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Higher Education Bicycle Safety for Colleges and Universities Tulane University Office of Environmental Affairs Regional Planning Commission Jefferson, Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard and St. Tammany Parishes New Orleans, Louisiana July 2004 This document was prepared by: Audrey Warren, Adam Davidson, Alexandra Cervenka and Liz Davey Tulane University Office of Environmental Affairs 104 Alcee Fortier Hall New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 Karen Parsons, AICP Regional Planning Commission 1340 Poydras Street, Suite 2100 New Orleans, Louisiana 70112 The preparation of this document was made possible through a grant from the U.S. Department of Transpor- tation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. CONTENTS 1 Grant Identifier 2 Ten Easy Actions to Promote Bicycle Safety on Campus 3 Why Bicycle Safety at Colleges and Universities? 4 Chapter 1 Getting Started 8 Chapter 2 Planning Your Program 13 Chapter 3 Assessments and Evaluation 19 Chapter 4 Educating Everyone 21 Chapter 5 Educating Drivers 23 Chapter 6 Educating Bicyclists 27 Chapter 7 Helmet Promotion 33 Chapter 8 Conclusion 34 History of the Partnership 35 Sample Annual Budget 36 Acknowledgements 1 NEW ORLEANS METROPOLITAN BICYCLE SAFETY PARTNERSHIP PILOT PROGRAM NHTSA Grant #DTHN22-02-H-55097 This toolkit for was produced under the auspices of a grant to the Regional Plan- ning Commission for Jefferson, Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard and St. Tam- many Parishes (RPC), the Metropolitan Planning Organization for the New Orleans urbanized area, from the Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration grant program supporting initiatives to implement the Na- tional Strategies for Advancing Bicycle Safety in accordance with the Transporta- tion Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998). From the perspective of public agencies wishing to advance bicycle safety policies, targeting colleges and universities makes sense. Colleges and universities generally have a higher proportion of cyclists than the general population, and outreach and planning are easier to tackle because they have a densely assembled population of riders and well-established internal communication networks. Increasingly public sector goals are focused on reducing cycling fatalities and injuries, which occur most frequently within the metropolitan rather than rural areas. College campuses represent organized, mature communities integrated within the metropolitan fab- ric that are easily approached and whose administration is familiar with building partnerships. A college or university bicycle safety program may be a good place to a begin bicycle safety program in your community if you do not already have one. It will support and complement many public sector safety goals and many lessons learned may be replicated in other institutional venues. This toolkit is one resource that MPOs and other public agencies can offer universi- ties and other institutions as they seek to build partnerships to enhance bicycle safety in their community. James H. Harvey Program Manager Karen Parsons Program Coordinator TEN EASY ACTIONS TO PROMOTE 2 BICYCLE SAFETY ON CAMPUS Form a working group to implement bicycle safety education projects on your campus. Use the Catch & Release Bike Census to measure the number of bicy- clists you have on your campus, and the Bicycle Behavior Observation to measure their safety practices as they ride. Contact your Metropolitan Planning Organization or local bicycle plan- ner for information about bicycle planning and education efforts in your area. Work with your Parking Office to distribute information about sharing the road safely with bicyclists with your university parking permits. Create a Bicycle Resource Map that stealthily delivers some simple rules for safe bicycling. Visit your local bicycle shops, check out their selection of bicycle helmets and lights, and talk with them about ways to work together to promote the use of lights and helmets. Work with your Public Safety department to offer a basic bicycle safety course at the beginning of each semester. Meet with your university photographer and publications director to tell them about your campaign, the basic rules of bicycle safety, and offer to help stage photo shoots of bicyclists riding right on your campus. Use a simple, positive encouragement event like “Project Donut” to begin to communicate the important of helmet use on campus. Take your Campus Planner on a bicycle tour of your campus. Offer to help identify a system of safe bicycle routes on your campus and make needed improvements. 3 WHY BICYCLE SAFETY AT COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES? Many college students rely on a bicycle as their main form of transportation. Some are banned from bringing a car to campus, and some can’t afford to own, insure and park a car. Some choose to bike because it is a quick and convenient way to get around campus and the surrounding neighborhoods. Students come to college from communities that may or may not have had good bicycle safety education programs. Many student bicyclists are returning to bicycling after a few years of driving the family car. They can benefit a great deal from some consistent, helpful reminders as they raise their seat posts and get rolling on their bikes again. Because college students are young adults in the process of creating life-long skills and habits, they will carry the lessons of your program into the future. Any students you involve in the implementation of your bicycle safety pro- gram will bring an understanding of bicycle and alternative transporta- tion to their professional and civic lives. A university bicycle safety education program can also reach beyond the university campus and nearby neighborhoods to help to create a community where bicycles can safely share the road. College and uni- versities are large employers with strong communication networks. The bicycle safety messages you communicate on your campuses will ripple throughout your community, as staff and faculty take them home, apply- ing them to driving and bicycling in their own neighborhoods. And finally, a bicycle safety education program is the foundation of any university bicycle enforcement or encouragement program. Before you can ticket a bicyclist for illegal riding or a motorist for endangering a cyclist, you must make information on how to ride and drive responsibly available on your campus. Before you can encourage people to give up their parking space and ride a bike, you have to give them some guidance on how to ride safely. This toolkit outlines a year-long process of creating and implementing a bicycle safety program at Tulane University, located in New Orleans, Louisiana. With a grant from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the assis- tance of our Metropolitan Planning Organization, the Regional Planning Com- mission, we spent a year brainstorming, planning and implementing a bicycle safety campaign for our campus. This toolkit outlines the entire process—from assessing the behaviors of bicyclists in and around campus to forming an advisory committee to running projects. You may find it easi- est to start with one or two of the projects described in this toolkit. As one of the student authors described, we see it as a “bicycle safety buffet”—take as much or a little as you see fit for your campus. CHAPTER 1 GETTING STARTED 4 Starting a campus-wide bicycle safety program may be an intimidating project at first. In a short survey of Public Safety Officers from other campuses in New Or- leans, many wrote that a bicycle safety education program would be worthwhile to reduce parking demand and to improve safety and access around campus. However, they cited some key barriers to starting a program: There is no organized interest group to develop the program. There is a lack of information on how to get started. A bicycle safety program is a low administrative priority. There is a lack of secure bicycle parking. There is a lack of safe systems of bicycle routes off and on campus. This chapter presents strategies for handling some of these initial barriers and get- ting started. Forming a Working Group Regardless of whether your project will be run by volunteers or paid employees, it is essential that there is one cohesive working group to take the lead on designing and implementing the bicycle safety campaign. Our core working group was a team of 3-4 paid student employees and two university staff members—an environmen- tal programs coordinator and a Public Safety officer. We met regularly for one hour each week to review the previous week’s work, make planning decisions, and assign tasks. Students worked an additional 5-10 hours per week on Potential College or University Bicycle various aspects of the program. Safety Education Program Partners The involvement of your campus Public Safety office in the planning and Public Safety implementation process is crucial. Campus police are already regularly in- Student Affairs/Dean of Students office teracting with bicyclists around issues of enforcement and bicycle theft. It University Communications is the department that people think of when they think of bicycle safety. Environmental Health & Safety When we asked “Where would you go to get bicycle safety information?” Environmental Sustainability office on our online survey, 47% of people spontaneously wrote in “Public Safe- Exercise and Sports Sciences ty” or “Tulane Police.” The next highest response was “I don’t know.” Environmental Studies Some large universities have offices that deal exclusively with Parking and Urban Planning and Architecture Transportation Services; these departments are also obvious homes for Public Health bicycle safety education programs. Your working group should include a staff or faculty member who has experi- ence in education, communication and/or programming. In our case, this person was the campus Environmental Coordinator, a staff person who promotes efforts to make the university more environmentally-sound. The Dean of Students’ office and University Communications (your publications and/or public relations department) have the most experience communicating to students and employees. You may also find a potential partner in an academic department that has an interest in urban planning, public health, or environmental sustainability. We have found that paid student team members are essential to a successful pro- gram. Students have great ideas, diverse skills, and come from different corners of the university, country, and world. Working on a bicycle safety education program 5 gives them an opportunity to develop leadership skills and valuable experience with project management. Creating student positions in bicycle safety education also helps train the next generation of bicycle planners and educators. Hiring the stu- dents as employees recognizes that they are providing a needed service to the university, and it raises the level of professionalism of the team. Ad- ditionally, because the demands of school create the need to continuously reprioritize responsibilities, you will have more consistent participation in the project if the students’ involvement is more than just an extracur- ricular activity. If funding issues prevent you from hiring students, then consider having their efforts count towards class credit or projects. As your team works together, you will start to divide and delegate the routine work of keeping a program going. One staff person served as our group coordinator. She called and ran the meetings, handled the stu- dents’ timesheets, got the bills paid, and reviewed all written materials. The Public Safety officer attended working group meetings as his changing shift schedule allowed, and taught all of our bicycle safety classes. Creating Student Positions and Supervising Students To find student employees, we wrote a job description, publicized it widely through student listserves and with flyers, received letters of interest, and conducted in- terviews. We selected students based on their experience, the thoughtfulness and creativity of their ideas for improving bicycle safety, and their enthusiasm. Out of this process, we have a team of students majoring in a variety of disciplines—Po- litical Science, Environmental Studies, Public Health, Architecture, and American Studies—that all pertain to bicycle policy, planning and education. Students are placed on the payroll through our student employment office, with a wage of $7.50/hour for undergraduates; $8.50 for graduate students. It costs at most $600 a semester to pay a student employee, $150 for students with Work- Study as part of their financial aid package. Each student establishes a regular schedule for 5-10 hours of work in our office, and works some extra hours as needed for events and classes. The working group meets once a week for an hour. We report on progress and del- egate tasks for the upcoming week; we also discuss and decide major policy issues and strategies. In between, we communicate with each other via email. A few tips for creating student teams: Giving the student members the title of “Student Bicycling Planning Spe- cialist” or “Bicycle Education