Constitution – the Standard of Legitimacy by linxiaoqin

VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 93

									                                             MODULE 2
                                                UNIT 1
                                          Vocabulary Section
                              Constitution – the Standard of Legitimacy
                                                Part 1
Pre-reading task. Read the words. Mind the stress. A):
΄doctrine                   le΄gitimacy
΄statute                    de΄termine
΄customary                  con΄duct
΄virtually                  con΄sistently
΄venerate                   a΄mendment
΄compass                    a΄bolish

B) Complete the word building table.
Noun / Verb            Adjective                         Verb              Noun
legitimacy                                           to determine
statute                                              to venerate
custom                                               to enact
to venerate                                          to provide
flexibility                                          to abolish
to accept                                            to accept
to compress                                          to include
to govern                                            to compress
formality                                            to specify
convention                                           to devise
to specify                                           to depend
C) Read the following words. Mind the stresses.
΄compress – to com΄press                          ΄insert – to in΄sert
΄conduct – to con΄duct                            ΄present – to pre΄sent
΄export – to ex΄port                              ΄import – to im΄port
D) Add negative prefixes:
alterable                                         legitimacy
customary                                         consistently
compress                                          written

1. Look through the words and expression to make sure that you know them. Learn those you don’t know.
legitimacy [li´dЗitəmisi]                   законність; легальність;
to establish the legitimacy (of smth.)      встановити законність;
to confirm the legitimacy                   підтвердити законність;
to challenge / question the legitimacy (of підставити під сумнів законність;
smth.)
doctrine [´doktrin]                         вчення, доктрина, теорія;
stare decisis doctrine                      доктрина судового прецеденту;
framework [΄freimwə:k]                      1. структура, побудова; 2. рамки, точка відліку; система
                                            поглядів;
the framework of society                    суспільний лад;
within the framework of smth.               у межах чогось;
constitutional framework                    1. конституційна структура, 2. система; структура
                                            конституції; 3. конституційні рамки;
to determine [di´tə:min]                    визначати, встановлювати;
to determine guilt/ innocence               встановити вину /невинуватість;
specific [spi´sifik]                        особливий, характерний, визначений;
specific situation                          особлива ситуація;
                                                    1
specific guarantee                          спеціальна гарантія;
statute [´stætu:t]                          статут; законодавчий акт парламенту; закон;
to beat a statute                           обійти закон;
limitations statute                         закон про термін давності;
statute in force                            чинний законодавчий акт, чинний статут;
customary [´kΛstəm(ə)ri]                    звичайний; звичаєвий; загальний;
customary law                               звичаєве право;
standing                                    статус, положення ; становище; устрій; лад;
constitutional standing                     конституційний статус;
virtually [´və:t∫uəli]                      фактично; по-суті;
It's virtually impossible to translate this
phrase.
to claim [kleim]                            претендувати; заявляти; вимагати;
to claim the inheritance                    заявляти права на спадок;
to claim damages                            вимагати відшкодування збитків;
to conduct [kən´dΛkt]                       поводитись; здійснювати; проводити;
to conduct court                            проводити суд;
consistently [kən´sistəntli]                послідовно, узгоджено;
scheme [ski:m] /[s∫i:m]                     план, проект, програма; побудова, система;
to devise / think up a scheme               придумати план;
illegal scheme                              протиправна махінація;
whereby [weə´bai]                           за допомогою чого; відповідно до;
to venerate [´venəreit]                     шанувати;
to compress [kəm´pres]                      стискати, здавлювати; вмістити; скорочувати;
to compress thoughts                        лаконічно викладати думки;
compass [´kΛmpəs]                           межі;
within the compass of a lifetime            у межах людського життя;
within the compass of knowledge             у межах знань;
beyond the compass of ability               за межами можливостей;
attempt [ə΄tempt]                           спроба, проба, дослід;
to make an attempt                          зробити спробу;
to foil / thwart an attempt                 зазнати невдачі;
fruitless / vain attempt                    невдала спроба;
convention [kən´ven∫(ə)n]                   угода, домовленість, конвенція; з’їзд; умовність;
constitutional convention                   конституційний конвент;
convention of the constitution              конституційна угода; конституційний звичай;
deliberately [di´lib(ə)rətli]               обдумано, обачливо, умисно;
essentials [i´sen∫(ə)l]                     основи;
the essentials of economics                 основи економіки;
to enact [i´nækt]                           створювати, видавати, запроваджувати (закон);
to enact a law                              прийняти закон;
to enact into law                           встановлювати в законному порядку;
amendment [ə´mendmənt]                      поправка; зміна;
amendment to the constitution               поправка до конституції;
to adopt an amendment                       прийняти поправку;
to move / propose an amendment              запропонувати поправку;
to insert / to make an amendment            внести поправку;
to ratify an amendment                      затвердити поправку;
to reject an amendment                      відхилити поправку;
safeguard [´seifgα:d]                       гарантія; охорона; захист;
constitutional safeguard                    конституційна гарантія; конституційний захист;
legal safeguard                             правова гарантія, правовий захист;
procedural safeguard                        процесуальна гарантія;
                                                 2
proper safeguard                               належна гарантія / захист;
to insert [in´sə:t]                            вміщати; вносити виправлення / доповнення;
to insert an amendment                         внести поправку;
to insert an advertisement                     розмістити рекламу;
to ensure [in´∫uə]                             гарантувати, забезпечувати;
ensure project success                         забезпечити успіх проекту;
provision [prə´viЗ(ə)n]                        положення, умова (документу);
treaty provisions                              положення договору;
provision of law                               норма права, норма закону;
constitutional provision                       конституційне положення / норма;
statutory provision                            законоположення, припис закону, статуту
unalterable [Λn´o:lt(ə)rəbl]                   незмінний;
unalterable law                                непорушний (непохитний) закон;
flexible [´fleksibl]                           гнучкий; суворий;
a flexible schedule                            гнучкий розклад;
rigid [´ridЗid]                                негнучкий;
a rigid schedule                               негнучкий розклад;
rigid justice                                  сувора справедливість;
the rigid laws of time                         суворі закони часу;
similarly [´similəli]                          так само; подібно;
to abolish [ə´boli∫]                           скасовувати; анулювати; ліквідувати;
to abolish a tax                               скасувати податок;
to abolish colonialism                         ліквідувати колоніалізм;
the movement to abolish child labour           рух за відміну дитячої праці.
2. Read and translate the text.
                                Constitution – the Standard of Legitimacy
    Constitution is the body of doctrines and practices that form the fundamental organizing principle of a
political state. A constitution is a set of rules which defines the relationship between the organs of
government and between the government and citizens of a country. Its purpose is to set the framework of
governmental power and the rights and duties of the citizens. Therefore, the constitution of any
independent country will determine the system of government in that country.
     In some states, such as the United States, the constitution is a specific written document; in others,
such as the United Kingdom, it is a collection of documents, statutes, and traditional practices that are
generally accepted as governing political matters. States that have written constitutions may also have a
body of traditional or customary practices that may or may not be considered to be of constitutional
standing. Virtually every state claims to have a constitution, but not every government conducts itself in a
consistently constitutional manner.
    In its wider sense, the term constitution means the whole scheme whereby a country is governed: and
this includes much more else besides law. In its narrower sense, ‘constitution’ means the leading legal
rules, usually collected into some document that comes to be venerated as ‘The Constitution.’ But no
country can be compressed within the compass of one document, and even where the attempt has been
made, it is necessary to consider the extralegal rules, customs, and conventions that grow up around the
formal document.
    Written constitutions In most Western countries the constitution using the term in the narrower
sense, is a scheme of government that has been deliberately adopted by the people. Examples are the
Constitution of the United States, drawn up in 1787 and ratified in 1789 and still in essentials unchanged;
the constitution of the Weimar [΄waima:] Republic or that of the Federal Republic of Germany, brought
in force in 1949; and the constitutions that France has had since the Revolution. The constitution in these
countries is the basis of public law; it is usually enacted or adopted with special formalities; special
processes are devised for its amendment and sometimes safeguards are inserted to ensure that certain
provisions are unalterable.
    Unwritten constitutions,An unwritten constitution means that it is not formally enacted; its rules can
be found in a dozen fields, not in any one code. Similarly, it is flexible and here is the contrast with a

                                                     3
rigid constitution. There are no special safeguards for constitutional rules; constitutional law can be
changed, amended or abolished, just like any rule of private law.
3. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and expressions:
the fundamental organizing principle; the relationship between the organs of government; a collection of
documents, statutes, and traditional practices; generally accepted as governing political matters;
traditional or customary practices; to claim to have a constitution; the whole scheme whereby a country is
governed; to consider the extralegal rules, customs, and conventions; to be usually enacted or adopted
with special formalities; essentials unchanged; a scheme of government.
4. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and expressions:
Визначити систему управління країни; встановити параметри державної влади; конституційний
устрій (лад); врегульовувати політичні питання; поводитись конституційно; формувати
основоположний організуючий принцип; загально прийнятий; провідні правові норми; зробити
спробу; шанувати як Конституцію; в послідовно конституційній манері; в більш широкому /
вузькому сенсі; ввести в дію; втілити у межах одного документа; ратифікувати; містити гарантії;
гнучка / негнучка конституція; основа публічного права; випрацювати процедури для поправок;
незмінні положення.
5. A: Fill in the appropriate word from the list below.
Whereby, insert, unalterable, specify, compress, attempt, ensure, claimed, flexible, deliberately
1. Compensation could be …… against the government for the loss to the owner. 2. The system … the
Britons choose their family doctors and the government pays those doctors, is reasonably successful. 3. It
is going to be very difficult to … this mass of material into a book of ordinary length. 4. I … compared
one proposed amendment with the other. 5. We promised to …. the proper clause in the contract. 6. We
will …. equal opportunities for everybody. 7. The essences of things are …. . 8. My schedule is very … .
9. The regulations …. that you may use a dictionary in the examination. 10. We made an … to get in
touch with them.
B: Fill in the appropriate proposition or adverb.
1. Man can achieve a lot …. the compass of a lifetime. 2. They behaved …. a statesmanlike manner. 3.
Several documents … Great Britain are venerated … the Constitution. 4. The constitution … France has
existed …. the Revolution. 5. In contrast …. written constitutions, unwritten constitutions are more
flexible. 6. The constitutional provisions.... unwritten constitutions can be found …. a dozen fields.
6. Match the definition in the right column to the word in the left.
1. amendment                         a. arrangement; ordered system; plan or design;
2. to enact                          b. condition in a legal document;
3. scheme                            c. a change proposed and made to a rule, regulation, etc.;
4. statute                           d. to make sure, guarantee;
5. provision                         e. to regard with deep respect;
6. to venerate                       f. make a law, issue a law, or order by a law;
7. to ensure                         g. being in accordance with law;
8. legitimacy                        h. law passed by parliament or other law-making body;
7. Read and say whether these statements are true or false:
1. The Constitution of Great Britain is codified in the single document known as the Bill of Rights. 2. The
constitution of any independent country determines the system of government in that country. 3. An
unwritten constitution means that a country has no constitution at all. 4. The United States has an
unwritten constitution. 5. No country can be compressed within the compass of one document. 6. Every
government conducts itself in a consistently constitutional manner. 7. The Constitution of the United
States was drawn up in 1887 and ratified in 1889. 8. There are special processes for constitutional
amendments to unwritten constitutions. 9. All provisions of a written constitution can be alterable. 10. An
unwritten constitution is a rigid constitution.
8. Choose a word or phrase (a, b, or c) which best completes the unfinished sentence:
1. Laws and principles according to which a state is governed is a ….. .
   a) convention; b) constitution; c) custom;
2. A collection of laws guaranteeing fundamental rights and privileges is … .
   a) an unwritten constitution; b) an extralegal rule; c) a bill of rights;
3. The term constitution means the whole ….. whereby a country is governed.
                                                        4
   a) scheme; b) statutes; c) special safeguards;
4. The Constitution is a scheme of government that has been deliberately …. by the people.
   a) devised; b) adopted; c) written;
5. An example of the written constitution is the Constitution of …. .
   a) Great Britain; b) New Zealand; c) the United States.
6. An example of the unwritten constitution is the Constitution of …. .
    a) France; b) Israel; c) Ukraine.
9. Study the text more carefully and say:
1. what the constitution is; 2. what its purpose is; 3. what else some written constitutions may also
contain; 4. what a written constitution means; 5. what an unwritten constitution means.
10. Translate into English.
1. Конституція – це фундаментальні принципи та закони нації, держави або соціальної групи, які
гарантують певні права людям. Вона визначає політичний устрій держави і повноваження та
обов’язки уряду. 2. Конституція – це збірка основоположних правил, зазвичай кодифікованих у
єдиний документ, хоча три демократії – Британія, Нова Зеландія та Ізраїль (Israel) – мають
неписані або не кодифіковані конституції. 3. До того ж, є неписані правила, загально відомі як
конвенції (або угоди), які теж регулюють життя держави. 4. Крім того більшість сучасних
конституцій містять Біль про права, щоб захищати права громадян.
                                              Grammar Section
                                         Revision of the Active Voice
1. Choose the correct verb to complete the sentences.
1. She sipped her coffee and pulled a face. It ….. horrible today.     a) taste; b) tastes; c) is tasting; d) was
tasting;
2. Like all young men, he ….. like a log. a) sleep; b) is sleeping; c) sleeps; d) have slept;
3. If he … me a line to my club, it’ll be forwarded at once. a) send; b) sends; c) will send; d) will have
sent;
4. The important thing to know is when the book ….. out. a) come; b) comes; c) will come; d) has come;
5. ‘Oh, hallo!’ she said. ‘Do you want to see me?’ – ‘No, I …. for my father.’ a) look; b) looks; c) am
looking; d) will look;
6. The great detective has retired from business. He …. roses in a little cottage. a) grow; b) grows; c) is
growing; d) was growing;
7. People always ….. circumstances for what they are. a) blame; b) blames; c) are blaming; d) is blaming;
8. When I see him, he always ….. something. a) is eating; b) eats; c) eat; d) have eaten;
9. He …. a meeting with his employees this evening. a) has; b) have; c) is having; d) had;
10. This year we ….. only one assistant. a) took; b) take; c) have taken; d) has taken;
11. I …. even coffee yet. a) didn’t have; b) don’t have; c) haven’t had; d) hasn’t have;
12. I … this young lady all my life. a) know; b) am knowing; c) had known; d) have known;
13. He …. here for many years now. a) live; b) has lived; c) have lived; d) had lived;
14. I ….. ill for two weeks. a) am; b) has been; c) have been; d) had been;
15. I …. to be a lawyer all my life. a) want; b) has wanted; c) have wanted; d) had wanted;
16. ‘Are you married?’ – ‘No, I’m divorced.’ – ‘How long ….. you married? a) were; b) have been; c) had
been; d) are;
17. ‘Are you married?’- ‘Yes.’ - ‘How long ….. you married? a) were; b) have been; c) had been; d) are;
18. I’ll take you back in my car but not till I …. you some coffee. a) will make; b) will have made; c)
have made; d) had made;
19. You …. excuses for him all your life. a) make; b) made; c) has made; d) have been making;
20. He …. since he came home. a) study; b) has studied; c) is studying; d) has been studying;
21. Last May I ….. three days in London. a) spent; b) have been spending; c) have spent; d) had spent;
22. When I returned, she … from room to room. a) wandered; b) has wandered; c) had wandered; d) was
wandering;
23. One evening, just as I 1) …. the office, Martin 2) …. me. (1) a) left; b) was leaving; c) has been
leaving; d) had been leaving; (2) a) was ringing up; b) has been ringing up; c) rang up; d) rings up;
24. She was in the dressing gown. She …. evidently just out of bed. a) got; b) has got; c) gets; d) had got;
25. He was not aware how long he … there. a) sat; b) was sitting; c) had been sitting; d) has been sitting;
                                                       5
26. The rain … and the air was fresh. a) had passed; b) has passed; c) was passing; d) passed;
27. She … him a set of keys before they left the firm. a) gives; b) had given; c) has given; d) was giving;
28. She …. hardly …. down when a gentleman flopped into the chair opposite hers. a) sat; b) has sat; c)
had sat; d) sits;
29. She rose from her chair in which she ….. . a) sat; b) has been sitting; c) had been sitting; d) is sitting;
30. We … about the weather for a few minutes and then we’ll have dinner. a) talk; b) talked; c) will talk;
d) are talking.
2. Translate into English.
1. Він подякував мені за те, що я підтримав його у суперечці. 2. Вона загубила ключі та стоїть і
чекає, коли прийдуть її батьки. 3. Не встигли ми вийти, як почули постріл. 4. Вона постійно
дивиться на мене. Мені це не подобається. 5. За все своє життя я не зустрічала такого
благородного чоловіка. 6. Було холодно, так як сонце ще не встало. 7. Коли ми зустріли його, він
стояв і дивився на будинок, в якому він виріс. 8. Усі ляжуть спати до того, як він повернеться.
Вони звичайно рано лягають спати. 9. Я вирішив цю проблему після того, як попрацював над нею
декілька годин. 10. Дощ йде кожного дня з тих пір, як ми приїхали. 11. Я саме снідав, коли зайшов
мій друг і сказав, що вже все зробив. 12. Я працював вже кілька годин, коли ти зателефонував
мені. 13. Не приходь до мене завтра о восьмій. Я буду готуватися до тесту. 14. Що ти робиш
сьогодні ввечері? – Я їду у відрядження. 15. Коли ти повернешся, я вже підготую свою доповідь,
бо працюватиму вже кілька годин.
                                                   Part 2
                                         Vocabulary Section
                                      The British Constitution
Pre-reading task. Read the words. Mind the stress. A):
΄sovereign                  re΄duce
΄alter                      em΄body
΄remedy                     e΄nactment
΄ reduce                    con΄cern
΄ subject                   e΄volve
B) Complete the word building table.
Adjective         Noun / Verb                           Verb                  Noun
sovereign                                           to reduce
legislative                                         to embody
judicial                                            to alter
important                                           to evolve
similar                                             to understand

1. Look through the words and expression to make sure that you know them. Learn those you don’t know.
wholly [΄houli]                             повністю, цілком; зовсім;
We were wholly at a loss what to do.        Ми були зовсім розгублені та не знали, що робити.
to reduce [ri´dju:s]                        довести до; перетворювати; зменшувати, скорочувати;
The facts may all be reduced to three Всі факти можна звести до трьох груп.
headings.
to reduce costs                             скоротити витрати;
to reduce staff                             скорочувати штат;
sovereign [´sovrin]                         1. верховний, найвищий; 2. суверен, монарх;
sovereign authority / power                 верховна влада;
to alter [´o:ltə]                           змінювати, вносити зміни, перероблювати;
to alter a trade mark                       внести зміни в товарний знак;
subject [´sΛbdЗikt]                         підданий, суб’єкт, людина;
subject of the crown                        підданий королівства;
legal subject                               суб’єкт права;
subject of legislation                      об’єкт законодавства;
remedy [´remidi]                            засіб правового захисту; засіб, міра;
                                                      6
civil remedy                                    цивільно-правовий засіб судового захисту;
criminal remedy                                 кримінально-правовий засіб судового захисту;
to embody [im´bodi]                             втілювати; заключати в собі; зображувати;
The people's rights are embodied in the Права людей закріплені в законах.
laws.
enactment [i´næktmənt]                          закон, указ; втілення закону в життя;
congressional enactment                         закон, прийнятий конгресом; прийняття закону
                                                конгрессом;
legislative enactment                           законодавчий акт;
to cite [sait]                                  цитувати; посилатися;
to cite as authority                            цитувати як джерело права;
to cite an Act by popular name                  посилатися на закон з приведенням його загально
                                                відомої назви;
case law                                        прецедентне право
code [kəud]                                     закони честі, моралі; моральні норми; кодекс;
code of honour                                  кодекс честі;
code of practice                                процесуальний кодекс;
highway code                                    правила дорожнього руху;
sanitation code                                 санітарні норми;
code of behaviour                               норми поведінки;
to evolve [i´volv]                              розвиватися, еволюціонувати;
Some people still do not believe that man
evolved from monkeys.
to concern with [kən΄sə:n]                      займатися, цікавитися;
He concerns himself with trivia [΄triviə].      Він займається дурницями.
to be concerned with                            мати відношення, стосуватися
2. Read and translate the text.
                                          The British Constitution
    Before examining the nature of the British constitution it is important to have a clear understanding of
what is meant by ‘organs’ or ‘institutions’ of government. In this context we mean the executive, the
legislature and the judiciary, in addition, in the United Kingdom, the monarch has an important
constitutional role as head of the state.
    The British constitution is not ‘written’, that is to say, it has never been wholly reduced to writing.
Further, since Parliament is ‘sovereign’ it can, without any special procedure, and by simple Act, alter
any law at any time, however, fundamental it may seem to be. Although, therefore, the courts have
always been statute to safeguard the rights of the subject and although legal remedies, such as habeas
corpus, are designed to protect him, yet, under the constitution, there are no guaranteed rights similar to
the fundamental liberties safeguarded by the US Constitution.
    The statement that the British Constitution is not ‘written’ does not mean that the British citizens
possess no important constitutional documents; it merely means that the constitution is not embodied in
any single document, or series of documents, containing the essential constitutional laws. Thus, the
British citizens have many enactments which either have been or still are, of great importance. One needs
only to cite as examples Magna Carta (1215), the Habeas Corpus (1679), the Bill of Rights (1688) –
which set out the principle rights gained by Parliament and the nation as the result of the seventeenth
century constitutional struggles – the Act of Settlement, (1700), and the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949.
       The sources of the British Constitution can be found in custom law, case law books, European
Community law (since 1972) / European Union law (at present) and, most important, constitutional
conventions. These are informal or ‘moral’ rules – a code of practice for government, which has evolved
over the years. They are primarily concerned with the relationship between the Crown (Monarch) and the
executive and the legislature. Many constitutional rules, such, for example, as the provisions of the Act of
Settlement are laws in the ordinary sense, that is, they will be recognized and enforced by the courts.
3. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and expressions:
The Act of Settlement; the Magna Carta; European Community law; European Union law; in addition;
without any special procedure; constitutional conventions; a code of practice for government; to evolve
                                                       7
over the years; be primarily concerned with the relationship between Crown and the executive and the
legislature; provisions of the act; to reduce to writing; to be statute to safeguard the rights of the subject.
4. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and expressions:
Звичайне право; тобто; верховний; змінити закон; прецедентне право; гарантувати (захищати)
права людини; результат конституційної боротьби; моральні норми діяльності уряду; право
Європейського Союзу; судова влада; законодавча влада; виконавча влада; засоби правового
захисту; повністю доведені до письма; суттєві конституційні закони; особлива процедура;
гарантовані права; втілені в єдиному документі; встановлювати головні права; за конституцією.
5. A: Fill in the appropriate word from the list below.
Altered, enactment, evolved, reduce, wholly, embodied
1. His words were … true. 2. We have been able to … our tax bill by 10%. 3. Constitutional law has ….
very much since the US Constitution was adopted. 4. Real power should be …. in Parliament. 5. We
support the call for the ….. of a Bill of Rights. 6. English law and Scots law … differently in form and
substance which has resulted in different principles, institutions and traditions.
B: Fill in the appropriate proposition or adverb.
1. Don't concern yourself … matters that are not your business. 2. ….the British constitution, there are no
similar documents guaranteeing rights and fundamental liberties safeguarded … the US Constitution. 3.
The British citizens have many constitutional documents which are … great importance. 4. Magna Carta,
the Habeas Corpus, the Bill of Rights set … the principle rights gained … Parliament and the nation …
the result … the seventeenth century constitutional struggles. 5. … addition, the monarch has an
important constitutional role … head of the state. 6. These are also ‘moral’ rules – a code … practice …
government.
6. Read and say whether these statements are true or false:
1. An unwritten constitution can be easily changed. 2. The monarch has no constitutional role under the
Constitution. 3. There are no documents containing constitutional laws in the United Kingdom. 4.
Parliament must follow a special procedure to alter constitutional laws. 5. The law courts can apply
certain legal remedies to protect the rights of the subjects. 6. Parliament has no power to make laws to
protect individual rights. 7. The rights of the British citizens are safeguarded in the same way as the rights
of the Americans. 8. Precedents are the part of the British Constitutional Law. 9. The Code of Practice for
Government regulates relations between the Monarch, the executive and the legislature. 10. The
legislative organs enforce the provisions of the constitutional documents.
7. Choose a word or phrase (a, b, or c) which best completes the unfinished sentence:
1. By …. we mean the executive, the legislature and the judiciary.
   a) convention; b) constitution; c) organ;
2. The constitutional…. is a treaty of multilateral nature relating to the exercise of their functions by the
Crown, the government, Parliament, and the judiciary that are not legally enforceable but are commonly
followed if they were.
    a) convention; b) constitution; c) precedent;
3. A prerogative writ used to challenge the validity of a person’s arrest, either in official custody or in
private hands is called … .
    a) the Bill of Rights; b) Magna Carta; c) Habeas corpus;
4. The constitutional document that guaranteed the freedom of church, restricted taxes and fines,
promised justice to all is … .
    a) the Bill of Rights; b) Magna Carta; c) Habeas Corpus;
5. The … is a document that sets out legal rules and has been passed by both Houses of Parliament in the
form of a Bill and agreed to by the Crown.
    a) Act of Settlement; b) Act of Parliament; c) Royal Assent;
6. The … is the agreement of the Crown, given by the royal prerogative, that converts a Bill into an Act
of Parliament.
    a) Act of Settlement; b) Act of Parliament; c) Royal Assent;
7. …. is an act of parliament, an order, or any other piece of subordinate legislation, or any particular
provision contained in any of them.
  a) Judicial review; b) Enactment; c) Enforcement.
8. Match the definition in the right column to the word in the left.
                                                      8
1. sovereign                     a) a set of rules or principles governing the behavior of a
                                 particular group or individual;
2. remedy                        b) to provide a guarantee, to protect;
3. to safeguard                  c) established organization or body;
4. source                        d) to include, comprise;
5. enactment                     e) way to get redress;
6. code                          f) law passed by a legislative body;
7. to embody                     g) original documents, serving as material for a study;
8. institution                   h) having the highest power;
9. Study the text more carefully and answer the following questions:
1. What does the term ‘organ’ or ‘institution’ mean in the constitutional sense? 2. Which power in Britain
is sovereign? 3. Who can alter the rules of the British constitution? 4. What does the term ‘unwritten
constitution’ mean to the British citizens? 5. What are the main sources of the British constitution?
10. Translate into English.
1. Основні джерела – законодавство, судовий прецедент, додаткові джерела – звичайне та
прецедентне право. 2. Те, що Британська конституція не є єдиним писаним документом, не
означає, що в країні не має конституційних документів. 3. Конституція Великобританії не втілена
в єдиний документ, а представлена серією документів, які включають суттєві конституційні
закони та конституційні права. 4. Обов’язком британської судової системи є примусове здійснення
волі парламенту через його законодавство. 5. Конституція гарантує рівні права всім громадянам,
незалежно від кольору шкіри, раси, статі, релігійних вірувань, місця проживання
                                               Grammar Section
                                         Revision of the Active Voice
1. Choose the correct answer.
1. ‘I … about a new car recently?’ ‘Really? What sort of car?’ a) have been thinking; b) have thought;
c) thought;
2. ‘I haven’t seen Mark for weeks.’ ‘Well, I … him this afternoon. Why don’t you come along?             a)
have met; b) am meeting; c) meet;
3. ‘We’d better take a taxi to the station.’ ‘Yes. The train … in fifteen minutes.’ a) has left; b) will have
left; c) leaves;
4. ‘Where is the newspaper?’ ‘I threw it away. I thought you … reading it.’ a) have finished; b) finished;
c) had finished;
5. ‘I feel tired. ‘How can you be tired? You …. a thing all day.’ a) haven’t been doing; b) aren’t doing; c)
haven’t done;
6. ‘Ann doesn’t study enough.’ ‘I know. I’m afraid she … her exam .’ a) won’t pass; b) won’t be passing;
c) won’t have passed;
7. It’s bad news about Jane crashing her new car, isn’t it?’ ‘Yes. She … for months to but it.’ a) saved; b)
is saving; c) had been saving;
8. ‘There’s someone here to see you.’ ‘Oh, that … my sister. Send her in. a) will have been; b) was; c)
will be;
9. ‘Whose is this ring?’ ‘I don’t know. I found it when … the house. ’a) was cleaning; b) had cleaned; c)
am cleaning;
10. ‘I … to reach Jane on the phone all day.’ ‘Don’t you know? She’s gone on holiday.’ a) tried; b) have
been trying; c) have tried;
11. ‘I want to visit Katie.’ ‘Well, don’t visit her before five o’clock. She … .’ a) is working; b) will be
working; c) will have worked;
12. ‘That … like Dad’s car.’ ‘It is. He must have finished work early. ’a) sounds; b) have sounded; c) has
sounded;
13. ‘Is that a new textbook?’ ‘No. I … it from Laura yesterday.’ a) have borrowed; b) had borrowed; c)
borrowed;
14. ‘…. to the library today?’ ‘Yes. Would you like me to return your books?’ a) Will you have gone; b)
Will you have been going; c) Will you be going;
15. ‘How is your colleague?’ ‘His condition … day by day.’ a) improves; b) has improved; c) is
improving;
                                                        9
16. ‘When did you speak to your supervisor?’ ‘I met her as I …. to work.’ a) had walked; b) was walking;
c) am walking;
17. ‘Shall we go shopping?’ ‘I can’t go until the babysitter … .’ a) arrives; b) will arrive; c) arrived
2. Put the verbs in brackets into a correct tense.
1. A: I 1) …… (think) of going to that new Chinese restaurant in the center to celebrate my birthday. 2) ……
(you/be) there yet? B: No, I 3) …… (not/be), but people 4) ……. (say) that the food is fantastic. A: Would you like
to go there next weekend? B: Yes, that’s a great idea. I 5) …. (write) in my diary now.
2. John 1) ….. (leave) the house in a rush this morning. As he 2) …… (drive) to work suddenly he 3) …..
(remember) that he 4) …… (be asked) to speak at a conference. He 5) …… (look) at his watch and 6) ………..
(see) that it was nearly time for the conference to begin.
3. Last March Sam 1) …… (decide) that he 2) …… (have) enough of working in a bank and that he 3) ……. (ride)
around the world on a bicycle. He 4) …… (leave) England two weeks later with his bike, a rucksack and a tent. He
5) ….. (be) away for six months now, and no one 6) …… (know) whether he 7) ……. (return) or not.
4. Jan and Paul 1) …… (argue) in the next room at the moment. It 2) ….. (seem) that Paul 3) ……. (come) in late
last night after he 4) ……. (promise) Jan that he 5) ……. (be) home in time for dinner. By the time he 6) ….. (get)
home, Jan 7) ….. (give) his dinner to the dog and 8) …… (wait) by the window for two hours!
5. A: 1) …… (you/go) on holiday to Germany this year? B: No, we 2) …… (go) there every year, so we want a
change this year. A: Where 3) ….. (you/plan) to go instead? B: Well, we 4) …… (be/told) that Greece is a beautiful
country so we 5) …….. (already/book) a two-week holiday on Corfu.
6. Susan 1) ……. (study) law part time for six years and she 2) ….. (get) her diploma next month. Since she 3) …..
(work) in the same company for over ten years she 4) ….. (feel) that she 5) ….. (need) a change, so she 6) …..
(plan) to open her own advisory office. She 7) ….. (start) looking for an office next week, and she 8) ….. (hope)
she 9) ….. (find) something in a good location and at a reasonable price by the end of the month. Her tutors 10)
…… (tell) her that she 11) …… (be) very smart and they 12) …….. (assure) her that she 13) …… (make) a
success.
7. Jim 1) ….. (walk) along the High Street when he 2) ….. (notice) someone behind him. Actually, he 3) …..
(follow) him since he 4) …… (get) off the bus. Jim 5) ….. (stop) at a shop window. The man 6) ….. (come) closer
to him, Jim 7) ….. (have) the feeling he 8) ……. (see) him before, so he 9) …… (go) up to him and 10) …… (ask):
‘…….. (not/I/know) you? Why 11) …… (you/follow) me?’ The man 13) ….. (smile) and 14) ……. (say), ‘Smile!
You 15) …….. (be) on Candid Camera!’
8. Julie 1) ….. (always/want) to be famous, ever since she was young. She 2) ……. (take) acting classes for years
and last week someone 3) ……. (offer) her a part in an advertisement. They only 4) ……. (need) her voice, though,
because it’s going to be on the radio. At least her career 5) …… (start).
9. Tom 1) …… (save) up to go to France for months, and yesterday when he 2) …. (count) his savings he 3) …..
(realize) he had enough. Unfortunately as he 4) ….. (drive) to the travel agent’s he 5) ………….. (remember) that
he 6) ….. (not/pay) his rent for two months so he 7) ….. (turn) round and 8) …… (drive) back home.
10. Next month I 1) …….. (visit) my friend who 2) …….. (live) in Brazil. The flight from London 3) ……. (take)
about fifteen hours and I 4) …… (never/be) on the plane before. I 5) …… (feel) quite nervous about the journey
but my friend 6) ……. (keep) telling me that there 7) …… (be) nothing to worry about.

