As the university often
                                                                          uses photos of bicyclists in its campus publications and website, working with
                                                                          the university photographer is an extremely important step in normalizing campus
                                                                          helmet use. Some of the pictures have already been used in university publica-
                                                                          tions. We developed the home page of our website to use multiple photographs of
                                                                          helmet-wearing bicyclists in surprising ways, to present students with images of
                                                                          bicyclists wearing helmets of all shapes and colors as they read through the site.

                                                                          A Positive Reinforcement Program: Project Donut
                                                                          Project Donut evolved from the team’s earlier work on the bicycle master plan
                                                                          for New Orleans. One of our suggestions in the education chapter was to use in-
                                                                                         centive coupons to reward children for wearing their helmets. As
                                                                                         we brainstormed ideas with our advisory committee for a helmet
                                                                                                 BikeTulane




                                                                                         promotion campaign on campus, we returned to the incentive cou-
                                                Project                                  pon idea. We discussed several possible plans, including handing
                                                                                         out raffle tickets or coupons to helmet-wearing bicyclists. We ul-
                                                     Donut                               timately decided on a much simpler program with more immediate
                                                                                         gratification: we would hand out donuts to students wearing their
                                                                                         helmets on their way to class on Thursday mornings. We called
                                                                                         the campaign “Project Donut.”

                                                                                                              We gave out donuts to helmet-wearing bicyclists from 8-10 a.m.
                                                                                                              every Thursday in the same location for five weeks. Because this
                                                                                                              project is based on offering an immediate reward to people wearing
Under Stern Hall 8-10:30 am                                                                                   helmets, the first step is to choose a reward and then obtaining it.
   mmmmmmmmm… Doughnuts! Show us your bicycle                                                                 Donuts were an inexpensive choice, and, as a healthy alternative,
   helmet and get a free donut or other edible goodie on
   your way to class. We’ll be under Stern Hall 8-10:30    More info?   http://bike.tulane.edu                our local farmers’ market provided satsumas, a kind of tangerine
                                                                                                              grown in Louisiana.
The location of a reward-centered promotion should be a highly visible center with        30
a good deal of bicycle traffic flow. Our location was in the center of campus, in
front of one of the largest bike racks. Large signs announced “Wear a helmet, get
a donut.”

Along with the rewards and helmets, our booth had maps, an air pump, literature
on bicycling and safety, as well as information about how to be involved with the
bicycling activities on campus. We even had helmets on site that interested indi-
viduals could purchase. Over the five weeks of Project Donut we sold 12 helmets.
Many people stopped at the booth to get information about bicycle safety, to get
their tires filled with air, and even try on some helmets.

We tried to advertise the event in one new way every week. We used bike tags,
e-mail, campus newspapers, chalking, signs and banners. Simply having the event
at the same time on the same day makes it easier to promote and easier for people
to remember. Also, putting out a big sign at your location the day before helps to
remind bicyclists to wear their helmets.

One of the most important aspects of the booth is the people who work it. Ideally
there should be three working the booth: one person for data collection and two
(or more) to talk with bicyclists and people who stop for information. At least one
of the booth workers should be familiar with basic bicycle maintenance and fitting.
Asking people to volunteer to give out donuts is a great way to get them more
involved in your program.

Results
We used a modified version of the Bicycle Behavior Observation assessment at the
Project Donut location to measure helmet use at that place and time before, during
and after the donut giveaways. Over the five Thursdays of Project Donut, observed
helmet use grew almost every week, hitting a high of 20%. The numbers in red are
“Project Donut” days.

          Date           Helmets       Bicyclists     % Helmets        Temperature

 10/9/2003                   16            156            10.25              78
 10/16/2003                   6            129             4.65              68
 10/21/2003                   8            137             5.84              70
 10/23/20032                 20            119            16.81              74
                 3
 10/30/2003                  16            104            15.38              73
 11/6/2003                   28            173            16.18              76
 11/13/2003                  27            160            16.88              66
 11/20/2003                  28            134            20.9               68
 12/4/2003                     9           120              7.5              60
 2
     These results are not as accurate because of observer changes and incomplete data.
 3
     These results are not as accurate because of observer changes and incomplete data.