Specialist” gives them an official, describ- able role in the program, and it will look good on a resume. Require students to immediately establish a schedule of at least 5 hours a week when they will be in the office working. Students will get things done faster and do better quality work when in an office at a regular time, with someone nearby to answer questions. Provide students with a workspace and computer, which they can share. They need internet access, and basic software for creating documents, presentations, and spreadsheets. Get everyone’s schedule at the beginning of the semester, and set a time for a regular weekly working group meetings. If you do not schedule a regular meeting time, you will spend more time setting up meeting times 6 than getting work done. Meet Your President To secure university administration’s support for our program, we met with Tulane University President Scott Cowen to brief him on the project. To arrange the meet- ing, we sent him an email describing the project and requesting a meeting. He re- plied that he would meet with us, and we arranged the meeting with his assistant. At the meeting, the students in our working group briefly summarized our work to date, described the current state of bicycling and bicycle safety on campus, and gave him a general overview of our plan for educating the campus about the basics of bicycle safety. He had several questions about bicycling on campus, and asked us about the early results of our assessments of numbers of bicyclists on campus. He agreed to help us recruit advisory committee members by sending a letter of endorsement of the project under his signature. He also suggested two additional advisory committee members. He gave his blessing to sending an all-campus email about the project out on “Tulane Daily News,” an email listserve that sends a brief campus news item to the entire Tulane community every day. It is valuable to the team and the advisory committee to know that the initiative has the support of the university president. His endorsement helps people recog- nize bicycle safety as a significant university issue (as opposed to a special inter- est group or recreational program). As team member Audrey Warren describes, “It planted a seed.” Contact Local Bicycle Planners As you get started, you should identify and contact the bicycle planners in your local and regional government to learn as much as possible about the status of bi- cycling routes and safety issues in the community. Let them know of your interest in promoting bicycle safety, and ask them about bicycle planning in your region, existing local bicycle safety resources and potential partnerships that might help your effort. We worked closely with our Metropolitan Planning Organization. Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) are regional boards that set local policy on “region- ally significant” transportation issues. They exist in urbanized areas with popula- tions of over 50,000. The MPO formulates the transportation plan for the region and prioritizes projects for motorized and non-motorized transportation. They are selected by the local jurisdictions, certified by the state and derive their authority from the federal transportation program established under the Transportation Equity Act of the 21st Century (TEA 21) and its predecessor the Intermodal Surface Transportation Ef- ficiency Act (ISTEA). Their ties to various local, state, and federal agencies make MPOs especially helpful collabora- tors. Generally, MPOs are known for evaluating and planning transportation projects that require capital investment, es- pecially infrastructure projects. However, they are increasingly recognizing that bicycle education is a part of fulfilling their mission to reduce congestion, reduce pollution, and improve the health and quality of life of the com- munity. Bicycle safety education and improved law enforcement are critical ingre- 7 dients for increasing bicycle use and reducing incidents. Safety education and law enforcement programs must be implemented as the physical network of bike routes and paths is expanded and the bicycle miles traveled increases. Metropolitan Plan- ning Organizations can fund planning efforts and capital projects that support local organizations with a role to play in bicycle safety. If you live in a rural area, you may have a multi-county regional commission en- abled under state law to create regional development plans. They are called Plan- ning and Development Districts (PDD’s). They have broad jurisdiction to do plan- ning in the areas of economic development, land use, transportation, housing, and the environment. Their geographical districts cover the entire state and include the urbanized areas. Both the MPO and the PDD are central clearinghouses for federal- aid funding for eligible transportation projects, and they work with other state, federal and local agencies in planning and developing programs. If you live in a city, you may also have a bicycle planner or coordinator in your city government. Also, every state is required to have a Bicycle and Pedestrian Coordi- nator. They are usually located in Department of Transportation. This person may be able to update you on bicycle planning and safety initiatives in your area, and direct you to local planners who may be of assistance. Your local planner may modify their planning initiatives and projects in ways to support your efforts. In some cases no city or regional bicycle plan may exist or it may inadequately address the different components of bicycle safety (education, enforcement, engineering and evaluation). Should this be the case, you have an opportunity to help formulate public policy through your involvement with local and regional government. You can encourage a bicycling component in your local transportation plan, or work to expand the policies put forth in your current city, regional or state bicycle plan. Building a Program Expect to start small and to grow. Our program began with an enthusiastic staff person and two freshmen—none of whom had any experience in bicycle safety or planning. Each project that we did helped us find people who wanted to contrib- ute their expertise. Each project that we did attracted more interested bicyclists and more ideas and resources for future projects. A large number of the projects described in this toolkit involved talking with on-campus entities such as Public Safety, the bookstore, Campus Recreation, and University Communications. The gradual growth of the program and campus bicycling allowed time for key campus organizations to get familiar with the idea of bicycle safety education and to begin to address bicycling and bicycle safety in their own planning. CHAPTER 2 8 PLANNING YOUR PROGRAM In the beginning of your program, you have to go through some process of brain- storming potential projects and deciding what you are going to do. It could be a simple as reading this toolkit and choosing one or two activities to do on your campus this semester, or it could be a more comprehensive brainstorming and plan- ning process that brings together representatives from all over campus to help you create and prioritize projects. Defining Your Message As a first step, your team must decide on the key points you want your bicycle safety education campaign to communicate. Beginning our planning phase with a discussion of the basic messages we wanted to communicate ensured that our ma- terials and activities were focused and consistent. It also brought out our different perspectives and pushed us to keep discussing and researching until we could all agree on a simple list of key points that we wanted everyone on campus to know. We started by looking at state drivers’ manuals and exemplary bicycle educational materials to gather ideas about key topics in share-the-road education campaigns. Then we discussed these education points in the context of our local con- cerns. For example, in New Orleans there is a common misconception about whether a bicyclist should ride with or against traffic. Cyclists are often Tulane University spotted riding against traffic, even on busy streets. So we choose one of our Bike Safety Campaign Messages target points to be “Ride on the right, in the direction of traffic”. In other We want to teach bicyclists to cities, this may not be a problem. Ride on the right side of the road. Ride with lights at night. Our target points are very simple, with four strategic messages each for bi- Wear a helmet. cyclists and motor vehicle drivers. We felt that with the amount of resourc- es available to implement the campaign, we would be able to adequately Ride predictably. address all eight points using various media outlets and intervention tech- We want to teach drivers to niques. Of course this means that we could not focus on every safe riding/ Acknowledge that cyclists have the right safe driving issue that we wanted to, but through the process of choosing to ride on the road. our education points, we came to a consensus about which topics were Give room and slow down when passing most relevant to our campus. It is important to know that we emphasized cyclists. how to ride, as well as the use of safety equipment like helmets and lights. Check for cyclists before opening doors. Check for bikes before turning left or Bicycle Advisory Committee right or backing up. Because our program was a pilot program, it needed to involve university members in an active way by giving them a voice in our planning process and a stake in our projects. We created a Bicycle Advisory Committee composed of stu- dents, faculty, and staff from a variety of departments that could effectively com- municate messages about bicycle safety with the university community at large. To get started, we brainstormed a list of potential people and departments that influence the bicycle safety culture on campus. We sent invitation letters to these individuals or to the Chairs/Directors of the offices or departments, asking them to participate or send a representative. The President’s office also set a letter encour- aging them to participate. In some instances the Chair or Director appointed an enthusiastic bicyclist on their staff or faculty. 9 To get the committee started, we prepared a presentation that gave some back- ground, introduced ourselves, and presented our basic message—the four points we wanted to communicate to drivers, the four points we wanted to communicate to bicyclists. We also gave some background on projects underway at the regional and state level to improve bicycle safety. The last slide was titled “What’s Needed? Ideas!” The presentation helped focus the committee on brainstorming ideas for a campus education campaign. From here the committee took off, with over an hour of discussion and ideas. We recorded every suggestion. The committee provided a viewpoint that was ‘outside the box’ of a bicy- cling advocate, and gave us many ideas that we wouldn’t have thought Tips for Forming an Advisory Committee of ourselves. It also provided a knowledgeable and informative test au- Include a cross-section of university mem- dience for the programs that allowed us to deliver better information bers. to the university community. Working as a group, they gave us useful Encourage student involvement. advice on how to engage the school and what administrative channels Provide a common bicycling experience for were available to us. Additionally, the committee added a new level the members, such as a class. of legitimization to our programs, as the ideas were no longer of one Avoid convening at non-critical points in group, but a synthesis of many university departments. the program implementation. We asked all of the committee members to participate in a basic bicycle safety course, because we wanted to ensure that everyone understood the basics of bicycle safety and could be a knowledgeable spokesperson. This ex- perience gave members a chance to improve their bicycling skills. It provided a common experience on which members could base their deliberations. They also gave us valuable feedback on how to improve this course for use with students in the future. To our surprise, some committee members initiated projects outside of committee meetings. For example, a member of University Communications had the idea of writing a first-person article about her experience taking the bicycle safety course for the university employee newsletter and university website. Another member has spearheaded an effort to install Air Machines for pumping tires on campus. Even though we only asked for a commitment to attend 2-3 meetings, several members wanted to be much more involved. Despite the vast potential displayed by the committee, we faced challenges in main- taining the interest of all of the committee members. A weakness of the committee was its low amount of response from the initial invitee’s list and a dwindling return rate of members to meetings and Pros and Cons of Using a Bicycle Advisory Committee activities over time. A possible solution to maintaining Advantages the enthusiasm level would be to open up a few seats to Test audience for programs the wider university public, thus attracting self-selected Bring issue to the wider university members who would naturally exhibit higher levels of