                                                    Part 3
                                         Vocabulary Section
                                       The British Constitution
Pre-reading task. Read the words. Mind the stress. A):
΄specify                    pre΄amble                      ratifi΄cation
΄guideline                  re΄jection                     govern΄mental
΄ratify                     e΄ffect                        sig΄nificance
΄witness                    un΄alienable                   thir΄teenth
΄fellow                     un΄reasonable                  poli΄tician
΄congress                   com΄pel                        sig΄nificance
B) Complete the word building table.
Adjective         Noun / Verb                           Verb             Noun
political                                           to compel
legislative                                         to embody
judicial                                            to alter
important                                           to evolve

                                                       10
similar                                           to understand
original                                          to enforce
С)
Noun         Adjective                             Noun / Verb          Adjective / Noun
power                                              reason
peace                                              to compel
alien                                              significance
effect                                             citizen
D) Add negative prefixes:
alienable                                      peaceful
reasonable                                     guard
effective                                      significance

1. Look through the words and expression to make sure that you know them. Learn those you don’t know.
preamble [pri´æmbl]                        преамбула; вступна частина;
checks and balances                        система стримувань та противаг;
to specify [´specifai]                     встановлювати, точно визначати;
He specified the reasons of their failure.
power [´pauə]                              1. повноваження; 2. влада, 3. держава, 4. сила; 5. право;
official powers                            посадові повноваження;
amending power                             право вносити поправки;
appointing power                           право призначати на посаду;
delegated powers                           делеговані повноваження;
current power                              діюче повноваження;
guideline [´gaidlain]                      директива; керуючи вказівки;
guidelines for setting out priorities      керівництво для встановлення першочерговості;
to rest with                               покладати (вину); доручати (владу);
It rests with you.                         Це залежить від вас.
to ratify [´rætifai]                       ратифікувати; схвалювати;
ratification [,rætifi´kei∫(ə)n]            ратифікація;
legislative ratification                   ратифікація законодавчим органом;
Senate ratification                        ратифікація сенатом;
rejection [ri´dЗek∫(ə)n]                   відхилення; неприйняття;
rejection of a claim                       відхилення вимоги;
effect [i΄fekt]                            сила, вплив, дія, результат,
to go into effect                          вступати в силу;
limited effect                             обмежена дія;
to put new regulations into effect         вводити нові постанови в дію;
hence [hens]                               отже; звідси;
to state [΄steit]                          стверджувати; встановлювати; формулювати;
to state a case                            сформулювати спірні питання по справі; доповідати по
                                           справі; доповідати по суті справи;
to state charge                            сформулювати обвинувачення;
A problem must be stated in order to be
solved.
to state an offence                        визначити склад злочину;
unalienable [Λn´eiljənəbl]                 невід’ємний;
unalienable rights                         невід’ємні права;
peaceful assembly [´pi:sful ə´sembli]      мирні збори;
to petition [pi´ti∫(ə)n] / petition        звертатися з петицією, подавати клопотання; /
                                           клопотання, подання, благання;
petition of habeas corpus                  клопотання про видання наказу habeas corpus;
petition for permission of appeal          прохання про дозвіл подати апеляцію;
                                                 11
petition for review                  заява до суду про перегляд справи;
to file / present a petition         подати клопотання;
to grant a petition                  задовольнити клопотання;
to withdraw a petition               відізвати клопотання, забрати клопотання назад;
to deny, reject a petition           відмовити у клопотанні;
to guard [ga:d]                      захищати, охороняти;
to guard smb. from harm              захищати когось від шкоди;
to guard against making mistakes     захищати когось від помилок;
unreasonable [Λn´ri:znəbl]           безпідставний; необґрунтований; нерозумний;
unreasonable hope                    необґрунтована надія;
unreasonable request                 нерозумне прохання;
search [sə:t∫] / to search           обшук; пошук; розшук; / шукати, обшукувати;
                                     розшукувати, вести пошуки;
unreasonable search                  необґрунтований обшук;
right of search                      право на обшук;
the search for truth                 пошук істини;
to go in search of smth              займатися пошуками;
to search for a missing girl         розшукувати зниклу дівчину;
to search the car                    обшукувати машину;
seizure [´si:Зə]                     конфіскація; накладання арешту;
unwarranted search and seizure       незаконний обшук з конфіскацією;
seizure of property
fellow [΄feləu]                           приятель, товариш, колега, співбрат;
fellow citizen                            співгромадянин;
fellow student                            однокурсник, сокурсник;
fellow soldier                            товариш по зброї;
due [dju:]                                належний, відповідний;
with due attention                        з належною увагою;
after due consideration                   після уважного розгляду;
procedural due process of law             розгляд справи з належним дотриманням        норм
[prə΄sidЗər(ə)l]                          процесуального права;
to be due                                 повинен;
The train is due to arrive in London at 5
a.m.
to compel [kəm´pel]                       примусити; змусити;
to compel smth. from smb.                 витягувати щось у когось
to compel confession                      примусити визнати вину;
to compel to testify                      змусити дати свідчення;
witness [´witnis] / to witness            свідок, очевидець; бути очевидцем, бачити;
to bear false witness                     давати неправдиві свідчення;
to examine / interrogate / question       допитувати свідка;
a witness
to cross-examine a witness                вести перехресний допит свідка;
to hear witnesses                         вислухати очевидців;
to interview wetnesses                    опитати очевидців;
to witness against oneself                свідчити проти себе;
to witness an arrest                      бути понятими при арешті;
significance [sig´nifikəns]               важливість, значущість;
legal significance                        юридичне значення;
evidential significance                   доказове значення;
social significance (of)                  соціальна значущість;
integral [´intigr(ə)l]                    невід’ємний;
an integral part of the curriculum        невід’ємна частина програми;

                                            12
citizenship                                  громадянство;
dual citizenship                             подвійне громадянство;
to acquire / receive citizenship             отримати громадянство;
give up / renounce one's citizenship         відмовитись від громадянства;
grant citizenship                            надати громадянство;
revoke smb's citizenship                     позбавити громадянства;
male                                         чоловічий;
male line                                    чоловіча лінія (родовід);
male issue                                   нащадки чоловічого роду;
servitude [´sə:vitju:d]                      рабство; неволя, рабська залежність;
to deliver from servitude                    звільнити з рабства;
to abolish servitude                         скасувати рабство;
office                                       посада; пост;
to hold office                               займати посаду;
to assume office                             вступити на посаду;
come into office                             прийняти справи, приступити до виконання посадових
                                             обов’язків;
to resign /leave office                      уйти з посади;
to seek office                               претендувати на посаду;
to lower [´ləuə]                             знижувати;
This medicine lowers cholesterol levels.
2. Read and translate the text.
                                The U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights
       The constitution consists of a preamble, seven articles and 27 amendments. The Constitution, the
oldest still in force in the world, sets up a federal system by dividing powers between the national and
state governments. It also establishes the basic form of government: three separate independent branches
(the executive, the legislative, and the judicial), each one having powers (‘checks and balances’) over
others. The executive branch, the President, enforces national laws; the legislative branch, the Congress
makes national laws; and the judicial branch, the Supreme Court and other federal courts, applies and
interprets laws when deciding legal disputes in federal courts. It specifies the powers and duties of each
federal branch of government, with all other powers and duties belonging to the state. Federal powers
listed in the Constitution include the rights to collect taxes, declare war, and regulate interstate and
foreign trade.
       All governments and governmental groups, federal, state, and local, must operate within its
guidelines. The ultimate power under the Constitution is not given to the President (the executive branch),
or the Supreme Court (the judicial branch). Nor does it rest, as in many other countries, with a political
group or party. It belongs to ‘We the People’, in fact and in spirit.
       The United States Constitution resulted from the Constitutional Convention of 1787 in
Philadelphia. When the convention was over, the proposed Constitution was sent to the states for
ratification. Nine of the thirteen states were needed to ratify the Constitution in order for it to be adopted.
One of the main arguments of those opposed to the ratification of the Constitution was that it did not
contain a list of the rights, or a bill of rights, which a government could not take away from the people.
Many who wanted ratification saw that the absence of a Bill of Rights could lead to rejection of the
Constitution. They promised to work for a Bill of Rights, and on December 15, 1791 the Bill of Rights
finally went into effect. Hence, the Constitution consists of the Preamble and seven articles. Twenty-
seven amendments have been added to its original text. The first ten amendments are known as the Bill of
Rights. However, only the first eight amendments deal with the guarantee of specific rights of individual
citizens against any violation by the government. They stated what they considered to be the fundamental
unalienable rights of any American. Among these rights are freedoms of religion, speech, and the press,
the right of peaceful assembly, and the right to petition the government to correct wrong. Other rights
guarded the citizens against unreasonable searches, arrests and seizures of property, and established a
system of justice guaranteeing orderly legal procedures. This included the right of trial by jury, that is,
being judged by one’s fellow citizens. Some of these amendments are now relatively unimportant, but the
Fifth Amendment retains its significance in the fight of the American people for their civil rights. It
                                                       13
provides that ‘no person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law’ and no
person ‘shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself.’
    All the amendments adopted by the Congress have become an integral part of the Constitution.
Mention should be made of some of them. The Thirteenth amendment abolished slavery. The Fourteenth
and Fifteenth amendments adopted in 1868 and 1870 defined citizenship and gave the vote to all male
citizens, regardless of race, color or previous condition of servitude. The nineteenth gave the vote to
women, and was adopted in 1920. The Twenty-second amendment, adopted in 1951, makes it impossible
for any President to hold office for more than two terms. The 26th amendment was adopted in 1971, it
lowered the voting age to 18 years.
          The federal and state governments formed under the Constitution, therefore, were designed to
serve the people and to carry out their majority wishes (and not the other way round). One thing they did
not want their government to do is to rule them. Americans expect their government to serve them and
tend to think of politicians and governmental officials as their servants. This attitude remains very strong
among Americans today.
3. Look through the Bill of rights in the adapted form to understand the general meaning.
                                           THE BILL OF RIGHTS
                       The first 10 amendments to the Constitution and their purpose
                            Protections afforded fundamental rights and freedoms
Amendment 1. Freedom of religion, speech, press, and assembly; the right to petition the government,
                                  Protections against arbitrary military action
Amendment 2. Right to bear arms and maintain state militia (National Guard).
Amendment 3. Troops may be quartered in homes in peacetime.
                             Protections against arbitrary police and court action
Amendment 4. No reasonable searches or seizures.
Amendment 5. Grand jury indictment required to prosecute a person for a serious crime. No ‘double
jeopardy’ – being tried twice for the same offence. Forcing a person to testify against himself or herself
prohibited. No loss of life, liberty or property without due process.
Amendment 6. Right to speedy, public, impartial trial with defense counsel, and the right to cross-examine
witnesses.
Amendment 7. Jury trials in civil suits where value exceeds 20 dollars.
Amendment 8. No excessive bail or fines, no cruel and unusual punishments.
                        Protections of states’ rights and unnamed rights of the people
Amendment 9. Unlisted rights are not necessary denied.
Amendment 10. Powers not delegated to the United States or denied to states are reserved to the states or
to the people.

4. Give Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and expressions; make up sentences or situations
using them.
1. checks and balances; to rest with a political party; the Supreme Court; to specify the powers and duties
of each federal branch of government; to apply and interpret laws; regulate interstate and foreign trade;
operate within its guidelines; in fact and in spirit; trial by jury; fellow citizens; legal procedures; the right
of peaceful assembly; to correct wrong; the guarantee of specific rights of individual citizens against any
violation by the government; ultimate power; freedoms of religion; the other way round; to petition the
government; tend to think; to guard the citizens against unreasonable searches; seizure of property; to
guarantee orderly legal procedures; to be judged by one’s fellow citizens; to be compelled to be a witness
against himself; an integral part of the Constitution; to abolish slavery; to define citizenship; to give the
vote; regardless of race, color or previous condition of servitude; to hold office for more than two terms;
to lower the voting age; to serve the people; to carry out their majority wishes; governmental officials.
5. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and expressions:
1. ділити повноваження між національним урядом та урядами штатів; окремі незалежні гілки;
Верховний суд; тлумачити закони; застосовувати закони; правові суперечки; збирати податки;
оголошувати війну; приймати /додати поправки до конституції;повна влада; доручати владу
політичним партіям; запропонована Конституція; забрати права у людей; привести до відхилення
Конституції; повноваження та обов’язки; ратифікувати конституцію; діяти у рамках (згідно
                                                       14
директив) конституції; свобода слова, релігії, преси; система стримувань і противаг; безпідставний
арешт; право на свободу зборів; подавати клопотання уряду; конфіскація майна; свідчити проти
себе; встановити систему правосуддя; судочинство; незалежно від раси; визначати громадянство;
попереднє перебування у рабстві; невід’ємні права; служити народу.
6. A: Fill in the appropriate word from the list below.
Effect, due, check, legislative, unreasonable, lowered, rests, petition, specifies, judicial, balanced,
searched, executive.
1. The contract … that a penalty must be paid if the work is not completed on time. 2. It .... with the court
to decide the prisoner’s guilt. 3. The law goes into …. soon. 4. The defence lawyers decided to … for a
new trial. 5. It is …….to demand that employees work without a break. 6. The police officer … the
criminal to see what he had in his pockets. 7. The arrest of the diplomat will produce its … effects. 8. The
Central Bank has …. interest rates by 2 percent. 9. The … branch enforces national laws. 10. The …
branch makes laws. 11. The … branch applies and interprets laws. 12. The powers given to each branch
are carefully … by the powers of the other two. 13. Each branch serves as a … on the others.
B: Fill in the appropriate proposition or adverb where necessary.
1. Don't concern yourself … matters that are not your business. 2. ….the British constitution, there are no
similar documents. 3. The local people have petitioned the council …. improved street lighting. 4. Take
care in your writing to guard …. typical mistakes. 5. You cannot compel good work … unwilling
students. 6. The government established … the Articles …. Confederation was not strong enough to
govern a new nation. 7. … example, it lacked ... an executive body and a system … national court.
7 . Match the definition in the right column to the word in the left.
1. search                    a. a recommendation as to policy or conduct;
2. seizure                   b. to state something explicitly or in detail;
3. guideline                 c. to present a formal written request made to somebody in authority, e.g.
                             government, esp. one made by a large number of people;
4. check and balances        d. to do away with something (e.g. law, custom) wholly; annul (it);
5. to specify                f. proper, suitable, right;
6. to ratify                 g. examining (a person) for concealed articles, e.g. weapons, drugs, etc.
7. to petition               h. a company of people gathered together for a particular purpose;
8. due                       i. to approve or confirm formally, so that it can come in force;
9. to abolish                j. methods of control or supervision by Government, or other authorities to
                             guard against misuse of power;
10. assembly                 k. taking possession of somebody or something by legal process;
8. Read and say whether these statements are true or false:
1. The US Constitution was adopted after the Civil War. 2. The document embodied the political theories
of the Founding Fathers. 3. All the amendments adopted by the Congress are included in the Bill of
Rights. 4. The Constitution of the United States was based on the separation of powers – the executive,
the legislature and the judiciary. 5. The separation of powers means the system of governmental powers
where one governmental branch checks and balances those of others. 6. Under the constitution the
ultimate power rests with the President of the USA. 7. The US Constitution can be altered easily, like
many other written constitutions. 8. The Constitution of the USA abolished slavery. 9. A constitutional
amendment can be added if a very substantial majority, both in Congress as in the individual States,
approve it. 10. A lot of contemporary constitutions are based on the US Constitution.
9. Complete the following text with the suitable words or phrases.
    When the Constitution was written in 1787, there were only 13 states. Because the 1) ___________ of
the Constitution saw that the future might bring a need for changes, they 2) ____________ a method of
adding 3) _____________ . Over the years 27 amendments have been added, but the basic 4)
____________ has not been 5) _______. The pattern of government planned so long ago for 13 states
today meets the needs of 50 states and more than 57 times as many people.
    The first 10 amendments to the Constitution, called the 6) ___________, assure individual 7)
_______________ and 8) _____________. Added in 1791, they included provisions for freedom of the 9)
____________ and 10) ____________: the right of citizens to 11) __________ peacefully; the right to be
12) _________ in one’s own home against unreasonable 13) ____________ and 14) ___________ of

                                                     15
person or property; and the right of any person charged with 15) ___________ the law to have a speedy
trial by 16) _________ of fellow 17) __________.
    The Constitution 18) _______ the powers of the government into three branches: the 19)
_____________ headed by the 20) ___________; the 21) ___________ which includes both houses of
22) __________ (the Senate and the House of Representatives) and the 23) __________ which is headed
by the Supreme Court. The Constitution limits the role of each 24) ___________ to prevent any one
branch from gaining undue 25) ____________ .
10. Answer the questions.
1. What three main branches is the federal government divided into? 2. What are the main duties of each
branch? 3. What principle forms the basis of the Constitution? 4. Has the text of the Constitution ever
been changed? How did it become possible? Why does the US Constitution need some changes? 5. Does
any governmental organ or official in the USA have the ultimate power? Why? 6. What is the Bill of
Rights? 7. What freedoms and rights are proclaimed by the Constitution? Which of them has become the
most important?
11. Translate into English.
    Розчарувавшись (to disappoint) у британському правлінні, тринадцять північноамериканських
колоній послали 1776 року своїх делегатів на Континентальний конгрес у Філадельфію. Там вони
ухвалили Декларацію про незалежність. Північноамериканські штати стали незалежними
державами-штатами.
    Спочатку вони заснували конфедерацію. Невдовзі після проголошення Декларації про
незалежність Континентальний конгрес запропонував Статті конфедерації, і до 1781 року їх
ратифікували всі тринадцять штатів. Ці статті стали першою Конституцією Сполучених Штатів
Америки. Конфедерація, проголошена Статтями, була вельми слабка. Центральний уряд мав
широкі повноваження у сфері військових та закордонних справ. Однак у сфері внутрішніх справ
майже вся влада зберігалася за окремими штатами. Конгрес не мав повноважень накладати
податки на покриття федеральних витрат. Федерального суду практично не було. Центральний
уряд залежав від штатів.
    Незадоволення Статтями конфедерації підштовхнуло штати послати знов, 1787 року, делегатів
до Філадельфії. Делегати мали право лише запропонувати поправки до Статей, але невдовзі вони
вирішили скасувати їх зовсім і представити народові зовсім нову Конституцію. Через два роки
після ратифікації законодавчими зборами дев’яти штатів нова Конституція набула чинності.
    Цю Конституцію час від часу підправляли, але її положення чинні й досі. Складається вона з
семи статей і двадцяти семи поправок. Вона дає повноваження центральному урядові, розподіляє
ці повноваження поміж кількох урядових розгалужень та обмежує владу як центрального уряду,
так і окремих штатів.
    До найбільших переваг (merit) Конституції належать три великі принципи, покликані
забезпечити неможливість зловживати урядовою владою. Принцип федералізму обмежує
офіційний гніт, розподіляючи повноваження між нацією і штатами; принцип розподілу влад
забезпечує це, ділячи владу між трьома гілками федерального урядування. Принцип стримування
та противаг дає ще більший захист, наділяючи в багатьох випадках котрийсь підрозділ владою,
щоб стримувати хибні чи незаконні дії іншого.
8. Home assignment. Read about the Constitution of Ukraine and speak about its main provisions.
                                          The Constitution of Ukraine
    Governed by the Act of Ukraine’s Independence of August 24, 1991, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine
on behalf of the Ukrainian people adopted the Constitution – the Fundamental Law on June 28, 1996.
    The Constitution establishes the country’s political system, assures rights, freedoms and duties of
citizens and is the basis for its laws. It asserts that Ukraine is a sovereign and independent, democratic,
social, legal state. It is a unitary state with single citizenship. Ukraine is a republic. The people are the
only source of power which is exercised directly and through the bodies of state power and local self-
government. The land, mineral raw materials, air space, water and other natural resources which are on
the territory of Ukraine are objects of the property right of Ukrainian people. The state language in
Ukraine is Ukrainian.
    The state symbols of Ukraine are the State Flag, the State Emblem and the State Anthem of Ukraine.
The State Flag is a blue and yellow banner made from two equal horizontal stripes. The Small State
                                                     16
Emblem of Ukraine is the trident. The Anthem of Ukraine is the national anthem with the music of M.
Verbytsky.
    The capital of Ukraine is Kyiv.
    The Constitution states that every person has the right to the free development of his/her personality,
and has obligations before society where free and full development of the personality is assured. Citizens
have equal Constitutional rights and freedoms and are equal before the law. There are no privileges or
restrictions based upon race, color of skin, political and other beliefs, gender, ethnic and social origin,
property, ownership, position, place of residence, language, religion. The articles of the Constitution
guarantee the rights to life, personal inviolability and the inviolability of dwelling, noninterference in
private life, free choice of residence, work, rest, education, social security, housing, health protection,
medical care and medical insurance, legal assistance, a safe and healthy environment.
    Defense of the Motherland, of the independence and territorial integrity of Ukraine, and respect for the
state’s symbols are the duty of citizens. Citizens of Ukraine perform military services in compliance with
the law. No person may damage the environment, cultural heritage. Every person shall pay taxes and
duties in the order and amount determined by law.
    The Constitution outlines the structure of the national government and specifies its powers and duties.
Under the Constitution the powers of the government are divided into three branches – the legislative
which consists of the Verkhovna Rada, the executive, headed by the Prime Minister, and the judicial,
which is led by the Supreme Court. The Parliament – the Verkhovna Rada is the only body of the
legislative power in Ukraine. There are 450 people’s deputies who are elected for a term of five years on
the basis universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. The Verkhovna Rada’s main function is
making laws. Laws drafting work is performed by its Committees. The Verkhovna Rada adopts the state
Budget for the period from January 1 till December 31 and controls the execution of it. The President of
Ukraine is the head of the state and speaks on behalf of it. He is elected directly by the voters for a term
of five years with no more than two full terms. The highest body of the executive power is the Cabinet of
Ministers. It is responsible to the President and is accountable to the Verkhovna Rada. It carries out
domestic and foreign policy of the State, the fulfillment of the Constitution, as well as the acts of the
President, develops and fulfills national programs on the economic, scientific and technical, social and
cultural development of Ukraine. Justice in Ukraine is exercised entirely by courts. It is administered by
the Constitutional Court and by courts of general jurisdiction. The Supreme Court of Ukraine is the
highest judicial body of general jurisdiction.
    The monetary unit of Ukraine is the Hryvnia.
    The Constitution defines the territorial structure of Ukraine. It is composed of the Autonomous
Republic of Crimea, 24 regions, districts, cities, and districts in cities, settlements and villages. Cities of
Kyiv and Sevastopol possess a special status determined by law.
    The Constitution of Ukraine consists of 16 chapters, 161 articles.
    The day of its adoption is a state holiday – the Day of the Constitution of Ukraine.
                                              Grammar Section
                                         Revision of the Active Voice
1 . Choose the correct answer.
1. Computers …. more and more efficient. a) are becoming; b) become; c) becomes
2. Paul …. to Tina when I saw him. a) is talking; b) was talking; c) has talked
3. ‘What are you thinking about?’ ‘This time next week I …. on the beach.’
    a) will have sunbathed; b) will be sunbathing; c) will have been sunbathing;
4. We … to Austria last winter. a) have gone; b) went; c) had gone
5. The bank …. by the time I got there. a) closes; b) closed; c) had closed
6. I …. Italian for three years now. a) learn; b) am learning; c) have been learning
7. ‘Have you finished decorating your flat yet?’ ‘No, but I …. by Friday.’
    a) will be finishing; b) will have been finishing; c) will have finished;
8. Mary ….. to Singapore at 3.00 tomorrow morning. a) flies; b) is flying; c) was flying
9. ‘Have you just moved here?’ ‘No. I …. here for two years next month.’
    a) will be living; b) will have been living; c) have lived;
10. ‘I felt tired.’ – ‘How could you be tired? You … a thing all day’.
    a) haven’t been doing; b) hadn’t done; c) hadn’t been doing
11. ‘….. to the market today?’ ‘Yes. Shall I buy you something?’

                                                       17
   a) Will you have gone; b) Will you be going; c) Will you have been going;
12. ‘John doesn’t study hard’ – ‘I think he …. his entrance exams.’
    a) won’t have passed; b) won’t pass; c) won’t be passing;
13. ‘How long ….. Jane?’ – ‘Since we went to school.’             a) did you know; b) do you know; c) have you known;
14. ‘We’ve asked Ann to our housewarming party.’ – ‘I am not sure if she …. . She is preparing for her exam.’
a) will come; b) comes; c) is coming
15. ‘Can you give Steve a message for me?’ ‘Certainly I …. him at work, later on today.’
    a) will be seeing; b) will have seen; c) will have been seeing;
16. Will you call me back as soon as you …. back. a) will get; b) will have got; c) get;
17. I …. to the radio when the doorbell rang.
    a) listened; b) was listening; c) had been listening;
18. ‘You’ve been working hard all day.’ ‘Yes. At 3 o’clock, I …. for six hours.’
   a) will be studying; b) will have been studying; c) will have studied
19. I fell asleep as soon as I ….. my eyes. a) have closed; b) was closing; c) closed
20. ‘Bill has an exam tomorrow, doesn’t he.’ In fact, at this time tomorrow, he …. the exam.’
    a) will have been taking; b) will be taking; c) has taken;
21. The shop …. all the books when I came there. a) has sold; b) had been selling; c) had sold
22. Charles Dickens …. lots of novels. a) has written: b) wrote; c) had written;
23. ‘Those two people have been dancing all evening.’ ‘Yes. By 11 o’clock, they …. for four hours.’ a) will
have been dancing; b) will have danced; c) will be dancing
24. Mr Brown …. for thirty years when he retired. a) taught; c) was teaching; c) had been teaching
25. She will call him in case he …. . a) forget; b) forgets; c) will forget
26. I’m not sure when he … us.         a) will visit; b) visits; c) is visiting
27. Mike ….. studying law 2 years ago.         a) had started; b) was starting; c) started
28. ‘Shall we go for a walk?’ - ‘I can’t go until the mother … .’            a) arrived; b) arrives; c) will arrive;
29. Look at the boy. He … that tree. a) will be climbing; b) will be climbing; c) is going to climb;
30. ‘Where is the book?’ – ‘I gave it to Helen. I was sure you … reading it.’
    a) had finished; b) finished; c) have finished
2. Complete the sentences using the words in bold.
1. She didn’t go until after Philip had called. (before) She ______________________________
2. She started taking lessons ten years ago. (been) She _________________________________
3. How long ago did he move to Canada? (moved) How long ___________________________
4. I’ve never driven such a fast car! (ever) It’s the _____________________________________
5. We haven’t been abroad for two years. (time) The last _______________________________
6. How long is it since you visited Spain? (visit) When _________________________________
7. She has never eaten lobster before. (time) It’s the first ________________________________
8. He hasn’t turned up yet. (still) He ________________________________________________
9. The last time I saw Emily was six months ago. (for) I ________________________________
10. When did Patricia finish writing her essay? (since) How long _________________________


                                                UNIT 2
                                         Vocabulary Section
                                           Political Parties
Pre-reading task. Read the words. Mind the stress. A):
΄eager                      su΄bordinate                   bourgeoi΄sie
΄enterprise                 a΄lliance                      con΄stituency
΄ownership                  in΄volvement                   de΄scendant
΄summon                     o΄ppose                        further΄more
΄flourish                   dis΄tinguish                   sig΄nificant
΄petty                      in΄herit                       di΄mensional
B) Complete the word building table.
Adjective         Noun / Verb                           Verb                       Noun / Person
significant                                         to subordinate
relative                                            to vote
dimensional                                         to oppose
public                                              to distinguish
                                                         18
individual                                        to inherit
industrial                                        to tend
progressive                                       to succeed
doctrinal                                         to abolish
С)
Noun          Adjective                            Noun                  Verb
bourgeoisie                                        alliance
loyalty                                            involvement
support                                            descendant
government                                          government
power                                              proposal
election                                           ownership
D) Complete this word-building table.
          Abstract noun                        Person                           Adjective
politics
democracy
socialism
conservatism
liberalism
communism