There was an increase in observed helmet usage at the site of Project Donut during
the time and days that we gave out donuts. However, helmet usage at the same
time and location dropped by the next count, exactly two weeks after the project
ended. When we repeated Project Donut for a month the following semester, hel-
met use was 17-24%.
             31                        Thus it is hard to tell whether the program changed behavior. We may have been
                                       attracting all the helmet-wearing bicyclists to this area of campus, rather that get-
                                       ting helmets on students and employees who hadn’t worn them before. We have
                                       to do more future observations of bicyclist’s behavior to see if the helmet use has
                                       increased. The project did succeed, however, in bringing together a critical mass of
                                       helmet-using cyclists a few days out of the month.

                                       Numbers aside, this project was an inexpensive and easy way to plaster the words
                                       “bicycle” and “helmet” over campus sidewalks, bulletin boards and listserves. For
                                       example, having the Tulane Daily News—the daily email news item sent to all cam-
                                       pus email accounts—dedicated to a bicycle helmets gives it a stamp of authority
                                       and reaches thousands of people, even if only briefly. We could have increased the
                                       exposure of the event by inviting a television morning crew to attend.

                                       It is also fairly safe to assume that Project Donut has brought levity to our week.
                                       We believe that it is good for the team to work on an occasional project that is in-
                                       herently silly. Project Donut increased the belief of one student team member that
                                                 cyclists will wear helmets if it is socially accepted and rewarded.
      Pros and Cons of Project Donut
                                                     Increasing Helmet Availability & Appeal
Advantages
   Inexpensive - about $22/week
                                                     Our advisory committee made several excellent suggestions for mak-
   Easy to set up.
                                                     ing helmets available to purchase on campus, and targeting helmet
   An opportunity to talk to bicyclists and
                                                     designs towards Tulane students. After investigating the logistics of
   interested community members                      setting up these programs, we thought they would be excellent proj-
   It’s fun.                                         ect for later in the program. We need to raise helmet use on campus
   An opportunity to sell helmets.                   to a higher level before we can ensure bicycle helmet vendors a large
                                                     enough consumer base for special sales and promotions. In all of your
Disadvantages                                        university helmet sales and promotions, remember that faculty and
   The project takes time away from student          staff will be interested in buying helmets for their children.
   workers for other bicycle planning tasks.
   Not conclusive: 5 weeks is not enough time        University-branded Bicycle Helmets
   to definitively say whether the increase in
   bicyclists wearing helmets had anything           New designs require a run of several hundred to several thousand.
   to do with Project donut or was a result of       Creating a helmet in university colors with a university logo may be
   weather changes and other circumstances.          feasible for larger universities, particularly large public universities
   Requires promotion to attract people to it.       with athletic programs that have a state-wide fan base. Our Associ-
                                                     ate Athletic Director thought that the age group that would be most
                                                     interested in university-branded bicycle helmets would be children
                                                   and teenagers, ages 6-16. University licensing adds to the cost.

                                       Special Sales on Campus
                                       Current on-campus stores lack the space and expertise to sell helmets. A special
                                       sale in a visible location could sell a large number of helmets and lights. Trained stu-
                                       dents could assist with fitting. To implement, we need to find dealer/local shop that
                                       can offer a good selection and accept credit card purchases at the campus sale. We
                                       are also investigating the possibility of working directly with an outside vendor.

                                       Offering Discounted Helmets at Local Bike Shops
                                       Publicizing discounts at local bike shops would take advantage of both the uni-
                                       versity’s promotional powers and the existing delivery systems of local retailers.
                                       However, student team members were skeptical that students would make a trip
                                       off campus to purchase a helmet, even with a coupon, and local bike shops were
                                       hesitant to order helmets in larger than usual quantities.
Some Final Thoughts on College Helmet Promotion Campaigns                               32
Making bicycle helmets the first and/or only component of your bicycle safety cam-
paign is sure to turn off college students. Yet your campaign has a responsibility to
ensure that a good selection of reasonably priced helmets is available to students
at your university, and that students are reminded in creative and thoughtful ways
to wear helmets. Project Donut was an easy and inexpensive way to start to bring
a key bicycle safety message to college students. It enlisted enthusiastic bicyclists
to help educate others by setting a good example. It also helped us recast a very
difficult issue into a playful challenge.