en- Ability to ‘think outside the box’ thusiasm. This could also draw more students into the Enhances legitimacy of program by seeking input committee. Disadvantages Maintaining interest in the committee is also dependent Maintaining interest among many members is a chal- on the quantity and quality of work that is needed by the lenge committee. Asking for too little help can be as detrimen- Can slow down program implementation by adding an- tal as asking for too much. In order to maintain interest, other layer of development members must feel that their time is well spent, thus it is important that the committee is convened at moments when their input can shape the direction of the group. Prioritizing Actions 10 After our first Bicycle Advisory Committee meeting, we tried to organize and pri- oritize all the different ideas. We talked about which ideas were most appropri- ate to each audience—bicyclists, drivers, and both. We discussed how much time each would take to implement and how much they would cost. We talked about which would convey the clearest message, which would get the most attention, and which would be the most fun. Each one of us identified the ideas that most in- terested us. From this discussion we sorted and prioritized the ideas into an initial plan of action, shown in the accompanying table. Through this organizing process, we ensured that we had balanced our proposed activities to target both drivers and bicyclists. Tulane Bike Education Campaign Plan Target Audience Cyclists Drivers Both Negotiate with bookstore Collaboration with parking Initiate branding campaign. to sell bicycle items (bicycle services to include safe driv- Develop campaign name, “kit,” helmets/bells/lights, ing around cycling compo- logo, mission statement, pic- etc.) , ¢,T nent. , ¢,T tures, press kit, etc. , ¢,T Start immediately Bike maintenance demo - Ev- Parking fine discount (begin Tulane homepage pictures ery Friday in April T, , ¢,☺ process) , ¢,T ,¢ Giveaways for cyclists wear- PSA poster campaign ing helmets $, T, ,☺ $, , , T, Tulane talk, Payroll message ,¢ Work with bike registration Maps for drivers (mode of X-games demo $, T, ,☺ T,¢, delivery for safe driving mes- sage) T,¢, Target next Tulane “pride” bike helmets, school year bells, lights T, Work with Tulane pediatri- cians T, ,¢, Resources: T=time intensive $=expensive ¢=cheap Activities: =high profile ☺=fun =reaches large audience =conveys clear message Bike Shop Diplomacy Some campaign ideas involved our local bike shops. Because of the relatively high bike use by college students, bike shops naturally congregate around university campuses. The bike shops closest to campus generally serve the majority of stu- dent and faculty needs, making them a perfect point of entry for your campaign. Creating alliances with these stores can greatly increase the reach and impact of your campaign. But first, you must cultivate enthusiastic working relationships with the business owners and employees. Here are some tips on the fine art of bike shop diplomacy. Get to know your local bike shop culture. Each bike shop has a slightly different philosophy about business, bicycling, customer relations, etc. Some shops tend to favor the high-end cyclist, specializing in expensive, high-quality parts and equip- 11 ment. Others tend to have a larger-community feel, making more of an effort to ac- commodate the novice cyclist and casual rider. These two types of stores may have very different notions of what a safety campaign should entail, and you will have to develop an individual working style for each one. If you don’t know the owners already, stop by on a slow day (NOT during the first few weeks of school) and intro- duce yourself and your program. Make a mental note of the shop space, inventory and enthusiasm of the staff so that you can work with their strengths later on. Make it easy for bike shops to participate in your campaign. Come to them with simple, well-defined ways that they can be a part of the program, such as passing out a pre-made flyer, or pledging to promote bicycle helmets to every customer. Let them know about your events. Ask them to be part of your bicycle advisory com- mittee, but don’t exclude them from future opportunities to participate if they are unable to be part of the initial planning phase. Be consistent and fair with your communications. Bike shops are usually small, family-owned businesses with tight profit margins. The easiest way to foster ill will is to appear like you, as a powerful university entity, are unfairly assisting a com- petitor or using your influence to funnel business away from theirs. Don’t ask for donations, or at least not at first. Even larger cities usually can’t sup- port more than a dozen bike shops, so each one must field numerous requests for all types of donations. You should start by establishing a good working relationship, based on mutual goals and values. Try to make this partnership beneficial for every- one by asking for assistance that doesn’t cost a lot and has the potential to posi- tively impact their business. Offer to promote them as a sponsor of your program. Thank your local bike shops for their support. Make sure that they are listed as sponsors or partners in all pertinent publications and then drop off multiple cop- ies to the shop as they are printed. You may even consider presenting them with a formal acknowledgment of your partnership that they can display in their store, such as a plaque or framed certificate. Funding Your Program The program presented in this toolkit was designed to be inexpensive. The tasks can be done by current staff within the framework of their existing job descriptions, using equipment and materials that most offices already have on hand. Most of the labor is done by students. Also, the program can be sized according to the resources available to you. Running the Project Donut helmet promotion, for example, costs about $200 for a month-long pro- motion. Hiring a student employee for a year ranges from $300-$1500, depending on the number of hours worked and the work-study aid avail- able to the student. Printing a color brochure to distribute with annual parking permits costs about $1000. A sample annual budget is included at the end of this toolkit. As you develop your initial plan, think of potential partners within the university for each component, and ask them to contribute. Different departments can spend money on different types of uses. For example, Housing and Residence Life may have funding for programs advertised in the residence halls, a Dean’s office may support a student worker, or Pub- lic Safety may contribute to a printing. As your program grows, document your successes and you may be able to convince your administration to regularly budget funds for bicycle safety. Public safety funds may also be available to build a bicycle safety program. Your 12 Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) can help you apply for state safety funds. Every state has a designated agency to handle Section 402 funds, which are used to reduce traffic accidents and deaths and to collect and report traffic related deaths and injuries. Collaborate with your MPO and designated state agency to see how your program can be structured to ensure it is eligible for these funds. There are many small-scale revenue opportunities for an entrepreneurial campus bicycling organization. We sell bike maps and helmets at every event, and earn enough to support a student work study position. The Bicicleta Club of Catalunya, which promotes bicycling at universities in Barcelona, Spain, holds a bicycle sec- ond-hand market every fall and spring. They invite retailers and individuals to sell used bikes, and take a 5% commission. 13 CHAPTER 3 ASSESSMENTS AND EVALUATION As you get started, you will need to know how bicyclists are currently riding on your campus. That way you will be able to measure whether your education cam- paign has had an impact on bicycling on campus. The only way to assess this is to develop a monitoring and evaluation program from the onset of your program. Broadly, this means translating your general expectations of the program (improv- ing bike safety), to more specific, quantifiable goals (for example, increase the num- ber of people who use lights at night by 15%). Being able to gauge the effectiveness of your program can help you design better education interventions in the future and bolster any requests for funding by proving need. We found that our baseline data has been helpful for advocating for improvements in bicycling facilities on campus, and it has allowed us to monitor changes in bicycling over time. We developed several methods for assessing the bicycle safety culture of our cam- pus. Due to time and resource constraints, we only chose to utilize an online written survey and direct observation surveys. We also conducted a campus-wide bicycle census, even though it measured ridership rather than the effectiveness of our safety education campaign. Useful qualitative information can also be gathered by interviewing key informants, such as bicyclists, bike shop employees, and cam- pus police. Details of the online survey, the direct observation surveys and the bike census are given in the following sections. Bicycle Behavior Observations We called our most basic and useful assessment tool the Bicycle Behavior Observa- tion (BBO). In the BBO, we observed the actual behaviors and patterns of bicyclists on the Tulane University campus and along the streets at the perimeter of the University. It is very easy, quick and inexpensive to conduct, as an observer stands outside with a check sheet, recording the behavior of bicyclists as they pass. Numbers aside, doing a BBO is a great way to learn more about the range of bicyclists on your campus—after an hour of watching bicyclists pass, we didn’t feel like a small special interest group anymore! To begin with, the surveyor selects a point near an intersec- tion and creates a mental, two-dimensional plane that traverses the street and the sidewalk. She then records the behavior of each bicyclist who “breaks the plane.” The observation point is moved slightly away from the intersection so that the observer only counts bicyclists traveling on one street, but the observer is able to watch how the bicyclist behaves at the intersection We limited the observation data fields to gender, direction of travel, whether they were riding on the street or the sidewalk, helmet use, behavior at traffic signal, and use of lights. An optional notes field was included so the ob- server could make additional comments. The observer also noted every 10 minute interval of time to help in determining when there was the most bicycle traffic. Before the actual BBO surveys, we created three documents to facilitate the sur- vey. The first was a helpful reminder sheet to assist in the training of the volunteer observers and to answer possible questions that come up in the field. The second was the cover sheet to accompany each observation and was intended to pro- 14 vide a quick summary of the results of the observation. The final document was a spreadsheet of the actual data to be collected. (Copies of each are posted on the http://bike.tulane.edu web site in Word and Excel, so you can download and modify for your own use.) There is a certain minimum sample size required in order for the results of these observations to be statistically meaningful. For our survey, we calculated the mini- mum sample size necessary to be 95% certain that our population proportion (for helmet usage, gender, etc.) was representative of the total cycling population at Tulane (+/- 5%). This minimum sample size was 385 observations. Depending on your own data needs, you may have to collect more or less observations to produce meaning- ful results, but this is a good ballpark figure. Consult with someone in your statistics department for a more comprehensive treatment of sample size calculations. The first official BBO survey was conducted on December 5, 2002 on the Tulane University Uptown Campus. Over the eight hour ob- servation time, divided among six observers, 450 bicyclists were observed. Subsequent observations were conducted around the campus perimeter in the months of February and March. The results of this behavior observation led to the discovery of several key facts about the bicycle culture on the Tulane University campus. The vast majority (ap- prox. 75%) of bicyclists are male. Almost all (95%) ride without the protection of helmets, approximately a quarter disobey traffic signals and though most, surpris- ingly, ride with traffic, 20% ride on the sidewalk. These last results are somewhat distorted by the fact that our campus infrastructure sometimes forces bicyclists to ride on the sidewalks or against the flow of traffic. In discussing these results, we realized that the same bicyclists may behave differ- ently on campus than they do on city streets. University campuses often have a protected, park-like feel to them, with slow, controlled traffic and bicycling on side- walks condoned. When we repeated the BBO survey on city streets at the campus perimeter, we found that 8.5% of bicyclists wore helmets, 7% rode against the flow of traffic, and 19% rode on the sidewalk. Catch and Release Bike Census Knowing the number of cyclists on campus can help to direct targeted interven- tions, monitor changes in ridership, and can be used as an advocacy tool for greater accommodation of bicycles on campus. Using this census method, we found the bicycle population on Tulane University’s uptown campus to be ~1,300, which means that about 10% of our students, faculty and staff ride their bikes on campus! Furthermore, now that we have a baseline number, we can conduct annual counts to determine whether there are more or less cyclists each year, and monitor any long-term trends in cycling on campus. The census is conducted using the capture-recapture model of estimating popula- tions.1 This method assumes a fixed, geographically constrained population, which is appropriate for describing the population of cyclists on most campuses. Two sur- 1 Donald J. Bogue, Eduardo E. Arriaga, and Douglas L. Anderton, Readings in Population Research Methodology, vol. 1, Basic Tools (United Nations Population Fund, 1993). 