1. Look through the words and expression to make sure that you know them. Learn those you don’t know.
to vote [vəut] / vote                        голосувати; / голос; голосування, волевиявлення;
to vote secretly                             голосувати таємно;
to vote unanimously                          проголосувати одностайно;
to vote by roll call                         голосувати поіменно;
to vote by ballot                            голосувати виборчими бюлетенями;
vote by show of hands                        голосувати підняттям рук;
to bring a question to a vote                поставити питання на голосування;
popular vote                                 голоси виборців;
reign [rein] / to reign                      царювання, влада, панування; царювати;
in the reign of smb.                         під час царювання;
under the reign                              під владою;
eager [´i:gə]                                палко бажаючий, прагнучий;
eager desire                                 палке бажання;
eager activity                               активна діяльність;
to give way                                  поступатися;
enterprise [´entəpraiz]                      підприємництво; підприємливість, смілість, ініціатива;
free enterprise                              вільне підприємництво; вільна ініціатива;
a joint enterprise                           спільна ініціатива;
criminal enterprise                          кримінальне підприємство; кримінальна
                                             підприємливість; кримінальна діяльність;
ownership [´əunə∫ip]                         власність; володіння, майно;
private [´praivit] ownership                 приватна власність;
state ownership                              державна власність;
public ownership                             громадська власність;
trade union [´treid ´ju:njən]                профспілка;
trade union congress                         конгрес профспілок;
trade union leader                           лідер профспілок;
to summon [´sΛmən]                           скликати, викликати;
to summon a grand jury                       скликати велике журі;
to flourish [´flΛri∫]                        розквітати; процвітати; досягти успіху;
We flourish in the French trade.             Наша торгівля з французами процвітає.
                                                  19
to subordinate [sə´bo:dineit]                 підкорити; підпорядкувати; ставити в залежність;
to subordinate to smth                        ставити в залежність від чогось;
alliance [ə´laiəns]                           союз, альянс;
defense alliance                              оборонний альянс;
military alliance                             військовий союз;
political alliance                            політичний союз;
to enter into an alliance                     створити альянс;
to dissolve an alliance                       розпустити альянс;
bourgeoisie [¸buəЗwa:´zi:]                    буржуазія;
petty [´peti]                                 незначний, дрібний;
petty bourgeoisie                             дрібна буржуазія;
petty crime                                   дрібний злочин;
involvement [in´volvmənt]                     участь; залучення;
parental involvement in education             участь батьків в освіті;
to oppose [ə´pəuz]                            опиратися, бути проти;
to oppose apprehension                        опиратися затриманню;
to oppose a resolution                        відхилити резолюцію;
gulf [gΛlf]                                   прірва;
a wide gulf between generations               велика прірва протиріч між поколіннями;
to distinguish [dis´tiŋgwi∫]                  відрізняти; находити відмінності;
to distinguish among concepts                 розрізнять поняття;
furthermore [,fə:∂ə´mo:]                      крім того; більш того;
to fit                                        підходити; відповідати;
The key fits the lock.                        Ключ підходить до замка.
to bind [baind](bound)                        зв’язувати; прив’язувати;
to be bound to [baund]                        бути зобов’язаним, зв’язаним;
The prisoner was bound to a post and shot.
to be subject to                              підлягати; підкорятися; залежати; бути обмеженим;
to be subject to appeal                       підлягати оскарженню;
subject to call                               підлягати поверненню за першою вимогою;
straight [streit] ticket                      виборчий список, який включає кандидатів однієї
                                              партії;
to vote ‘straight ticket’                     голосувати за список кандидатів своєї партії;
loyalty [´loiəlti]                            вірність;
to command loyalty                            мати вірність;
to demonstrate, show loyalty                  виказувати вірність;
party loyalty                                 вірність партії;
deep-rooted / strong / unquestioned,          вірність, яка не викликає сумнівів;
unshakable loyalty
to inherit [in´herit]                         наслідувати;
to inherit a fortune from smb                 отримати спадок когось;
to inherit by will                            спадкувати за заповітом;
descendant [di´sendənt]                       нащадок;
direct descendant                             прямий нащадок;
to succeed (to) [sək΄si:d]                    наслідувати, бути спадкоємцем;
to succeed to the throne                      спадкувати трон;
to tend                                       мати тенденцію / схильність;
to tend to / towards to the same conclusion   схилятися до того ж рішення;
He tends to exaggerate.                       У нього тенденція до перебільшення.
to support [sə´po:t] / support                підтримувати; підтримка, допомога;
to support completely, strongly,              гаряче підтримувати;
to draw/ get/ receive support from            отримати підтримку;
to mobilize, round up support for             заручитися підтримкою;
                                                  20
to lend/ give/ offer/ provide support (to)      надати підтримку;
seat [si:t]                                     місце (в парламенті);
safe seat                                       гарантоване місце в парламенті (для кандедатів);
seat of jurisdiction                            район територіальної підсудності;
constituency [kən´stitjuənsi]                   виборчий округ;
marginal constituency                           «ненадійний» виборчий округ;
safe constituency                               «надійний» виборчий округ;
single member constituency                      одномандатний виборчий округ;
that is                                         тобто;
significant [sig´nifikənt]                      значний, важливий; суттєвий;
significant crime                               тяжкий злочин;
to exercise a significant influence             здійснювати значний вплив;
relatively [´relətivli]                         відносно;
relatively stable                               відносно стабільний;
one-dimensional [dai´men∫(ə)n(ə)l]              одного виміру; одномірний;
stance [stæns]                                  позиція, положення;
to take a tougher stance on smth.               зайняти більш жорстку позицію по відношенню до
                                                когось.
2. Read and translate the text.
                                         Political Parties of the UK
    In a democracy, people vote for the political party (e.g. conservatives, liberals or socialists) that they
want to form the government. What does it mean to be a conservative or a socialist? Often, it means
different things in different countries, but in Britain we often talk about someone’s political position like
this: left-wing (on the left) means socialist, in the centre (middle of the road) – liberal, right-wing (on the
right) – conservative. The main parties in the UK are the Conservative party (right wing), the Labour
Party (left wing) and the Liberal Democrats (centre).
   The Conservative party goes back to the Tories, or Royalists, who originated in King John’s reign
(1660-1685) The Tories were the party that supported the Church and the King; the other main party of
the time were the Whigs, who were a group eager for political reforms. The Tory party gave way to its
successor, the Conservative Party, in around 1830. The Conservative party believes in free enterprise and
the importance of a market economy, with private ownership preferred to state control.
    In 1899 the Trade Union Congress summoned a special conference of trade unions and special bodies
to make plans to represent labour in Parliament. The proposal for such a meeting had come from Thomas
Steels, a member of the Independent Labour Party, which was formed in 1893. The Conference met in
February 1900 in London and has always been looked on as the foundation of the Labour party. The
Labour party believes that private ownership and enterprise should be allowed to flourish, but not at the
expense of their traditional support of the public services.
   There has been a Liberal party in Great Britain since 1868 when the name was adopted by the Whig
party. The Whig party was created after the Revolution of 1688 and aimed to subordinate the power of the
Crown to that of Parliament and upper classes. In 1981 a second centre party was created by 24 Labour
MPs. It was called the Social Democratic party, and soon formed an alliance with the Liberal party. They
formed a single party which became the Liberal Democrats after the 1987 election. The Liberal
Democrats believe that the state should have some control over the economy, but there should be
individual ownership.
                                         Political Parties of the USA
   The US Constitution says nothing about political parties, but over time the US has in fact developed a
two-party system. The two leading parties are the Democrats and the Republicans. There are also other
parties (a Communist party, several Socialist parties, etc.) but they do not play a role in national politics.
   The present-day Democratic Party was founded in 1828, representing Southern planters – slave owners
and part of Northern bourgeoisie, as well as groups of petty bourgeoisie and farmers. Sometimes, the
Democrats are thought to be associated with labour and tend to favour a more active role of the central
government in social matters. The Republican Party was founded in 1854. It united industrial and trade
bourgeoisie from North-East, farmers, workers, craftsmen who were interested in destroying the political
power of the South and abolishing slavery. But after the Civil War of 1861-1865 the party lost its
                                                       21
progressive character and the difference between the two parties disappeared. The Republicans tend to
oppose the greater involvement of the federal government in some areas of public life.
    The parties are not divided by any doctrinal [dok´trainl] gulf. To distinguish between the parties is
often difficult. Furthermore, the traditional European terms of ‘right’ and ‘left’ or ‘conservative’ and
‘liberal’ do not quite fit the American system. Even if they have been elected as Democrats or
Republicans, they are not bound to a party programme, nor are they subject to any discipline when they
disagree with their party.
    While some voters vote a ‘straight ticket’, in other words, for all of the Republican or Democratic
candidates in an election, many do not. They vote for one party’s candidate for one office and another’s
for another. As a result, the political parties have much less actual power than they do in other nations.
One of the reasons for stability of the two-party system is the family tradition. Each new generation
inherits its politics and party loyalty from their fathers. Descendants of Northern Europeans tend to
support the Republican Party while those of southern and eastern Europeans prefer the Democratic Party.
    In the US, parties cannot win seats which are then free to fill with party members they have chosen.
Rather, both Representatives and Senators are elected to serve the interests of the people and the areas
they represent, that is, their ‘constituencies’. In about 70% of legislative decisions, Congressmen will vote
with the specific wishes of their constituencies in mind, even if this goes against what their own parties
might want as national policy. It is quite common, in fact, to find Democrats in Congress voting for a
Republican President’s legislation, quite a few Republicans voting against it, and so on.
                                          Political Parties of Ukraine
    More then 100 political parties are registered in Ukraine, but only a dozen or so have significant size
and influence. After the last parliamentary election, parties have become stronger and more significant,
the new electoral law, which gives the seats in the Verkhovna Rada to party lists, has forced parties to
begin to play a role they did not play before and stimulated the growth of coalitions among parties. It
means whatever parliament comes out of the election, it is dominated by the strong parties and coalitions.
    It should be noted that the political scene in Ukraine is relatively one-dimensional. The main
difference between parties is their pro-communist or anti-communist stance. As a rule, older people are
more likely to vote for the Socialist or Communist parties, while younger people are more likely to vote
for reformers. However, as in the United States, money plays a very large role in elections, and rich
parties are more likely to be able to attract support than small parties.
    Generally, the Communists and the so-called leftist ‘fellow travelers’ are stronger in Eastern Ukraine,
in part because the economic crisis there is much worse, and in part because of the large Russian /
Russianized population there, while rightist and nationalist parties are stronger in Western Ukraine. The
parties organized around personalities are usually in the centre and as a rule reflect their own reformist
views.
3. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and expressions:
to form the government; political position; left/right-wing; eager for political reforms; to give way to its
successor; market economy; private ownership preferred to state control; to summon a special conference
of trade unions; to look on as the foundation of the Labour party; at the expense of; to subordinate the
power of the Crown to that of Parliament; to form an alliance with the Liberal party; some control over
the economy; two-party system; groups of petty bourgeoisie; to be associated with labour; to tend to
favour; social matters; doctrinal gulf; not bound to a party programme; subject to any discipline; to vote a
‘straight ticket’; candidate for one office; reasons for stability; to serve the interests of the people; specific
wishes of their constituencies in mind; to have significant size; parliamentary election; party lists; to
stimulate the growth; the political scene; relatively one-dimensional; pro-communist or anti-communist
stance; to be more likely to vote for; leftist ‘fellow travelers’; reflect their own views.
4. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and expressions:
Праві (ліві) партії; представляти південних плантаторів; знищити політичну владу; скасувати
рабство; вільне підприємництво; приватна власність; за рахунок традиційної підтримки
громадських служб; участь федерального уряду в громадському житті; прогалина в доктрині; не
бути пов’язаним з програмою партії; не підкорятися партійній дисципліні; соціальні питання; не
зовсім підходити американській системі; голосувати, пам’ятаючи особливі побажання своїх
виборчих округів; нащадки північних європейців; двопартійна система; прокомуністична та
антикомуністична позиція; виборчий закон; дозволити розквітати вільному підприємництву;
                                                       22
відносно одновимірне; причини стабільності; голосувати за список кандидатів своєї партії;
економічна криза; русифіковане населення; так звані ліві попутники; організовані навколо
особистостей; стимулювати ріст коаліцій; слугувати інтересам людей; надавати місця у Верховній
Раді згідно партійних списків.
5. A: Fill in the appropriate word from the list below.
Summoned, bound, oppose, significant, supported, eager, distinguish, tended, subordinated, vote,
gulf, fits, alliance
1. Every member of the community should have a …. in electing those delegates. 2. The low prices still
pull in crowds of.... buyers. 3. We were… to the director's office. 4. All other considerations had to be....
to the needs of the society. 5. Our state has decided to enter into the... to defend our territory against any
invader. 6. The world does not... religion as such. 7. There is a growing… between rich and poor. 8. He
cannot… between accentuated and non-accentuated words. 9. The theory… the facts. 10. Every county
is…. to repair the highways which passed through it. 11. They … to regard the Watergate affair as a
factional plot (заколот). 12. We…. their seeking office. 13. It was… to note that the story did not appear
in the newspapers.
B: Fill in the appropriate proposition or adverb where necessary.
1. The committee were equally divided, so the chairman voted … the suggestion to prevent it … being
passed. 2. They had to subordinate their own needs … the needs … the group. 3. We have formed this
alliance ... our neighbors… the common enemy. 4. They opposed ... the idea… summoning the meeting.
5. The Republican Party founded in 1854 was interested … destroying the political power … the South
and abolishing slavery. 6. Democrats or Republicans are not bound … a party programme and they are
not subject … any discipline when they disagree … their party. 7. It is usual for Democrats in Congress to
vote …a Republican President’s legislation, and for few Republicans to vote …. it.
6. Match the definition in the right column to the word in the left.
1. constituency                         a. to choose in a formal way, e.g. by marking a ballot paper;
2. democracy                            b. the programme of action of a particular party or government;
3. vote                                 c. a time of acute difficult, esp. on a national or international scale;
4. straight ticket                      d. economic activity or a unit of economic organization;
5. stance                               e. a political area whose inhabitants are represented by one MP;
6. politics                             f. faithfulness;
7. policy                               g. a system of government in which leaders are chosen by people;
8. crisis                               h. a ballot cast for the candidates of one party;
9. loyalty                              i. the art or science of government; the activities associated with
                                        government;
10. enterprise                          j. an emotional or intellectual attitude; a way of standing
7. Choose a word or phrase which best completes the unfinished sentence.
1. India gained …. from the UK in 1948.
   a) republic; b) democracy; c) independence;
2. In the UK, when a political party wins a majority of …. in an election, they form the government.
   a) candidates, b) seats; c) places;
3. People who believe in the system, where a state is governed by representatives, are called … .
   a) republicans; b) monarchists; c) liberals;
4. An electoral district or the body of voter resident in it is called a…. .
   a) constitution; b) constitutional district; c) constituency;
5. What is your country’s economic … ?
   a) politics; b) policy; c) police;
8. Read and say whether these statements are true or false:
1. The Labour party goes back to the Tories, or Royalists. 2. Socialist parties are left-wing parties. 3. The
Whigs were the party that supported the Church and the King. 4. The Conservative party believes that
private ownership and enterprise should be allowed to flourish, but not at the expense of their traditional
support of the public services. 5. The Liberal Democrats are the alliance of the Labour party with the
Liberal party. 6. The two leading parties of the USA are the Liberal Democrats and the Republicans. 7.
The Democrats are associated with labour and tend to oppose the greater involvement of the federal

                                                      23
government in some areas of public life. 8. The Republicans tend to favour a more active role of the
central government in social matters. 9. Voting a ‘straight ticket’ means casting a ballot for the candidates
of one party. 10. The traditional European terms of ‘right’ and ‘left’ are accepted in the American system.
11. Congressmen will vote strictly in accordance with their party programme. 12. The new electoral law
gives half of the seats in the Verkhovna Rada to party lists.
9. Answer the questions.
1. What are the main political parties in the UK? What are their origins? 2. What political priorities do the
main political parties in Britain have? 3. What kind of political system has developed in the USA? 4.
What were the purposes of the US leading parties at the time of their foundation? 5. What are the
differences between the Democrats and the Republicans? 6. What does the term of ‘a straight ticket’
mean? 7. How do Congressmen vote in Congress? 8. What is the main difference between parties in
Ukraine? 9. What is the composition of the Verkhovna Rada?
10. Translate into English.
1. В Об’єднаному Королівстві є три головних партії: Консервативна партія, Ліберально-
демократична партія та Лейбористська партія. 2. Консерватори походять від партії Торі. Вони
вважають, що вільне підприємництво та ринкова економіка з приватною власністю є їх головними
пріоритетами. 3. Ліберальні демократи стверджують, що держава повинна мати контроль над
економікою, але також повинна бути приватна власність. 4. В США, крім двох провідних партій,
Демократичної та Республіканської партій, є ще кілька партій, але вони не грають значної ролі в
суспільному житті країни. 5. Люди можуть просто оголосити себе членами однієї з головних
партії, коли вони реєструються для голосування в своєму окрузі. 6. Американські партії вибрали
свої власні назви, але не емблеми своїх партій. На початку 1870 років карикатурист (cartoonist)
Томас Наст придумав слона республіканської партії та віслюка (donkey) демократичної партії. 7.
Головною задачею партій в США – виграти вибори. Кожні чотири роки партії збираються на свої
партійні з’їзди, щоб створити партійні програми та висунути кандидатів у президенти. Щойно
президента вибрано, партії знову стають аморфними (amorphous) тілами. 8. Найвпливовішими
політичними силами в сучасній Україні є наступні партії та блоки: Партія регіонів, «Блок Юлії
Тимошенко», Блок «Наша Україна», Соціалістична партія України, Комуністична партія України

                                                 Grammar Section
                                              REPORTED SPEECH
                                                     Statements
1. Look at the following information and fill in the gaps with say or tell in the correct tense:
    We can use say and tell both in direct and reported speech.
      Tell is always followed by a personal object (e.g. told me): He told me, ‘I’m tired.’ - He told me
        (that) he was tired.
      Say is used with or without a personal object. When used with a personal object it is always
        followed by the proposition to (e.g. said to me): 1) He said, ‘I’m tired.’ – He said (that) he was
        tired. 2) He said to me ‘I’m tired.’ – He said to me (that) he was tired.
    Say and tell are also used with the following expressions:
say          good morning/afternoon, etc.; something/nothing, etc., one’s prayers; so;. a few words
tell         the truth, a lie, a secret, a story, the time, the difference, sb one’s name; sb the way, one from
             another, one’s fortune
a) Katie 1) ….. Dave that she had met a set of twins at a party. ‘They looked exactly the same,’ she 2) ….
‘I couldn’t 3) …. the difference between them.’ ‘I’ve got a twin brother, too’ 4) ….Dave. ‘Are you 5)….
me the truth?’ asked Katie. ‘6)…. me his name.’ ‘His name is Stephen,’ Dave 7) …. her. ‘I’ll take you to
meet him tomorrow.’
b) ‘You never listen to me,’ Tara 1) …. Jim. ‘I 2) …… good morning to you three times today and you
didn’t answer,’ she 3)…. . ‘To 4)….. you the truth, it makes me really angry. Why don’t you listen to
me?’ ‘Oh, hello Tara,’ 5)…. Jim. ‘Did you just 6)….. something?’
c) ‘Claire 1) ….. me that she and John are getting married,’ 2) …… Sue. ‘She 3)….. that they’re going to
have a big wedding with lots of guests.’ ‘That’ll be expensive,’ 4)…. Tom. ‘I thought John 5)…… that
they couldn’t afford a big wedding.’ ‘Well that’s what Claire 6)……. me,’7)….. Sue. ‘I don’t think she
would 8)…… a lie.’
                                                         24
2. Fill in the gaps with the correct pronoun or possessive adjective.
1. James said, ‘My boss wants me to summon the director board tomorrow.’ - James said ….. boss
wanted ….. to summon the director board the following day. 2. Mary said, ‘I’m waiting for our company
to make the offer.’ - Mary said ….. was waiting for ….. company to make the offer. 3. George said, ‘I’ve
taken out insurance for my mum’s property.’ - George said …. had taken out insurance for …. mum's
property. 4. Julie said, ‘I need you to help me with obtaining divorce decree.’ - Julie said … needed ….
to help …. with obtaining divorce decree. 5. John said, ‘I’d like to annul my marriage.’ - John said ….’d
like to annul …..marriage. 6. Helen said to Jane, ‘They are charging me with negligence.’ - Helen said to
Jane …were charging … with negligence.
3. Turn the following sentences into reported speech.
1. Robin said, ‘Law doesn’t punish theft by death.’ 2. ‘I can’t see you this afternoon because I’ve got to
bring a lawsuit against the company,’ Ann told me. 3. The assistant came into the room holding some
papers in her hand, ‘I found these while I was tiding the desk drawers.’ 4. Fiona said, ‘The police filed the
criminal charges against the suspect.’ 5. ‘Those were good times for street criminals,’ my granddad said.
6. ‘The judge dismissed the action this morning, but I haven’t looked into it yet,’ Tom said. 7. ‘You
mustn’t break the rule again,’ Mum said to Bob. 8. ‘These requirements are out-of-date. You’d better
revise them,’ my scientific supervisor said to me. 9. He said, ‘’I’m going to the polling station.’ 10. Tina
said, ‘You should prohibit such actions.’ 11. They said, ‘We had settled a case before we left.’ 12. Tom
said, ‘This evidence is unacceptable.’ 13. ‘I’ve won the case,’ she said to her friend. 14. ‘We’ve resolved
to work harder next term,’ they told us. 15. Jill said, ‘I’ll take advantage of the opportunity.’ 16. She said
to him, ‘The army has been maintained by the government.’ 17. She told me, ‘People must contribute to
government decisions.’ 18. ‘The police have provided testimony,’ the prosecutor said to me. 19. They
said, ‘We may improve welfare of the nation.’ 20. She said, ‘The court will not hear this case.’ 21. Keith
said, ‘We are taking the action against the rival firm for fraud.’ 22. ‘They won’t be exercising supervision
over Tom this month,’ Sam told us. 23. Eric said, ‘They had been discussing these urgent issues for an
hour before I interrupted them.’ 24. ‘He hasn’t committed any offence since last conviction,’ Gloria said.
25. ‘They delivered the contracts this morning,’ she said. 26. He said, ‘I have been afraid to drive since I
was seriously injured in the last car accident.’ 27. ‘They aren’t going to dissolve their marriage’ he said.
28. Jane said, ‘The criminal has inflicted heavy injuries on the victim.’ 29. ‘All law-abiding citizens
observe laws,’ Caroline said. 30. ‘We are going to take account of mitigating circumstances,’ I said. 31.
‘We want to set out the facts in our report tonight,’ thee said. 32. ‘We are to establish the cause of death,’
the coroner said. 33. She said, ‘We must prohibit and eliminate chemical and nuclear weapons.’
4. Translate into English.
Він сказав, зустрічається з клієнтами він зараз зустрічається з він зустрічається з цим
що                двічі на тиждень.               клієнтами.                      клієнтом вже два тижня.
                  зустрівся з двома               він ніколи не зустрічався він зустрічався з клієнтом
                  клієнтами на цьому тижні. з такими клієнтами.                   вчора.
                  він зустрівся з клієнтом він               зустрічався      з він        зустрічався       з
                  вчора до другої години.         клієнтом вчора в цей час. клієнтом, коли я прийшов
                                                                                  до нього.
                  він зустрічався з клієнтом він            зустрінеться      з він буде зустрічатися з
                  вже тиждень, коли я клієнтом завтра.                            клієнтом завтра о другій
                  попросив його взяти цю                                          годині.
                  справу.
                  в наступний понеділок він вже зустрінеться з він                        зустрінеться       з
                  буде вже місяць, як він клієнтом завтра до другої клієнтом завтра, якщо
                  зустрічається з клієнтом.       години.                         нічого не зміниться.
5. Translate into English.
1. Він сказав, що «ліві» та «праві» означають різні поняття в різних країнах. 2. Він розповів нам,
що Торі була партією, яка підтримувала церкву та короля, а Віги була партія, яка бажала
політичних реформ. 3. Викладач сказав, що в США протягом часу розвинулася двопартійна
система. 4. Він сказав, що Демократична партія спочатку представляла південних плантаторів та
частину північної буржуазії. 5. Я не знав, що демократи та республіканці не зв’язані партійною
програмою. 6. Вони пояснили, що виборці в США можуть голосувати за список кандидатів своєї
                                                      25
партії. 7. Вони сказали, що сімейна традиція є однією з причин стабільності двопартійної системи.
8. Ми думали, що партії стануть сильніше після наступних парламентських виборів. 9. Голова
парламенту сказав, що вони сформують уряд до кінця наступного тижня. 10. Ми сподівалися, що
депутати будуть голосувати, пам’ятаючи побажання виборців свого округу. 11. Вона розказала
нам, яка є головна відмінність між політичними партіями в Україні. 12. Ми знали, що гроші
грають велику роль у виборах.

                                               UNIT THREE
                                              Electoral System
                                             Vocabulary Section

Pre-reading task. Read the words. Mind the stress. A):
 resident                   im΄partial                     im΄parti΄ality
΄eligible                   a΄ffect                        ,contro΄versial
΄΄politics                  e΄lection                      ex΄penditure
΄marginal                   in΄sist                        further΄more
΄boundary                   con΄ceal                       sig΄nificant
΄rival                      di΄ssolve                      moni΄nation
B) Complete the word building table.
Adjective          Noun / Verb                          Verb               Noun / Person
impartial                                           to reside
controversial                                       to affect
rival                                               to distribute
marginal                                            to determine
actual                                              to nominate
equal                                               to serve
С)
Noun           Adjective                              Noun                  Verb
resident                                              resident
rival                                                 to affect
election                                              election
president                                             president
convention                                            expenditure
president                                             bribery
succession                                            succession
D) Complete this word-building table.
           Abstract noun                        Person                             Adjective
politics
democracy
socialism
conservatism
liberalism
communism
republicanism

1. Look through the words and expression to make sure you know them. Learn those you don’t know.
to be eligible [´elidЗəbl]      1); підходити; 2) мати право бути обраним;
constitutionally eligible       той, що підходить за конституцією;
legally eligible                той що має юридичне право / має право за законом;
register [΄redЗistə]            офіційний список, реєстр, перелік;
electoral register [´redЗistə] список виборців;
= register of electors
a register of births, marriages книга реєстрації актів громадянського стану (народження,
                                                  26
and deaths                          шлюбу, смерті);
court register                      судовий реєстр
resident [´resid(ə)nt]              постійний мешканець;
a resident of the UK                особа, яка постійно мешкає у Об’єднаному Королівстві;
local residents                     місцеві мешканці;
impartial      [im´pα:∫(ə)l]    /   неупереджений / неупередженість;
impartiality [im,pα:∫i´æliti]
controversial                       спірний; суперечний;
[,kontrə´və:∫(ə)l]
marginal [΄ma:dЗin(ə)l]             незначний, несуттєвий, неважливий;
marginal seat                       місце, яке отримується найменшою більшістю;
marginal         member        of   член парламенту, обраний незначною більшістю;
Parliament
boundary [΄baundəri]                кордон, межа;
to draw/ fix/ set boundary          провести кордон;
state boundary                      державний кордон;
natural boundary                    природний кордон;
vice versa [΄vaisi΄və:sə]           навпаки;
to affect [ə΄fekt]                  впливати;
to affect smb. deeply /             сильно впливати на когось;
profoundly / strongly
rival [΄raivəl]                     суперник, конкурент;
business rivals                     конкуренти у бізнесі;
without a rival                     поза конкуренцією;
rival firm                          конкуруюча фірма
election [i΄lek∫(e)n]               вибори;
general election                    загальні вибори;
by(e)-election [baii´lek∫(ə)n]      позачергові вибори;
to hold election                    проводити вибори;
to call election                    оголосити вибори;
local elections                     вибори до органів місцевого самоврядування;
presidential [,preziden∫(ə)l΄]      вибори президента;
election
to insist [in´sist]                 наполягати;
to insist on smth/ doing smth       наполягати на чомусь / наполягати, щоб зробити щось;
to launch [΄lo: nt∫]                починати; запускати; пускати в хід;
to launch a campaign                розпочати компанію;
to launch a program                 розробити програму;
expenditure [iks΄pendit∫ə]          витрати;
at his own expenditure              за власний рахунок;
to curtail / cut down (on) /        скоротити витрати;
reduce expenditures
welfare expenditure                 витрати на соціальне забезпечення;
expenses [iks´pensiz]               видатки; витрати; затрати;
legal expenses = expenses of        судові видатки;
litigation = law expenses
to avoid expenses                   уникати витрат;
to bear expenses                    нести затрати;
to cover expenses                   покрити затрати;
to pay expenses                     виплатити видатки;
respectively [ris´pektivli]         відповідно; відповідним чином; у зазначеному порядку;
A traditional game was played
between the Series A league

                                                    27
champion and the Italian Cup
winner, Juventus and Milan,
respectively.
bribery [´braibəri]              хабарництво;
official bribery                 хабар посадовій особі;
to obtain [əb´tein]              отримувати;
to obtain a reward               отримати нагороду;
to obtain the age of             досягнути віку;
(un)evenly [(Λn)´i:v(ə)nli]      (не)рівно;
to distribute [dis´tribu:t]      розподілити;
to distribute fairly             розподілити справедливо;
to distribute expenses           розподілити видатки;
to distribute justice            відправляти правосуддя;
to distribute drugs              розповсюджувати наркотики;
to accentuate [æk´sent∫ueit]     підкреслювати; виділяти; робити наголос;
to cast                          віддати, подати (голос); кидати (бюлетень);
to cast a vote                   віддати голос; голосувати;
to cast a non-vote               подати незаповнений бюлетень;
to cast a ballot                 подати виборчий бюлетень;
to dissolve [di´zo:lv]           розпустити;
poll [pəul]                      голосування; підрахунок голосів; кількість голосів; виборча
                                 дільниця;
by poll                          голосуванням;
exclusion from the poll          позбавлення права голосу;
public opinion poll              соціологічне опитування;
go to the polls                  йти на вибори, голосувати;
booth [bu:θ]                     кабінка;
information booth                довідкове бюро;
telephone booth                  телефонна будка;
polling /voting booth            кабінка для голосування;
to fold [fəuld]                  складати;
to fold a piece of paper         скласти аркуш паперу;
to fold one's arms               cхрестити руки на грудях;
to conceal [kən´si:l]            приховувати;
The thieves thought that they
had concealed the jewels from
discovery.
the Shadow Cabinet [´∫ædəu]      тіньовий кабінет;
chamber [´t∫eimbə]               палата;
Chamber of Commerce              торгова палата;
upper / higher chamber           верхня палата;
lower chamber                    нижня палата;
to determine [di´tə:min]         1. визначати; встановлювати;
to determine the answer to the   визначити відповідь на встановлене питання;
problem
to determine guilt               встановити винність, визнати винним;
                                 2. вирішувати;
to determine a controversy       вирішувати суперечку;
to determine a criminal cause    винести рішення у кримінальній справі;
civic [´sivic]                   громадянський
civic consciousness              громадянська свідомість;
[΄kon∫əsnəs]
drive                            (громадська) компанія (з прилучення нових членів, тощо)

                                                  28
to initiate, launch a drive for   розпочати (ініціювати) кампанію на підтримку когось,
smb., smth.                       чогось;
a drive to raise funds            кампанія по зібранню коштів;
a charity drive                   благодійна кампанія;
nomination [,nomi΄nei∫(ə)n]       висування кандидата; призначення; номінація;
to place smb. in nomination       призначити на посаду;
to accept a nomination            прийняти призначення на посаду;
to reject a nomination            відмовитися від посади;
a nomination to a committee       призначення в комітет;
presidential nomination           висування кандидатів у президенти;
convention [kon΄ven∫(ə)n]         партійний з’їзд;
constitutional convention         конституційний конвент;
national convention               з’їзд політичних партій для висування кандидатів на
                                  вибори;
actual [´ækt∫uəl]                 фактичний; дійсний; поточний; теперішній;
actual and imagined               реальні та уявні умови;
conditions
actual costs                      реальні витрати;
race                              перегони; гонка; боротьба;
presidential race                 президентські перегони;
race for power                    боротьба за владу;
political race                    політична боротьба;
succession [sək´se∫(ə)n]          послідовність; спадкоємність; наслідування; порядок
                                  наслідування; право наслідування;
succession of events              череда подій;
in succession                     поспіль;
the succession to the throne      порядок наслідування королівської корони;
succession tax / duty             податок на спадок;
primary [´praiməri]               первинні вибори у партійних організаціях;
nominating primaries              вибори кандидатів для балотування на загальних виборах;
closed primary                    закрите голосування;
open primary                      відкрите голосування;
caucus [´ko:kəs]                  первинні вибори на партійних форумах;
leap year                         високосний рік
equal [´i:kwel]                   рівний, однаковий, тотожній, рівносильний;
to be equal to                    дорівнюватися, бути рівним;
equal rights                      рівні права;
electoral college                 колегія виборщиків; виборча колегія
2. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.
                                            Electoral System in the UK
    Every British citizen aged eighteen years or over who is not serving a sentence of imprisonment and is
not a peer is eligible to be placed on the electoral register in a constituency. Normally this involves
residence in the constituency on a certain day (10 October) but members of the armed forces and now
British citizens who live abroad but have been registered within the previous five years can be entered on
the register. At the moment there are 650 constituencies, the boundaries being drawn by impartial
Boundary Commissions whose recommendations need approval of both Houses of Parliament. Their
impartiality has not prevented their recommendations from being highly controversial as the way the
boundaries are drawn can profoundly affect the electoral prospects of a particular party. The parties draw
their support from different sections of the electorate and the exclusion or inclusion of a particular area
can turn a safe seat into a marginal one and vice versa.
   The choice of candidates by the parties profoundly affects the extent to which the voters’ wishes are
reflected in the House of Commons because the voter can only choose between rival candidates. Each
party has its own method for choosing candidates. The Labour Party in 1980 insisted that all Labour MPs

                                                    29
must undergo a reselection process if they wished to be candidates at the next General Election. Anyone
can form a political party, as happened in 1981 when the Social Democratic Party (SDP) was launched.
Though election law puts strict limits on expenditure during an electoral campaign, to prevent bribery and
corruption, it is very expensive to fight an election, particularly as national propaganda does not count
towards election expenses. The Labour and Conservative parties draw their financial support mainly from
the trade unions and industry respectively.
    Their main disadvantage is, however, the British electoral system. Electors vote in their constituency
and whichever candidate obtains most votes is elected an MP; even if he or she obtains only one vote
more than his or her nearest rival and only a small percentage of the total vote. This system works best
when there are only two parties, though even then it is possible for a party to obtain more over the country
as a whole but have fewer seats in the House of Commons because its support may be unevenly
distributed, so that it obtains big majorities in some seats and loses narrowly in others. This result is
accentuated when there are three or more parties. A third party like the Liberals or now the Social
Democratic and Liberal Alliance, whose support is spread fairly evenly throughout the country, is likely
to win few seats but come second in many. Thus in the General Election of 1983, the Alliance obtained
25 per cent of vote but only 4 per cent of the seats.
                                              Elections in Great Britain
    The general election means that the voters in the country cast their vote for the candidate from the
political party of their choice to be the Member of Parliament for the constituency. The political party
which wins the most seats in the House of Commons forms the Government. This is different from by-
election, which occurs when a Member dies, retires or disqualified, and voting takes place only in the
constituency without a member, not throughout the country.
    The United Kingdom is divided into areas which are known as constituencies. You live in a
constituency and will register to vote there. You have one vote which you cast for the person you wish to
represent you in the Parliament. Through this you also vote for the party which you wish to be in power.
    The time between general elections is 5 years. About the month before the election the Prime Minister
meets a small group of close advisers to discuss the date which would best suit the party. The date is
announced to the Cabinet. The Prime Minister formally asks the Sovereign to dissolve the Parliament.
General elections are usually held 17 days after the dissolution of the Parliament. Thursdays are popular
general election days. General elections are often held in either spring or autumn.
    Each constituency is divided into a number of polling districts; each of them has a polling station.
Most polling stations are in public buildings such as schools, town halls or council offices. Voting takes
place on Election Day (polling day) from 7 am till 10 pm in each constituency. Voters are sent a polling
card in advance. Voting is by secret ballot, and the only people allowed in the polling station are
presiding officer, the polling clerks, the duty police officer, the candidates, their election agents and the
voters.
    Just before the poll opens, the presiding officer shows the ballot boxes to those at the polling station to
prove they are empty. The boxes are then locked and sealed. Voting takes place in a booth. The voter
marks the ballot paper with a cross in the box opposite the name of the candidate of his or her choice and
folds the paper to conceal the vote before placing it in the ballot box.
    The results from each constituency are announced as soon as the votes have been counted, usually the
same night. The national result is known by the next morning.
          When all the results are known, the Queen usually invites the leader of the party winning the
most seats in the House of Commons to be the Prime Minister and to form a Government. The second
largest party becomes the official Opposition with the small group of its MPs being chosen to form the
Shadow Cabinet. Its leader is known as the Leader of the Opposition. A date is then announced for the
State Opening of Parliament, when the Monarch officially opens the new Parliament.
          The House of Lords is unelected Chamber so is not involved in the electoral process. It closes
when the Parliament dissolves and reassembles for the State Opening of Parliament.
                                                 Elections in the USA
    Anyone who is an American citizen, at least 18 years old, and is registered to vote may vote. Each
state has the right to determine registration procedures. A number of civic groups, such as the League of
Women Voters, are actively trying to get more people involved in the electoral process and have drives to
register as many as possible. Americans who want to vote must register, that is, put down their names in
                                                      30
register before the actual elections take place. There are 50 different registration laws in the US – one set
for each state. In the South, voters often have to register not only locally but also at the county seat.
    Another important factor is that there are more elections in the US at the state and local levels than in
most countries. Certainly, Americans are much more interested in local politics than in those at federal
level. Many of the matters, such as those concerning education, housing, taxes, and so on, are made close
to home, in the state or county.
    The national presidential elections really consist of two separate campaigns: one is for the nomination
at national party conventions. The other is to win the actual election. The nominating race is a
competition between members of the same party. They run in a succession of state primaries and caucuses
(which take place between March and June). They hope to gain a majority of delegate votes for their
national party conventions (in July and August). The party convention then votes to select the party’s
official candidate for the presidency. Then follow several months of presidential campaigns by the
candidate.
    In November of the election year (years are divided by four – leap years, e.g. 2000, 2004, 2008), the
voters across the nation go to the polls. If the majority of popular votes in a state go to the presidential
(and vice-presidential) candidate of one party, then that person is supposed to get all of that state’s
‘electoral votes’. These electoral votes are equal to the number of Senators and Representatives each state
has in Congress. The candidate with largest number of these electoral votes wins the election. Each state’s
electoral votes are formally reported by the ‘Electoral College’. In January of the following year, in a
joint session of congress, the new President and Vice President are officially announced.
3. Give Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and expressions. Use them in the sentences or
situations of your own.
Impartial Boundary Commission; to be placed on the electoral register; to serve a sentence of
imprisonment; residence in the constituency; to prevent their recommendations from being highly
controversial; to affect the electoral prospects; to support from different sections of the electorate;
exclusion or inclusion; a safe seat; vice versa; to choose between rival candidates; to put strict limits on
expenditure; to undergo a reselection process; election campaign; national propaganda; to draw their
financial support mainly from the trade unions and industry respectively; to obtain a small percentage of
the total vote; unevenly distributed; to obtain big majorities in some seats; to lose narrowly in other seats;
vote for the party in power; to dissolve the Parliament; the dissolution of the Parliament; polling districts;
a polling station; limits on expenditure; to prevent a problem of bribery and corruption; to fold the ballot
paper to conceal the vote; a profound effect; to choose to form the Shadow Cabinet; to determine
registration procedures; to involve in the electoral process; to have drives; the nominating race; a
succession of state primaries and caucuses; to gain a majority of delegate votes; the party convention;
electoral votes; the Electoral College; a joint session of congress.
4. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and expressions.
відбувати строк тюремного ув’язнення; мати право бути обраним; включати постійних мешканців
виборчого округу; збройні сили; схвалення обох палат парламенту; бути внесеним у списки
виборців (2); включення та виключення; впливати на виборчі перспективи певної партії;
електорат; місце, яке отримується найменьшою більшостю голосів; залучати фінансову підтримку;
витрати на вибори; здобувати більшість голосів; загальні вибори; завадити хабарництву та
корупції; вибирати між конкуруючими кандидатами; нерівномірно розподілений; віддати голос за
кандидата партії; формувати уряд; партія їхнього вибору; позачергові вибори; йти у відставку (на
пенсію); партія при владі; близький радник; розпускати парламент; проводити загальні вибори;
день голосування (2); голосування (2); виборчий район; виборча дільниця; виборча скринька;
кабіна для голосування; виборець; приховувати; тіньовий кабінет; бюлетень; президентські
вибори; президентство; визначати процедуру реєстрації; залучати все більше людей у виборчий
процес; реєстраційні закони; послідовність первинних виборів у партійних організаціях та
первинних виборів на партійних форумах; висування кандидата на партійних з’їздах; голоси
виборщиків; колегія виборщиків.
5. A: Fill in the appropriate word from the list below.
Launched, conceal, succession, residents, evenly, insisted, affect, distributed, marginal,
respectively, vice versa