Bicyclists gave us many suggestions for helmet promotion as they picked up their
donuts, which we will be pursuing in the future. One resource to consult as you
design your campus helmet promotion is the Bicycle Helmet Campaign Guide avail-
able on the web site of the Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute. It has resources for
designing campaigns for all age groups, includes a small section dedicated to adult
campaigns, and has a list of sources of inexpensive helmets. Some of the informa-
tion dates back to 1987, but it still presents an excellent outline of how to start
a helmet campaign. You can find the Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute at www.bhsi.
org.
33
     CONCLUSION
     BICYCLE SAFETY AND CAMPUS
     PLANNING
     During the course of this program, we became conscious of the particular problems
     a university campus infrastructure creates for teaching bicycle safety. In many plac-
     es our campus infrastructure inadvertently teaches unsafe behavior. It often forces
     or encourages students to ride their bikes in unsafe and illegal ways. For example,
     the easiest route for bicyclists to take through campus is a one-way street, which
     they bike in both directions! And no with clear policies about bikes on campus
     sidewalks, student bicyclists may get the mistaken idea that bikes belong on side-
     walks, rather than on the street. Until we improve and clarify the bicycle routes and
     policies on our campus, bicyclists will regularly see people riding in unsafe ways.
     Addressing these infrastructure needs will make the campus safer, and it will make
     the campus a better place to learn to ride and drive safely. In the next step of our
     program, we are tackling this directly, working with our campus planner to identify
     problem areas and potential long term solutions.

     Infrastructure is hard to change. On our campus it might mean replacing some of
     the most convenient parking spaces with a bike lane. But by conducting the edu-
              cation and assessment program outlined in this toolkit, we are now in a
              much better position to ask for infrastructure changes. We have data on
              the number of bicyclists on campus, and our program has contributed to
              a growing enthusiasm for bicycling. By starting with a safety program we
              gained the trust of the university, so we can now address all the compo-
              nents of a bicycle-friendly campus.

             After one year, the program outlined in this toolkit has raised awareness
             of bicycles and bicycle safety on campus. Around 7,000 drivers of vehicles
             received information on how to share the road safely with bicyclists; many
             commented that they hadn’t known that bicycles belong on the streets.
             Our program has resulted in a modest increase in helmet usage, the most
             easily measured indicator of safe bicycling behavior.

              It has set the stage for future bicycle programs, as future students can
     update and build upon its materials and projects. Our program has initiated part-
     nerships and conversations about bicycle safety with many university offices and
     programs, with local bike shops, and with local public agencies. Because we made
     an effort to reach out to so many different offices and people, we made discoveries
     and were given ideas that we wouldn’t have thought of on our own. We found allies
     and enthusiasts all over campus and in surprising places.

     Finally, having students as collaborators and innovators was essential to the suc-
     cess of this program. Undergraduate and graduate students are creative educators
     and excellent critics of education programs. They have the research, writing, speak-
     ing and computer skills needed to create materials or publicize an event, and they
     benefit a great deal from the opportunity to develop these talents while working
     within a real campaign. As equal partners and collaborators, students develop as
     leaders, problem-solvers and active citizens. After graduation, they will bring an
     understanding of bicycle safety and transportation issues to the communities in
     which they work and live.
         HISTORY OF THE NEW ORLEANS                                                     34


            MPO/TULANE PARTNERSHIP
Tulane University is a leading private research university located in New Orleans,
Louisiana. Its 13,000 undergraduate and graduate students pursue degrees in ar-
chitecture, business, engineering, law, liberal arts and sciences, medicine, public
health and tropical medicine, and social work. The Regional Planning Commission
for Jefferson, Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard and St. Tammany Parishes (RPC) is
the Metropolitan Planning Organization for the New Orleans urbanized area. The
RPC began a mutually beneficial relationship with Tulane University several years
prior to receipt of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration grant applica-
tion that funded this report.

It is helpful to note that staff and students at the Center for Bioenvironmental Re-
search at Tulane University had already completed a citywide bicycle map. At the
same time the Regional Planning Commission was embarking on updating the 1993
regional master bicycle plan. The Tulane bicycle initiative was asked to conduct
research on the New Orleans Metropolitan Bicycle and Pedestrian Master Plan for
the Regional Planning Commission.

The NHTSA application was a joint effort based on a working relationship and
earlier partnership. It tapped Tulane University’s educational expertise and the Re-
gional Planning Commission’s familiarity with federal programs and grant writing, a
ten year work history to plan and build bike paths, and overall credibility garnered
as the Metropolitan Planning Organization for the region.