15 veys are conducted to estimate the population size—the first being the ‘capture’ survey and the second the ‘recapture’. During the capture survey, the total bicycle population is counted and tagged. During the second survey, the entire bicycle population is counted again and the number of bicycles with tags are noted. Using a simple formula, total population is estimated from the three fields of information: the total number of unique bikes counted in the first round, total number of unique bikes counted in the second round, and the number of bikes that appeared in both rounds. Estimating the cycling population on campus is far easier than estimating the cy- cling population of a city because of some of the unique features of universities: 1) college campuses are geographically well defined and small enough to canvas sufficiently, and 2) bicycle usage tends to be higher on campuses when compared to the city as a whole. Because this method uses direct observations as opposed to self-reported bicycle usage, it provides a truer estimate of the total number of cyclists when compared to written or verbal surveys using a random sample. There are a few limitations to the census method. The census method of popula- tion estimation cannot determine how often people ride their bicycles. Daily com- muters are counted the same as occasional riders who happen to park their bikes on campus. In the same vein, those students who use campus racks as long-term storage for their bicycle are counted in the survey even though they rarely, or never, ride their bikes on campus. Scheduling Census Days It is improbable that the entire bicycle population of the university will be present on campus at any one time. Otherwise, it would only be necessary to do one single, thorough count to estimate the entire population. In order to get the best estimate, it is important to count as many of the total bicycles on campus as possible over the two sampling days. On Tulane’s campus, students usually have classes that meet on a Tuesday/Thursday or Monday/Wednesday/Friday schedule and therefore the cyclists on campus on Mondays may not be the same bicycles that you observe on a Tuesday. For these reasons, we choose to conduct our two surveys at different times on dif- ferent days, when different classes were in session. Both surveys were conducted during normal business hours to account for staff and faculty who bike to campus. We recruited enough volunteers to tag and count all the bicycles at the major campus bike racks during one class period on each census day, so that the majority of bikes would be stationary while we tagged. Tagging goes quickly—a well-organized team of 5-6 can get a lot done in an hour! Tagging After some trial and error, we determined that putting stickers under the seat was the most effective way to tag the bicycles. Most people never even knew that any- thing had been affixed to their bicycle. We chose fluorescent, ¾” round stickers purchased from an office supply store. The bright color made it easy to identify tagged bicycles on our second survey. Almost all bicycle seats are constructed with a hard plastic base. When the under- side of the seat is clean, it makes a very effective surface for adhesion. When it’s caked with mud, it’s pretty lousy. So the first protocol was to wipe the underside of 16 any muddy or dusty seats with a rag before tagging. Those seats that do not have a hard plastic base (such as cruiser seats with spring armature or leather racing saddles) or those with under-the-seat storage bags need to be treated differently. We attached the sticker to the seat post of any bicycle that could not accommodate a tag on the seat itself. It is unlikely that you will be able to count every bicycle on campus in just an hour. But if you are strategic about where you sample, you won’t have to worry about catching every last bike to get a good estimate. So before you start out, here are some questions to ask yourself to help get a sense of where your time and manpower resources would best be spent: Where are the biggest hubs for bicycle parking? Where are the most active parking spots (i.e. with the highest turnover) Are there areas for bicycle parking that are restricted (ex. indoor bike rooms, gated parking areas)? Prioritize your surveying so that you hit, at least, the biggest racks on campus, preferably those with high parking turnover. You might find these types of racks in front of the student union, the library, academic buildings with many classrooms, or the student recreation center. Although the bike racks in front of the student housing buildings may appear full, make sure that the majority of the bicycles are in active use before you label those racks a priority. An “active” bike gets used, and moved, at least once or twice a week. The principle of this catch and release sampling method is that the bikes have time to sufficiently mix between counts, so try to get the most number of active bicycles as possible. Separating the results from each parking area will make it easier to track down mistakes, and you will have numbers that can also be used for planning adequate bicycle parking. Recounting Both surveys are very easy to conduct, but the second survey is even more rapid than the first. We used mirrors to check under the seats to identify whether a bicycle had been tagged during the previous survey. On this second day of the cen- sus, we counted the total population of bikes on campus, as well as the number of bicycles that had tags from the first census day. Analyzing the Data Using the following simple formula, we can estimate the total population given the figures from both surveys. ^ = (2X + X + X )2 N0 11 12 21 4X11 17 Where ^ 0 = population estimate N X11 = population captured in both surveys (bike counted with tags during second survey) X12 = population captured exclusively in second census X21 = population captured exclusively in first census X22 = population not captured in either survey Note: X11+X21= Total # of bikes surveyed in first round X11+X12= Total # of bikes surveyed in second round First Survey in out Second Survey in X11 X12 X21 X22 out Accounting for Abandoned and Unused Bicycles This bicycle estimate does not take into consideration bicycles that have been abandoned, or are not in use. At Tulane, the Department of Public Safety is in charge of cutting the locks on all bikes that are deemed abandoned at the end of the semester. They provided us with an average number of bicycles that were collected over the last few years. We used the upper estimate of 300 bikes impounded and subtracted this from our raw bike population estimate of 1,600 to arrive at our final estimate of 1,300—a number we quote almost every time we talk about bicycling on Tulane’s campus. It is important to develop a standard protocol for dealing with inactive and aban- doned bikes before you start the survey. You will encounter some bicycles that are obviously no longer functioning due to stolen parts or flat tires. You will also see some rusty and neglected bikes that may, or may not, be in use. If you decide to discount certain bikes during the course of your surveying, make sure that every surveyor is aware of a standard protocol for assessing questionable bicycles. For our survey, we counted every single bicycle we saw, regardless of condition, and then used the number from Public Safety to account for those that may have been abandoned. Online Survey We chose to use an online survey as our primary tool for determining the aware- ness level of cyclists and drivers on campus regarding safe share-the-road prac- tices. Teasing out the difference between what people know versus what people do helped us determine whether it was more appropriate to conduct an education or behavior modification campaign. In addition to these specific knowledge/behavior questions, we included some more general queries that would assist us in develop- ing our programs such as “what are the greatest barriers to cycling in the city?” and “where would you go on campus to get information on safe cycling?” The survey was designed to test both drivers and cyclists on our basic safety mes- 18 sage. After respondents submitted their answers, an answer key appeared on their computer screens, with carefully written explanations of safe driving and bicycling practices. Both the survey text and the online version were user-tested by our ad- visory committee prior to its release and their suggestions were incorporated into the final design. The actual survey webpage and the accompanying data base for mon- itoring responses were created by the Computer Operations Core of Tips for Creating A Survey the Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane. It was built us- ing Microsoft IIS Server to host the web pages, Microsoft SQL Server Make it short (a few minutes or less to complete) and advertise that it is brief. to create and host the database file(s) and Macromedia ColdFusion Server to implement the interface. They chose the MS SQL Server Make it easy to get to. If it’s online, adver- over a simpler implementation using Microsoft Access in order to be tise electronically so that people can go ready for thousands of responses and hundreds of simultaneous re- directly to your site. sponse sessions. Once the SQL database file was populated, it was Give a prize that everyone would want. A exported and elementary statistics were applied to extract meaning- bike tune up may not appeal to a motorist. ful metrics on the answers and the actual number of surveys taken. Make a space in the survey where respon- If you don’t have the technical capability to build your own online dents can give additional comments. survey, there are a number of reasonably-priced services available, such as Zoomerang.com. Pretest with people in your target audi- ence who have not worked on the survey. The primary advertisement for the story was as a news item on the If your survey is online, hire a professional Tulane Daily News all-campus listserve. This listserve is adminis- to design the mechanics. tered by University Communications, and sends one news item by Ask respondents if they would like to email to all Tulane students and employees each day. The news item receive email about upcoming campus bike on Bicycle Safety described our grant and asked people if they were events. “a bicycle hero or a bicycle hazard.” The email provided a direct link to the survey. That same week, this same text appeared on the Tulane homepage website as a headline news story with a dedicated link. The responses gathered on an online survey will almost always include self-selec- tion bias because people that are inclined to devote time to answering a survey may be categorically different from the general public. For example, you may see an over representation of people who are passionate about cycling, or passionately critical of cycling. Given the limitations of our survey method, we were careful to refrain from stating that these results reflected a true, representative cross-section of the Tulane community. We learned a lot about people’s perceptions and behaviors, but perhaps the most informative responses came from the additional comments section. One hundred and fifty people chose to elaborate on their feelings by writing additional, often passionate comments. The comments ran the gamut from bike rack inquiries to complaints about cyclists who don’t follow the rules of the road. It allowed us to get a better understanding of how the general population of Tulane University feels about bicycling and sharing space with bicyclists on campus. Those respondents who indicated that they would like to receive information about cycling events on campus and entered their emails formed the base of our bicycling listserve. About 150 of 800 respondents asked to receive future email announce- ments. 