                                                     31
1. The hotel bar was only open to … . 2. He regards violence as a …. rather than a central problem. 3. I
like her and …. 4. Throughout the trial, the prisoner… on his lack of guilt. 5. The police have …. an
investigation into the incident. 6. The company's chief executive and chief financial officer were asked to
retire and resign, … . 7. The paste should be spread …. upon the table to an exact depth. 8. The money
that has been collected will be …. among all the children's hospitals in the area. 9. You cannot …. your
guilt from the police. 10. She is now seventh in line of … to the throne. 11. The term …. denotes the
emotional aspect of all mental activity.
B: Fill in the appropriate proposition or adverb where necessary.
1. I'm afraid I have to insist … the return of my book at once. 2. The books will be distributed free …
local schools. 3. The race …. the presidency was run between well qualified candidates. . 4. A person
who is serving a sentence … imprisonment is ineligible to be placed … the electoral register in a
constituency. 5. Nothing will prevent us …. reaching our aim! 6. Our party tries to draw the support ….
different sections of the electorate. 7. Will the changes in taxation affect …. you personally? 8. The
United Kingdom is divided into constituencies. 9. Voters are sent a polling card … advance. 10. Voting is
held … secret ballot. 10. The voter marks the ballot paper … a cross … the box opposite the name … the
candidate … his or her choice. 11. The nominating race is a competition between members of the same
party. 12. The nominees hope to gain a majority … votes … their national party conventions. 13. The
party convention then votes to select the official candidate … the presidency. 14. The electoral votes are
equal … the number … Senators and Representatives each state has … Congress.
6. Read and say whether these statements are true or false.
1. People serving sentences of imprisonment cannot take part in elections. 2. British citizens who live
abroad cannot be placed on the electoral register. 3. Before elections Parliament forms Boundary
Commissions. 4. A voter can choose only between rival candidates. 5. According to the election law there
are no strict limits on expenditure during an election campaign. 6. All political parties have firm financial
base. 7. An MP is elected even if he obtains only one vote more than his rival. 8. The British government
is elected for five years. 9. The Queen chooses the date of the next general election. 10. The place where
people go to vote in the election is called a polling station. 11. The political party which wins the most
seats in the House of Lords forms the Government. 12. The United Kingdom is divided into areas which
are known as constituencies. 13. Each constituency is divided into a number of polling districts. 14. The
Queen appoints MPs to become the Cabinet. 15. The Prime Minister opens the new Parliament. 16. The
House of Lords is an unselected Chamber. 17. The federal government determines registration procedures
in the USA. 18. Americans must register before the actual elections take place. 19. The registration law is
common and obligatory throughout the US.
7. Word Choice. Choose word or phrase (a, b or c) which best complete the unfinished sentence:
1. The Boundary Commissions…. . a) decide the exact boundaries of constituencies; b) draw their
support from different sections of the electorate; c) make recommendations about constituency
boundaries which people do not always agree with.
2. Party candidates….. a) are chosen by the voters; b) are chosen differently in each party; c) reflect
voters’ wishes in the Commons.
3. Expenditure during an election campaign …… a) officially includes national propaganda; b)
encourages corruption; c) is strictly limited by law.
4. The money needed by political parties in Britain comes from …… a) different sources; b) industry; c)
trade unions.
5. A ….. occurs when a Member dies, retires or disqualified.              a) presidential election; b) general
election; c) bye-election;
6. The second largest party becomes the official …. . a) Opposition; b) Cabinet: c) close advisers;
7. An election in the USA, in which qualified voters nominate or express preference for a particular
candidate for political office, is called a ……… . a) presidential election; b) primary; c) caucus;
8. A meeting of the members of a political party to choose an official candidate for the presidency is …. .
a) presidential election; b) primary; c) caucus;
9. The …. is a body of persons representing the states of the US, who cast votes for the election of the
President.      a) electoral college; b) electorate; c) electoral vote;
8. A. Match the definitions in the right column to the words given in the left. A):
1. eligible                  a) a seat which an MP obtains if elected by only a small majority;
                                                     32
2. impartial             b) suitable, with the right qualifications; having right to be chosen;
3. chamber               c) a seat which it is certain to be obtained by a candidate of one
                         particular party;
4. safe seat             d) dividing line that marks the limit between two areas;
5. boundary              e) a hall used by a group of legislators;
6. marginal seat         f) fair, not favouring one more than another;
7. cabinet               g) members of parliament who do not belong to the party in power;
8. candidate             h)someone who stands in an election;
9. by-election           i) an election in one constituency in contrast to a general election;
10. the opposition       j) to be a candidate in an election;
11. elect                k) to choose someone by voting;
12. stand / run for      l) a committee of the most important ministers in the government;
Parliament
B): Find words and expressions in the text which mean:
1. an election in the whole country to elect a new Parliament; 2. an area of the UK for which a
representative is elected to the House of Commons; 3. voting at the election; 4. a group formed by the
Opposition, i.e. those who might form a new Cabinet if there is a change of government after a general
election; 5. a locked box there ballots are deposited; 6. the place where people go to vote in the election;
7. to end the life of a Parliament by public announcement of the Sovereign, leading to the general
election; 8. a body of persons entitled to vote; 9. a member of electoral college.
9. Choose a suitable word from the list below to complete each of the following sentences.
A. to appoint, prominent, local councils, minority, to elect (2), proportion (3), to appeal
                Some people suppose that there are few women and members of the ethnic 1) __________
in Parliament. In 1979, Margaret Thatcher became the first Prime Minister, yet she never 2) ___________
a woman to her Cabinet, and until 1983 the 3) _____________ of women 4) ____________ to the House
of Commons was under 5%. In the election in 1992, 59 women 5) ______________ to the House of
Commons. This total is still below the 6) ____________ in other European countries.
          Although the Conservatives choose few women as their candidates for the House of Commons’
seats, women are very active in the affairs of the party as a whole. The Labourites have also tried to 7)
_____________ to women voters by giving women 8) _______________ positions. In all parties, a
higher 9) _____________ of women is elected to 10) ____________ than the House of Commons.
B. constituency, private sector, opposition, inflation, manifesto, unemployment, general election
1. The United Kingdom is divided into 650 parliamentary ______________. 2. A ______________ takes
place every four or five years. 3. Before an election, each party prepares a ______________ which
outlines their policy. 4. An important Conservatives’ policy was the return of state industry to the
_______________. 5. During the period of Conservative government ______________ fell to 4% for the
first time in nearly thirty years. 6. However, ______________ continued to be unacceptably high. 7.
While the Conservatives were in power, Labour formed the official _________________ .
C. election campaign, support, polling day, ballot box, vote, predict, opinion poll, polling station,
candidate.
        People sometimes try to 1) ______________ the result of an election weeks before it takes place.
Several hundred people are asked which party they prefer, and their answers are used to guess the result
of the coming election. This is called an 2) ______________. Meanwhile each party conducts its 3)
_______________ with meetings, speeches, television commercials, and party members going from door
to door encouraging people to 4) _________________ their party. In Britain, everyone over 18 is eligible
to 5) _____________. The place where people go to vote in an election is called a 6)
__________________ and the day of the election is often known as 7) _____________________. The
voters put their votes in a 8) ________________ and later they are counted. The 9)
____________________ with the most votes is then declares the winner.
9. Study the text more carefully and answer the following questions:
1. Do all British citizens aged 18 and over have the right to vote in the UK? 2. What is the role of
Boundary Commissions in an election campaign? 3.Which candidates are elected at UK parliamentary
elections? 4. What do the results of elections depend on? 5. What are the disadvantages of the British

                                                    33
electoral system? 6. If there are two parties in Britain, when can the one which gains more than 50 per
cent of the votes obtain less that 50 per cent of the seats in the House of Commons? 7. What are General
Elections? 8. What are bye-elections? 9. How is the date of the election decided? 10. What is the
procedure of voting in Britain? 10. What happens when all the results are known?
10. Fill in the gaps to complete this text about the political system in the United Kingdom. One word in
each gap.
    In the UK (1) ________ are held every five years. The (2) ____________ may decide to hold one after
four years, but five years is maximum.
    Some countries have a system of proportional representation: this means in theory, that a political
party with 30% of the (3) __________ should get 30% of the seats in (4) ____________. In the UK, the
political system is different: here the winner takes all. This means that the person with the most votes in
each (5) ________ wins the seat; and the political (6) __________ which wins a (7) ____________ of the
seat will (8) ____________ the government on their own. As a result of this system, it is possible for a
party to be in (9) _________ with only 40% of the total vote. Some people think this system is unfair.
What do you think? What possible reasons to justify this system?
11. Fill in a correct word or phrase from the list below:
Fourteen; electors (2); qualification; natural-born; senators; thirty-five; representatives; January
6; electoral collage; December; electoral (5); second Wednesday; President of the Senate; Monday
(2); both houses; four; majority; November; three; Tuesday; two; Senate;
    Voters do not vote directly for President and Vice President. They vote for (1) _______, who vote for
them. A state has as many (2) _____ as it has (3)______ and (4)______ combined. They make up what
we call (5) ______ _____. The (6)______ votes are counted and certified in the states and are then sent to
the (7) _____ of the _______. They are then counted in the presence of (8) _______ ______ of Congress.
If a presidential candidate does not get a (9) _______ of (10) ______ votes, the House of Representatives
elects a President from among the (11) _______ candidates with the most (12) ______ votes. If a vice-
presidential candidate does not get a (13) _______ of (14) ______ votes, the (15)_______ elects a Vice-
President from the (16) _____ with the most (17) ______ voters.
    The day electors are elected is the (18)______ after the first (19) _____ in (20)______ every (21)
_____ years. The day the electors vote for President and Vice-President is the first (22) ______ after the
(23) ______ _______ in (24) _____, and the day these votes are counted by Congress is (25) ______
_______.
    The President must be at least (26) ______ years old, a (27)_____ - _____ citizen, and have lived in
the United States for (28) ____ years. The Vice-President must meet the same (29) ______ .
12. Translate into English using the active vocabulary:
A. 1. Якщо електорат не схвалює політики кабінету міністрів, він може обрати опозицію. 2. Всі
були здивовані, коли кандидата партії зелених було обрано, адже це місце вважалось забезпеченим
для партії консерваторів. 3. Уряд втратив довіру палати громад, парламент було розпущено, і
загальні вибори було оголошено. 4. Роль опозиції - критикувати міністрів і запропонувати
виборцям обрати новий уряд. 5. У багатьох країнах представники збройних сил не мають права
брати участь у виборах. 6. Наша школа часто використовується як виборча дельниця під час
виборів. 7. Я хочу висунути Джейн Моррісон кандидатом у нашу місцеву раду. 8. Президент був
обраний незначною більшістю. 9. Таким чином, Альянс отримав 25 відсотків голосів, але тільки 4
відсотка місць у парламенті. 10. Королева – неупереджена і діє за порадою своїх міністрів. 11.
Загальні вибори у Британії проводяться, принаймі, кожні 5 років. 12. Голосування, яке є не
обов’язковим (compulsory), проходить таємно. 13. Військовий уряд розпустив парламент країни та
призупинив політичну діяльність всіх партій. 14. Результати виборів будуть транслюватися по
телебаченню сьогодні вечером. 15. У деяких країніх день виборів – громадське свято.
B. Зміст багатьох актів про народне представництво дає змогу зробити висновок, що у Великій
Британії діє загальне, рівне, пряме виборче право з таємним голосуванням та вільною участю у
виборах. Активне виборче право стало належати британським громадянам, які досягли 18 років.
Як правило, виборці здійснюють своє право вибору у тому виборчому окрузі, на території, якого
вони постійно проживають. Пасивним виборчим правом володіють громадяни, які досягли 21
років. Реєстрація виборців здійснюється шляхом складання списків виборців Звично у
парламентських виборах приймає участь 70-80 % виборців, а у місцевих – біля 40%.
                                                    34
                                              Grammar Section
                                           REPORTED SPEECH
                          Reported Questions, Requests, Commands, Suggestions
1. After the arrest, a criminal suspect is usually taken into police custody and ‘booked’. Turn the
following questions of the suspect into reported speech.
Examples:        ‘What is your name? → The policeman asked the suspect what his name was.
                ‘Are you American?’ → He asked the suspect whether he was American.
1. ‘Where do you live?’ the policeman asked him. 2. ‘How old are you?’ the policeman asked him. 3.
‘Where is your place of work?’ the policeman asked him. 4. ‘Do you work every Monday?’ the
policeman asked him. 5. The policeman asked him, ‘What time are you going to work today?’ 6. ‘Will
you meet your supervisor today?’ the policeman asked. 7. ‘Who called you yesterday?’ the policeman
asked him. 8. ‘When did you leave your office last night?’ the policeman asked the suspect. 9. ‘Who did
you meet on your way home?’ the policeman asked him. 10. The policeman asked him, ‘Can anyone
confirm your alibi?’ 11. ‘Have you been convicted of a crime before?’ the policeman asked the suspect.
12. ‘What crime did they charge you with?’ the policeman asked him.
2. Yesterday, Marion met a couple who were on holiday in London. They were looking at a map. She
asked them some questions. Turn the following into reported speech.
1. ‘Are you lost?’ 2. ‘Can you speak English?’ 3. ‘Where are you from?’ 4. ‘Is your hotel near here?’ 5.
‘Where do you want to go?’ 6. ‘Were you looking for Big Ben?’ 7. ‘Have you been to the British
Museum?’ 8. ‘Have you visited Buckingham Palace?’ 9. ‘Do you like London?’
3. You happened to be a witness of a crime. The detective asked you some questions. Turn them into
reported speech.
1. ‘Will you speak to your attorney before you answer the questions?’ the detective asked me. 2. ‘When
did you see them break into the house?’ he asked me. 3. ‘Did you really see two men?’ the detective
asked me. 4. ‘What did they look like?’ the detective asked me. 5. ‘What were they doing when you saw
them?’ the detective asked me 6. ‘Was a passer-by walking along the street?’ the detective asked me. 7.
‘Why did he act this way?’ he asked me. 8. ‘Can you describe him in detail?’ he asked me. 9. “Which of
these descriptions suits him best?’ he asked me. 10. ‘Does this house belong to your acquaintance?’ he
asked. 11. ‘Who used your mobile phone?’ he asked. 12. ‘Do you want to postpone your examination for
tomorrow’ he asked me. 13. ‘Why didn’t you tell me the truth at once?’ he asked me. 14. ‘Have you been
a witness before?’ the detective asked me. 15. The detective asked me, ‘Will you be able to come this
afternoon?’ 16. The detective asked me, ‘Did you see them take anything away of the house?’ 17. The
detective wanted to know, ‘Who else saw the burglary?’ 18. The detective asked, ‘Will you sign your
testimony?’ 19. He questioned, ‘Can you repeat your words at trial?’
4. Turn the following into indirect questions.
1. Where are you going? (I want to know….) 2. Did he steal the money? (I doubted ….) 3. Has she told
anyone about our engagement? (He wondered ….) 4. What time does the train leave? (Could you tell me
….) 5. Who did it? (She wondered ….) 6. Where have you been? (He wanted to know ….) 7. Does he
speak English fluently? (I wonder …) 8. Will she be on time? (I doubt …) 9. How long has he been
working here? (Do you know ….) 10. Are you moving house? (I want to know ….) 11. Where did I leave
my glasses? (I wonder …) 12. Is John planning to call a meeting? ( Did you know…. ) 13. When are you
leaving? (I want to know … ) 14. Did he tell the truth. (I doubt….) 15. Where is the nearest swimming
pool? (Could you tell me ….) 16. Who left that message on the answer phone? (She wondered …) 17.
What time are they due to arrive? (He wanted to know …)
5. Fill in the gaps with the introductory verbs in the correct form.
         Order; tell; ask; beg; suggest
1. ‘Please visit me in hospital,’ Joan said to Colin. - Joan …… Collin to visit her in hospital. 2. ‘Let’s eat
out this evening,’ Paul said to her. – Paul … eating out that evening. 3. Please, please be careful,’ she
said to him. – She …. him to be careful. 4. ‘Don’t go near the fire,’ Dad said to us. – Dad …. us not to go
near the fire. 5. ‘Be quiet!’ the commander said to the troops. – The commander …. the troops to be quiet.
6. Turn the following into reported speech.
1. The lawyer said to the client, ‘Come back to see me again next week.’ 2. The guard said to the driver,
‘Stop!’ 3. He said, ‘Shall we consider the provisions of the agreement?’ 4. She said to him, ‘Please,
                                                     35
please help me with the lawsuit!’ 5. Jenny said to Dave, ‘Please help me with the counterclaim.’ 6. She
said to him, ‘Bring the case to court, please.’ 7. The chief said, ‘How about nominating your candidates?’
8. He said, ‘Let’s vote now.’ 9. The chairman of the meeting said, ‘Raise your hands those who are for the
nominee.’ 10. The speaker said to the deputies, ‘Don’t make so much noise.’ 11. Jason said to the
chairman, ‘Please, please give me the floor.’ 12. The policeman said to the thieves, ‘Put your hands
up!’13. He said to jurors, ‘Let’s elect the chairman.’ 14. The victim asked the offenders, ‘Please, please
don’t hurt me.’ 15. Our colleague said, ‘What about discussing all the clauses now?’
7. Turn the following into reported speech.
1. ‘Where are you going?’ she said to me. 2. ‘I’m going shopping,’ said Anna. (up-to-date-reporting) 3.
‘Go away!’ said her friend. 4. She asked me, ‘Are you ready to leave?’ 5. ‘I’ll pick you up at 5 o’clock,’
my friend said. 6. It’s time for lunch,’ Ruth says. 7. ‘When did you arrive?’ asked Marilyn. 8. ‘The
meeting started ten minutes ago,’ she said. 9. My father said to me, ‘Don’t be late.’ 10. ‘Tom has already
left,’ Pam said to us. 11. ‘Who is there?’ said Joe. 12. ‘What colour skirt did you buy?’ she asked her
friend. 13. They said to him, ‘We’re leaving early in the morning.’ (up-to-date-reporting) 14. ‘Don’t go
near the fire,’ Dad said to the boys. 15. ‘Let’s have a barbecue this weekend,’ said Liz. 16. I asked, ‘Will
we be able to get a reservation tomorrow?’ 17. The advertisement said, ‘The store will be open late this evening’.
         18. The new reporter asked, ‘Will the plant open next year?’ 19. I didn't realize,  ‘The        manager
submitted his resignation last week". 20. The board wanted to know, ‘Is the company making a profit yet?’ 21.
The production manager asked, ‘What was the rate of production last year?’ 22. The controller felt, ‘The
company is doing better than it was a year ago’. 23. The plant manager wanted to know ‘Has the new equipment
been operating well?’ 24. The workers wanted to know, ‘Why was this month's quota set so high?’ 25. The
director asked ‘Will the secretary be able to type up the memos tomorrow?’ 26. The personnel director explained,
‘The company is planning to expand its recruitment program next year’. 27. The secretary said, ‘The director is
away this week’.
8. Translate into English.
1. Вона сказала, що не піде з установи, поки не закінчить роботу. 2. Я був впевнений, що ви
написали їм, що ми отримали їх товари та очікуємо на нові. 3. Я сказав, що зателефоную, як тільки
закінчу всі справи. 4. Я не міг уявити, що в англійській газеті мені доведеться шукати передову
статтю (editorial) у середині газети. 5. Коли я прийшов, секретар сказав, що якийсь чоловік чекає
мене. Він чекав з самого ранку. 6. Ми не могли зрозуміти, чому він відмовився говорити з нами. 7.
Секретар обіцяв мені, що скаже вам, що я вже приїхав до Києва та хочу поговорити з вами. 8. Він
сказав, що не піде нікуди, поки не зробить все. 9. Я розумів, що зроблю помилку, якщо прийму цю
пропозицію. 10. Ми думали, що розглянемо всі термінові питання, до того часу як збори
почнуться. 11. Викладач попросив студентів залишити сумки на першій парті. 12. Викладач сказав
студентам не розмовляти під час екзамену. 13. Мій друг запитав мене, чи я підготувався до
семінару. 14. Я пропоную піти до бібліотеки після занять. 15. Вона запитала, хто написав курсову
роботу. 16. Він поцікавився, де знаходиться Верховний Суд. 17. Ми хотіли знати, які політичні
партії сформували коаліцію. 18. Я не пам’ятав, коли Верховна Рада прийняла цей закон. 19. Ми
поцікавилися, чи парламент все ще обговорює цей законопроект. 20. Він запитав, із кількох етапів
складаються президентські вибори в США.
                                                         UNIT FOUR
                                                    The United Kingdom
                                                Vocabulary Section
                                                        Part 1
                                          The United Kingdom. The Monarchy
Pre-reading task. Read the words. Mind the stress. A):
΄statutory                       he΄reditary                     ,parlia΄mentary
΄exercise                        e΄volve                         re΄sidual
΄ mercy                          a΄ssent                         pre΄rogative
΄summon                          pro΄rogue                       con΄vict
΄policy                          con΄sent                        im΄pose
΄temporal                        a΄pproval                       con΄fer
B) Complete the word building table.
Adjective            Noun / Verb                           to impose
                                                       36
hereditary                                        to evolve
residual                                          to outline
temporal                                          to prorogue
              Verb            Noun                to approve
to dissolve                                       to confer
to convict                                        to remit

1. Look through the words and expression to make sure that you know them. Learn those you don’t know.
hereditary [hi’reditəri]              спадковий;
commander-in-chief [kə´ma:mdə] головнокомандуючий;
temporal [΄temp(ə)r(ə)l]              світський, мирський;
lords temporal / temporal peers       світські члени палати лордів;
temporal authorities                  світська влада
to evolve [i´volv]                    розвиватися, еволюціонувати;
to outline                            окреслювати;
assent                                згода, ухвала, санкція;
Royal Assent [´roiəl ə´sent]          королівська санкція;
mutual assent                         обоюдна згода;
bill                                  законопроект;
to draft a bill                       скласти законопроект;
to introduce a bill                   внести законопроект;
to pass а bill                        прийняти законопроект;
to shelve a bill                      відкласти законопроект;
to pass                               приймати (закон);
to pass an act / law                  прийняти закон;
to pass a sentence                    винести вирок;
to pass legislation                   приймати закони, приймати законодавство;
to pass over a veto                   прийняти закон, подолавши вето;
to prorogue [prə΄roug]                призначати перерву у роботі парламенту
to dissolve [di΄zolv]                 розпустити; анулювати; розірвати, ліквідувати;
to dissolve a marriage                розірвати шлюб;
dissolve an agreement                 розірвати угоду;
to dissolve parliament                розпустити парламент;
consent [kən’sent]                    згода;
consent to                            згода на;
ineffective consent                   згода, що не має юридичного значення;
lawful consent                        згода, що має юридичне значення;
to carry the consent of smb.          отримати чиюсь згоду;
common/ general/ mutual /             загальна згода, одностайна згода;
unanimous consent
give one's consent to                 дати згоду на (щось);
withhold /refuse one's consent        не давати згоду;
approval [ə´pruv(ə)l]                 ухвалення; схвалення;
complete, unqualified approval        повна / безсуперечна згода;
to meet with approval / to win отримати схвалення;
approval
judicial approval                     судова ухвала;
presidential approval of legislation  ухвала законопроекту президентом;
to cede [si:d]                        віддавати (територію); поступатися;
to cede rights, land to smb.          віддавати права, землю комусь
to confer [kən´fə:] (on)              дарувати; присуджувати; наділяти;
to confer (with)                      обговорювати; радитись; вести перемови;
to confer authority                   надавати владу, повноваження;
                                                 37
to confer jurisdiction                     наділяти юрисдикцією;
to remit [ri´mit]                          прощати, відпускати (гріхи); знімати; пом’якшувати;
The taxes have been remitted.
to impose [im´pəuz]                        накладати (покарання);
to impose new restrictions                 накладати нові обмеження;
to impose penalties                        накладати штраф;
to convict [kən´vikt]                      засуджувати; визнавати винним, виносити вирок;
to convict a perpetrator                   засудити злочинця;
to convict of a crime                      засудити за злочин;
exercise [΄eksəsaiz]                       здійснення, виконання;
exercise of influence                      здійснення впливу;
prerogative [pri´rogətiv]                  привілей, виключне право;
executive prerogative                      прерогатива виконавчої влади;
external prerogative                       прерогатива здійснення зовнішніх відносин;
mercy [´mə:si]                             помилування; милість, жалість, милосердя;
divine mercy                               божа милість;
to show mercy                              проявляти милосердя;
to beg for mercy                           просити пощади;
to have mercy (up)on                       пощадити; помилувати;
residual [ri´zidjuəl]                      залишений; той що залишився;
residual error                             залишена помилка;
statutory [΄stætjutəri]                    встановлений (законом)
statutory order                            постанова, що має силу закону;
statutory restriction                      встановлені законом обмеження;
statutory corporation                      корпорація, яка заснована на певному акту парламенту
the Privy Council [΄privi ΄kaunsl]         Таємна рада
 2. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.
                                                 The Monarchy
    The United Kingdom is a parliamentary democracy. That is, it is a country whose government is
controlled by a parliament. Parliament is the supreme legislative authority. Its three elements, the Queen,
The House of Commons and the House of Lords are formed on different principles.
    The monarchy is hereditary. The Monarch, who succeeds to the throne, is, in addition to being an
integral part of the legislature, is the head of the judiciary, the commander-in-chief of the armed forces of
the Crown and the temporal head of the established Church of England.
        The monarchy in the United Kingdom has evolved over the centuries from absolute personal
authority to the present constitutional form by which the King or the Queen reigns but does not rule.
His/her Majesty’s government governs in the name of the King/Queen who must act on the advice of
his/her ministers. The Monarch summons, prorogues (dismisses at the end of the session) and dissolves
Parliament; he/she usually opens new sessions of Parliament with a speech from the throne in which the
major governmental policies are outlined. These acts form part of the Royal Prerogative. The Prerogative
rights are of legislative, executive and judicial character. The Monarch must give the Royal Assent before
a bill which has passed all its stages in both Houses of Parliament can become a legal enactment (Act of
Parliament). The Monarch’s consent and approval is required before a Cabinet can be formed or a
minister takes up office. As Head of State the Monarch has the power to sign international agreements, to
cede or receive territory, and to declare war or make peace. The Monarch confers honours and makes
appointments to all important offices of state, including judges, officers in the armed services, diplomats
and the leading positions in the Established Church. As the “fountain of justice”, it is only the Monarch
who is able to remit all or part of the penalties imposed upon persons convicted of crimes through the
exercise of the prerogative of mercy on the advice of the appropriate minister.
    At the present time the Monarch, although exercising residual authority by consent of Parliament and
according to the advice of the government of the day is regularly informed and consulted on many aspects
of public affairs. The Privy Council is the body on whose advice and through which the Monarch
exercises most statutory and many prerogative powers. There are about 330 members of the Privy

                                                     38
Council, who, however, only meets as a full body on the death of the Monarch. All Cabinet ministers are
members; other members are appointed by the Monarch on the recommendation of the Prime Minister.
Note: The Privy Council [΄privi ΄kauns(ə)l] - is a body that advises the head of state of a nation on how to
exercise their executive authority, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.
The word "privy" means "private" or "secret"; thus, a privy council was originally a committee of the
monarch's closest advisors to give confidential advice on affairs of state. In non-monarchical nations, the
equivalent body is the cabinet, although in some nations the cabinet is a committee of the privy council.
3. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and expressions:
Верховна законодавча влада; успадкувати трон; правити від імені королеви; світський голова;
невідємна частина законодавства; державна англіканська церква; діяти за породами своїх
міністрів; законодавчий акт; головнокомандуючий збройними силами; надати королівську
санкцію; скликати, призначати перерву у роботі та розпускати парламент; прийняти законопроект;
оголошувати війну; заключати мир; підписати міжнародну угоду; віддавати територію; вимогати
згоду та схвалення монарха; проводити призначення на важливі державні посади; призначатися
монархом за рекомендацією Прем’єр-міністра; особи, засуджені за злочини; джерело правосуддя;
здійснення привілею помилування; Таємна Рада; зустрічатися у повному складі; консультувати з
багатьох аспектів громадських справ.
4. Give Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and expressions. Make up sentences or situations
using them.
parliamentary democracy; to be an integral part of the legislature; the head of the judiciary; the temporal
head of the established Church of England; to outline governmental policies; to pass all its stages in both
Houses of Parliament; a legal enactment; to act on the advice of her ministers; to summon Parliament; to
prorogue Parliament; to give the Royal Assent; to dissolve Parliament; to take up office; to cede or
receive territories; to make appointments to all important offices of state; to confer honours; to declare
war; the “fountain of justice”; to remit all or part of the penalties imposed upon persons; on the advice of
the appropriate minister; to exercise residual authority; a full body; statutory and many prerogative
powers; to require consent and approval.
5. A: Fill in the appropriate word from the list below.
Approval, exercise, conferred, evolved, mercies, remitted, pass, prerogative, dissolved, ceded,
outlined, imposed, bill
1. Some people still do not believe that man … from monkeys. 2. She … what I would be doing. 3.
Congress is expected to ... the bill. 4. The ... was passed without substantial alteration. 5. He gave his ... to
our plan. 6. The island was … to the mainland nation by its former owners. 7. The system … great
benefits. 8. Every farmer has the rent of his farm …..for the next thirty years. 9. A special tax is … on
very high incomes. 10. Leadership does not rest on the … of force alone. 11. Luxuries were considered
the … of the rich. 12. We turned him over to the mercies of the student court. 13. They have ….
partnership, and started each on his own account.
B: Fill in the appropriate proposition or adverb where necessary.
1. Mr. Mitterrand conferred the Legion of Honour ... seven war veterans. 2. The prisoner asked
permission to confer … his lawyer. . 3. The prisoner was remitted … good behaviour. 4. The prisoner was
convicted … robbery. 5. The Monarch usually opens new sessions … Parliament … a speech ….the
throne. 6. The Monarch makes appointments … all important offices …. state. 7. The Monarch can remit
all or part … the penalties imposed …. persons convicted … crimes. 8. The Monarch exercises the
prerogative … mercy … the advice of the appropriate minister. 9. The Monarch exercises residual
authority …consent of Parliament and according … the advice of the government … the day.
6. Match the definitions in the right column to the words given in the left.
1. hereditary             a)to cancel or refrain from exacting or inflicting (e.g. punishment);
2. to prorogue            b)not concerned with religion; concerned with the affairs of this world;
3. to remit               c) passed on from one generation to following generations;
4. to dissolve            d) to examine and accept;
5. to summon              e)to discontinue the meeting (of a parliament) without dissolving;
6. to cede                f) a right or privilege exclusive to an individual or class;
7. speech                 g) to order members of a government to assemble;
8. pass                   h) talk or address given in public;
                                                       39
9. to confer                i) agreement, permission;
10. monarchy                j) give up rights or lands to another state;
11. consent                 k) to dismiss (an assembly, esp. Parliament);
12. temporal                l) to grant (a title, degree, etc.);
13. prerogative             m) government by a supreme ruler
7. Choose word or phrase (a, b or c) which best completes the unfinished sentence:
1. The Monarchy in the United Kingdom is …..               a) elected, b) hereditary, c) adopted.
2. Queen Elizabeth II succeeded to the throne ……
   a) in 1973, b) at the beginning of the century, c) in 1952.
3. The monarchy in the United Kingdom has …..
   a) absolute personal authority, b) constitutional authority, c) dictatorial authority.
4. According to the present constitutional form of the Monarchy the Queen …
   a) reigns, b) rules, c) dictates.
5. The Privy Council meets as s full body ….
   a) at regular sessions, b) once a year, c) in case of the death of the Monarch.
6. The Monarchy is most …. secular institution in the United Kingdom.
   a) modern, b) young, c) ancient
7. Queen Elizabeth II in addition to being …. part of the legislature is the head of the judiciary.
   a) an residual, b) an integral, c) a judicial;
8. The United Kingdom government ….. in the name of the Queen. a) legislates, b) governs, c) reigns
9. The Monarch can ….. all the penalties imposed upon criminals. a) remit, b) carry out, c) prosecute;
10. The Monarch ….. the members of the Privy Council on the …..of the Prime Minister.
1. a) chooses, b) appoints, c) decides; 2. a) prohibition, b) recommendation, c) statement.
8. Read and say whether these statements are true or false:
1. Government is the supreme legislative authority. 2. Queen Elizabeth II is the head of the state. 3. The
Monarchy in the United Kingdom is absolute personal authority. 4. The government rules the state in the
name of the Queen. 5. The Queen opens new sessions of Parliament with the speech from the throne. 6. A
Bill can become an Act of Parliament without the Queen’s approval. 7. The Monarch gives the consent
and approval to form a Cabinet or a minister accepts office. 8. The Monarch exercises most powers
through the Privy Council. 9. The Minister of Justice exercises the prerogative of mercy. 10 The Privy
Council presided over by the Queen meets regularly as a full body at its sessions.
9. Study the text more carefully and answer the following questions:
1. What is the political system of the United Kingdom? 2. What are the three elements of legislative
authority? 3. What are the Queen’s powers? 4. How has the Monarchy evolved in the United Kingdom?
5. What role does the Monarch have in legislating? 6. What forms the Royal Prerogative? 7. What is the
Privy Council? 8. What are the Privy Council’s functions?
10. Translate into English using the active vocabulary.
1. Законопроект потребує королівську санкцію, щоб стати законом. Але зараз королівська санкція
просто формальність. 2. Теоретично монарх може відмовити у згоді, але останній монарх, який
використав цю владу, була королева Анна, яка наложила вето на законопроект (to veto a bill) у
1707 році. 3. Уряд було розпущено та нові вибори у парламент оголошені. 4. Британська політика
надає перевагу еволюції над революцією. 5. У Великобританії суверен царює, але не управляє
державою. 6. Його обрали лідером за загальною згодою. 7. Королева насправді є номінальним
(figurehead) представником своєї країни, вона не має повної влади. 8. Королева займає центральне
положення в державних справах, не тільки через виконання своїх церемоніальних (ceremonial)
функцій, таких як, відкриття Парламенту, а тому що вона зустрічається кожного тижня з Прем’єр-
Міністром і отримує копії всіх документів Кабінету. 9. Його засудили за вбивство. 10. Сьогодні
головна роль Таємної Ради – радити монарху по широкому колу питань.
                                                        Part 2
                                              The United Kingdom. Legislature
Pre-reading task. Read the words. Mind the stress. A):
΄legislate                        cons΄tituent                     ,obli΄gation
΄archbishop                       e΄xceed                          ,recommen΄dation
΄senior                           de΄liberative                   ,consti΄tutionally
                                                           40
΄suffrage                   dis΄qualify                  ,repre΄sentative
΄bankrupt                   a΄llowance                   ,secre΄tarial
΄arbiter                    suc΄cessor                   ad,minis΄tration
΄circumstance               pre΄side                     ,parlia΄mentary
΄substance                  con΄currence                 su΄premacy
B) Complete the word building table.
Adjective         Noun / Verb                     Verb                Noun
bankrupt                                          to legislate
                - vacancy                         to disqualify
                - successor                                         - arbiter
                - concurrence                     to preside
deliberative                                                       - successor
               - majority                                          - concurrence
               - appeal                           to clarify
existing                                          to comply
supreme                                                            - obligation
criminal                                          to refer -
democratic                                        to reject
                - profit                          to curtail -