                                             BikeTulane
35
     Sample Annual Budget

     An academic year budget for each of the major projects described in this toolkit.
     Assumes 3 student workers, and staff time for supervision. These estimates are
     for a university campus with 2,800 employees, 7,800 undergraduates and 3,100
     graduate and professional students, and 1,300 estimated bicyclists.


     Staff/Faculty Coordination
       Program Manager, 5 hours/week for 8 months                               $2,840
     Student Employees
       Undergraduate, 24 weeks, 7 hours/week, $7.50/hour                        $1,260
       Undergraduate with work-study 75% match provided by Federal                 316
          Work Study
       Graduate Student, 24 weeks, 7 hours/week, $8.50/hour                      1,428
     Fringe1
       Staff (23.8%)                                                             $674
       Undergraduate (4.10%)                                                       52
       Undergraduate with work-study (4.10%)                                       12
       Graduate student (4.10%)                                                    68
     General
      Supplies (markers, posterboard, miscellaneous copies)                      $100
      Digital Camera                                                              350
      Lunch for advisory committee (2 lunch meetings at $120 each)                240
     Assessment
      3,000 “dot” labels for catch and release census                              $17
      Online survey services                                                    varies
     City Cycling Class (offered 4 times)
       Bike Flyers (150 double-sided photocopies, 900 total flyers, once           $50
          each semester)
       Instructor (4, four-hour classes)                                           800
     Drivers Brochure
      Printing (7,000 copies, double-sided, color)                              $1,066
      Parking permit prize (varies by campus)                                    varies
     Bike Resource Map
       Cartography                                                               $500
       Photocopying (2,000 copies)                                                100
     Helmet Education (Project Donut)
      Bike Flyers (150 double-sided photocopies, 900 total flyers                  $28
      Donuts (4 dozen/week for 4 weeks)                                             88
      Satsuma Oranges (2 dozen/week for 4 weeks)                                    24
     Total Program                                                             $10,013

      1
          ”Fringe” covers employee benefits, such as social security or
           health insurance. It is often budgeted as a percentage of salary.
           A 23% fringe means that for every dollar salary budgeted, 23.8
           cents must be budgeted for fringe.
                                                                                        36
                                    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Funding for this program was provided by the National Highway Traffic Safety Ad-
ministration through a grant program supporting initiatives to implement the Na-
tional Strategies for Advancing Bicycle Safety.

The programs described in this toolkit were created by a working group of Tulane
University students and staff: Audrey Warren, Adam Davidson, Alexandra Cerven-
ka, Dan Jatres, Jeff Hammond, and Sharon Sanchez; Lt. Stanley Cosper, Sr., Tulane
Public Safety; and Dr. Liz Davey, Office of Environmental Affairs and Center for Bio-
environmental Research. The Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and
Xavier Universities gave our program a home. Jim Harvey and Karen Parsons were
our partners at the New Orleans Regional Planning Commission; they provided
broad programmatic guidance and sound advice.

Many individuals contributed their talents and ideas to this program. We deeply
appreciate your assistance, and we enjoyed working with you!

Tulane University Bicycle Advisory Committee:
     Nikki Adame, Environmental Law Society
     Linda Carroll, French and Italian
     Frank Currie, Human Resources
     Mic Dancisak, Exercise & Sports Sciences
     Steven James, Tulane College
     Kim Koster, Office of the Dean, Liberal Arts and Sciences
     Nicole Learson, Tulane University Interdisciplinary Experiences
     Randall Legeai, Government Affairs
     Amanda Rittenhouse, University Communications

Partners who provided key assistance in implementing projects:
     Yannis Vassilopoulos, Computer Operations Core, Center for Bioenvi-
     ronmental Research
     Choots de Gracia, General Clinical Research Center
     Paula Burch, University Photography
     Denice Warren and Joy Bonaguro, Greater New Orleans Community
     Data Center
     Ken Dupaquier, Tulane Public Safety
     Adam Watts, Adam’s Bicycle World
     Billy Ruddy, GNO Cyclery
     Bill Fry, Bell Sports
     Joseph Wilde-Ramsing, Political Science
     Rob Hailey and Kelly Carroll, Auxiliary Services

Toolkit Reviewers:
     Karen Parsons, Regional Planning Commission
     Susan Kirinich, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
     Kerry Chausmer, Louisiana Safe Kids
     Harritz Ferrando, Bicicleta Club de Catalunya
     Mark Schulz, Department of Public Health Education, University of
     North Carolina-Greensboro

And special thanks to Tulane University President Scott Cowen.

								
To top