19 Chapter 4 Educating Everyone BikeTulane A number of our strategies attempted to raise the profile of bicycles and bicycle safety on campus. We tried to ensure that images of bicyclists in our materials and in campus publications always conveyed the message that bikes belong on the roads, and suggested how they should behave there. Every image reproduced, every logo designed, every mention in a campus publication or email is an opportunity to teach people the basics of bicycle safety. Choosing a Name and Logo As we are a team of students and staff from different offices, we needed to give our campaign a name and logo. The name “Bike Tulane” began as one of several options jotted down during a brainstorming session among the student workers and pre- sented to the Bicycle Advisory Committee. “Bike Tulane” clearly conveyed the focus of the group in a simple and localized way. We wanted our logo to convey our safety message and show the transit mix of New Orleans with a bicycle figured prominently. The logo features the city in the extreme background, then a streetcar (the famous St. Charles Streetcar passes our cam- pus), followed by an automobile, and finally a bicyclist in the foreground. The logo teaches bicycle safety by displaying the cyclist moving in the direction of traffic, on the right side of the street, and wearing a helmet, while also normalizing the image of a cyclist on the city streets. Tips for Developing a Logo From this conception came a “rough” version of the logo using computer Use your logo to visually communicate your safety message. clipart. We searched for the most representative and appealing designs in the public domain and then organized them into an attractive manner Localize your name and logo. to serve as the logo. We took the supplementary step of localizing the Make sure that your name and logo are logo by recoloring the streetcar from its default red, to a green similar in simple, yet communicate something about color to the streetcar that travels in front of the university. The resulting your group. color mix was one of olive, light blue, and white—the school colors of Clipart is an excellent resource for creat- Tulane University! ing a logo when there is limited time or money to work with a graphic artist. The current version of the logo enhances the core mission of Bike Tulane by demonstrating our education goals in the design, while at the same time representing local flavor and remaining simple. Working with University Communications One of the biggest hurdles to educating both cyclists and drivers is “normalizing” safe cycling practices. Part of our education strategy is to increase the visibility of safe cycling images—regular people, wearing everyday clothing, riding correctly, wearing helmets, and looking good. At a university, you can do this by working with the staff of an office typically known as “University Communications.” They are writers, designers, photographers, and public relations professionals who pro- duce the university web site and university-wide publications, such as admissions materials, alumni magazines, and faculty/staff newsletters. Together they provide us with many of the images we picture when we think of life at our university. We were able to schedule a modest photo shoot with our university photographer free of charge. Most universities have a dedicated professional staff photographer who covers events and provides stock images for the major media publications on 20 campus. She took pictures of bicyclists riding correctly on one of the busy streets that intersects campus, as well as images of helmeted bicyclists locking and un- locking bicycles. In addition to getting some fantastic stock photos of bicyclists on Tulane campus for use in our education campaign, the images became part of Tulane’s photo archive. Our photographer is often asked to supply filler pictures for various Tulane publications, and she informed us that these bicycle pictures could turn up in unsuspecting places around campus. In another example, a writer on the University Communications staff served on our advisory committee. She took our bicycle safety course and wrote a first-person account of the class for the employee newsletter. In telling about the class and how it changed how she felt about rid- Tips for Creating and Maintaining a Website ing on the streets of New Orleans, she shared a lot of the course Designate one person to periodically and information with a large audience, and encouraged others to take a consistently update website. class. The story was published with a large photo of a helmet-wear- Make sure it’s localized, include campus ing bicyclist on the cover of the newsletter. and city specific pictures and information. Design in a way that non-web designers Working on specific projects with University Communications staff can update easily. gets them familiar with the components of bicycle safety, and in just a short time we’ve seen safe bicycling incorporated into univer- sity publications in surprising ways. A neighborhood map distributed to freshmen, for example, included the local bicycle path, with a helmet-wearing bicyclist speeding along it. University Communications staff also often handle all- campus listserves and relations with the local media, so they can be very helpful in publicizing events to a larger audience. Website Students rely on university websites to accomplish a variety of tasks, from reg- istering for classes to conducting research for a paper. In such a setting, having a website that provides a range of information from events to research can serve as an invaluable tool for reaching a university community. Our aptly named website, Bike.tulane.edu, provides information for cyclists on destinations near campus, safety, local bicycling laws, and helmet guides, in addi- tion to local activities and events. We included a research section to make available the student research and policy recommen- dations completed in the past, and to give our site something Pros and Cons of Creating a Website that can’t be found anywhere else! The Rides and Events sec- Advantages tion serves as one of the main communication tools of the Can reach a large audience. website. Cheap if production is in-house. Able to present unlimited amounts of infor- One goal of the website was to deliver a safety message to its mation. visitors. However, a blatant safety focus would put off some Students can be talented website designers. visitors, causing them to write off the site as just another trea- Disadvantages tise on why to wear a helmet. For this reason we decided to Requires maintenance. spread the safety message throughout the website. For exam- Time intensive to develop. ple, the buttons on the home page “roll over” to show different Requires promotion to attract people to it. pictures of helmeted bicyclists. One of the strengths of the website is the volume of information that can be pre- sented as opposed to a flyer. With a website, there is much more room to go into greater detail. 21 Chapter 5 Educating Drivers One of our program’s main goals is to educate Tulane drivers about how to share the road with bicyclists. Our basic strategy for reaching these drivers was to ad- dress them at a point of contact where the majority of University drivers must go—the Traffic and Transportation Office for their yearly parking permit. “Driving with Everyone” Brochure Because Tulane parking permits are handed out with printed materials, we decided to print a brochure of safety information for drivers. It was de- Tips for Creating a Driver’s Safety Brochure signed to simply inform drivers of the rights and expectations of bicy- clists. The language was kept simple and polite, with an emphasis on Condense your message - make it clear and practical tips. For example, we gave three steps for passing a bicyclist concise. If you need room for an explana- tion, find ways to make the most basic part and three actions to avoid. While the main text is fairly descriptive, a of your message stand out. four point summary was provided on just the inside cover to introduce the points of the brochure and to get our message across to those read- Use pictures. ers who just skim the text. Involve other university departments and community organizations. Attention was also paid to the layout to make sure that it was readable Work with the campus traffic authority for and looked interesting. We used a number of pictures from the Pedes- campus specific information and distribu- trian and Bicycle Information Center Image Library, www.pedbikeim- tion of the safety brochure. ages.org. The site allows you to use images free for educational pur- poses, provided that you credit the site and photographer. As we build up our own image library, we hope to eventually replace the brochure photographs with images of bicyclists and drivers sharing the road safely here in New Orleans. Enough copies were printed to be distributed by the traffic office with each parking permit. In the long term, the information written for drivers could be incorporated into the Parking Regulations, and other materials routinely printed for Tulane park- ing permit holders. Color printing is expensive—about $1000 —no matter how few copies you have run. Initially we hoped to find a co-sponsor for the brochure, and saved space on the back of the brochure for a sponsor’s logo. The search proved much more difficult than antici- pated. While we saw sponsorship as a good opportunity for certain organizations, such as insurance companies, to promote safety and reach an audience of potential customers, they ultimately saw a relatively high cost compared to other advertising mediums. In the future we will attempt to partner with another interested organi- zation earlier on in the process. A black and white or two-color version of the brochure could be printed or photocopied at much less expense. Overall the “Driving with Everyone” brochure should not be thought of as a stand-alone safety program. By placing the concepts of shar- ing the road safely into the minds of the drivers, it serves as the foun- dation of a number of programs targeted towards drivers. How to Reach Drivers 22 Pass out with parking permits. Distributing the brochure with parking permits gave us an easy way to ensure that the majority of Tulane drivers received basic safety information about driving near bicyclists. Timing is crucial— your brochure has to be printed and delivered to the parking offices several weeks before the new permits take effect, usually in early August. Pass out as drivers exit campus parking lots. To remind drivers of the brochure’s message, we distributed the brochure to driv- ers leaving our largest parking garage at the end of day. Public safety officers and students worked together, handing each driv- er the brochure and reminding them of the importance of driving safely near bicyclists. It was a very easy educational event to organize, and could have easily been a media event appealing to local television stations. Organize a bicycle safety driver’s test, with parking permit prize. We also hope to use the brochure as the basis of a bicycle safety driver’s test, which Tulane drivers could take online. An- swering all the questions correctly would qualify entrants to win a parking permit for the following year! We loved the idea of a parking permit as a prize, as it follows the basic principle of our driver’s education campaign—educat- ing drivers at the points where they interact with the university as drivers. How- ever, as parking permits are one of the most contested issues on campus, it can be a long process to obtain one as a prize. On our campus, a free parking permit has to be approved by a University Senate committee! Pros and Cons of Developing a Safety Brochure for Drivers Advantages Easily distributable Reaches a wide audience Provides a clear and concise message Serves as a base for educational events and publicity Provides an opportunity for outside funding Disadvantages Can be expensive Low interactivity Reinforcement needed to make the lessons permanent 23 Chapter 6 Educating Bicyclists This chapter describes bicycle safety literature and events that target campus bi- cyclists. You’ll find information on our helmet promotion campaign in the next chapter. Many of these projects are similar to educational projects developed by other bicycle safety educators, but we tailored them to a university audience. Oth- ers were “localized” to our neighborhood, and gave students and staff the basics of bicycle safety as they helped them find their way around campus neighborhoods. Bicycle Resource Map How to Create a Bicycle Resource Map for your Campus Our bicycle resource map was the key printed edu- Survey the community to find all things bike related. That doesn’t cational tool directed towards bicyclists. It maps the mean just listing all of the bike shops near campus. Be creative! You bike shops, bike paths, air pumps and stores that carry can include things like gas stations that give free air, public water fountains, cafes that allow you to bring your bike onto their patio bicycle accessories near the university. It was designed (so you don’t need to carry a lock), or streets that are especially to orient new students and faculty to the cycling re- scenic. sources on and around campus, and also to function as a vehicle for delivering our four key safety messages Gather the names, telephone numbers and hours of operation for directly to the Tulane cycling community. all relevant businesses. Identify a map maker. The final map could be hand drawn or If designed correctly, a map is not merely a transient created using a GIS (geographic information system) computer flyer, to be read just once and then discarded. A map