1. Look through the words and expression to make sure that you know them. Learn those you don’t know.
the House of Commons                  Палата громад
the House of Lords                    Палата лордів
to legislate [´ledЗisleit]            видавати закони;
to legislate against smth.            забороняти щось в законодавчому порядку;
constituent [kən´stitjuənt]           складова частина;
to exceed [i´ksi:d]                   перевищувати, виходити за межі;
It exceeds the power of human Це виходить за межі людського розуміння.
understanding.
Lords Temporal [´temp(ə)r(ə)l]        лорди світські;
Lords Spiritual [spi´rit∫uəl]         лорди духовні;
peer / peeress / peerage [´piəridЗ]   пер, леді, звання пера;
life peers                            довічний пер
Law Lords                             судові лорди, лорди-судді
archbishop [´a:t∫´bi∫əp]              архієпископ;
to cease [si:s]                       припиняти;
to cease work                         припинити роботу;
to cease fire                         припинити вогонь;
senior [´si:njə]                      вищий; старший;
senior researcher / scientist         старший науковий співробітник;
Senior Deputy                         перший заступник;
deliberative [di´libərətiv]           дорадчий;
deliberative functions                дорадчі функції;
deliberative body                     дорадчій орган;
set-up                                уклад; устрій; система, структура;
the economic set-up                   економічний устрій;
suffrage [´sΛfridЗ]                   право голосу; виборче право;
to extend / grant suffrage            надати право голосу;
female / women’s suffrage             виборче право для жінок;
substance [΄sΛbst(ə)ns]               суть, їство; сутність; реальність;
in substance                          по суті;
otherwise [´Λ∂əwaiz]                  інакше; іншим чином; по іншому;
Do what I tell you, otherwise you'll
                                                   41
be sorry.
to relate to                        відноситися, бути зв’язаним з;
relating to                         що відноситься до; пов’язаний;
to disqualify [dis´kwolifai]        дискваліфікувати; позбавити права; визнати
                                    неспроможнім;
to disqualify from testimony        позбавити права давати свідчення;
clergy [´klə:dЗi]                   духовенство;
Anglican clergy                     духовенство англіканської церкви;
bankrupt [´bæŋkrΛpt]                банкрут; (adj.) збанкрутілий; неплатоспроможній;
undercharged bankrupts              не звільнені від боргів недієздатні банкрути;
to go bankrupt                      збанкрутувати;
salary [´sæləri]                    заробітна плата;
to attach smb’s salary              призначати комусь заробітну плату;
to raise salaries                   піднімати заробітну плату;
to earn, get, receive a salary      отримувати заробітну плату;
to cut, reduce salaries             скорочувати заробітну плату;
to negotiate a salary               домовлятися про заробітну плату;
to pay a salary                     платити заробітну плату;
annual salary                       річна заробітна плата;
servant [΄sə:v(ə)nt]                службовець (державної установи); служник;
civil servants                      державний службовець;
allowance [ə´lauəns]                (грошове) утримання, витрати;
to grant an allowance               надавати грошову допомогу;
family allowance                    грошова допомога багатодітним сім’ям;
vacancy [´veik(ə)nsi]               вакансія;
to fill а vacancy                   заповнити вакансію, зайняти посаду;
No vacancies.                       Немає вакантних посад.
successor [sək´sesə]                спадкоємець; послідовник; наступник;
the successor to the throne (to the спадкоємець трону, корони;
Crown)
proximate successor                 наступний спадкоємець, прямий спадкоємець;
arbiter [´α:bitə]                   арбітр, третейський суддя;
impartial arbiter                   неупереджений арбітр, третейський суддя;
to preside [pri´zaid]               головувати;
to preside over the meeting         головувати на зборах;
an office                           посада;
to accept an office                 прийняти посаду;
to assume an office                 вступити на посаду;
to hold office                      займати посаду;
office of honour / honorary office  почесна посада;
office of profit                    оплачувана посада;
to bind [baind] (bound)             зв’язувати; зобов’язувати;
to bind duties                      зобов’язувати підвищувати мита;
bind oneself by contract            пов’язувати себе контрактом;
authority to bind company           право накладати зобов’язання на компанію;
bound up with smb./ smth.           тісно пов'язаний з кимось / чимось;
circumstance [´sə:kəmstæns]         обставина;
circumstances of the case           обставини справи;
attendant circumstance              супроводжуючі обставини;
to delay [di´lei]                   відкладати; затримувати;
to delay the passage of the law     відклади прийняття закону;
concurrence [kən´kΛr(ə)ns]          збіг; збіг обставин; згода;
concurrence in the views            єдність поглядів;

                                              42
to clarify [´klærifai]                    прояснити; роз’яснити;
to clarify the clauses of the contract    роз’яснити пункти контракту;
in order (to)                             для того, щоб;
to enable [i´neibl]                       давати змогу;
to comply with [kəm´plai]                 виконувати; підпорядковувати; узгоджувати;
to comply with orders                     виконувати накази;
to comply with decision                   виконувати рішення;
obligation [obli΄gei∫(ə)n]                зобов’язання;
to fulfil / meet an obligation            виконати зобов’язання;
to undertake / assume obligations         приймати зобов’язання;
to refer [ri´fə:] (to)                    відправляти, відсилати; співвідносити; стосуватись;
                                          посилатись;
to refer a bill back to a committee       повернути законопроект до комітету для розгляду;
to refer to arbitration                   відправити до арбітражного суду;
referring to                              посилаючись на;
to make up (of)                           складати;
to debate [di´beit]                       обговорювати; дискутувати; оспорювати;
to debate heatedly, hotly                 гаряче обговорювати;
to reject [ri´dЗekt]                      відхиляти, відмовляти;
to reject a motion                        відхиляти клопотання;
to reject an appeal                       відхиляти апеляцію;
to curtail [kə:´teil]                     скорочувати;
to curtail a speech                       скоротити промову;
successive [sək´sesiv]                    послідовний; наступний;
successive check-outs                     послідовні перевірки;
2. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.
                                                      Legislature
    Parliament is the legislative organ and is constitutionally composed of the Monarch, the House of
Lords, and the House of Commons.
     The House of Lords currently has around 730 members, and there are four different types: life peers,
Law Lords, bishops and elected hereditary peers. Unlike MPs, the public do not elect the Lords. The
majority are appointed by the Queen on the recommendation of the Prime Minister or of the House of
Lords Appointments Commission.
        Life peers appointed for their lifetime make up the majority of the total membership. The power to
appoint belongs formally to the Crown, but members are essentially created on the advice of the Prime
Minister. Life peers’ titles cease on death. Law Lords were the first life peers. The Appellate Jurisdiction
Act 1876 provides for up to 12 Law Lords to be appointed to hear appeals from the lower courts. They are
salaried and can continue to hear appeals until they are 70 years old. After they retire they go on sitting in
the House. Archbishops and bishops. The Anglican Archbishops of Canterbury and York, the Bishops of
Durham [´darəm], London and Winchester and the 21 senior bishops of the Church of England have seats
in the House. This is because the Church of England is the “established” Church of the State. When they
retire as bishops their membership of the House ceases. Elected hereditary peers. The House of Lords
Act 1999 ended the right of hereditary peers to sit and vote in the House of Lords. Until then there had
been about 700 hereditary members. While the Bill was being considered, an amendment was passed
which enable 92 of the existing hereditary peers to remain as members until the next stage of reform.
        The House of Lords has a judicial function in addition to its legislative and deliberative functions.
The House is the highest court in the land – the supreme court of appeal. It acts as the final court on
points of law for the whole of the United Kingdom in civil cases and for England, Wales and Northern
Ireland in criminal cases. Its decisions bind all courts below.
        This is an unusual role for a legislative body that is part of Parliament. In most other democracies,
the judiciary is separate from the legislature – usually in the form of a supreme court of appeal. For this
reason the Government has legislated to establish a United Kingdom Supreme Court that will be
constitutionally and physically separate from Parliament. Until October 2008, when the new UK Supreme

                                                     43
Court is expected to come into operation, the present system will continue. The reasons for the present
set-up are historical – the House of Lords has done this work for more than 600 years as part of the High
Court of Parliament. Although the House of Commons was originally part of the High Court of
Parliament, it has not been involved in judicial work since 1399. Today only highly qualified professional
judges appointed to be law lords take part in the judicial function of the House.
    The House of Commons is an elected and representative body; members (at present 650) are elected
by almost universal adult suffrage to represent constituencies in England (523), Scotland (72), Wales (38)
and Northern Ireland (17). The law relating to Parliamentary elections is contained in substance in the
Representation of the People Act, 1949, as amended. Any British subject aged 21 or over, not otherwise
disqualified (as for example, members of the House of Lords, certain clergy, undercharged bankrupts,
civil servants, holders of judicial office, members of the regular armed services and the police forces)
may be elected a Member of Parliament (M.P). Members are paid a salary and an allowance for
secretarial and office expenses; after a Parliament is dissolved all seats are subject to a General Election.
By elections take place when a vacancy occurs during the life of a Parliament, as when a member dies, is
elevated to the House of Lords or accepts an “office of profit” under the Crown.
    The Speaker of the House of Commons is elected by the members from the members to preside over
the House immediately after each new Parliament is formed. He is an impartial arbiter over Parliamentary
procedure and the traditional guardian of the rights and privileges of the House of Commons.
    The functions of Parliament are: making laws; providing money for the government through taxation;
examining government policy, administration and spending; debating political questions.
    No law can be passed unless it has completed a number of stages in the House of Commons and the
House of Lords. The Monarch also has to give a Bill the Royal Assent, which is now just a formality.
Whilst a law is still going through Parliament it is called a Bill There are two main types of Bills – Public
Bills, which deal with matters of public importance, and Private Bills which deal with local matters and
individuals. Public and Private Bills are passed through Parliament in much the same way. When a Bill is
introduced in the House of Commons, it receives a formal first reading. It is then printed and read a
second time, when it is debated but not amended. After the second reading the Bill is referred to a
committee, either a special committee made up of certain members of the House, or to the House itself as
a committee. Here it is discussed in detailed and amended if necessary. The Bill is then presented for a
third reading and is debated. If the Bill is passed by the Commons, it goes to the Lords, and provided it is
not rejected by them, it goes through the same procedure as in the Commons. After receiving the Royal
Assent the Bill becomes an Act of Parliament. In order to be enforced, it must be published in Statute
form, becoming a part of Statute Law. The power of the Lords to reject a Bill has been severely curtailed.
A money Bill must be passed by the Lords without amendment within a month of being presented in the
House. The Act of 1949 provides that any Public Bill passed by the Commons in two successive
parliamentary sessions and rejected both times by the Lords, may be presented for the Royal Assent, even
though it has not been passed by the Lords. The Lords, therefore, can only delay the passage of a Public
Bill, they cannot reject it.
    The supremacy, or sovereignty, of the United Kingdom Parliament is probably the most basic
principle of British constitutional law. Parliament acts in such a way as not to bind its successors in the
manner or form of their legislation, and, in the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949 has provided that in
certain circumstances a Bill may become law without the concurrence of all the component parts of
Parliament. These two acts have clarified the supremacy of the House of Commons over the House of
Lords, which can only delay the passage of Public Bills for a maximum period of one year and cannot
delay at all the passage of Money Bills (financial measures).
3. Give Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and expressions. Use them in the sentences or
situations of your own.
to end the right of hereditary peers to sit and vote; the final court on points of law; the supreme court of
appeal; to be involved in judicial work; to be appointed by the Queen on the recommendation of the
Prime Minister or of the House of Lords Appointments Commission; hereditary body; to bind all courts
below; to legislate to establish a United Kingdom Supreme Court; the reasons for the present set-up;
highly qualified professional judges; representative body; universal adult suffrage; civil servant; to be
elevated to the House of Lords; an office of profit under the Crown; Parliamentary procedure; without the
concurrence; the supremacy; the passage; the exercise of rights; to take office; to give the force of law; to
                                                     44
examine government police: to give a Bill the Royal Assent; to deal with the matters of public
importance; to receive a formal first reading; a special committee made up of certain members of the
House; the House itself as a committee; provided it is not rejected; to go through the same procedure; the
power of the Lords to reject a Bill; to pass without amendments within a month.
4. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and expressions:
вищий законодавчий орган влади; довічний пер; судові лорди / лорди-судді; обраний спадковий
пер; передбачати, що до 12 Лордів-суддів буде призначено; розглядати апеляції з судів нижчої
юрисдикції; загальне виборче право; за певних умов; світські та духовні лорди; члени палати
лордів призначені для розгляду апеляцій; лорд-канцлер; підданий Британії; службові витрати;
сучасний устрій; комітет з призначення (на посаду) до вищого апеляційного суду; надавати
можливість чи право існуючим спадковим перам залишатися в парламенті; представляти виборчі
округи; дорадчі функції; фінансовий законопроект; продовжувати розглядати судові справи (в
апеляційному порядку палатою лордів); державна церква; вступати в дію; завершуватися зі
смертю (тривати довічно); забезпечений правовою санкцією; державні службовці; по суті бути
обраним за порадою; неупереджений арбітр; банкрут; без згоди всіх складових частин
Парламенту; відхилити законопроект; висунути законопроект; оподаткування; внести поправку до
законопроекту; обговорювати політичні питання; отримати королівську санкцію; асигнувати
гроші на потреби уряду; прийняти закон; обговорювати законопроект; відправити законопроект до
комісії; бути суттєво скороченим; при умові що; відкласти прийняття закону.
5. A: Fill in the appropriate word from the list below.
Relates, enabled, vacancy, debate, circumstance, otherwise, bind, refer, exceeded, delayed, comply,
preside, in order to, disqualified, office, ceased
1. The arbitrators exceeded their jurisdiction. 2. The old German Empire … to exist in 1918. 3. I have …
no reason to suspect them. 4. He notices nothing but what …. to himself. 5. He was convicted of
corruption, and will be … from office. 6. How could there be an election without a …? 7. In 1787 George
Washington was called to … at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. 8. I have no official
business to …. me. 9. After the Prime Minister accepts…, he/she must form a government. 10. The
weather is a … to be taken into consideration. 11. He … my calling the police. 12. He went to Harvard …
obtain a degree in law. 13. The collapse of the strike … to resume normal bus services. 14. You must ….
with the rules. 15. … to the dictionary when you don't know how to spell a word. 16. We had to … with
two speakers expressing the opposing view.
B: Fill in the appropriate proposition or adverb where necessary.
1. It is difficult to relate these phenomena … each other. 2. The city council is presided …. by the mayor.
3. He refused to comply … our decision. 4. The new law does not refer … land used … farming. 5.
These three articles make … the whole book. 6. Life peers are appointed …. life. 7. The titles … life
peers cease …. death. 8. Life peers are created … the advice … the Prime Minister. 9 If the Commons
passes the Bill, it goes … the Lords, and …. they don’t reject it, it goes … the same procedure as … the
Commons. 10. The Lords must pass a money Bill … amendment … a month … being presented … the
House. 11. Parliament acts … such a way as not to bind its successors … the manner or form … their
legislation.
6. Choose word or phrase (a, b or c) which best completes the unfinished sentence:
1. The ….of the UK consists of the sovereign, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. a)
judiciary; b)legislature; c)executive;
2. The maximum duration of any particular Parliament is …, after which its functions expire. a) five
years; b) four years; c) six years;
3. A parliament’s life always ends by its earlier ... by the sovereign under the royal prerogative. a)
summon; b)election; c)dissolution;
4. Any British subject aged 21 may be elected ….        a) a member of the House of Lord; b) a member of
the House of Commons; c) a member of the Privy Council.
5. MPs are paid a salary and allowance for secretarial and office …. a) work; b) expenses; c) service;
6. The Speaker of the House of Commons is elected … a) every year; b) every session; c) after every new
Parliament is formed;
7. The House of Lords is presided by the… a); Lord Chancellor; b) Speaker; c) Prime-Minister;

                                                    45
8. Life peers and peeresses are … by the Monarch in recognition of public service. a) appointed, b)
created, c) elected.
9. The House of Commons is composed of …. a) the Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal, b) Life peers
and peeresses; c) Members of Parliament.
10. After Parliament is dissolved all … are subject to a General Election. a) offices, b) services, c) seats.
11. The Speaker of the House of Commons is elected … over the House. a) to rule, b) to preside, c) to
speak.
12. In each house a Bill is considered in three stages called .. . a) hearings; b) readings: c) debates.
13. Nowadays the Royal assent is merely a …. a) formality; c) necessity: c) amendment.
14. The supremacy of the Parliament is the most basic …. of British constitutional law. a) rule, b) article,
c) principle.
15. The House of Lords can … the passage of Public Bill for one year. a) forbid, b) reject, c) delay.

7. Match the definitions in the right column to the words given in the left.
1. concurrence       a) to make changes in a proposed law;
2. allowance         b) right of voting in political elections; (formal) vote; consent expressed by
3. to elevate        voting;
4. to delay          c) to do more than one has authority to do;
5. subject           d) sum of money, amount of something, allowed to somebody;
6. to amend          e) department or branch of public work, government, employment;
7. to exceed         f) to lift up, raise, to make higher and better;
8. supremacy         g) to choose by vote;
9. service           h) any member of state except the supreme ruler;
10. procedure        i) order of doing things especially legal or political;
11. suffrage         j) agreement; coming together;
12 to elect          k) the Highest authority;
                     l) to make or to be slow or late; put off until later.
8. Read and say whether these statements are true or false:
1. 1. Parliament is the executive body and is constitutionally made of the Monarch, the House of Lords,
and the House of Commons. 2. The Parliament is elected for a term of 4 years. 3. The House of Lords
consists of hereditary and life peers and peeresses. 4. Parliamentary elections take place every 5 years. 5.
Members of the regular armed services and police forces may be elected to the House of Commons. 6.
The Speaker of the House of Commons is elected to preside over each parliamentary session. 7. The Bills
passed by Parliament are divided into Public and Private Bills. 8. A Bill becomes a law if it passed three
readings in the House of Lords. 9. The power of the Lords to reject a Bill has been retained. 10 The
House of Lords can delay the passage of any Bill for a period of one year. 11. The supremacy, or
sovereignty, of the House of Lords is the most basic principle of British constitutional law. 12. The
Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949 has provided that a Bill may become law only when all the component
parts of Parliament come to agreement.
9. Study the text more carefully and answer the following questions:
1. What is the United Kingdom Parliament composed of? 2. Who represents the supreme authority
within the United Kingdom? 3. How does the Parliament at Westminster work? 4. Who may be a
member of the House of Lords? 5. How is the House of Commons elected? 6. Who may be elected a
Member of Parliament? 7. When do by-elections take place? 8. What are the duties of the Speaker of the
House of Commons? 9. What are the functions of Parliament? 10. What are the main types of Bills? 11.
What is a Bill? How does it become a law? 12. Can the Monarch veto a Bill? 13. What is the role of the
House of Lords in passing Bills? 14. Which is the basic principle of British constitutional law? 15. Which
Bills can and which cannot be delayed by the House of Lords?
 10. Complete the following text with the words and expressions from the list below.
Cabinet; backbenchers; Prime Minister; ministers; debates; benches; Budget; Speaker; front
bench; Opposition; Foreign Secretary; Shadow Cabinet; Home Secretary; Leader of the
Opposition; Chancellor of the Exchequer.
    This is the House of Commons, where Members of Parliament take their seats on the green leather 1)
_________ according to their party and position. One of them is chosen to be the 2) ___________ , who
                                                        46
acts as a kind of chairman of the 3) _________ , which take place in the House. In front of him on his
right sit the MPs of the biggest party, which forms the Government, and facing them sit the MPs of the
party who oppose them, the 4) _________. The leaders of these two groups sit at the front on each side.
MPs without special positions in their parties sit behind their leaders at the back. They are called 5)
___________. The leader of the Government, the 6) ___________, sits on the government 7)
_____________, of course, next to his or her 8) _____________. The most important of these are from
the 9) ____________. The minister responsible for relations with other countries is called the 10)
____________. The one responsible for law and security is called the 11) _______________ . The one
who deals with financial matters and prepares the annual 12) _______________ speech on the economic
state of the country is called 13) ______________ . Opposite the group sits the 14) _____________ (the
main person in the largest party opposing the government) and the 15) _________, each member of which
specializes in a particular area of government.
11. Translate into English using the active vocabulary.
1. Члени парламенту обрали його головою комісії за визнання його суспільної діяльності. 2.
Кожного року Парламент приймає приблизно сто законів безпосоредньо шляхом створення акту
парламенту. 3. Парламент інколи приймає дуже загальні закони, даючи можливість міністерству
заповнити деталі. 4. Міську раду очолює мер. 5. Коли у Великобританії жінки отримали право
голосу? 6. Після одруження ця жінка стала британською підданою. 7. Співробітники поліції та
регулярних військових сил не можуть бути членами парламенту. 8. Після того, як виборці обирать
новий парламент, його члени обирають спікера. 9. Палата лордів може відкласти прийняття будь-
якого законопроекту, за винятком фінансового, на період до 1 року. 10. Спікер палати общин
слідкує за виконанням парламентського регламенту, а також охороняє права та привілеї членів
парламенту. 11. Акт Європейської Співдружності 1972 р. вніс законодавчі зміни щодо виконання
Великобританією як членом Співдружності всіх зобов’язань. 12. Країни-члени Співдружності
повинні дотримуватися її законів.
                                                  Part 3
                                                    Executive
Pre-reading task. Read the words. Mind the stress. A):
΄supervise                     de΄serve                    de,libe΄ration
΄spokesman                     i΄nitiate                   ,una΄nimity
΄nucleus                        de΄liberative              ,liti΄gation
΄integrate                     pro΄ceedings                ,appre΄hension
΄frequently                    con΄cern                    re,sponsi΄bility
΄prosecute                     a΄ttorney                   ad,minis΄tration
΄magistrate                    so΄licitor                  ,parlia΄mentary
΄substance                      de΄partment                ,compo΄sition
B) Complete the word building table.
             Verb                Noun               Noun / Verb               Adjective
to supervise                                       deliberation
to appoint                                         unanimity
to integrate                                                               - frequent
                         - submission              apprehension
to initiate                                        responsibility
to prosecute                                       parliament
                          - apprehension           government
                          - administration         to advise
                          - deliberation                                    - important
to consult                                         decision
to advise                                          independence
to coordinate                                                            - judicial

1. Look through the words and expression to make sure that you know them. Learn those you don’t know.
to supervise [´sju:pəvaiz]            завідувати; доглядати; надзирати; спостерігати;

                                                  47
to supervise the workers             наглядати за робітниками;
spokesman [´spəuksmən]               оратор; представник; делегат; речник;
legal spokesman                      сторона, яка виступає в суді;
deliberation(s) [di,libə´rei∫(ə)n]   (мн.) обговорення, нарада; (одн.) обдумування, зважування;
jury's deliberation                  обговорення присяжних;
nucleus [΄nju:kliəs], (pl.) nuclei   центр, ядро;
[΄nju:klai]
nucleus of a story                   суть розповіді;
to integrate [΄intigreit]            об’єднувати в одне ціле; складати
to integrate learning with play
unanimity [,u:nə΄nimiti]            одностайність;
unanimity of taste and judgment     єдність у смаках та судженнях;
Paymaster General                   головний скарбничий;
to deserve [di´zə:v]                заслуговувати; бути достойним;
to deserve attention                заслуговувати уваги;
to deserve well (ill)               заслуговувати нагороди (покарання);
frequently [´frikwəntli]            часто;
to initiate [i´ni∫ieit]             починати, приступати; проявляти ініціативу, пустити в хід;
                                    ознайомити;
to initiate a case                  порушувати справу;
to initiate an agreement            заключати угоду;
to initiate bills (laws)            виступати із законодавчою ініціативою;
to initiate hearing                 розпочати слухання справи;
to initiate investigation           розпочати розслідування;
to initiate proceedings             порушувати справу, розпочати процес;
ad hoc [æd´hok]                     спеціальний; призначений для даної цілі;
ad hoc committee                    спеціальний комітет;
Attorney-General [ə΄tə:ni]          Генеральний прокурор (в Англії); міністр юстиції (в США);
Solicitor-General                   заступник генерального прокурора (в Англії);
Solicitor-General for Scotland      Генеральний адвокат у справах Шотландії;
Lord Advocate [´ædvəkit]            Генеральний прокурор (в Шотландії);
litigation [,liti´gei∫(ə)n]         судовий процес;
civil litigation                    цивільний позов;
to initiate / start litigation      порушити судову справу;
to prosecute [´prosikju:t]          переслідувати в судовому порядку; обвинувачувати (в
                                    суді); пригнути до судової відповідальності; пред’являти
                                    позов;
to prosecute a criminal             переслідувати злочинця в судовому порядку;
to prosecute an action              вести судову справу; підтримувати позов, обвинувачення;
proceedings [prə´si:diŋz]           судочинство; судове переслідування;
proceedings at law                  судочинство;
proceedings in civil causes         цивільне судочинство;
proceedings in open court           відкрите засідання суду;
action proceedings                  розгляд позову;
the Home Secretary                  міністр внутрішніх справ Великої Британії;
the Secretary of State for the Home міністр внутрішніх справ Великої Британії (повна назва);
Department
the Foreign Secretary               міністр закордонних справ Великої Британії;
the Secretary of State for Foreign міністр закордонних справ Великої Британії (повна назва);
Affairs
International Court of Justice      Міжнародний Суд (ООН);
to concern [kən΄sə:n]               стосуватися, відноситися;
to be concerned with                займатися; мати відношення до;
                                                48
as concerns                              що стосується;
apprehension [,æpri´hen∫(ə)n]            затримання, арешт;
apprehension of a thief                  затримання злодія;
magistrate [´mædЗistreit]                мировий суддя, магістрат;
magistrates’ court                       мировий суд, магістратський суд;
juvenile magistrate                      магістрат у справах неповнолітніх;
stipendiary magistrate                   оплачуваний магістрат;
Crown Court [kraun]                      суд корони (кримінальне відділок Високого суду
                                         правосуддя);
county court [´kaunti]                   суд графства (Велика Британія), суд округу (США);
juvenile court [´dЗu:vinail]             суд у справах неповнолітніх;
coroners’ court [´korənəz]               коронерський суд
2. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.
                                                     Executive
    The government consists of the ministers appointed by the Crown on the recommendation of the Prime
Minister, who is appointed directly by the Crown and is the leader of the political party which for the time
being has a majority of seats in the House of Commons. The office of Prime Minister dates from the
eighteenth century and is the subject of a number of constitutional conventions. The Prime Minister is the
head of the government and presides over meeting of the Cabinet; by convention he is always a Member
of the House of Commons. He consults and advises the Monarch on government business, supervises and
to some extent coordinates the work of the various ministries and departments and is the principal
spokesman for the government in the House of Commons. He also makes recommendations to the
Monarch on many important public appointments, including the Lord Chief Justice, Lords of Appeal in
Ordinary, and Lords Justices of Appeal.
    The Cabinet is the nucleus of government; its members consist of a small group of the most important
ministers who are selected by the Prime Minister. The size of the Cabinet is today about 23 and its
principal function, much of the work being carried out in Committee, is to determine, control and
integrate the policies of the government for submission to Parliament. The Cabinet meets in private and
its deliberations are secrets; no vote is taken, and, by the principle of “Cabinet unanimity”, collective
responsibility is assumed for all decisions taken.
    The central government ministries and departments give effect to government policies and have
powers and duties conferred on them by legislation, and, sometimes, under the Royal Prerogative. Each is
headed by a minister who is in most cases a member of either the House of Lords or the House of
Commons. There are over 100 ministers of the Crown at the present time; they include departmental
ministers (e.g., the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs); non-departmental ministers (e.g., Lord
President of the Privy) Council; Paymaster General; Ministers without Portfolio); ministers of state
(additional ministers in departments whose work is heavy); and junior ministers (usually known as
Parliamentary Secretary and Parliamentary Under-Secretary) in all ministries and departments.
    The Lord Chancellor [΄t∫a:ns(ə)lə] and the Law Officers of the Crown deserve special mention at this
point. The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain presides over the House of Lord both in the Cabinet and
also has departmental responsibilities in connection with the appointment of certain judges. He advises
on, and frequently initiates, law reform programmes with the aid of the Law Commissions, the Law
Reform Committee and ad hoc committees. The four Law Officers of the Crown include, for England and
Wales, the Attorney-General and the Solicitor-General; for Scotland, the Lord Advocate and the Solicitor-
General for Scotland. The English Law Officers are usually members of the House of Commons and the
Scottish Law Officers may be. They represent the Crown in civil litigation, prosecute in certain
exceptionally important criminal cases, and advise government on points of law. They may appear in
proceedings before the International Court of Justice, the European Commission of Human Rights and
Court of Human Rights. They may also intervene generally in litigation in the United Kingdom as
representatives of public interest.
         The United Kingdom has no Ministry of Justice. The courts and lawyers have a strong tradition
of independence from the government. Responsibility for the administration of the judicial system in
England and Wales is divided between the courts themselves, the Lord Chancellor, and the Home
Secretary. The Lord Chancellor, who is the head of the legal profession and is always a member of the
                                                     49
Cabinet, is concerned with the composition of the courts, with civil law, parts of criminal procedure and
law reform in general; the Home Secretary is concerned with the prevention of criminal offenses, the
apprehension, trial and treatment of offenders, and with the prison service. England and Wales have a
single system of law and courts, and Scotland has a system of its own.
    The most common type of law court in England and Wales is the magistrates’ court, which is presided
over the magistrates, who are normally Justices of the Peace (JPs). More serious cases then go to the
Crown Court presided over by judges or senior barristers specially appointed to perform judicial functions
for part of their time. Civil cases (for example, divorce or bankruptcy cases) are dealt with in County
Courts. Appeals are heard by higher courts. For example appeals from magistrates’ courts are heard in the
Crown Court. Certain cases are referred to the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg [´lΛks(ə)mbə:g]
or the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg [´stræzbə:g]. The legal system also includes
juvenile courts (which deal with offenders under seventeen) and coroners’ courts (which investigate
violent, sudden or unnatural death). There are administrative tribunals [trai´blju:nl], which deal with
professional standard, disputes between individuals, and disputes between individuals and government
departments (for example, over taxation).
    The first thing to notice is that there is no civil code and no criminal code. The law consists partly of
statutes, or Acts of Parliament, and partly of common law made up of the decisions of judges, with regard
to matters not regulated by statutes, in accordance with custom and reason. A large part of the civil law is
not contained in statutes at all but made up of a mass of precedents, privious court decisions. By now,
however, almost all actions for which a person may be punished are actions which are specifically
forbidden by some statute.
3. Give the English equivalents to the following words and phrases.
The office of the Prime Minister; to be appointed by the Crown on the recommendation of somebody;
government business; intervene in litigation; point of law; junior ministers; criminal procedure; prison
service; to determine the police, to integrate the policy, to control the police; apprehension; to appear in
proceedings; to be the subject of a number of constitutional conventions; to date from; in connection with
appointment of certain judges; to be concerned with the prevention of criminal offenses; in private; with
the aid of; to make recommendations to somebody on something; secret deliberations; legislative
capacity; Parliamentary Secretary and Parliamentary Under-Secretary; law reform; to assume collective
responsibility; the International Court of Justice: the Court of Human Rights; the European Commission
of Human Rights.
4. Give each paragraph a heading of your own. Compare your headings with other members of the
group. Are all the headings possible?
На даний час / на деякий час; посада Прем’єр-Міністра; підлягати ряду конституційних угод;
наглядати та координувати роботу; речник уряду; головувати на зборах Кабінету; до деякої міри;
ядро уряду; приймати рішення; для подання до парламенту; одностайність кабінету; міністр;
міністр закордонний справ; міністр юстиції; Лорд-Канцлер; Міністр внутрішніх справ; заслуговує
на окрему згадку; ініціювати правову реформу; керування правовою системою; поводження із
злочинцями; Міністр без портфеля; попередження кримінальних злочинів; представник
громадських інтересів; займатися складом судів; затримання; суд / судовий процес; втручатися
виконувати судові функції; справа про банкрутство; суд графства; суд у справах неповнолітніх;
подати справу до Європейського суду; мати справу з правопорушниками молодше вісімнадцяти
років; розслідувати насильницьку, раптову, чи неприродну смерть..
5. A: Fill in the appropriate word from the list below.
Prosecuted, juvenile court, International Court of Justice, apprehension, Magistrates’ Courts,
nucleus, deliberation, county courts, concerns, Crown Court, integrated, coroner
1. The resolutions were made after long … upon a constitutional question. 2. Retired employees make up
the … of the club. 3. I … your suggestion into my work. 4. He was … for fraud. 5. The problem …. all of
us. 6. The warrant for his … was obtained. 7. … has unlimited jurisdiction over all criminal cases tried on
indictment ([in΄daitmənt – обвинувальний акт]) and also acts as a court for the hearing of appeals from
magistrates’ courts. 8. The principle function of … is to provide the forum in which all criminal
prosecution are initiated. 9. A …. or forensics examiner is an official responsible for investigating deaths,
particularly some of those happening under unusual circumstances, and determining the cause of death.
10. A … is a court of law having special authority to try and pass judgments for crimes committed by
                                                     50
children or adolescents who have not attained the age of majority. 11. There are 218 … in England and
Wales which deal with the majority of civil cases, as well as some family and bankruptcy hearings. 12.
The …. is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations, the main functions of which are to settle legal
disputes submitted to it by member states and to give advisory opinions on legal questions submitted to it
by international organs, agencies and the UN General Assembly.
B: Fill in the appropriate proposition or adverb where necessary.
1. The law firm was concerned … the building contract. 2. The government consists … the ministers
appointed … the Crown … the recommendation … the Prime Minister. 3. The Prime Minister is the head
… the government and presides … meeting … the Cabinet. 4. The Prime Minister advises the Monarch
… government business. 5. The Cabinet of Ministers determines, controls and integrates the policies …
the government … submission … Parliament. 6. The Cabinet makes decisions collectively and is
collectively responsible … them … Parliament. 7. The Lord Chancellor … Great Britain presides … the
House of Lord. 8. The Lord Chancellor is responsible … the appointment … certain judges. 9. The four
Law Officers represent the Crown … civil litigation, prosecute … important criminal cases, and advise
government … points … law. 10. The Lord Chancellor is concerned … the composition … the courts.
6. Choose word or phrase (a, b or c) which best completes the unfinished sentence:
1. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Monarch and is the leader of … a) Opposition; b) Cabinet; c)
majority party.
2. Meetings of the Cabinet are presided by ….. a) the Speaker; b) the Lord Chancellor; c) the Prime
Minister.
3. The Lord Chancellor is responsible for the appointment of …. . a) ministers; b) secretaries; c) judges.
4. The government ministries and departments have powers conferred on them sometimes…… . a) by the
Lord Chancellor; b) by the Monarch; c) under the Royal prerogative.
5. Responsibility for the administration of the judicial system is taken …… a) by the Ministry of Justice;
b) by the courts; c) by the Monarch.
6. The prevention of criminal offenses, the apprehension, and trial are the duties of …. . a) the Lord
Chancellor; b) the judges; c) the Home Secretary.
7. The ….. met urgently at 10 Downing Street to decide Government policy on the new economic crisis.
a) Privy Council; b) Cabinet; c) ministries.
8. The Road Traffic Act 1972 ….. that it is illegal to drive under the influence of drugs. a) legislates;
b)amends; c) provides.
9. Parliament is a …. body. a) legislation; b) legislative; c) legislature.
10. The Chancellor of the Exchequer asked the Parliament to ….the existing tax on alcoholic drinks and
replace it with a tax on all drinks except water. a) establish; b) abolish; c) enact.
11. The Law Officers of the Crown may ….. in litigation defending the public interest. a) reform; b)
initiate; c) intervene.
12. The Home Secretary is …… the prevention of criminal offenses. a) accused of; b) concerned with; c)
known for.
13. England and Scotland have a …… system of law and courts. a) different; b) similar; c) Romano-
Germanic
7. Match the definitions in the right column to the words given in the left.
1. coroner              a) central part round which other parts are grouped;
2.unanimuity            b) public position of authority;
3. juvenile courts      c) a topic or argument which is talked, written about, or studied;
4. Home Office          d) where children are tried;
5. office               e) official who inquires into the cause of any death thought to be from violent or
6. nucleus              unnatural causes;
7. subject              f)complete agreement or unity;
8. to litigation        g) department controlling local government, police, etc.;
9. apprehension         h) going to law, making a claim at a court of law;
10. to prosecute        i) start legal proceedings against sb;
                        j) legal seizing.
8. Read and say whether these statements are true or false:

                                                    51
1. The ministers of the government are appointed by the Crown. 2. The Prime Minister is the leader of the
majority party in both Houses. 3. The Prime Minister is the head of state. 4. The Cabinet is selected by the
Monarch. 5. The Cabinet is responsible for all decisions taken at its meetings. 6. The Lord High
Chancellor of Great Britain appoints certain judges. 7. The Law Officers of the Crown advise government
on points of law. 8. Ministry of Justice of Great Britain is headed by the Lord Chancellor. 9. The
administration of the judicial system is divided between the courts, the Lord Chancellor and the Home
Secretary. 10. The most common type of law court in England and Wales is the Crown Court. 11.
Appeals are heard by the magistrates’ courts. 12. The highest court of appeals is High Court.
9. Study the texts more carefully and answer the following questions:
1. How is the Prime Minister selected in the UK? 2. What are the Prime Minister’s functions? 3. What is
the relationship between the Prime Minister and the monarch? 4. What is the relationship between the
Cabinet and Parliament? 5. What is the vital difference between the role of the Cabinet and the role of
government ministries and departments? 6. What is the role of the Privy Council in the UK? 7. What is
the most important department in the UK? Who is it headed by? 8. The Lord Chancellor is the most
important legal figure in the UK, isn’t he? 9. Who is the UK Minister of Justice? 10. What matters is the
Home Secretary concerned with? 11. What does the English law consist of?12. What actions may s
person be punished under English law?
10. Complete the passage by choosing the best word in an appropriate form from the list below:
a) law; convention; rule; practice; provision; bill; act of Parliament; legal enactment; statute law;
legislation.
                                                English Laws
    A proposal of law, or _____only becomes a/an __________called a/an _________when all its
__________have been approved by the Queen in Parliament.
    Many _____of English constitutional ________do not derive from (come from)________or common
law, but are political ____called _______, which have the force of law.
b) transfer; confer; executive authority; Judicial Committee; advise; granting; royal advisers;
retain; constitutional issues; dependencies; appeal; influential; arbiter; office.
                                              The Privy Council
    The Privy Council developed from a small group of _____ at court into the chief source of _____ . But
its position was weakened in the 18th and 19th centuries as more of its functions _____ to a developing
parliamentary Cabinet.
    Today its main role is _____ the monarch on a range of matters, like the resolutions of _____ and
approval of Orders in Council, such as the ____ of Royal Charters to public bodies. The most important
task of the Privy Council is performed by its ____ . It serves as the final court of ____ from those _____
and Commonwealth countries that this avenue of appeal. It may be used as an ____ for a wide range of
courts and committees in Britain and overseas, and its ruling can be ______ .
    The ______ of Privy Councilor is an honorary one, which_____, for example, on former Prime
Minister.
c) functions; constitute; unanimous; office; political heads; Prime Minister; collectively (2)
Members of Parliament; government; make; majority party; Cabinet; form
                                                The Ministry
    The Ministry is the _____ of the moment. The head of the Ministry is the ____ . The _____ of the
Prime Minister are: leading the ________; running the Government; appointing Cabinet of Ministers;
representing the nation in political matters.
    Upon accepting ________ the Prime Minister must form the Government, that is, select a cabinet and
ministry from among the __________ of his own party. The Cabinet _____ the nucleus of the
government and is composed of about 20 of most important ministers. All major decisions of the
Government ____ by the Cabinet, and therefore it is the _________ that forms the Government policy.
Decisions made must be _____ . It makes its decisions ______ and is _____ responsible to Parliament.
  After the Prime Minister has formed his ____, he selects the rest of his ministry. Most of the ministers
are the ______ of Government Departments and are members of one of the Houses.
d) Civil Service; responsible; be subject; Treasury; administrative head; implementing; agencies;
political head; control; permanent secretary
                                         Government Departments
                                                    52
   Government Departments are _____ for implementing Government policy. Each department is headed
by two people: a ____ who is usually the minister; and an ______ from the Civil Service, called a _____ .
They are responsible for a permanent staff which is the part of the _____ . There are many such
departments, for example, the Home Office, the Department of Education, the Ministry of Defense, etc.
The most important department is the ______, and the Prime Minister is its political head. It is the
Department that ______ the national economy.
    As well as government departments there are government ________ formed to operate public services,
such as Post Office, British Rail, etc. Most of them ____ to the control of one of the government
departments.
11. Read the definitions and give a name to each of them.
1. a group of important politicians in the UK who are officially chosen to be advisers to the monarch; the
head of this group; 2. a government department with a minister in charge of; 3. someone who is in a
position to make influential judgment or settle an argument; 4. the most important ministers of the
government who meet as a group to make decisions or to advise the head of the government; 5. all
various departments of the British government except the armed forces, law courts and religious
organizations; people who work in these departments and they are not allowed to take any active part in
politics, they don’t change when the government changes. 6. the bishops and archbishops of the church of
England who are the members of the House of Lords; 7. members of the House of Lords who do not
belong to the Church of England; 8. the government department that is responsible for money system of a
country and for carrying out government plans in relation to taxes and public spending; 9. (adj.) all
agreeing completely; 10. an organization of about 50 independent countries, most of which were formally
part of the British Empire; 11. a government official, such as a minister; 12. a high non-elected official,
usually an administrative head of a department; 13. an earlier happening, decision, etc. taken as an
example or rule for what later.
12. Translate into English using the active vocabulary.
1. Уряд складається з міністрів призначених монархом за рекомендацією прем’єр міністра. 2.
Прем’єр міністр призначається безпосередньо сувереном, та, за звичай, є лідером партії, яка має
більшість місць у палаті громад. 3. Він радить монарху по урядовим питанням, наглядає та
координує роботу різних міністерств. 4. Він також надає рекомендації королеві в багатьох
важливих призначень. 5. Кабінет є ядром уряду. 6. Всі головні рішення приймаються кабінетом, і
тому саме кабінет відповідає за урядову політику. 7. Хоча кабінет звичайно обирається з членів
палати громад, він, тим не менш, завжди включає декілька членів Палати Лордів. 8. Політики усіх
партій були одностайні у тому, щоб засудити (condemn)таки дії. 9. Британський монарх є головою
всіх країн Співдружності Націй. 10. Армія, морський флот (navy) та повітряні сили
контролюються Міністерством Оборони.
13. Optional text. Read about the future Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.
                                  Supreme Court of the United Kingdom
    The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom was established in law by Part III of the Constitutional
Reform Act 2005. The Lord Chancellor has announced that it will start work in October 2009 once its
new premises are ready.
    It will take over the Law Lords' judicial functions in the House of Lords and some functions in the
Judicial committee of the Privy Council. The Supreme Court will be the final court of appeal in all
matters under English law, Welsh law (to the extent that the Welsh Assembly makes laws for Wales that
differ from those in England) and Northern Irish law.
    It will not have authority over criminal cases in Scotland, where the High Court of Justiciary will
remain the Supreme Court. However, it will hear appeals from the Court of Session, just as the House of
Lords does today.
    It may hear cases of dispute between the three devolved governments - the Northern Ireland Executive,
the Scottish Government and the Welsh Assembly Government - and the UK government, taking over
this function from the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
    The new Supreme Court should not be confused with the Supreme Court of England and Wales, which
was created in the 1870s under the Judicature Acts, nor with the Supreme Court of Judicature in Northern
Ireland, each of which consists of a Court of Appeal, High Court of Justice and Crown Court. When the
provisions of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 come into force, creating the Supreme Court of the
                                                    53
United Kingdom, the present Supreme Courts will become known as the Senior Courts of England and
Wales and the Court of Judicature respectively, to avoid confusion.
    The High Court of Justiciary , the Court of Session, and the Office of the Accountant of Court
comprise the Supreme Courts of Scotland.
   The main role of the UK Supreme Court will be to hear appeals from courts in the United Kingdom's
three legal systems: England & Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland. The Court's focus will be on cases
which raise points of law of general public importance. Like the current Appellate Committee of the
House of Lords, appeals from many fields of law are likely to be selected for hearing - including
commercial disputes, family matters, judicial review claims against public authorities and issues under the
Human Rights Act 1998. The Court will also hear some criminal appeals but not from Scotland as there
will be no right of appeal from the High Court of Justiciary (Scotland's highest criminal court).
    The UK Supreme Court will also determine "devolution issues" (as defined by the Scotland Act 1998,
the Northern Ireland Act 1998 and the Government of Wales Act 2006). These are legal proceedings
about the powers of the three devolved administrations – the Northern Ireland Executive and Northern
Ireland Assembly, the Scottish Government and the Scottish Parliament, and the Welsh Assembly
Government and the National Assembly for Wales. Devolution issues are currently heard by the Judicial
Committee of the Privy Council and most are about compliance with rights under the European
Convention on Human Rights, brought into national law by the devolution Acts and the Human Rights
Act 1998.
    The Appellate Committee of the House of Lords will cease to exist after October 2009. The Judicial
Committee of the Privy Council will however continue, located within the new Supreme Court building,
as it is the final court of appeal for several States in the Commonwealth of Nations and British Overseas
Territories.
    The Government's plans to create the Supreme Court, announced in June 2003, were controversial and
were brought forward with little consultation. During 2004, a select committee of the House of Lords
scrutinised the arguments for and against setting up a new court.
    The main argument in favour of change was that there should be a separation between the House of
Lords' role as a legislature and its role as a court. This, it was claimed, confused people and offended
constitutional principles of separation of powers and independence of the judiciary. The main argument
against the reforms was that the current arrangements worked well and provided good value for money.
        The Lords of Appeal in Ordinary (the Law Lords) who hold office when the Supreme Court begins
work in October 2009 will be the first justices of the twelve-member Supreme Court. The Constitutional
Reform Act 2005 makes provision for a new appointments process for Justices of the Supreme Court. A
selection commission will be formed when vacancies arise. This will be composed of the President and
Deputy President of the Supreme Court and members of the appointment bodies for England and Wales,
Scotland, and Northern Ireland. New judges appointed to the Supreme Court after its creation will not
receive peerages nor will they be members of the House of Lords.

                                            Grammar Section
                                            The Passive Voice
1. Change the sentences from the active into the passive. Omit the agent where it can be omitted.
1. The party with the majority support in the Commons forms the government. 2. They must hold general
elections at least every five years. 3. Voters have elected 650 Members of Parliament. 4. Government
departments carry out policies. 5. Queen Elizabeth II succeeded to the throne in 1952. 6. The monarch
summons, prorogues and dissolves Parliament. 7. They have never codified the constitutional principles,
rules and practices of the United Kingdom. 8. Personal union of the Crowns linked the independent
Kingdoms of England and Scotland in 1603. 9. The Northern Ireland Constitutional Act, 1973 established
a new constitutional framework. 10. The British Isles don’t comprise the Channel Islands and the Isle of
Man. 11. The Prime-Minister consults and advises the Monarch on government business. 12. The Lord
High Chancellor of Great Britain presides over the House of Lords.
2. Fill in ‘by’ or ‘with’.
1. The earliest known legal text was drawn up …. Ur-Mammu. 2. The cyclist was knocked …. a bus. 3.
Soup is eaten … a spoon. 4. Who was the radio invented … ? 5. The car was fixed … a mechanic. 6. The
glass was cut …. a special tool. 7. Her hair is coloured … henna … a hairdresser. 8. ‘Born in the USA’
                                                    54
was sung …. Springsteen. 9. The roast was flavoured … wine. 10. This decision will be made … the
local council. 11. He was knocked …. the stone. It was an accident. 12. He was knocked …. the stone. It
was a murder.
3. Choose the correct answer.
   A large amount of valuable jewellery 1) has stolen / has been stolen from Forest Manor. A man 2)
arrested / was arrested yesterday and 3) is questioned / is being questioned by the police at the moment.
He 4) thought / is thought to 5) have committed / have been committed the crime, although so far no
proof 6) has found / has been found. The robbery 7) believed / is believed to 8) to have been carried out /
to have carried out by two men, but so far no clue 9) has discovered / has been discovered as to the
second man’s identity. The police say that he may 10) have left / have been left the country.
4. Change into the passive.
A) The police are investigating a series of break-ins in the Hatterby area. Residents have heard noises but
nobody has actually seen anything suspicious. The recent rise in crime in the neighbourhood has shocked
residents. Locals are discussing matters of security with the police and they have requested greater police
presence in the area.
B) A wealthy businessman has just bought the Black Swan Hotel. The Barrett family owned it for many
years, and they should have restored the building many years ago, but they couldn’t find enough money.
The new owner is closing the hotel for a few months for redecoration. At the moment workmen are
polishing the floors and redecorating all the rooms.
5. Rewrite the sentences in the passive, where possible.
A) 1. Her husband drives her to work every day . _________________________________ . 2.Someone
will steal your purse if you don’t look after it. _________________________________. 3. I woke up late
on Sunday morning. ____________________________________. 4. Her mother woke her up at seven
o’clock. ______________________________. 5. Sue asked the waiter to bring some mineral water.
____________________________________________.                6.    David     asked     for    some    help.
____________________________________________. 7. Simon is moving house next month.
__________________________________. 8. Michael moved the boxes out of the way.
_______________________________________________. 9. Sandra walks on the beach regularly.
_____________________________________________. 10. The boys walk the dog every day.
_________________________________
B) Omit the agent where possible.
1. 1. Do they sell clothes in this shop? ________________________________. 2. Someone is cleaning
our classroom. ________________________________. 3. She tapped him on the hand with her pen
._______________________________________. 4. People spend a lot of money on books.
______________________________________________________. 5. Is Sue preparing a report?
_____________________________________________________. 6. Who made this mess?
___________________________________________7. Grandfather is going to tell the children a story.
__________________________________. 8. They will open the new advisory office soon .
____________________. 9. They made him confess to the robbery. ______________________________
10. Who broke this mug? _________________________________. 11. The teacher will mark the essays.
____________________________________________. 12. They heard him call for help.
____________________________________
6. Correct any verb forms which are impossible or inappropriate.
1. A lot of homes in the area have been being broken into by burglars. 2. As I drove south, I could see
that the old road was rebuilding. 3. I suppose the letter will have been delivered by now. 4. There is
nothing more annoying than been interrupted when you are speaking. 5. Jim was been given a sack from
his new job. 6. Somehow without my noticing my wallet had been disappeared.
7. Both sentences in each pair have the same meaning. Complete the second sentence.
1. The crowd was slowly filling the huge stadium. The huge stadium ……………………….. by the
crowd. 2. The inventor of the computer simplified the work of the accountants. Since the computer
…………………. the work of the accountants ………… simplified. 3. Someone has suggested that the
shop should close. It ……………… that the shop should close. 4. ‘I’d take out some travel insurance if I
were you, Mr. Smith.’ Mr. Smith …………………..take out some travel insurance. 5. The waitress will
bring you drinks in a moment. Your drinks …………………. in a moment. 6. Someone used a knife to
                                                    55
open the window. This window ………….. a knife. 7. You will hear from us when we have finished
dealing with your complaint. After your complaint ……………….. , you will hear from us. 8. An
announcement of their engagement appeared in the local paper. Their engagement …………………… in
the local paper. 9. Nobody ever heard anything of David again. Nothing ……………….. David again. 10.
They paid Sheila $1,000 as a special bonus. $1,000 ……………… Sheila as a special bonus.
9. Translate into English.
1. Робота щойно закінчена. 2. Доповідь слухали дуже уважно. 3. Його ніде не бачили вчора. 4. Я
думаю, що всі інструкції отримаємо завтра. 5. На цій вулиці будується нова лінія метро. 6. Коли
була написана ця стаття? 7. Про цю справу багато говорять. 8. Їй порадили написати доповідь на
англійській. 9. Мене про це ніколи не питали. 9. Коли стаття буде написана, її надрукують в
журналі. 10. Коли обговорювалася це питання? 11. Його вчора запросили прийняти участь в
науковій конференції. 12. Це дослідження було зроблено до того, як були зроблені нові знахідки в
цій галузі. 13. Коли я зацікався цією темою, ці законопроекти розглядалися у Верховній Раді. 14.
Відповідь буде відправлена, як тільки питання буде вирішено. 15. Коли я зайшов у зал засідань,
допитували обвинуваченого.16. Ким була написана ця робота? 17. Мені дали цей підручник на три
дні. 18. Рабство в США було скасовано після того, як була прийнята Конституція.

                                              UNIT FIVE
                                                 Part 1
                         The United States of America. The Legislative Branch
 Pre-reading task. Read the words. Mind the stress. A):
΄pattern                      au΄thority                   ,sepa΄ration
΄treaty                       ma΄chinery                   , mis΄use
΄borrow                      ad΄minister                    ,govern΄mental
΄levy                         a΄nnounce                    ,repre΄sentatives
΄congress                     con΄ceive                    ,con΄tinuity
΄balance                      con΄duct                     ,poli΄tician
΄senator                      em΄power                     ,indi΄vidual
΄commerce                     pre΄scribe                   ,popu΄lation
B) Complete the word building table.
             Verb               Noun                Noun / Verb              Adjective
                     - separation                 authority
to announce                                       separation
to conduct                                        to conceive
to express                                        to express
to misuse                                         to oppose
to oppose                                         to imply
to prescribe                                      to declare
to imply                                                            - necessary
to declare                                        to introduce
to approve                                        to elect
to introduce                                      West

1. Look through the words and expression to make sure that you know them. Learn those you don’t know
authority [o:΄Өoriti]            влада; повноваження (на щось - for); сфера компетенції, коло
                                 обов‘язків; орган управління; pl адміністрація, органи влади;
to assume authority              взяти владу;
to delegate authority            передавати владу;
to establish authority           встановлювати владу;
to exercise authority            здійснювати управління;
local authority                  місцева влада;
authority by law                 за повноваженнями; з дозволу;
by authority of law              силою закону;

                                                   56
authority conferred by office    повноваження за посадою;
dual [΄dju:əl]                   подвійний; двоїстий;
dual citizenship                 подвійне громадянство;
dual jobholder                   особа, яка зайнята на двох роботах;
machinery [mæ΄∫i:n(ə)ri]         апарат; структура, механізм;
administrative machinery         адміністративний апарат;
law-enforcement machinery        правоохоронні органи;
judicial machinery               судовий апарат; судоустрій;
legislative machinery            законодавчий апарат;
the machinery of government      урядовий апарат;
pattern [΄pætən]                 зразок, модель, форма, схема, структура;
behavior pattern                 модель поведінки;
to establish / set a pattern     дати приклад;
spending pattern                 схема (статей) видатків;
separation [sepə΄rei∫(ə)n]       відокремлення, поділ, відділення; роз‘єднання;
separation of powers             принцип розділу влади;
separation by agreement          окреме проживання подружжя за спільною згодою;
treaty [΄tri:ti]                 договір, угода;
to abrogate / denounce a treaty  анулювати угоду;
to break / violate a treaty      порушити угоду;
to conclude / sign a treaty      заключити, підписати договір;
to confirm / ratify a treaty     затвердити, ратифікувати договір;
to negotiate / work out a treaty обговорювати, розробляти угоду;
to administer [əd΄ministə]       управляти, керувати; вести (справу); чинити (правосуддя);
                                 виконувати;
to administer smb’s affairs      вести чиїсь справи;
to administer the affairs of the керувати державою;
state
to administer justice            відправляти правосуддя;
to administer punishment         застосовувати покарання;
to administer a rebuke           виносити догану;
to announce [ə΄nauns]            оголошувати; повідомляти, заявляти;
announce a competition           оголошувати конкурс;
announced procedures             оголошені правила;
to borrow [΄borəu]               позичати (у когось – of, from); запозичити; ручатися. N застава;
                                 порука, юр поручитель; позичання;
to borrow against securities     отримати позику під заклад цінних паперів;
to borrow at high interest       взяти позику під великі відсотки;
to coin                          карбувати, створювати; фабрикувати, вигадувати;
to coin bad money                робити фальшиві гроші;
to conceive [kən΄si:v]           збагнути, зрозуміти, відчути, задумувати, вважати, гадати;
to conceive the idea             висунути ідею;
to conduct [kən΄dαkt]            вести, керувати, проводити, диригувати;
to conduct an investigation      вести розслідування;
to conduct a class               керувати класом;
to conduct an orchestra          диригувати оркестром;
to conduct a case                вести судову справу;
to empower [im΄pauə]             уповноважувати, довіряти; давати можливість (право);
                                 дозволяти;
to empower explicitly            уповноважувати безпосередньо;
(expressly)
to ensure [in΄∫uə]               забезпечувати, гарантувати; ручатися, запевняти; застрахувати
                                 себе;

                                                57
to ensure project success            забезпечити успіх проекту;
to express [iks΄pres]                висловлювати, виражати, формулювати; adj. спеціальний,
                                     терміновий; певний, точний;
to express by law                    встановлювати безпосередньо за законом;
to express judicially                встановлювати в судовому порядку;
to express clearly                   ясно виражати;
to gain                              одержувати, здобути; домагатися, виграти; заробляти,
                                     здобувати;
to gain experience                   отримувати досвід;
to imply [im΄plai]                   мати на увазі, припускати; означати, мати значення;
Rights imply obligations.            Права означають, що є обов’язки.
to levy [΄levi]                      збирати, стягувати (податки); оподатковувати, штрафувати;
                                     юр. примусово стягувати борг;
to levy bail                         визначити суму застави;
to levy fine                         накладати штраф;
to levy taxes                        накладати податки; збирати податки;
to lie [lai] (lay-lain)              полягати (в чомусь), залежати (від чогось); визнаватися
                                     законним, допустимим
to misuse [,mis΄ju:z]                неправильно вживати, зловживати; погано поводитися
                                     (ставитися);
to misuse a person                   погано поводитися з людиною;
to misuse alcohol                    зловживати алкоголем;
to oppose [ə΄pəuz]                   чинити     опір,     опиратися,      противитися,       протистояти;
                                     протиставляти; бути в опозиції;
to oppose resolutely / strongly      чинити сильний опір;
to oppose apprehension               чинити опір затриманню;
to prescribe [pri΄skraib]            приписувати; юр. посилатися на втрату права за давністю;
to prescribe a rule                  встановлювати норму, правило;
to prescribe (as) the punishment призначити як покарання;
to raise [reiz]                      піднімати; викликати; починати; підвищувати, збільшувати;
                                     порушувати, ставити питання; збирати, добувати (гроші);
                                     набирати (в армію);
to raise taxes                       знімати податки;
to raise opposition                  висувати протест;
to raise money                       добувати гроші;
to raise a prohibition               анулювати, скасувати заборону;
to raise a presumption               створити презумпцію;
to raise an objection                висувати заперечення;
to vest                              наділяти (владою); надавати, уповноважувати; переходити
                                     (комусь – in, upon); інвестувати, вкладати капітал;
to vest smb with authority           наділяти когось владою;
to vest smb with rights              надавати комусь права
2. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.
                                THE POLITICAL SYSTEM OF THE USA
The United States of America is a federal union of 50 states. Its basic law is the Constitution adopted in
1787 which remains the oldest still in force written constitution in the world. The Constitution prescribes
the structure of national government and lists its rights and fields of authority. Besides, each state has its
own government. Thus, all government in America has the dual character of both Federal and State
Government. The basic principle of all American government is the separation of the three branches:
legislative, executive and judicial. Each branch of government holds a certain degree of power over the
others, and all take part in the governmental process. The powers given to each are carefully balanced by
the powers of the other two. Each branch serves as a check on the others. The so-called system of


                                                     58
“checks and balances” is provided to keep any branch from gaining too much power or from misusing
its powers.
                                      THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH
    Supreme legislative power in the American government lies with Congress, which consists of two
chambers or houses – the Senate (the upper house) and the House of Representatives (the lower house).
Each state has its own government, following the Washington pattern – State Assemblies or Legislatures
with two chambers.
    Congress of the United States is the legislature of the United States of America established under the
Constitution of 1789 and separated structurally from the executive and judicial branches of government.
    Congress has no general legislative power such as is enjoyed by the British Parliament, and to a lesser
degree by the legislatures of the American states; it has only such functions and authority as are expressly
conferred on it by the Constitution or are implied in the Constitution. Many of the express powers are
defined in Article 1, Section 8. Among these are the power ‘to levy and collect taxes’, ‘borrow money on
the credit of the United States’, ‘regulate commerce with foreign nations and among several states’, ‘coin
money’, ‘establish post offices’, ‘declare war’, ‘raise and support armies’, and ‘make all laws’ necessary
for the execution of its own powers and ‘all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of
the United States’. This Section also empowers Congress to administer the District of Columbia, which
contains seat of the federal government. Other express powers are conferred on Congress in other articles
of the Constitution. Among the implied powers of Congress is the right to establish legislative machinery
to give effect to its express powers.
    The Senate is one of the two houses of the legislature of the United States established in 1789 under
the Constitution. The role of the Senate was conceived by the Founding Fathers as a check on the
popularly elected House of Representatives. The US Senate has some special powers, not given to the
House of Representatives. The Senate approves or disapproves major Presidential appointments of such
high officials as ambassadors, Cabinet ministers and federal judges. The Senate must also ratify, by a
two-third vote, treaties between the USA and foreign countries.
    The House of Representatives has a special power of its own. Only a member of the House can
introduce a bill to raise money, but it must also be passed by the Senate before it can become a law.
    The Senate is composed of 100 members, two from each of 50 states, who are elected for a term of six
years. Although Congressional elections take place every two years, only one-third of the Senate is re-
elected, thereby ensuring continuity.
    The Constitution says that a Senator must be at least 30 years old, a citizen of the USA for nine years
and a resident of the state from which he is elected. The individual seats in the Senate are numbered.
Democrats sit in the Western part of the chamber – on Vice President’s right. Republicans sit on his left.
Vice President presides over the Senate and conducts debates. The Senate is more stable and more
conservative than the House of Representatives, as many Senators are re-elected several times and often
they are more experienced politicians.
    The House of Representatives has 435 members. The number of Representatives which each state
sends to the House depends on its population. The Constitution says that each state, no matter how small
it is in population, must have at least one Representative.
    A Representative must be at least 25 years of age, a US citizen for seven years and live in the state
from which he is elected. Congressmen of the House do not have individual seats, by tradition Democrats
sit on the Speaker’s right, Republicans – on his left. The Speaker presides over the House and conducts
debates. The Speaker, like the Vice-President in the Senate, may vote, but usually he does not do it,
except in case of a tie-vote.
    Votes are taken in American Congress in four different ways. Usually the Speaker or the Vice-
President says, ‘As many as are in favour say ‘Aye’!’ and then, ‘As many as are opposed say ‘No’!’ In
most case it is enough. But if there is a doubt those in favour are asked to stand up and they are counted.
The Speaker or the Vice President does the counting in his chamber and announces the result. If there is
still doubt, two tellers are appointed. The fourth way is the roll-call, where the names of all Congressmen
are called out and they answer ‘Aye’ or ‘No’.
3. Give Ukrainian equivalents to the following words and expressions:
to remain the oldest still in force written Constitution; dual character of both state and federal
government; to serve as a check; to follow the pattern; to enjoy legislative power; to define express
                                                    59
powers; to confer express powers; to be implied in the Constitution; to preside over the House; popularly
elected; to collect taxes; to coin money; to raise armies; to vest powers; to administer the District of
Columbia; to establish the legislative machinery; to give effect; to approve/disapprove major
appointments; a two-third vote; to raise money; to do the counting.
4. Find in the text the words or expressions that mean the following:
Сфера повноважень; певна міра влади; система стримувань і противаг; запобігати отриманню
надмірної влади; зловживання владою; верхня палата; нижня палата; Законодавчі збори штату; у
меншій мірі; контролювати торгівлю; утримувати збройні сили; резиденція федерального уряду;
батьки-засновники; високопосадовці; висунути проект закону; забезпечити послідовність,
послідовну зміну; вести засідання; досвідчені політики; місце в парламенті; рівна кількість
голосів; бути „за”; бути „проти”; якщо є сумнів; рахівник; виклик поіменно.
Make up your own sentences with the expressions given above.
5. A: Fill in the appropriate word from the list below.
Announced, oppose, ensure, authority, expressed, prescribed, borrow, lies, vest, treaty, empower,
separation, misuses, implied, raised, expressed, conceived, patterns, levied
1. A commanding officer has complete … over his personnel. 2. In Indochina all previous …. of
America's involvement abroad were shattered. 3. All children will tend to suffer from …. from their
parents. 4. They signed a … to settle all border disputes by arbitration. 5. He … the fact, but gave no
details. 6. You could … some money from your uncle without paying interest. 7. Who first … the idea of
announcing the competition? 8. Computers …. students to become intellectual explorers. 9. The
government has taken measures to … against Euro cheats. 10. It is … as a percentage. 11. It is not
directly asserted, but it seems to be … .12. Taxes should be …. more on the rich than on the poor. 13. The
job of ensuring an equal sharing of national wealth …. with the government. 14. It will not be men's fault
if she …. her liberty. 15. The world does not …. religion as such. 16. The punishment is …. by law. 17.
Any worker who makes a useful suggestion to the firm will be … to a higher position. 18. I … you with
full powers to decide any question which may arise.
B: Fill in the appropriate proposition or adverb where necessary.
1. Who was … authority? 2. These employees are … my authority. 3. … what authority do you do these
things, and who gave you this authority? 4. They are always borrowing … us. 5. He expressed his
sympathy … the bereaved (постраждала) family. 6. They will only assume that, as a woman, the fault
lies … me. 7. The problem lay … the large amounts spent … defence. 8. The Indian Government was
vested … the power of sovereignty. 9. In some countries authority is said to be vested … people. 10.
Congress of the United States is established … the Constitution. 11. The Senate is composed … 100
members who are elected … a term … six years. 12. The number of Representatives depends … its
population. 13. The Speaker presides … the House of Representatives.
6. Translate the words given in two columns and match the pairs as they are used in the text.
1. державний                                        a. конституція
2. двоїстий                                         b. Палата
3. найстаріший                                      c. гілка
4. іноземний                                        d. характер
5. судовий                                          e. принцип
6. обраний                                          f. Сенат
7. головний                                         g. влада
8. спеціальний (2)                                  h. суддя
9. високий                                          i. спосіб
10. вищий                                           j. посадовець
11. персональний                                    k. управління
12. консервативний                                  l. повноваження
13. різноманітний                                   m. держава
14. федеральний                                     n. спосіб
15. законодавчий                                    o. місце
7. Fill in a correct word or phrase from the list below:


                                                   60
International; sea; taxes; Supreme Court; money (4); courts; credit; patent; commerce; copyright;
foreign; post; interstate; post offices; naturalization; counterfeiters; value(2); measures; war;
support; imminent; gold; militias (2); invaded; laws (2); countries; states; troops; rebellions (2);
exports (2); imports; invasion (2); nobility (2); District of Columbia; obligation; federal
government; ex post facto (2); powers; attainder (2); elastic clause; silver; implied; treaty; habeas
corpus; act of Congress; water; advantages
    Some of the powers of Congress are: to collect (1)____________; borrow (2) _________ on the
(3)_________ of the United States; regulate (4) _________ (both (5) _________ and (6) _________;
make (7)__________ laws allowing foreigners to become citizens; coin (8)_________ and decide its
(9)________ and the (10)_________ of foreign (11)_________; fix the (12)________ of weights and
(13) ________; punish (14) _________; set up (15) _________ and roads; encourage the science and arts
by passing (16)________ laws and (17) ________ laws; set up all federal (18) _________ lower than the
(19)________ ________; punish crimes at (20) __________ or against (21) ____law; declare (22) ___;
raise and (23) ___ the army, navy, and air force; call the states’ (24)_________ to enforce federal (25)
__________; end (26) __________, or for defense against (27) ____; organize and furnish weapons for
the states’ (28)_________; govern the (29) _________ ___________ and control all property in the states
owned by the (30) ________ _________ and pass laws to see that these (31)__________ are carried out.
This last clause is sometimes called the (32)__________ __________ and gives Congress its (33)
____________ powers.
    Some powers Congress may not have are to rake away the privilege of writs of (34) __________
_________ except during times of (35)_________ or (36)_________; pass bills of (37)____________ or
(38) _________ laws; tax (39) _________; give to the ports of any one state any (40) _________ over
those of another, or tax goods shipped by (41) _________ in the United States; draw money from the
United States Treasury without an (42)_______ ____________; or grant title4s of (43) ___________.
    Some powers the states may not have are: to make any separate (44)____; coin (45)____; use anything
but (46) ____ or (47) ___ money in payment of debts; pass bills of (48) ____, (49) ___ ___ ___ laws, or
laws that damage the (50)____ of contracts; or grant titles of (51)_____. States must have the permission
of Congress to tax (52) ____ or (53) ____; keep (54)____ or warships in time of peace; make agreements
with other (55) ____ or foreign (56) ____; or fight a war unless actually (57)___ or in (58) _____.
8. Match the words given on the left with their definitions on the right.
1.authority           a. involved in the writing and passing of laws
2. government         b. to manage the affairs of a business, organization, or institution
3. legislative        c. an amount of money levied by a government on its citizens and used to run
                      the government and the country or state
4. executive          d. a formal contract or agreement negotiated between countries or other
                      political entities
5. judicial           e. an organized event at which somebody is chosen for something, especially a
                      public office, by vote;
                      the process of choosing somebody or of being chosen by vote
6. tax                f. power to act on behalf of somebody else or official permission to do
                      something
7. credit             g. a written proposal for a new law, discussed and voted upon by the members
                      of a legislative body
8. commerce           h. the section of a country’s government responsible for implementing
                      legislative decisions
9. to administer      i. the management or control of something;
                      a group of people who have the power to make and enforce laws for a country
                      or area;
                      a type of political system
10. treaty            j. the large-scale buying and selling of goods and services
11. to approve        k. to give formal approval to something, usually an agreement negotiated by
                      somebody else, in order that it can become valid or operative
12. to ratify         l. to agree officially to something, or accept that something has reached a

                                                   61
                       required standard
13. election           m. to express an opinion or preference in an election or for a referendum
14. to vote            n. relating or belonging to a body of judges or to the system that administers
                       justice
15. bill               o.the amount of money that a financial institution is prepared to lend somebody
9. Translate the text given below.
                               Наглядові (oversight) повноваження Конгресу
   Нагляд Конгресу запобігає марнотратству (waste) й ошуканству (fraud); захищає громадянські
свободи та права людини; забезпечує неухильне дотримання (compliance with) виконавчою владою
законів; накопичує інформацію для законотворення й просвітницької роботи в суспільстві; оцінює
(evaluates) дієвість (performance) виконавчої гілки влади. Цей нагляд охоплює (applies to)
міністерства Кабінету, виконавчі управління, регулюючі комісії, а також Президента.
   Функція нагляду Конгресу набуває різних форм:
     розслідування та слухання у комітетах;
     проведення офіційних консультацій з Президентом та вивчення президентських звітів;
     надання Сенатом порад та згоди щодо президентських призначень і договорів;
     початок справи про імпічмент Палатою Представників та подальший (subsequent) розгляд
         справи Сенатом;
     дії Палати Представників та Сенату відповідно до Двадцять п‘ятої поправки у випадку,
         коли Президент виявляє неспроможність виконувати свої обов‘язки (disabled) та коли стає
         вакантною (falls vacant) посада Віце-президента;
     проведення неофіційних зустрічей між законодавцями та урядовцями-виконавцями;
     участь конгресменів в урядових комісіях;
     проведення досліджень комітетами Конгресу та допоміжними (support) органами – такими
         як Бюджетне бюро (office) Конгресу, Бюро загальної бухгалтерії (Accounting), Бюро
         технологічних оцінок (Assessment), які є підрозділами Конгресу.
   Наглядові повноваження Конгресу допомагали усунути з посади деяких урядовців, змінити
політику й запровадити новий встановлений законом (statutory) нагляд за виконавчою владою.
Наприклад, розслідування Конгресом Вотергейтської справи 1973 року викрило (exposed)
офіційних осіб Білого дому, які незаконно скористалися своїм службовим становищем для
одержання політичної вигоди. А наступного року Комітет юстиції (Judiciary Committee) Палати
Представників розпочав справу про імпічмент проти Президента Ричарда Ніксона, що й поклало
край його президентству. Наглядові повноваження Конгресу підтверджують, що вони є істотним
засобом (check) стримування (monitoring) дій президентської влади та контролю за державною
політикою.
10. Answer the following questions.
1. Which body represents the legislative branch of government in the USA? 2. What powers does
Congress enjoy? 3. What is the role of the Senate in the legislature? 4. Why is only one-third of the
Senate re-elected every two years? 5. What requirements must a person meet to be elected a Senator ? 6.
What does the number of representatives in Congress depend on? 7. In what ways are votes taken in
American Congress?
 11. A. Read the text given below and render it into Ukrainian. Do the exercises that follow it.
 Often discussing Congress of the USA a third chamber is mentioned. The third chamber is a specific
American phenomenon – lobbies.
                                              THE LOBBYISTS
   In the previous centuries people who wanted to hand in petition or to discuss some project went to
Washington, to the Capitol and there met the Congressmen from their states. The tradition is still alive,
only today it is big corporations, social organizations, foreign diplomats, etc. who try to influence law-
making in their favour. This is done with the help of lobbyists who arrange meetings with Congressmen,
and through bribery and persuasion make them vote for measures favourable to the group they represent.
Practically lobbyism (backstage influencing of legislation) has become legal, it means that the passing of
a bill can be prevented if it does not suit the interests of a definite group of Big Business.


                                                   62
    The delicate art of influencing legislation has moved a great distance from the days when votes were
bought with black satchels full of money. Today’s successful lobbyists are more likely to be smooth
professionals. But if lobbying techniques have grown complicated, the name of the game is still the same:
special interest. Lobbyists may call themselves legislative counsels or Washington representatives but the
name of the game is the same: they are hired to sell their clients’ special interests.
    The lobbyists’ role in government is greatly misunderstood. They only exercise their Constitutional
right to petition. The First Amendment guarantees “the rights of the people to peaceably assemble, and to
petition the Government for a redress of grievances”. But the Founding Fathers did not foresee that this
amendment would be so distorted.
    A 1946 law requires all lobbyists to register with the clerks of both chambers of Congress, and to give
annual reports of the money used for this or that bill, the most effective lobbyists seldom do. They try to
remain, if possible, invisible.
B. Say whether each of the following sentences is true or false. Correct the false sentences to make them
true.
According to the text, lobbyists…
1. by means of different techniques make Congressmen vote for measures favourable to the group they
represent; 2. follow the old tradition of petitioning the Government; 3. can seldom prevent Congressmen
from passing a bill; 4. are mainly real professionals; 5. are often called legislative counsels; 6. always
register with the clerks of the both chambers of Congress; 7. influence the legislation due to their invisible
efforts.
C. Find English equivalents to the following Ukrainian words or phrases:
кулуари; закулісний; сумка, ранець; прийоми; право звертатися до органів влади з петиціями;
сатисфакція образи; головна мета, найважливіший аспект діяльності;(the main purpose or the most
important aspect of activity – Hard work is the name of the game if you want to succeed in business)
спритний, приємний, улесливий фахівець;вручити петицію; на свою користь; організувати,
домовитись; відповідати інтересам; витончений; просунутися далеко вперед; радник; підкуп,
хабарництво; переконання; хибно розуміти; мирне зібрання; передбачати; спотворювати; палата
Конгресу; щорічний звіт; непомітний, невидимий
D. Answer the following questions:
1. Why did people go to Washington in the previous centuries? 2. Who did they meet there? 3. What is
this tradition like today? 4. How do the lobbyists make Congressmen vote in their favour? 5. Can the
passing of a bill be prevented? 6. In what ways were votes bought in the past? 7. What is the name of the
game? 8. What may lobbyists call themselves? 9. What is their role in the government? 10. What does the
First Amendment guarantee? 11. What is required from the lobbyists by law? 12. Are they public people?
                                              Grammar Section
                                              The Passive Voice
1. Rewrite the following passages in the passive.
A) Someone broke into the National Gallery late last night. The thieves had broken the alarm system
before they climbed through a window. They stole some priceless works of art. They used a getaway car
to escape. The police have questioned some suspects. They have not caught the thieves yet.
B) A few days ago, somebody stole Keith Dunn’s motorbike. Keith had left his motorbike outside his
house. Keith reported the theft to the police. The police told him they would try to find his motorbike.
This morning the police, the police called Keith and asked him to go to the police station. They have
found his motorbike. The thieves had painted the it and then they sold it to someone else. The new owner
had parked the motorbike outside the police station. The police arrested the thieves.
2. Rewrite each sentence in a more formal style so that it contains a passive form of the word given in
brackets.
1. Sorry, but we’ve lost your letter. (mislay) 2. The police are grilling Harry down at the station.
(question) 3. They have found the remains of an old Roman villa nearby. (discover) 3. You’ll get a rise in
salary after six months. (raise) 4. They stopped playing the match after half an hour. (abandon) 5. They
took Chris to court for dangerous driving. (prosecute) 6. They stopped traffic from using the centre. (ban)
7. We usually eat this kind of fish with a white sauce. (serve) 8. I don’t know your name. (introduce)
3. Using the notes as a guide, complete the e-mail to all company staff. Put the verbs in brackets into a
suitable passive verb form.
                                                     63
NOTES FROM MANAGEMENT MEETING
Tell staff:
We’ll try flexi-time for 3 months.
After 3 months we’ll get the opinions of all staff.
We’ll look at feedback comments and make a decision.
We may try it for another month.
All workers will have to arrive at 8 – 9.30.
We hope you like the idea.

FROM: The Managing Director
TO: All staff
It ……………. (1. decide) to adopt a flexi-time system for a trial period of three months. After this
period …………… (2. elapse) all members of staff ……………….. (3. consult) through their line
manager, and feedback …………… (4. seek). Comments ………………… (5. collect) and analysed
before a decision ………………….. (6. make) as to whether the system …………………… (7. adopt)
permanently or not. Alternatively, the trial period ………………….. (8. extend) for a further month. All
employees ………………….. (9. require) to arrive between the hours of 8.00 and 9.30, and to leave after
they have fulfilled their contractual obligation of eight hours. It …………….. (10. hope) that this
arrangement meets with your enthusiastic approval!
4. Read the excerpt from the radio mystery show ‘Phantasma’ and underline all passive constructions.
    Midnight. Earlier, the city was blanketed by a nearly impenetrable mist, the perfect environment for a
crime to be committed. Now the streets are getting pelted by violent raindrops. No one is about.
    On the sixty-seventh floor of a massive office building, the door to an executive suite of offices is ajar.
Inside, the main room is dimly lit. A man lies crumpled near the windows. An hour ago he had the
misfortune to get bludgeoned by a heavy object. The carpet around him is slowly getting stained by
blood. A perfect crime has been committed.
    Or has it? The perpetrator is now far from the scene, sure that he is going to get paid handsomely for
his work. He is certain that the man was killed by the blow to his head and is convinced that his
murderous actions haven’t been noticed. He believes that his whereabouts are a mystery. He is wrong! A
spark of life remains in the man. His life can be saved if help arrives soon. Phantasma knows who the
perpetrator is and where he is. Phantasma knows all!
5. Fill in the blanks with passive constructions. Add the relative pronouns who or that, where necessary.
                             Three Unsolved Mysteries Continue to Fascinate
    So you think there are no more mysteries, that all mysteries (1) …….. (solve) in time? Think again.
The pages of history teem with mysteries that (2) …………….. (never / crack).
    Consider, for a example, the case of Billy the Kid, (3) ……. (name) Henry McCarty at birth but also
known as William Bonney. Young Bonney went west in 1870s and established himself as a force in
Lincoln County in the New Mexico territory. Along with several other young men, he (4) ………..
(befriend) by John Tunstall, an immigrant shop owner from England. When Tunstall (5) ………. …
(shoot and kill) in a frontier feud in the Lincoln County War, Billy and his friends retaliated by forming a
gang and killing Tunstall’s murderers. For years Billy and his gang (6) …………. (pursue) by the law.
Finally, Pat Garret, formerly Billy’s friend, (7) …………. (elect) sheriff of Lincoln County. As the record
tells it, Billy (8) ………… (gun down) by Garret on July 13, 1881, in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, and (9)
………… (bury) there.
    Or was he? Some individuals believe that the Kid didn’t die in Fort Sumner at all and that someone
else (10) ………… (inter) in the grave. In fact, some reports claim that Billy escaped and took another
identity. One report insists that an old man who was believed to be Billy (11) ……….. (see) walking
along a highway in New Mexico in 1947. What is the truth?
    Another puzzling case involved the brigantine ship Mary Celeste. She had left New York in 1872 and
(12) ………. (later sight) floating erratically east of the Azores. No one (13)……….. (find) on board,
though everything else on the ship (14) …………….. (determine) to be in order, and there was no
indication why the Mary Celeste (15) ……………… (abandon). In fact, tables (16) ……………
(apparently / set) for afternoon tea. One theory speculates that the ship (17) ………….. (threaten) by an

                                                      64
impending explosion that (18) ……….. (cause) by fumes from her cargo of alcohol. That theory,
however, (19) …………… (never / prove).
    A third perplexing mystery is the case of Amelia Earhart, the famous aviator who in the twenties and
thirties was considered the quintessential example of the rugged female individual.
    Earhart flew across the Atlantic in 1928 and set a record for a cross-Atlantic flight in 1932. In 1937
she embarked on her most ambitious plan, a flight around the world. Earhart began her flight in Miami in
June and (20) …………. (accompany) only by Fred Noonan, her navigator. They reached New Guinea
and left for Howland Island in the south Pacific on July 1. After that, no radio reports or messages of any
kind (21) ………… (receive). No remains of her plane (22) ………… (locate) by naval investigators.
    Did she simply attempt the impossible? ______ she and Noonan (23) ________ (simply kill) when her
plane ran out of fuel and crashed in the Pacific? Historian William Manchester holds his own view. He
believes that Earhart and Noonan saw evidence of the illegal Japanese military build-up in the Mariana
Islands. Manchester says, ‘She (24) ______________ almost certainly ___________ (force down and
murder).’ Or could something else have happened? No one really knows.
    For the time being, at least, the fate of Amelia Earhart, along with that of Billy the Kid and the Mary
Celeste, will have to remain mysterious.
6. Retell the following jokes in the reported speech observing the rules of the sequence of tenses.
1. “What makes you think the baby is going to be a great politician?” asked the young mother.
“I’ll tell you,” answered the young father. “He can say more things that sound well and mean nothing at
all than any kid I ever saw.”
2. A surgeon, an architect and a politician were arguing as to whose profession was the oldest.
Said the surgeon: “Eve was made from Adam’s rib, and that surely was a surgical operation.”
“Maybe,” said the architect, “but prior to that, order was created out of chaos, and that was an
architectural job.”
“But,” interrupted the politician, “somebody created the chaos first!”
3. “I have decided to train my memory.” remarked Senator Blank.
“What system will you use?”
“I don’t know. I’m looking for one that will enable me, when I am interviewed, to remember what to
forget.”
                                                    Part 2
                               The United States of America. Making Laws
Pre-reading task. Read the words. Mind the stress. A):
΄option                        pro΄vision                    ,appro΄priation
΄reconcile                     a΄djourn                      ,characte΄ristics
΄schedule                      a΄ssume                       ,organi΄zation
΄tantamount                    de΄feat                       ,intro΄duction
΄agriculture                   ex΄pire                       ,presen΄tation
΄signature                     ig΄nore                       ,par,tici΄pation
΄legislature                   ne΄gate                       ,legi΄slation
΄conference                    re΄fer                        co΄mmittee
B) Complete the word building table.
              Verb               Noun                 Noun / Verb              Adjective
                      - action                       action
                      - appropriation                appropriation
to adjourn                                           option
to assume                                            to designate
to designate                                         to ignore
to expire                                            to negate
to ignore                                            to reconcile
to negate                                            provision
to reconcile                                         support
to refer                                             exception
to revise                                                                   - major

                                                    65
1. Look through the words and expression to make sure that you know them. Learn those you don’t know.
action                                дія, вчинок, акція; діяльність, робота; вплив; позов;
to take prompt action                 прийняти негайні міри;
to be out of action                   не працювати; вийти зі строю;
to put into action                    вводити в дію;
to bring / institute / take an action порушити справу проти когось;
against smb for smth
appropriation [ə,prəupri´ei∫(ə)n]     привласнення, незаконне придбання; асигнування, виділення
                                      коштів; асигновані кошти;
appropriation of property             привласнення майна;
executive appropriations              асигнування на потреби апарата виконавчої влади;
Appropriation Bill                    фінансовий законопроект;
floor [flo:]                          місця в залі засідань; аудиторія, публіка
House floor                           Палата представників;
to ask for the floor                  просити слова;
to be on the floor                    обговорювати, стояти на обговоренні;
to give the floor                     дати слово;
to have the floor                     виступати;
to take the floor                     брати слово;
option [΄op∫(ə)n]                     вибір, право вибору (заміни); предмет вибору; оптація;
soft option                           легкий вибір;
option of fine                        право заміни ув’язнення на штраф;
with / without the option (of a fine) з правом / без права вибору (штрафу);
to keep smb's options open            залишити за собою право вибору;
provision [prə´viЗ(ə)n]               запобіжний захід, застереження; положення, умова;
treaty provisions                     умови договору;
to make provision against smth        прийняти міри застереження;
provision of law                      норма права; норма закону;
constitutional provision              положення конституції, конституційна норма;
to act                                діяти, працювати; прикидатися, удавати; впливати;
to act at one's authority             діяти на свій ризик;
to act legally                        діяти правомірно, законно;
to adjourn [ə´dЗə:n]                  відстрочувати, відкладати; перенести засідання (в інше
                                      місце); оголошувати перерву, припиняти;
to adjourn the court                  відкладати засідання суду;
to adjourn the trial                  відстрочувати судовий розгляд;
to assume [ə´sju:m]                   набувати, приймати, брати на себе; вживати (заходів);
                                      присвоювати, узурпувати; вважати, припускати;
to assume control                     взяти на себе керівництво;
to assume office                      вступити на посаду;
to assume responsibility              взяти на себе відповідальність;
to defeat [di´fi:t]                   завдати поразки, розбивати; знищувати, відміняти,
                                      анулювати; приводити до невдачі в справах; провалити;
to defeat decisively                  завдати вирішальної поразки,
to defeat a motion                    відхилити клопотання;
to defeat the action                  надати достатні заперечення за позовом;
to defeat the course of justice       завадити інтересам правосуддя;
to defeat the law                     перешкоджати здійсненню законності;
to designate [´dezigneit]             визначати, встановлювати; позначати, називати; означати;
                                      призначати (на посаду);
to designate specifically             дати конкретне визначення;
designate smb. for a post             призначити когось на посаду;
to draw [dro:]                        привертати, притягувати, збирати; вибирати; здобувати,

                                                 66
                                         діставати;
to draw up                               складати (документ)
to expire [i/ək´spaiə]                   закінчуватися (про строк); втрачати силу (чинність) (про
                                         закон);
When does your driving licence Коли закінчується строк дії твоїх водійських прав?
expire?
to ignore [ig´no:]                       не звертати уваги, не помічати; відхиляти (скаргу,
                                         законопроект);
to ignore completely / totally           повністю ігнорувати;
to kill                                  розгромити, провалити; руйнувати;
to kill the amendment                    анулювати поправку;
to negate [ni´geit]                      заперечувати існування, відкидати; зводити нанівець,
                                         спростовувати;
to negate novelty                        заперечувати новизну;
to reconcile [´rekənsail]                мирити,     улагоджувати,        урегульовувати;      примирити;
                                         узгоджувати, погоджувати (думки);
to reconcile the factions                мирити ворожі фракції;
to reconcile her with her family         примирити її з родиною;
reconciled to hardship                   звиклий до труднощів;
to reconcile oneself to one's fate / lot змиритися з долею;
to refer [ri´fə:]                        відсилати,     спрямовувати;        звертатися,      приписувати;
                                         направляти; посилатися;
to refer to arbitration                  передати в арбітраж;
to revise [ri´vaiz]                      виправляти, змінювати; переробляти; переглядати;
to revise an article                     виправляти статтю;
to schedule [´∫edju:l], [´skedju:l]      складати; планувати, намічати; розробляти; призначати;
to schedule jobs                         скласти графік робіт;
to table                                 ставити на обговорення, пропонувати обговорити; заносити
                                         до списку; відкладати (відтягувати) обговорення; відкладати
                                         у довгий ящик
standing                                 постійний, безперервний; непорушний;
standing committee                       постійний комітет;
tantamount [´tæntəmaunt]                 рівносильний, рівнозначний; рівноцінний, еквівалентний
2. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.
                                             MAKING LAWS
    One of the major characteristics of Congress is the dominant role committees play in legislative
proceedings. They have assumed their present-day importance by evolution, not by constitutional design,
since the Constitution makes no provision for their establishment.
    At present the Senate has 17 standing committees and the House of Representatives has 19
committees. Each specializes in specific area of legislation: foreign affairs, defence, banking, agriculture,
commerce, appropriations, and other fields. Almost every bill introduced in either house is referred to a
committee for study and recommendation. The committee may approve, revise, kill, or ignore any
measure referred to it. It is nearly impossible for a bill to reach the House or Senate floor without first
winning committee approval.
    Bills are introduced by a variety of methods. Some are drawn up by standing committees, some by
special committees created to deal with specific legislative issues, and some may be suggested by the
President or other executive officers. Citizens and organizations outside Congress may suggest legislation
to members, and individual members themselves may initiate bills. After introduction, bills are sent to
designated committees that, in most cases, schedule a series of public hearings to permit presentation of
views by persons who support or oppose the legislation. The hearing process which can last several
weeks or months opens the legislature process to public participation.
    When a committee has acted favourably on a bill, the proposed legislation is then sent to the open
debate. In the Senate the rules permit virtually unlimited debate. In the House, because of the large

                                                     67
number of members, the Rules Committee usually sets limits. When debate is ended, members vote either
to approve the bill, defeat it, table it – which means setting it aside and is tantamount to defeat – or
return it to committee. A bill passed by one house is sent to the other for action. If the bill is amended by
the second house, a conference committee composed of members of both houses attempts to reconcile
the differences.
    Once passed by both houses, the bill is sent to the president, for constitutionally the president must act
on a bill to become law. The president has the option of signing the bill – by which it become law – or
vetoing (veto – [´vi:təu]) it. A bill vetoed by the president must be re-approved by a two-thirds vote of
both houses to become law.
    The president may also refuse either to sign or veto a bill. In that case, the bill becomes law without
his signature 10 days after it reaches him (not counting Sundays). The single exception to this rule is
when Congress adjourns after sending a bill to the president and before the 10-day period has expired
his refusal to take any action then negates the bill – a process known as the “pocket veto”.
3. Give Ukrainian equivalents to the following words and expressions:
dominant role; to introduce a bill; foreign affairs; to kill any measure; to win committee approval; variety
of methods; to permit presentation; to be tantamount to defeat; to set aside; to pass the bill; conference
committee; the option of signing the bill; refusal to take any action; to negate the bill; pocket veto
4. Find in the text the words or expressions that mean the following:
сучасне значення; за задумом конституції; постійний комітет; асигнування коштів; вийти на рівень
Палати Представників чи Сенату; вносити законопроекти різними способами; спеціальні
комітети, що створюються задля / для розв‘язання особливих законодавчих проблем; виконавчий
урядовець; організації непричетні до Конгресу; відповідний профільний комітет;                          серія
громадських слухань; бути прибічником/противником законопроекту; відкрити процес
законотворення для громадськості; схвалити законопроект; дати змогу проводити практично
необмежене у часі обговорення; комітет з процедурних питань; встановити часове обмеження;
вносити поправки до законопроекту; узгодити різночитання; накласти вето; розходитися на
канікули.
5. A: Fill in the appropriate word from the list below.
Appropriation, killed, acts, tantamount, defeats, expires, options, reconcile, table, action, ignore,
referred, provision, designated, scheduled, assumed
1. She claimed she was anxious to avoid any … which might harm him. 2. Our government made an ….
for the project. 3. I took Law courses as the most interesting of the … . 4. She accepted the job with ….
that she should work part-time. 5. His behaviour … on my nerves. 6. Mr. Maples has been …. as a Partner
in the Edinburgh Branch of the Bank. 7. A man who commits a crime .... the end of his existence. 8. Mr.
Sharp is … as the next chairman of this committee. 9. His term of office as President … next year. 10.
You'll have to … their talking so loud. 11. His constant failures … his ambition. 12. The people must ….
themselves to a reduced standard of living. 13. He …. his fast recovery to this new medicine he had been
taking. 14. A presidential election was …. for December. 15. We will …. that for later. 16. Isn’t this ….to
a refusal of the first treaty?
B: Fill in the appropriate proposition or adverb where necessary.
1. He's been … … action … 6 months with a serious knee injury. 2. They have excelled in learning the
lessons … business management theory, and putting them … action. 3. They were given the option … a
fine. 4. Has your lawyer drawn …the contract yet? 5. How do you reconcile your principles … your
behaviour? 6. The new law does not refer …land used … farming. 7. The Constitution makes no
provision … their establishment … legislative proceedings. 8. When members vote to table the bill, it
means setting it aside and is tantamount … defeat. 9. To become law a bill vetoed …the president must be
re-approved … a two-thirds majority … both houses.
6. Translate the words given in two columns and match the pairs as they are used in the text.
1. головна                                          a. дискусія
2. законодавча                                      b. чиновник
3. специфічна                                       c. законопроект
4. закордонні                                       d. законодавча проблема
5. виконавчий                                       e. комісія
6. відкритий                                        f. справи
                                                       68
7. кишенькове                                        g. характеристика
8. публічна                                          h. задум
9. конституційний                                    i. роль
10. постійний                                        j. процедура
11. панівна                                          k. сфера
12. запропонований                                   l. вето
13. особлива                                         m. участь
7. Study the following expressions with the word “floor” and use them in the sentences of your own.
1.право виступу, слово – the floor; 2. брати слово – to take (to have) the floor; 3. амер. керівник
партійної фракції в Конгресі – floor leader; 4. мінімальна зарплата – floor wage; 5. запитання з місця
– questions from the floor; 6. перейти з однієї фракції в іншу – to cross the floor of the House
8. Match the words given on the left with their definitions on the right.
1. to legislate         a. a clause (речення, клаузула) in a law or contract stating that a particular
                        condition must be met;
2. defence              b. a legal matter in a dispute between two parties;
3. to adjourn           c. to write and pass laws; to make laws or rules designed to bring about some
                        action or condition;
4. appropriation        d. the protection of something, especially from attack by an enemy a country’s
                        armed forces;
5. bill                 e. the exercise of the power or right to reject something, especially a political
                        measure;
6. issue                f. the right, power, or freedom to make a choice;
7. debate               g. somebody who is elected or appointed to an administrative position in a
                        society, corporation, or government department;
8. to amend             h. the suggestion or endorsement (підтвердження, підтримка) of something as
                        the most worthy;
9. veto                 i. to approve something such as a law, measure, or proposal, or to get official
                        approval;
10. process             j. to make changes to something, especially a piece of text, in order to improve
                        or correct it; to revise or alter formally a motion, bill, or constitution
11. to pass             k. an organized or public discussion of something;
12. to sign             l. a sum of money that has been set aside from a budget, especially a
                        government budget, for a particular purpose (often used in the plural);
13. provision           m. to suspend the business of a court, legislature, or committee temporarily or
                        indefinitely, or become suspended temporarily or indefinitely;
14. option              n. a written proposal for a new law, discussed and voted upon by the members
                        of a legislative body;
15. study               o. a series of actions directed toward a particular aim; a summons or writ
                        ordering somebody to appear in court; the entire proceedings in a lawsuit;
16. recommendation p. to affirm or approve a document formally by affixing a signature or seal;
17. officer             q. an investigation or research project designed to discover facts about smth.
9. Answer the following questions.
1. What is one of the major characteristics of Congress? 2. What areas do the committees specialize in?
3. In what ways are the bills introduced? 4. What happens to a bill after a committee has acted favourably
on it? 5. Why is the bill sent to the president? 6. Can a bill become a law without the president’s
signature? 7. What is ‘pocket veto’?
                                                     Part 3
                           The United States of America. The Executive Power
Pre-reading task. Read the words. Mind the stress. A):
΄ballot                        con΄viction                     ,seni΄ority
΄bribery                       de΄partment                     ,eco΄nomic
΄message                        i΄mmediate                      ad,minis΄tration
΄secretary                     im΄peachment                    ,under΄study
                                                   69
΄treason                     a΄ssist                    de΄fence
΄exercise                    corres΄pond                nego΄tiate
΄outline                     i΄dentify                  main΄tain
΄annual                      re΄move                    pres΄tige
B) Complete the word building table.
         Noun                  Verb                Noun / Verb           Adjective
bribery                                          secretary
conviction                                       seniority
impeachment                                      treason
probation                                        to identify
                       - to assist                                   - joint
                       - to correspond           resident
                       - to dismiss              diplomat
                       - to identify             advice
                       - to remove                                   - economic
division                                         department
                      - to distort               prestige