program. It is too difficult to learn GIS for a project such as this, so gets filed away for further use in the future, passed if you can’t locate an expert on campus who is willing to work with on to friends, and photocopied and distributed by the you, it is better to find an artist who will be able to hand render your map. Find out who produces the maps of your campus. businesses that are represented on it. It is a resource that people seek out, drawing more visitors to our Write the text for your safety message. Keep the wording simple website and creating a stronger cycling presence on and short. campus. This persistence makes a map an excellent Create your map. If you’re working by hand, start off by simply vehicle for a safety message. tracing the major streets from a local map. Don’t provide unneces- sary or excessive information or your map will be visually confusing We partnered with a local non-profit, the Greater New and difficult to use. The final product should be easy to photocopy. Orleans Community Data Center (GNOCDC) to create Make lots of copies and give them to every cyclist you see. Don’t the map. GNOCDC provides technical support to non- forget to drop off copies at all of the businesses featured. If you profit organizations that seek to use local data to im- have a good digital version, put it on your website, but make sure prove their services. GNOCDC provided their expertise that the file is not too large to download easily, and that the final in information design and GIS (geographic information printout is readable. Give copies to other campus agencies (like systems) mapping to create a simple, single-page map. Public Safety and Student Health) who can hand them out. To identify possible partners who could help you pro- duce a bicycle resource map, talk with the offices that produce maps of your campus. If you do not have access to GIS expertise, a graphic designer may be able to produce a useful guide to your neighborhood streets and locations.2 The text of the map was carefully written to carry the credibility and usefulness of the map itself into the communication of the safety message. The main text of the map gives a frank assessment of local cycling conditions, good and bad. It’s written in an honest and straightforward way, as if a new classmate or colleague 2 Our partners at the Greater New Orleans Community Data Center have published a useful account of creating the Bicycle Resource Map. See Denice Warren and Allison Plyer, “Mapping Bicycle Resources,” Greater New Orleans Community Data Center, www.gnocdc.org/articles/bikemap.html 17 August 2003. asked one of us “Is New Orleans a good place to bike?” The “Bicycling tips for New 24 Orleans” are highlighted in an inset box. They include our campaign’s key safety messages, each followed by a locally-relevant explanation. They are not presented as generic “safety tips.” The reminder to wear Tulane Bicycle Resource Map a helmet is placed last in the list of tips—a position that will make it Includes the Following stand out to readers, but not discourage them from reading the rest How and where to register your bike on of the list. campus. Location, hours of operation, and phone One positive outcome of this project has been strengthening our numbers of new and used bike shops relationship with local bike shops. These small businesses are of- ten called on by the cycling community to make donations of time Location of gas stations with air pumps or money without any significant return. By including information Location of drugstores that carry bike acces- about these shops on our resource map, we have the opportunity sories to give a little something back. Once the map was published, we Location of dedicated bike/pedestrian paths revisited all of the bike shops to drop off a few copies and a letter requesting that they assist us in our safety campaign by specifically Suggested route for traveling to/from bike promoting helmet and lights. All of the owners were extremely ap- shops preciative of the free advertising and we were able to discuss our Alerts of streets to avoid safety campaign in more detail. Brief statement about the state of cycling in New Orleans Bike Class Tips on cycling specifically tailored to New We felt that an on-the-road course was an essential part of a cam- Orleans, including the four main safety mes- pus bicycle safety program. For this portion of the project we en- sages for cyclists bike.tulane.edu Visit our website for bicycling workshops and bike rides Campus Area Bicycle Resources Bicycling tips for New Orleans: Start off easy. Ride near campus New Orleans can be one of the best places to ride a bike. Warm weather, until you get familiar, then start to beautiful tree lined streets, and historic neighborhoods mean that a bike explore. Ride with an experienced friend or with a club ride to learn the can be the most enjoyable way to get around this town. You'll find coffee best routes across town. shops, grocery stores, and live music venues all within a 20-minute bike Know your bike resources. ride from Tulane campus. And, Audubon Park and the Mississippi River Use this map to find the bike Trail (a.k.a., the levee) offer bike/pedestrian paths free from cars. resources near campus where you can buy a helmet or fill your tires. Unfortunately, New Orleans can also be one of the worst places for Ride predictably. Obey traffic cycling. Drivers have a reputation for being careless, the surface laws and don't weave in and out of conditions of the road are at times laughable, and there are great parked cars. misunderstandings amongst cyclists about the rules of the road. That's Ride with traffic. Riding on the why we've put together these tips on how to safely ride your bike in the right gives drivers a longer time to see you and make room. If you aren't used Big Easy. Laissez les bon temps rouler! to riding on the right, practice on quiet roads to build your confidence. GNO Cyclery 1426 S. Carrollton, 861-0023 Ride with a light at night - CL M-F 9:30-6; Sat 9-5 white for the front, red blinky for the A Chevron Gas Station back. If you need convincing, notice IBO N 1400 S. Carrollton Adam's Bicycle World how hard it is to spot the cyclists RN O 3137 Calhoun, 861-0032 LLT Open 24 hours without lights at night on St. Charles. E O M-Sat 10-6; Sun 12-5 RR Wear a helmet. Wearing a helmet CA Shell Gas Station Walgreens reduces your risk of serious head 715 S. Carrollton, 861-2787 6201 S. Claiborne Open 24 hours injury by 85%! Doctors can fix a Everyday 7am-Midnight broken bone, but not a broken brain Register your bike w/ TUPD in Shell Gas Station (and isn't your brain the main reason WI the Public Safety Office 600 S. Carrollton LL you came to Tulane?) OW Diboll Parking Garage, 865-5424 Open 24 hours M-F 8:30-4 Mis sissi Tulane Bookstore FR University Center, 865-5913 ER ET M 8-7; T-Th 8-6; F 8-5; Sat 11-4 ppi Ri Check for campus bike events at New bike shop (w/ accessories & repairs) the Office of Environmental Affairs ver Trail (~15 mile paved bike pa th) 201d Alcee Fortier, 865-5145 Used bike shop ST AY M-F 9-5 CH DW AR Gas station with air pump LE OA S BR Accessories Campus offices ON ERS N NAPOLE JEFF OU LH Audubon Park CA ON BP Gas Station TE Au 5023 Magazine Street STA dub St. Vincent De Paul Store on L oop M-F 8-6 4935 Magazine, 899-3407 M-Sat 10-5 CAM Orphan Books (and Bikes) MA P Audubon Zoo GA 4729 Magazine, 891-2626 ZIN E M-Sat 11-6; Sun 12-5 Camp or Magazine? Herwig's Bicycle Store 5924 Magazine, 897-2311 In uptown, avoid riding on T-F 9:30-5; Sat 9:30-3:30 New Orleans Pawn Magazine, which is narrow TC HO RAM Bikes and Repairs 4730 Magazine Street, 899-3576 and busy. Camp provides "The Fly" UP ITO 5115 Magazine, 666-2244 M-F 9:30-5, Sat 10-3 a wider, quieter back way U LAS T-F 10-4:30 to Magazine shops. Mi ss Walgreens si is 5300 Tchoupitoulas, 899-0022 pp M-Sat 8-10; Sun 9-9 iR Oshman's iv er 5300 Tchoupitoulas, 895-7791 Created by Joy Bonaguro & Denice M-Sat 9-9; Sun 10-7 Warren, August 2003 Sources: Tulane Office of Environmental Affairs (bike resources), US Census (streets and river), ESRI StreetMap (landmarks) <www.gnocdc.org> 25 listed the expertise of Lt. Stanly Cosper, Sr. from Tulane Public Safety. Lt. Cosper is a certified Police Cycling instructor and teaches police cycling courses on Tulane’s campus. Our advisory committee took his course, and then recommended that we offer a shorter version of it to the general campus community. In City Cycling 101, a four-hour time period is divided between an in- Tips for Offering a Bicycle Safety Class class session and an on-the-road portion for practicing the techniques Make it fun. When you learn something learned in the class. The topics of the in-class session focused on a video that’s fun, it makes it easier and you re- from the League of American Bicyclists, with some information on gen- member it longer. eral maintenance and important safety equipment. Some students found Hands-on is very important. Everyone is the video to be too long and the least interactive of the in-class activi- there to ride. Spending time in a park- ties. Other students enjoyed it and were surprised by how much they ing lot with cones gives participants a learned. challenge and allows them to learn skills before hitting the streets. In the skills session of the on-the-road portion of the class, participants Ride as much as possible, and tailor the learned how to make emergency turns, techniques for hopping curbs, ride to each group’s need. Ride where the and emergency braking. students ride. Enforce safety. Always wear your helmet The feedback we received from participants indicated that the tour out- and obey the rules of the road. side campus was popular, especially the conclusion of the ride when participants and Lt. Cosper stopped for snowballs (the New Orleans ver- To find qualified instructors, contact the sion of a snow cone!). However, for some of the participants with more League of American Bicyclists or the In- experience, the road portion was too long and limited to already familiar ternational Police Mountain Bike Associa- tion. places. Lt. Cosper has a few points for those at other institutions for teaching a bicycle safety class. If possible, a Public Safety officer should be involved, so bicyclists learn the rules and laws from the people who enforce them. An ongoing problem with bicycle safety classes is getting people to sign up! Our first class was filled, but later classes had just a handful of people. It’s important to offer classes at the beginning of the semester, before students have mid-terms and major projects due. For future classes we have talked about offering weekend classes that would not interfere with people’s work and school schedules. For em- ployees, a weekend ride for parents and kids might be attractive Parents could attend the classroom part of the course over a lunch hour dur- ing the week, then bring their children for a weekend ride. By working with residence hall advisors (RAs) and other Housing & Residence Life staff, the bike class could be offered as a social or health program for students living in the dorms. We also hope to partner with our student recreation center and the Wellness Program to have our class listed on their schedule of programs. Presenting the class as a tour, as well a safety class, may help boost attendance. Bike-specific Advertising Every campus has its traditional routes for advertising to students— all-campus emails, student newspapers, information kiosks, depart- mental electronic postings, etc. In our campaign we utilized several of these resources, but found that they were insufficient when it came to directly targeting people who use bicycles on campus. In addition to creating an email list of over 300 interested cyclists, we used some bike-specific advertising techniques. Bike Flyers 26 We found bike flyering to be more effective than simply flyering at kiosks and information boards around campus. This involved creating mini-flyers that could be stapled to bike handlebars, thereby targeting only cyclists. For special events, we made strip flyers (5/page) with information on front and back. The front had a teaser message (ex. City Cycling 101: a free 4 hour workshop) and the back con- tained specific information about the event or service. Using 1-2 students, we would pick a one-hour slot when classes were in session to flyer all of the bikes on campus. By working during a time when bicycles tend to be stationary, we reduced the number of cyclists who got flyered twice. In order to maintain the effectiveness of this type of advertising, we also chose to reserve bike flyering for special events only. The last thing we wanted was to upset the cycling community by bombarding them with unsolicited advertisements. Chalking Our campus permits advertising with chalk on campus sidewalks. We chalked near bike racks and along bike routes for next-day events. Bicycle Billboard We would place a large sandwich-board type sign out in high-traffic areas to an- nounce upcoming events. In the future, we would like to dedicate one bicycle to advertising. This could anything from painting a bicycle in bright colors and hang- ing an all-weather sign in the triangle of the frame, or putting on front or rear bas- kets and creating a mobile kiosk of sorts, with flyers, brochures and sign-up lists. The bike could be used as a ‘company car’ by project staff, or just parked at a high volume bike rack on campus. 27 Chapter 7 Helmet Promotion at Colleges and Universities Our initial observations of bicyclists on campus found that helmet use was ex- tremely low—around 4-5%. Observations of bicyclists wearing helmets on the perimeter of campus were slightly higher at 8.5%. With our census figure of 1,300 bicyclists on Tulane’s uptown campus, this meant that only 50-100 bicyclists us- ing our campus wear helmets. Almost everyone we spoke with expressed skepticism that college students would ever wear helmets, and for a while even our own student team members avoided working on helmet promotion. As we reviewed the literature and spoke with local and national authorities, we realized the need for creative ideas and some dedi- cated effort promoting helmet use to college students. College stu- dents are a large population of bicyclists who are responsible for themselves for the first time in their lives, and they are forming lifetime habits. While college students are notorious risk takers, that doesn’t mean that we shouldn’t make an effort to help them be safer on their bikes. We began by investigating ways to make helmets easier to pur- chase on campus, offering discounts, or developing a special uni- versity-branded helmet. As we talked with potential partners, many were very helpful but extremely skeptical. We realized that we needed to take a step back and start by talking directly with students about their helmet preferences, and by working to en- sure that local shops had an appropriate selection available. We needed to try to grow the number of helmet-wearing bicyclists on campus from an extreme minority to a moderate minority. Students don’t want to stand out, so it needs to be more routine to see helmeted bicyclists on and near campus. After looking at the literature and much discussion, we developed a very simple positive enforce- ment program to begin to make bicycle helmets more visible on campus. We also worked on reducing the time and monetary barriers to acquiring helmets by offering cheap helmets for sale on campus and encouraging local shops to carry appropriate stock. What Students Think about Bicycle Helmets We ran a focus group in a Tulane residence hall to learn more about why Tulane students don’t wear bicycle helmets, and what might motivate them to wear them. We worked with a resident advisor to set it up and publicize it to the students, and served them all pizza. Because the resident advisors are required to offer a health and wellness program for the students living on their floor, our focus group gave them a new and easy program to offer. Twelve undergraduate students (eight men and four women) participated. Of the twelve students, ten didn’t own a helmet and only three had worn a helmet the last time they rode a bike. One wore a helmet “because in California it is the law.” When asked to explain a situation in which they would definitely wear a helmet, the students answered: “riding down a mountain,” “doing tricks,” “after a 28 friend had an accident,” “on the street,” “if I was just biking,” and “in areas of high police.” When asked to explain a situation in which they definitely would NOT wear a helmet, they answered: “riding to class in the morning,” “anytime I’m not on a motorbike,” “when you don’t feel you’ll be put into danger.” Those who said they would never wear a helmet explained: “I felt ridiculous,” “not for leisure, (it) takes away from the relaxing,” “I would want to lock the helmet to the bike,” “helmets would draw too much attention,” “unless I know I might get hurt.” We brought in examples of the exact models that are sold in the stores around campus to gather information about which specific features students liked and disliked. Of the helmets we showed them, they unanimously disliked the inexpensive helmet that had white styrofoam showing, calling it “goofy.” Their favorite helmets were light gray and dark gray. Response to a bright red “skater- style” helmet was split—some really liked it, some thought that red was too bright. We also asked “how many colors would you need to decide on a helmet?” The women in the group said that the optimal number of color choices is five; the men felt like they could choose from two or three. One said “I might want my helmet to match my bike.” From the discussion, we noticed a trend of students saying they would wear a hel- met if they felt like they were going into a dangerous situation or if they had a friend who had been in an accident. The students all agreed that they did not want to call attention to themselves by wearing a helmet. One young man equated wearing a helmet to being dressed as a circus clown. Helmet Literature Review Reviewing the literature on helmet promotion, we found that few studies of the ef- fectiveness of helmet promotion programs included bicyclists over age sixteen. The studies available for adults associated with bicycle helmet use are largely limited to studies of the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in injury prevention. From the literature on children, we learned that providing helmets had little effect on the likelihood of usage; however, the literature showed that positive reinforcement had influenced an increase in helmet usage.3 Local Availability Student team members visited local bicycle and sporting goods stores to see what styles and colors of helmets were available near campus. They wrote up their ob- 3 There is an excellent overview of studies of the effectiveness of bicycle helmet education programs on the website of the Harborview Injury Prevention & Research Center. “Best Practices: Bicycle Injuries” Harborview Injury Prevention & Research Center <http://depts.washington.edu/hiprc/practices/topic/bi- cycles/index.html> A.N. Kim, F.P. Rivara, and T.D. Koepsell. “Does Sharing the Cost of a Bicycle Helmet Help Promote Hel-met Use?” Injury Prevention 3, no. 1 (1997): 38-42. P.C. Parkin, X. Hu, L.J. Spence, K.E. Kranz, L.G. Short, and D.E. Wesson, “Evaluation of a Subsidy Pro- gram to Increase Bicycle Helmet Use by Children of Low-income Families,” Pediatrics 96 (1995): 283- 287. P. Rouzier and V.A. Alto, “Evolution of a Successful Community Bicycle Helmet Campaign,” Journal of the American Board of Family Practice 8, no. 4 (1995): 283-287, 29 servations in a “Helmet Shopping Guide” that we posted on our website. We hope that the guide will make it easier for campus bicyclists who do want to buy a helmet to find a helmet they like to wear, and that it will give our local bike shops greater visibility. The Helmet Shopping Guide also offers some gentle feedback on how the shops are doing in the areas the student team members thought were important—price, available styles and sizes, and attention to helmet fit. During their visits to the bicycle shops, the students had a chance to talk with the store owners and managers about promoting student helmet use. The students had some interesting observations about the selection and display of helmets in the local stores. They noted that there tended to be just one or two models (and sometimes just one color) available in the lower price range ($30), and that the largest selection of styles and colors were in the more expensive models for serious bicyclists. They also noted that helmets were often displayed in unattractive ways, and were sometimes even hard to find. As we develop the program further, it will be important to inform local bike shops of our findings of student likes and dislikes, to help them choose an inventory of helmets that best appeals to college students. Incorporating Bicycle Helmets into a University’s Images We arranged a photo shoot with our university photographer to take pictures of faculty and staff bicyclists wearing helmets and riding their bikes in safe ways, which helped us begin to develop a portfolio of pictures. As the university often uses photos of bicyclists in its campus publications and website, working with the university photographer is an extremely important step in normalizing campus helmet use. Some of the pictures have already been used in university publica- tions. We developed the home page of our website to use multiple photographs of helmet-wearing bicyclists in surprising ways, to present students with images of bicyclists wearing helmets of all shapes and colors as they read through the site. A Positive Reinforcement Program: Project Donut Project Donut evolved from the team’s earlier work on the bicycle master plan for New Orleans. One of our suggestions in the education chapter was to use in- centive coupons to reward children for wearing their helmets. As we brainstormed ideas with our advisory committee for a helmet BikeTulane promotion campaign on campus, we returned to the incentive cou- Project pon idea. We discussed several possible plans, including handing out raffle tickets or coupons to helmet-wearing bicyclists. We ul- Donut timately decided on a much simpler program with more immediate gratification: we would hand out donuts to students wearing their helmets on their way to class on Thursday mornings. We called the campaign “Project Donut.” We gave out donuts to helmet-wearing bicyclists from 8-10 a.m. every Thursday in the same location for five weeks. Because this project is based on offering an immediate reward to people wearing Under Stern Hall 8-10:30 am helmets, the first step is to choose a reward and then obtaining it. mmmmmmmmm… Doughnuts! Show us your bicycle Donuts were an inexpensive choice, and, as a healthy alternative, helmet and get a free donut or other edible goodie on your way to class. We’ll be under Stern Hall 8-10:30 More info? http://bike.tulane.edu our local farmers’ market provided satsumas, a kind of tangerine grown in Louisiana. The location of a reward-centered promotion should be a highly visible center with 30 a good deal of bicycle traffic flow. Our location was in the center of campus, in front of one of the largest bike racks. Large signs announced “Wear a helmet, get a donut.” Along with the rewards and helmets, our booth had maps, an air pump, literature on bicycling and safety, as well as information about how to be involved with the bicycling activities on campus. We even had helmets on site that interested indi- viduals could purchase. Over the five weeks of Project Donut we sold 12 helmets. Many people stopped at the booth to get information about bicycle safety, to get their tires filled with air, and even try on some helmets. We tried to advertise the event in one new way every week. We used bike tags, e-mail, campus newspapers, chalking, signs and banners. Simply having the event at the same time on the same day makes it easier to promote and easier for people to remember. Also, putting out a big sign at your location the day before helps to remind bicyclists to wear their helmets. One of the most important aspects of the booth is the people who work it. Ideally there should be three working the booth: one person for data collection and two (or more) to talk with bicyclists and people who stop for information. At least one of the booth workers should be familiar with basic bicycle maintenance and fitting. Asking people to volunteer to give out donuts is a great way to get them more involved in your program. Results We used a modified version of the Bicycle Behavior Observation assessment at the Project Donut location to measure helmet use at that place and time before, during and after the donut giveaways. Over the five Thursdays of Project Donut, observed helmet use grew almost every week, hitting a high of 20%. The numbers in red are “Project Donut” days. Date Helmets Bicyclists % Helmets Temperature 10/9/2003 16 156 10.25 78 10/16/2003 6 129 4.65 68 10/21/2003 8 137 5.84 70 10/23/20032 20 119 16.81 74 3 10/30/2003 16 104 15.38 73 11/6/2003 28 173 16.18 76 11/13/2003 27 160 16.88 66 11/20/2003 28 134 20.9 68 12/4/2003 9 120 7.5 60 2 These results are not as accurate because of observer changes and incomplete data. 3 These results are not as accurate because of observer changes and incomplete data. There was an increase in observed helmet usage at the site of Project Donut during the time and days that we gave out donuts. However, helmet usage at the same time and location dropped by the next count, exactly two weeks after the project ended. When we repeated Project Donut for a month the following semester, hel- met use was 17-24%. 31 Thus it is hard to tell whether the program changed behavior. We may have been attracting all the helmet-wearing bicyclists to this area of campus, rather that get- ting helmets on students and employees who hadn’t worn them before. We have to do more future observations of bicyclist’s behavior to see if the helmet use has increased. The project did succeed, however, in bringing together a critical mass of helmet-using cyclists a few days out of the month. Numbers aside, this project was an inexpensive and easy way to plaster the words “bicycle” and “helmet” over campus sidewalks, bulletin boards and listserves. For example, having the Tulane Daily News—the daily email news item sent to all cam- pus email accounts—dedicated to a bicycle helmets gives it a stamp of authority and reaches thousands of people, even if only briefly. We could have increased the exposure of the event by inviting a television morning crew to attend. It is also fairly safe to assume that Project Donut has brought levity to our week. We believe that it is good for the team to work on an occasional project that is in- herently silly. Project Donut increased the belief of one student team member that cyclists will wear helmets if it is socially accepted and rewarded. Pros and Cons of Project Donut Increasing Helmet Availability & Appeal Advantages Inexpensive - about $22/week Our advisory committee made several excellent suggestions for mak- Easy to set up. ing helmets available to purchase on campus, and targeting helmet An opportunity to talk to bicyclists and designs towards Tulane students. After investigating the logistics of interested community members setting up these programs, we thought they would be excellent proj- It’s fun. ect for later in the program. We need to raise helmet use on campus An opportunity to sell helmets. to a higher level before we can ensure bicycle helmet vendors a large enough consumer base for special sales and promotions. In all of your Disadvantages university helmet sales and promotions, remember that faculty and The project takes time away from student staff will be interested in buying helmets for their children. workers for other bicycle planning tasks. Not conclusive: 5 weeks is not enough time University-branded Bicycle Helmets to definitively say whether the increase in bicyclists wearing helmets had anything New designs require a run of several hundred to several thousand. to do with Project donut or was a result of Creating a helmet in university colors with a university logo may be weather changes and other circumstances. feasible for larger universities, particularly large public universities Requires promotion to attract people to it. with athletic programs that have a state-wide fan base. Our Associ- ate Athletic Director thought that the age group that would be most interested in university-branded bicycle helmets would be children and teenagers, ages 6-16. University licensing adds to the cost. Special Sales on Campus Current on-campus stores lack the space and expertise to sell helmets. A special sale in a visible location could sell a large number of helmets and lights. Trained stu- dents could assist with fitting. To implement, we need to find dealer/local shop that can offer a good selection and accept credit card purchases at the campus sale. We are also investigating the possibility of working directly with an outside vendor. Offering Discounted Helmets at Local Bike Shops Publicizing discounts at local bike shops would take advantage of both the uni- versity’s promotional powers and the existing delivery systems of local retailers. However, student team members were skeptical that students would make a trip off campus to purchase a helmet, even with a coupon, and local bike shops were hesitant to order helmets in larger than usual quantities. Some Final Thoughts on College Helmet Promotion Campaigns 32 Making bicycle helmets the first and/or only component of your bicycle safety cam- paign is sure to turn off college students. Yet your campaign has a responsibility to ensure that a good selection of reasonably priced helmets is available to students at your university, and that students are reminded in creative and thoughtful ways to wear helmets. Project Donut was an easy and inexpensive way to start to bring a key bicycle safety message to college students. It enlisted enthusiastic bicyclists to help educate others by setting a good example. It also helped us recast a very difficult issue into a playful challenge. Bicyclists gave us many suggestions for helmet promotion as they picked up their donuts, which we will be pursuing in the future. One resource to consult as you design your campus helmet promotion is the Bicycle Helmet Campaign Guide avail- able on the web site of the Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute. It has resources for designing campaigns for all age groups, includes a small section dedicated to adult campaigns, and has a list of sources of inexpensive helmets. Some of the informa- tion dates back to 1987, but it still presents an excellent outline of how to start a helmet campaign. You can find the Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute at www.bhsi. org. 33 CONCLUSION BICYCLE SAFETY AND CAMPUS PLANNING During the course of this program, we became conscious of the particular problems a university campus infrastructure creates for teaching bicycle safety. In many plac- es our campus infrastructure inadvertently teaches unsafe behavior. It often forces or encourages students to ride their bikes in unsafe and illegal ways. For example, the easiest route for bicyclists to take through campus is a one-way street, which they bike in both directions! And no with clear policies about bikes on campus sidewalks, student bicyclists may get the mistaken idea that bikes belong on side- walks, rather than on the street. Until we improve and clarify the bicycle routes and policies on our campus, bicyclists will regularly see people riding in unsafe ways. Addressing these infrastructure needs will make the campus safer, and it will make the campus a better place to learn to ride and drive safely. In the next step of our program, we are tackling this directly, working with our campus planner to identify problem areas and potential long term solutions. Infrastructure is hard to change. On our campus it might mean replacing some of the most convenient parking spaces with a bike lane. But by conducting the edu- cation and assessment program outlined in this toolkit, we are now in a much better position to ask for infrastructure changes. We have data on the number of bicyclists on campus, and our program has contributed to a growing enthusiasm for bicycling. By starting with a safety program we gained the trust of the university, so we can now address all the compo- nents of a bicycle-friendly campus. After one year, the program outlined in this toolkit has raised awareness of bicycles and bicycle safety on campus. Around 7,000 drivers of vehicles received information on how to share the road safely with bicyclists; many commented that they hadn’t known that bicycles belong on the streets. Our program has resulted in a modest increase in helmet usage, the most easily measured indicator of safe bicycling behavior. It has set the stage for future bicycle programs, as future students can update and build upon its materials and projects. Our program has initiated part- nerships and conversations about bicycle safety with many university offices and programs, with local bike shops, and with local public agencies. Because we made an effort to reach out to so many different offices and people, we made discoveries and were given ideas that we wouldn’t have thought of on our own. We found allies and enthusiasts all over campus and in surprising places. Finally, having students as collaborators and innovators was essential to the suc- cess of this program. Undergraduate and graduate students are creative educators and excellent critics of education programs. They have the research, writing, speak- ing and computer skills needed to create materials or publicize an event, and they benefit a great deal from the opportunity to develop these talents while working within a real campaign. As equal partners and collaborators, students develop as leaders, problem-solvers and active citizens. After graduation, they will bring an understanding of bicycle safety and transportation issues to the communities in which they work and live. HISTORY OF THE NEW ORLEANS 34 MPO/TULANE PARTNERSHIP Tulane University is a leading private research university located in New Orleans, Louisiana. Its 13,000 undergraduate and graduate students pursue degrees in ar- chitecture, business, engineering, law, liberal arts and sciences, medicine, public health and tropical medicine, and social work. The Regional Planning Commission for Jefferson, Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard and St. Tammany Parishes (RPC) is the Metropolitan Planning Organization for the New Orleans urbanized area. The RPC began a mutually beneficial relationship with Tulane University several years prior to receipt of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration grant applica- tion that funded this report. It is helpful to note that staff and students at the Center for Bioenvironmental Re- search at Tulane University had already completed a citywide bicycle map. At the same time the Regional Planning Commission was embarking on updating the 1993 regional master bicycle plan. The Tulane bicycle initiative was asked to conduct research on the New Orleans Metropolitan Bicycle and Pedestrian Master Plan for the Regional Planning Commission. The NHTSA application was a joint effort based on a working relationship and earlier partnership. It tapped Tulane University’s educational expertise and the Re- gional Planning Commission’s familiarity with federal programs and grant writing, a ten year work history to plan and build bike paths, and overall credibility garnered as the Metropolitan Planning Organization for the region. BikeTulane 35 Sample Annual Budget An academic year budget for each of the major projects described in this toolkit. Assumes 3 student workers, and staff time for supervision. These estimates are for a university campus with 2,800 employees, 7,800 undergraduates and 3,100 graduate and professional students, and 1,300 estimated bicyclists. Staff/Faculty Coordination Program Manager, 5 hours/week for 8 months $2,840 Student Employees Undergraduate, 24 weeks, 7 hours/week, $7.50/hour $1,260 Undergraduate with work-study 75% match provided by Federal 316 Work Study Graduate Student, 24 weeks, 7 hours/week, $8.50/hour 1,428 Fringe1 Staff (23.8%) $674 Undergraduate (4.10%) 52 Undergraduate with work-study (4.10%) 12 Graduate student (4.10%) 68 General Supplies (markers, posterboard, miscellaneous copies) $100 Digital Camera 350 Lunch for advisory committee (2 lunch meetings at $120 each) 240 Assessment 3,000 “dot” labels for catch and release census $17 Online survey services varies City Cycling Class (offered 4 times) Bike Flyers (150 double-sided photocopies, 900 total flyers, once $50 each semester) Instructor (4, four-hour classes) 800 Drivers Brochure Printing (7,000 copies, double-sided, color) $1,066 Parking permit prize (varies by campus) varies Bike Resource Map Cartography $500 Photocopying (2,000 copies) 100 Helmet Education (Project Donut) Bike Flyers (150 double-sided photocopies, 900 total flyers $28 Donuts (4 dozen/week for 4 weeks) 88 Satsuma Oranges (2 dozen/week for 4 weeks) 24 Total Program $10,013 1 ”Fringe” covers employee benefits, such as social security or health insurance. It is often budgeted as a percentage of salary. A 23% fringe means that for every dollar salary budgeted, 23.8 cents must be budgeted for fringe. 36 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Funding for this program was provided by the National Highway Traffic Safety Ad- ministration through a grant program supporting initiatives to implement the Na- tional Strategies for Advancing Bicycle Safety. The programs described in this toolkit were created by a working group of Tulane University students and staff: Audrey Warren, Adam Davidson, Alexandra Cerven- ka, Dan Jatres, Jeff Hammond, and Sharon Sanchez; Lt. Stanley Cosper, Sr., Tulane Public Safety; and Dr. Liz Davey, Office of Environmental Affairs and Center for Bio- environmental Research. The Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities gave our program a home. Jim Harvey and Karen Parsons were our partners at the New Orleans Regional Planning Commission; they provided broad programmatic guidance and sound advice. Many individuals contributed their talents and ideas to this program. We deeply appreciate your assistance, and we enjoyed working with you! Tulane University Bicycle Advisory Committee: Nikki Adame, Environmental Law Society Linda Carroll, French and Italian Frank Currie, Human Resources Mic Dancisak, Exercise & Sports Sciences Steven James, Tulane College Kim Koster, Office of the Dean, Liberal Arts and Sciences Nicole Learson, Tulane University Interdisciplinary Experiences Randall Legeai, Government Affairs Amanda Rittenhouse, University Communications Partners who provided key assistance in implementing projects: Yannis Vassilopoulos, Computer Operations Core, Center for Bioenvi- ronmental Research Choots de Gracia, General Clinical Research Center Paula Burch, University Photography Denice Warren and Joy Bonaguro, Greater New Orleans Community Data Center Ken Dupaquier, Tulane Public Safety Adam Watts, Adam’s Bicycle World Billy Ruddy, GNO Cyclery Bill Fry, Bell Sports Joseph Wilde-Ramsing, Political Science Rob Hailey and Kelly Carroll, Auxiliary Services Toolkit Reviewers: Karen Parsons, Regional Planning Commission Susan Kirinich, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Kerry Chausmer, Louisiana Safe Kids Harritz Ferrando, Bicicleta Club de Catalunya Mark Schulz, Department of Public Health Education, University of North Carolina-Greensboro And special thanks to Tulane University President Scott Cowen.
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