1. Look through the words and expression to make sure that you know them. Learn those you don’t know.
ballot [´bælət]                 виборчий бюлетень; балотування, (таємне) голосування;
elected by a great majority of обраний більшістю голосів;
the ballots
open ballot                     відкрите голосування;
secret ballot                   таємне голосування;
void ballot                     недійсне голосування;
ballot for a list               голосування списком;
short ballot                    поразка на голосуванні;
presidential short ballot       поразка на президентських виборах;
bribery [´braibəri]             хабарництво; підкуп, продажність; підкуп виборців;
business bribery                хабарництво в сфері бізнесу;
official bribery                дача хабара посадовій особі;
charge [´t∫α:dЗ]                обвинувачення;
to bring / make a charge        висунути обвинувачення;
charge of murder                обвинувачення у вбивстві;
conviction [kən´vik∫(ə)n]       засудження, визнання підсудного винним;
conviction on a charge          засудження за обвинуваченням у злочині;
conviction on indictment        засудження за обвинувальним актом;
department [di´pα:tmənt]        міністерство; влада; відділ, відділення; галузь, сфера;
executive department            виконавча влада;
personnel department            управління кадрами;
police department               поліцейське управлення;
department of education         міністерство освіти;
elector [i´lektə]               виборець, вибірник, виборщик; амер. член колегії виборщиків (на
                                президентських виборах);
presidential elector            президентський виборщик, член колегії виборщиків президента;
impeachment [im´pi:t∫mənt]      обвинувачення і притягнення до суду; осуд;
impeachment for bribery         імпічмент за обвинуваченням у хабарництві;
impeachment for treason         імпічмент за обвинуваченням у державній зраді;
immediate [i´mi:diət]           прямий, безпосередній; негайний, невідкладний, одержаний з
                                перших рук;
immediate heir                  прямий спадкоємець;
the immediate cause of death    безпосередня причина смерті;
immediate news, information     новини, повідомлення, одержані з перших рук;
                                                 70
immediate medical care          невідкладна медична допомога;
an immediate need               перша необхідність;
to take immediate action        прийняти негайні міри;
message [´mesidЗ]               повідомлення, донесення, послання; офіційне урядове послання;
the President’s message to послання президента Конгресові;
Congress
State of the Union Message      послання ‘Про становище в країні’, яке президент щороку надає
                                Конгресові;
message of condolence           послання з висловленням співчуття;
to convey / relay / transmit a передати послання;
message
to get / receive a message      отримати послання;
to leave a message for smb      попросити передати щось комусь;
probation [prə´bei∫(ə)n]        іспитовий термін, умовне звільнення на поруки злочинця;
probation officer               посадова особа, яка здійснює надзір за умовно звільненими;
proceedings [prə´si:diŋz]       робота, справи, праця; судочинство, судова процедура; судові
                                протоколи; судова справа;
law proceedings                 судовий процес;
impeachment proceedings         процедура імпічменту;
secretary [´sekrətri]           міністр;
Foreign Secretary, Secretary of міністр закордонних справ (у Великій Британії);
State for Foreign Affairs
еhe Home Secretary, Secretary міністр внутрішніх справ(у Великій Британії)
of State for Home Affairs
Secretary of State              міністр закордонних справ (у США)
Secretary of Defense            міністр оборони (у США)
seniority [,si:ni´oriti]        вищість; перевага у становищі (ранзі);
according to / by seniority     відповідно старшинства;
treason [´tri:sn]               зрада;
high treason                    державна зрада; особливо тяжкий злочин;
war treason                     військова зрада;
understudy                      дублер
to assist [ə´sist]              допомагати, брати участь; бути присутнім;
to assist with the editing of a допомагати редагувати рукопис;
manuscript
to assist in the commission of сприяти вчиненню злочину;
a crime
to bring (brought)              вводити в дію; примушувати, переконувати; порушувати (справу);
to bring legal action against порушувати справу проти когось;
smb
to bring charges against smb    висувати звинувачування;
to correspond [,kori´spond]     відповідати (чомусь – to, with); являти собою, бути аналогічним
His actions do not correspond   (to)
with his words.
to dismiss [dis´mis]            відпускати, розпускати; звільняти; гнати, проганяти; відкидати,
                                відмовлятися; закінчувати обговорення;
to dismiss a charge             відмовитися у звинуваченні;
to dismiss a motion             відхилити клопотання;
to dismiss prosecution          відмовити у кримінальному переслідуванні;
to dismiss the matter           припинити справу;
to distort [dis´to:t]           перекручувати, викривляти, спотворювати; перекошувати:
to distort the image            перекручувати зображення;
to envisage [in´vizidЗ]         передбачати, намічати, уявляти собі

                                              71
to exercise [´eksəsaiz]           здійснювати, застосовувати, користуватися; виконувати (функції);
to exercise rights                здійснювати права;
to exercise religion              сповідувати релігію;
to identify [ai´dentifai]         ототожнювати, визначати, з‘ясовувати; сходитися, збігатися;
                                  розпізнати, пізнати;
to identify oneself               назвати себе, представитися;
His accent was difficult to
identify.
to outline [´autlain]              накреслити, змалювати, визначити
                                    to outline a policy - визначити основні напрямки політики
to rank [ræŋk]                     класифікувати, відносити до певної категорії; належати до певної
                                   категорії; займати (посідати) певне місце; займати високе (вище)
                                   становище;
to rank as a citizen               мати статус громадянина;
to rank as an outstanding вважатися видатним юристом;
lawyer
to remove [ri´mu:v]                перемістити, забирати, виводити; знищувати, знімати; звільняти з
                                   посади; позбутися, усунути;
to remove from office              усунути з посади;
to remove legally                  відстрашити за посади за законними підставами;
joint [dЗoint]                     з‘єднаний, об‘єднаний; спільний, сумісний, єдиний;
joint responsibility               спільна відповідальність;
to take joint actions              діяти спільно
2. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.
                                        THE EXACUTIVE POWER
The executive power in the USA belongs to the President and his Administration. Though powers
exercised by the President as chief executive are very great, the US Constitution envisages some
measures which do not allow distorting the principle of division of power among the three branches of
government.
    The presidency of the USA is the highest governmental office. President of the USA is the head of the
State and the Government; he is also the Commander-in-Chief of the US Armed Forces. “Administration”
is a popular term to identify the executive branch of the federal government responsible for administering
and executing laws.
    President is assisted by Vice-President and the Cabinet. The President and Vice-President are elected
for a term of four years and can be re-elected for another term, but not longer than that, since the Twenty-
Second Amendment to the Constitution (1951) limited the President’s term of office.
    President must be a natural-born citizen of the USA, at least 35 years old, and at least 14 years a
resident of the USA. The term of office of the President begins at noon on January 20.
    Presidential elections are held in two stages. The first stage is in November when Americans vote for
electors, and the second stage is on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December, when
electors elect President and Vice-President. After the ballots are opened at a joint session of Congress,
the President-Elect becomes the US President.
    President conducts foreign affairs, signs treaties in the name of the USA, and appoints diplomats,
Cabinet members, federal judges with the consent and advice of the Senate. President ordinarily outlines
the course of his administration through his frequent messages to Congress. The major presidential
messages sent to Congress are the annual State of the Union message, the annual budget message and the
economic report.
    Vice-President presides over the Senate. The White House may use Vice-President as a contact man
among the senators, or he may sit at Cabinet meetings and become a sort of understudy to the President.
He takes the President’s office if the President is unable to finish his term.
    US President is assisted in Administration by a Cabinet of 12 members. Cabinet secretaries
correspond to European ministers. They are heads of different departments and directly and fully
responsible to President who appoints them for an indefinite time. Cabinet officials usually serve during
his term. When the president’s service ends, it is customary for the Cabinet to resign, so the new president
                                                       72
can appoint new chiefs of executive departments. Among the most important departments one should
mention the Department of State responsible for American foreign policy, the Department of Defence or
the Pentagon, the Department of Justice, the Department of Commerce, etc. The Department of State
ranks ahead of other Departments in prestige and seniority, and the political power of the Secretary of
State is second only to that of the President. The Secretary of State has the duty of trying to maintain
peace and to negotiate economic and political treaties.
    In addition to Secretaries President has an inner Cabinet, the so-called “White House Office”, the
name given to the President’s immediate assistants and various advisers on different aspects of home and
foreign policy.
    Under the US Constitution, the House of Representatives may bring charges against the President in
impeachment proceedings. The Senate acts as a trial court and a two-third vote in the Senate is
necessary for conviction. It is a method provided for getting rid of officials who cannot be dismissed:
presidents, vice-presidents and’all civil officers of the United States. They may be removed from office
for treason, bribery and other high crimes”.
3. Give Ukrainian equivalents to the following words and expressions:
a chief executive; to administer and execute laws; to vote for electors; to conduct foreign affairs; to
outline the course of the administration; the major presidential messages; correspond to; to be directly and
fully responsible to the president; a contact man; a sort of understudy; it is customary for the Cabinet to
resign; a chief of the executive department; to rank ahead; to maintain peace; different aspects of home
and foreign policy; inner Cabinet; impeachment proceedings; to dismiss officials; high crime.
4. Find in the text the words or expressions that mean the following:
передбачати заходи; перекручувати принцип поділу влади; найвища владна посада;
Головнокомандувач збройними силами; популярний термін; обмежувати термін перебування на
посаді президента; натуралізований, корінний американець; проводити вибори у два етапи;
спільне засідання; обраний президент, що не приступив до виконання обов‘язків; підписувати
договори від імені США; призначати дипломатів; згода Сенату; міністр; перебувати на посаді
протягом певного терміну; обговорювати умови економічних та політичних договорів;
безпосередній помічник; внутрішня та зовнішня політика; висунути обвинувачення; позбутися
посадовців; звільнити з посади.
5. A: Fill in the appropriate word from the list below.
Remove, corresponds, rank, exercised, charges, envisages, outlined, assisted, ballot, identified,
impeached, dismissed
1. No reform had seemed more unlikely than the adoption of the …. 2. The judge dismissed all …. 3. The
governor was … for wrongful use of state money. 4. Local villagers … the doctors with the people
wounded in the bus crash. 5. The photograph … with the description that the witness gave us. 6. The
plaintiff's action was … with costs. 7. He … an entirely new system of education. 8. An arbitrary power
of imprisonment was still … by the Council. 9. She …. the intruder to the police. 10. She … what I would
be doing. 11. We … you as our best candidate. 12. … that dangerous weapon from the child!
B: Fill in the appropriate proposition or adverb where necessary.
1. They trumped up (фабрикувати) various charges … her. 2. The suspect was arrested …various
charges. 3. This man was impeached …the crime ... murdering his wife. 4. He was immediately
impeached … high treason. 5. We assisted them … the preparation … the report. 6. The prosecutor
brought criminal charges … the man who attacked the girl. 7. This ideal model does not correspond … the
facts. 8. They are merely exercising their right … free speech. 9. Mr. Green was removed … the
chairmanship … the club.
6. Translate the words given in two columns and match the pairs as they are used in the text.
1. урядовий                                         a. влада
2. популярний                                       b. вибори
3. виконавчий                                       c. засідання
4. натуралізований                                  d. послання
5. федеральний                                      e. термін
6. президентський                                   f. звіт
7. другий                                           g. обов‘язок
8. спільний                                         h. громадянин
                                                       73
9. постійний                                          i. департамент
10. економічний                                       j. договір
11. щорічний                                          k. помічник
12. невизначений                                      l. посада
13. важливий                                          m. бюджет
14. політичний                                        n. гілка
15. безпосередній                                     o. етап
7. Study the following expressions with the word ‘joint’ and use them in the sentences of your own.
Joint action- спільна дія
Joint authors (authorship) – колектив авторів, колективне авторство
Joint board – координаційний комітет, об‘єднане управління
Joint Staff – об‘єднаний штаб
Joint Chiefs of Staff - об‘єднаний комітет начальників штабів
Joint commission to investigate the effects of Atomic Bomb – комісія для вивчення наслідків вибухів
атомних бомб
Joint obligations – солідарне зобов‘язання
Joint owner - співвласник
Joint resolution – спільна постанова обох палат конгресу
Joint responsibility – солідарна відповідальність
Joint venture – спільне підприємство
8. Match the words given on the left with their definitions on the right.
1.office                 a. a formal accusation against a public official by a legislative body
2. term                  b. violation of the allegiance owed by a person to his or her own country,
                         for example, by aiding an enemy.
3. resident              c. a communication in speech, writing, or signals
4. session               d. an often itemized estimate of income and spending, for example, of a
                         country or company, during a specified period. It sometimes includes
                         systematic proposals as to how expenses will be met.
5. candidate             e. an accusation of wrongdoing, especially an official statement accusing
                         somebody of committing a crime
6. consent               f. to give up a paid or unpaid position voluntarily
7. message               g. to select a person or a group of people for an official position or to do
                         a particular job
8. budget                h. a program of actions adopted by an individual, group, or government,
                         or the set of principles on which they are based
9. duty                  i. the offering of money or other incentives to persuade somebody to do
                         something, especially something dishonest or illegal
10. to appoint           j. an official organization, especially a government department, or the
                         work performed for such an organization
11. to resign            k. a facet, phase, or part of a whole;
                         a particular view or point of view
12. service              l. the finding or an instance of finding somebody guilty or of being found
                         guilty of a crime
13. to maintain          m. somebody who runs for election to a political office or an official
                         position
14. bribery              n. to give permission or approval for something to happen
15. aspect               o. somebody who lives permanently or for a considerable period in a
                         particular place
16. policy               p. to ensure that something continues to work properly by checking it
                         regularly and making repairs and adjustments if required
17. impeachment          q. to accuse somebody formally of having committed a crime
18. conviction           r. something that somebody is obliged to do for moral, legal, or religious
                         reasons
                                                 74
19. charge               s. the length of time that something lasts, with a fixed or specified
                         beginning and end, often a period during which somebody holds a
                         specific appointment or office
20. treason              t. a meeting of an official body, especially a court or legislature
9. Fill in a correct word or phrase from the list below:
Speaker of the House; representatives; four; pardons; affirms; President’s Cabinet; officers;
ambassadors; special; Supreme Court justices; president pro tempore of the Senate; allowances;
Cabinet officers; two; Commander in Chief; Vice-President(2); state of the union; 171,500;
bribery; created (2); temporary; departments; consent (2); Twenty-second; impeached;
misdemeanors; 200,000; retrieves; oath; consuls; treason; swears; office
   The executive branch includes the (1)____________, the (2)____________, and the (3)__________.
The President sees that our laws are executed, or carried out.
   The President is followed in succession by the (4)__________, the (5) ________ _______, the (6)
__________ _________ __________, and his (7) __________ in the order their departments were (8)
_________. The last (9) ________ departments (10) __________ are not in the line of succession.
   The President’s salary is (11) _________ dollars a year, plus expense (12) _________ and other
benefits. The Vice President’s salary is (13) ____________ dollars a year.
   The President and Vice-President Serve (14) _________ year terms of office, and the President is
limited to (15) ________ terms by the (16) ___________ Amendment to the Constitution.
   The President takes an (17) ________ of office, in which he (18) ___________ or (19) __________ to
carry out his (20) ___________ and defend the United States Constitution.
   Among the powers and duties of the President are: (21) ________ _________ of the Armed forces; to
ask for (22) _________ reports from the heads of executive (23) _________; to grant (24) _________ and
(25) ____________ to breakers of federal laws, with the exception of (26) __________ officials, who
have been convicted; to make treaties with foreign countries, with the (27) _________ of the Senate; to
appoint (28) ________, (29) __________, (30) __________, and other high officials, with the (31)
__________ of the Senate; to make (32) __________ appointments is the Senate is not in session; to
make a (33) _________ _________ message to Congress at the beginning of each session; to receive (34)
___________ from foreign countries; and to commission all federal (35) _____________.
   A president may be impeached for (36) _________, (37) __________, other crimes, or (38) ________.
10. Translate the text given below.
                                         Повноваження Президента
   Посада Президента Сполучених Штатів Америки – одна з найбільш наділених владними
повноваженнями у світі. Президент, як сказано в Конституції, повинен „забезпечувати точне
виконання законів”. Задля здійснення цього відповідального обов‘язку він очолює виконавчу
гілку федерального уряду – величезну організацію чисельністю близько 4 мільйонів осіб включно
з 1 мільйоном військових дійсної служби. Крім того, Президент наділений важливими
законодавчими та судовими повноваженнями.
   У межах виконавчої гілки влади Президент має широкі повноваження щодо управління
загальнодержавними справами й роботою федерального уряду.
   Незважаючи на конституційне положення про те, що „всі повноваження законодавчої влади”
мають бути надані Конгресові, Президент як головний творець державної політики відіграє
вельми важливу законодавчу роль. Президент може накласти вето на будь-який законопроект,
схвалений Конгресом, і, якщо дві третини кожної з палат не проголосують за скасування цього
вето, законопроект не стане законом.
   До судових повноважень Президента належить призначення федеральних суддів, оголошення
повної або часткової амністії засудженому за порушення федерального закону, скорочення строків
ув‘язнення та зменшення штрафів.
11. Answer the following questions.
1. What is the highest governmental office in the USA? 2. Can the president be elected for three terms?
3. How are the president’s elections held? 4. What are the powers of the president? 5. What are the
powers of Vice-President? 6. What departments does the Cabinet consist of? 7. What is “White House
office”? 8. How can the president be removed from his office before the term expires?

                                                  75
                                                Part 4
                         The United States of America. The Executive Power
Pre-reading task. Read the words. Mind the stress. A):
΄asset                       con΄troversy                  ,dispo΄sition
΄boundary                    es΄tate                       res,ponsi΄bility
΄burden                      pro΄vision                   ,extra΄ordinary
΄circuit                     tri΄bunal                     ,guaran΄tee
΄damage                      a΄ffect                       ,juris΄diction
΄ justice                    a΄pprove                      ,disa΄greement
΄ litigant                   fa΄cilitate                   ,nation΄wide
΄constitute                  in΄terpret                    ,liqui΄dation
B) Complete the word building table.
           Noun                Verb                 Noun / Verb             Adjective
provision                                         controversy
justice                                           provision
litigant                                          to affirm
                     to affirm                    to constitute
                     to approve                   to ease
                     to constitute                to exhaust
                     to counterfeit                                           equal
                     to ease                                                 significant
                     to enforce                   judiciary
                     to exhaust                                               independent
                     to facilitate                exception
                     to indict                    circumstance
                     to interpret                 system
                     to sue                       responsibility

1. Look through the words and expression to make sure that you know them. Learn those you don’t know.
asset [΄æsət]                   pl майно неспроможного платника; актив;
frozen assets                   заморожені активи;
assets and liabilities          актив та пасив;
to realize / unfreeze assets    розморозити активи;
bulk [balk]                     величина, маса; великі розміри;
great bulk                      величезна більшість;
to sell in bulk                 продавати гуртом;
to break bulk                   розвантажувати;
boundary [΄baund(ə)ri]          кордон, межа;
to draw/ fix/ set boundary      провести кордони;
natural boundary                природній кордон;
burden [΄bə:dn]                 тягар, ноша, вага, вантаж, відповідальність;
burden of proof = burden of тягар доказу;
evidence
charge [΄t∫a:dЗ]                обвинувачення; наказ, вимога; pl витрати;
to bring/ level/ make a charge  висунути обвинувачення;
to bring charges of forgery звинуватити когось у підробці;
against smb
to cook up/ fabricate a charge  сфабрикувати обвинувачення;
to prove a charge               довести обвинувачення;
to dismiss a charge             зняти обвинувачення;
circuit [΄sə:kit]               коло, сфера; дільниця, район; округ;
circuit court                   виїзна сесія суду;
judicial circuit                судовий округ;
                                                   76
claim [kleim]                   вимога, претензія; заява, твердження; позов;
to lay claim to / put smth in a пред’явити права на щось;
claim
claim for damages               позов про відшкодування збитків;
claim for relief                вимога про захист прав;
claim in action                 вимоги за позовом;
claim in return                 зустрічний позов;
controversy [kon΄trovəsi]       суперечка; дискусія, полеміка; сварка, сперечання;
controversy in issue            суперечка на розгляд суду;
justiciable controversy         суперечка, що розглядається в судовому порядку;
custom [΄kαstəm]                звичай, звичка; рl. мито, митний збір;
custom free                     безмитний;
legal custom                    юридичний звичай;
customs duties                  митний збір;
damage [΄dæmidЗ]                шкода, пошкодження, дефект; втрата, збиток; рl вартість, витрати,
                                збитки;
fire damage / damage from the пошкодження від пожежі;
fire
material damage, property матеріальні збитки;
damage
actual damage                   фактичні, реальні збитки;
dealing [΄di:liŋ]               розподіл, роздача; торгівельні справи, угоди; поведінка, вчинки
                                рl ділові стосунки;
unworthy dealing                непристойна поведінка;
double dealing                  дворушництво;
to have dealings with smb       мати торгівельні зв’язки з;
debt [det]                      борг, зобов‘язання;
to collect debts                забрати борги;
to owe a debt                   бути боржником;
to recover a debt               відшкодувати борг;
debt of record                  борг, підтверджений судом;
public debt                     державний борг;
to be heavily / deeply in debt  бути по вуха в боргах;
disposition [dispə΄zi∫(ə)n]     контроль, управління, право розпоряджатися; розпорядження,
                                постанова; передача, ліквідація;
disposition to commit crimes    схильність до вчинення злочинів;
disposition of case             рішення по справі;
disposition of offender         рішення, прийняте відносно порушника, злочинця;
estate [is΄teit]                маєток, майно, статок; земельне володіння; становище; статус,
                                звання
to administer / manage an керувати маєтком;
estate
personal (real) estate          рухоме (нерухоме) майно;
estate duty                     податок на майно;
housing estate                  житловий масив;
industrial estate               промислова зона;
fourth estate                   четверта влада (преса);
justice [΄dЗαstis]              справедливість, законність, правосуддя, юстиція; суддя;
to obstruct justice             заважати здійсненню правосуддя;
to pervert justice              спотворювати правосуддя;
justice prevails                справедливість перемагає;
miscarriage of justice          помилка правосуддя;
to administer /do justice       відправляти правосуддя;

                                               77
associate justice                 помічний судді;
chief justice                     головний суддя;
supreme court justice             суддя верховного суду;
Justice of the Peace              мировий суддя;
Lord Chief Justice of England     лорд – головний суддя Англії;
litigant [΄litigənt]              позивач ( у судовому процесі); що позивається
private litigant                  позивач – приватна особа;
public litigant                   позивач –представник держави;
order [΄o:də]                     порядок, послідовність; спокій; регламент, правила процедури;
                                  наказ, розпорядження, інструкція;
in order                          по черзі;
in alphabetical order             в алфавитному порядку;
in bad order, out of order        несправний;
order of business                 порядок денний; пункт порядку денного;
economic order                    економічний устрій;
by smb’s order                    за чиїмось наказом;
to give / hand down / issue an видати наказ;
order
to carry out / execute an order виконувати наказ;
provision [prə΄viЗ(ə)n]           запобіжний захід, застереження; положення, умова;
treaty provisions                 умови договору;
to make provision against smth прийняти міри застереження;
tribunal [trai΄bju:nl]            суд, трибунал; місце судді (на судовому засіданні);
ad hoc tribunal                   спеціальний суд;
international tribunal            міжнародний суд;
military tribunal                 військовий суд;
trial tribunal                    суд першої інстанції;
to affect [ə΄fekt]                хвилювати, зворушувати; впливати, діяти; вадити, шкодити,
                                  завдавати шкоди, спричинитися (до):
to      affect    smb     deeply/ сильно вплинути;
profoundly / strongly
to affirm [ə΄fə:m]                твердити, стверджувати; робити заяву; скріпляти підписом;
I affirm that it is true.         Я підтверджую, що це правда.
to approve [ə΄pruv]               схвалювати, вважати правильним; затверджувати, санкціонувати;
                                  доводити (на ділі); підтверджувати;
to approve of smb’s plan          схвалювати план;
to approve a plan                 затвердити план;
to arise [ə΄raiz] (arose, arisen) виникати, з‘являтися, поставати, бути наслідком;
A new difficulty has arisen.      Виникнуло нове ускладнення.
to constitute [΄konstitju:t]      призначати (комісію); засновувати, утворювати; надавати
                                  чинності (закону):
to constitute the corroboration бути підтвердженням;
to constitute the court           складати суд;
to counterfeit [΄kauntəfit]       підробляти, фальсифікувати;обдурювати; удавати, прикидатися;
counterfeit money                 підроблені гроші;
to ease [΄i:z]                    полегшувати, пом‘якшувати; розпускати, робити вільним;
                                  зменшувати, знижувати;
This medicine will ease you of Ці ліки полегшать вашу біль.
your pain.
to enforce [in΄fo:s]              примушувати, нав‘язувати; забезпечувати додержання виконання;
                                  стягати, виконувати, забезпечувати санкцією; піддавати тиску,
                                  тиснути;
to enforce a rule                 застосувати правову норму;

                                              78
to enforce a sentence              виконати вирок;
to enforce law                     ввести вдію закон; застосувати закон;
to exhaust [ig΄zo:st]              вичерпувати, виснажувати, спустошувати;
to exhaust all possibilities       вичерпати всі можливості;
to facilitate [fə΄diliteit]        полегшувати, допомагати, сприяти; просувати
to handle [΄hændl]                 поводитися; трактувати, розглядати, обговорювати; керувати,
                                   управляти, регулювати; мати справу;
A lawyer handles all my Адвокат займається всіма моїми справами.
affairs.
Handle with care!                  Обережно! (надпис на упаковці)
to learn how to handle one's навчитися керувати своїми почуттями;
feelings
to halt [ho:lt] / а halt           зупиняти,    зупинятися,     вагатися;  бути   непереконливим,
                                   призупиняти; зупинка;
to call a halt                     вимагати зупинку;
to bring smth. to a halt           зупинити щось;
to indict [in΄dait]                обвинувачувати на основі обвинувального акту; віддавати під суд;
to indict smb. for murder           обвинувачувати за вбивство;
to interpret [in΄tə:prit]          інтерпретувати, тлумачити, пояснювати; розуміти, розцінювати;
                                   перекладати;
to interpret impartially           тлумачити неупереджено;
to probate [΄prəubeit]             затверджувати заповіт;
probate of wills                   затвердження заповітів;
to redress [ri΄dres] / redress     виправляти, відновлювати; відшкодовувати, компенсувати;
                                   відшкодування;
redress of wrong                   відшкодування збитків;
legal redress                      правова допомога;
You should confess and Вам слід визнати та виправити свої помилки.
redress your errors.
to review [ri΄vju:] a review       розглядати, переглядати; перевіряти;
review by appeal                   перегляд за апеляцією;
to seek (sought, sought)           шукати, розшукувати; намагатися, прагнути; звертатися, просити;
                                   вдаватися (до чогось), шукати порятунку;
to seek damages                    домагатися відшкодування збитків;
to seek relief                     домагатися звільнення; домагатися знижки;
to settle [΄setl]                  вирішувати, приймати рішення; домовлятися, визначати;
                                   врегулювати; влаштувати;
to settle a bill                   оплатити рахунки;
to settle a claim                  врегулювати претензію;
to settle a controversy            врегулювати суперечку;
to sue [sju:]                      порушувати справу, переслідувати у судовому порядку; просити
                                   звертатися до когось за чимось;
to sue and be sued                 позиватися та відповідати (в суді);
to sue at law                      позиватися в суді, бути позивачем;
to sue out                         позиватися через суд;
void [void]                        недійсний, нечинний;
to make void                       позбавити законної сили;
load [ləud]                        тягар, ноша, вага, важкість;
heavy load                         важкий тягар;
case load                          кількість справ (у юриста)
2. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.
                         THE SYSTEM OF COURTS IN THE UNITED STATES


                                                79
The judiciary is the third branch of the federal government of the USA. Its function is to interpret the
Constitution.
   “Equal Justice Under Law” These words, which affirm that the United States is a nation governed
according to law and that the law protects and directs the actions of all people equally, are carved in
marble on the front of one of the most significant buildings in Washington, D.C., the building where the
Supreme Court of the USA does its work.
    In the United States the judiciary is divided into the national (federal) and state judiciary. Each is
independent from the other with the exception that the US Supreme Court may, under special
circumstances involving federal questions, review a state court decision.
    The State courts had existed before the Constitution was drafted and at present are set up in a system
that looks like the system of Federal courts. The state courts have general, unlimited power to decide
nearly every type of case. These courts handle most criminal matters and the great bulk of legal business
concerning probate of estates, marital disputes, dealings in land, commercial contracts, and other day-to-
day matters.
    The Federal court system has such structure: the Supreme Court, 13 courts of appeals, 94 district
courts and two courts of special jurisdiction.
    The US Supreme Court is the highest tribunal in the United States. It includes a Chief Justice and
eight Associate Justices. They are all appointed by the President and approved by the Senate. The
responsibility and power of these nine people are extraordinary. The Supreme Court decisions can affect
the lives of all Americans and can change society significantly. This has happened many times in the
course of the American history. In the past the Supreme Court rulings halted actions by American
presidents, declared unconstitutional – and therefore void – laws passed by Congress, freed people from
prisons and gave new protections and freedoms to black Americans and other minorities. The Supreme
Court is the court of final appeal and it may rule in cases that involve charges that individual rights or
freedoms have been violated. Such cases arise because the Constitution guarantees these rights and
freedoms to everyone.
    The Supreme Court is in session from October to June. One of the most important duties of the justices
is to decide whether laws passed by Congress agree with the Constitution. The justices do this by
interpreting the laws of Congress and the provisions of the Constitution. If the Supreme Court decides
that the Constitution does not give Congress the power to pass a certain law, the court declares the law
unconstitutional. Such a law can no longer be enforced by the President and his executive officers.
    Besides the US Supreme Court, there are various district courts and courts of appeal. They have
somewhat less political importance, since their principal duty is to settle cases where no constitutional
question is at stake. These courts handle both civil and criminal cases. Each state has at least one district
court. Each court has from one to twenty-four federal judges appointed for life by the President. The
power of the federal courts extends both to civil actions for damages and other redress, and to criminal
cases arising under federal law. Article III has resulted in a complex set of relationships between state and
federal courts. Thus, federal courts may decide, in the language of the Constitution, “Controversies
between two or more states; between a State and Citizens of another State; between Citizens of different
states; or between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States”. For
example, one state might sue another state for pollution of the air.
    The second highest level of the federal judiciary is made up of the courts of appeals created in 1891 to
facilitate the disposition of cases and ease the burden on the Supreme Court. Congress has established
12 regional circuit courts of appeals and the US Court of Appeals for the Federal District. The number of
judges sitting on each of these courts varies considerably but most circuits have between 10 and 15
judges.
    The courts of appeals review decisions of the district courts (trial courts with federal jurisdiction)
within their areas. They also are empowered to review orders of the independent regulatory agencies in
cases where the internal review mechanisms of the agencies have been exhausted and there still exists
substantial disagreement over legal points. In addition, the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit has
nationwide jurisdiction to hear appeals in specialized cases, such as those involving patent laws and cases
decided by the courts of special jurisdiction, the Court of International Trade and the Court of Federal
Claims.

                                                     80
    Below the courts of appeals are the district courts. The 50 states and U.S. territories are divided into 94
districts so that litigants may have a trial within easy reach. Each district court has at least two judges,
many have several judges, and the most populous districts have more than two dozen. Depending on case
load, a judge from one district may temporarily sit in another district. Congress fixes the boundaries of
the districts according to population, size and volume of work. Some of the smaller states constitute a
district by themselves, while the larger states have four districts each.
    Most cases and controversies heard by these courts involve federal offences such as misuse of the
mails, theft of federal property, and violations of pure-food, banking, and counterfeiting law. These are
the only federal courts where “grand” juries indict those accused of crimes and “petit” juries decide the
cases.
    Each US district also includes U.S. bankruptcy court, because Congress has determined that
bankruptcy matters should be addressed in federal courts. Through the bankruptcy process, individuals or
businesses that can no longer pay their creditors either may seek a court-supervised liquidation of their
assets or may recognize their financial affairs and work out a plan to pay off their debts.
    In addition to the federal courts of general jurisdiction, it has been necessary from time to time to set
up courts for special purposes. These are known as “legislative” courts because they are created by
congressional action. Judges in these courts are appointed for life terms by the president, with Senate
approval. There are two special trial courts that have nationwide jurisdiction over certain types of cases.
The Court of International Trade addresses cases involving international trade and customs issues. The
Court of Federal Claims has jurisdiction over most claims for money damages against the United States,
disputes over federal contracts, unlawful “takings” of private property by the federal government, and a
variety of other claims against the United States.
3. Give Ukrainian equivalents to the following words and expressions:
equal justice under law; to involve federal questions; to draft the Constitution; to be set up in a system;
great bulk of business matters; marital disputes; day-to-day work; to halt actions by the presidents; to
declare void; to handle both civil and criminal cases; to facilitate disposition of cases; internal review
mechanism; to have a trial within easy reach; to fix the boundaries; misuse of the mails; theft of federal
property; violation of pure-food law; “grand”/”petit” jury; to indict those accused of crimes; international
trade and customs issues; unlawful taking of private property by the federal government.
 4. Find in the text the words or expressions that mean the following:
тлумачити Конституцію, управляти державою, захищати та скеровувати дії, за особливих
обставин, мати справу з більшістю кримінальних справ, суд останньої інстанції, виносити рішення
у справі, перебувати у небезпеці, забруднення повітря, мати повноваження переглядати постанови,
розбіжності у правових питаннях, найбільш густонаселені округи, слухати справи щодо спорів,
закон про підробки, справи стосовно банкрутства, сплатити борги, суд загальної юрисдикції,
термін пожиттєвого перебування на посаді, домагатися ліквідації під наглядом суду, претензії
щодо збитків, суд з розгляду взаємних претензій.
5. Translate the words given in two columns and match the pairs as they are used in the text.
1. визначний                                        a. влада
2. державний                                        b. повноваження
3. особливий                                        c. свобода
4. необмежений                                      d. закон
5. кримінальний                                     e. механізм
6. надзвичайний                                     f. будівля
7. новий                                            g. справи
8. особистий                                        h. обставина
9. неконституційний                                 i. ціль
10. окружний                                        j. право
11. значний                                         k. розбіжність
12. внутрішній                                      l. судочинство
13. фінансовий                                      m. суд
14. спеціальний                                     n. власність
15. приватний                                       o. справа

                                                      81
6. A: Fill in the appropriate word from the list below.
Estate, halted, debt, exhausted, settled, arose, handled, charges, dealings, interpreted,
counterfeited, load, approve, redress, facilitated, sued, eased, disposition, damage, affirming
1. They cooked up various … against her. 2. The … done to the house was extensive. 3. It was rumoured
he had …. with gangsters. 4. I am very much in your… . 5. Inexpressibly thankful to receive this law by
the …. of angels. 6. His …. was valued at $150,000. 7. Twenty-three peers voted for reversing the
judgment; thirty-five for …. it. 8. I don't … of his staying at their place. 9. Additional expenses …. from
your delay. 10. This ten-dollar bill is…. . 11. A priest has …. me of my sins. 12. We … our funds in a
week. 13. Modern inventions have … housework. 13. I have never …. an automatic shift gear. 14.
Security forces ... the demonstrators by blocking the road. 15. Be careful, your silence could be ... as an
admission of guilt. 16. They are continuing their legal battle to seek some … from the government.17.
The issue was …. out of court.18. They …. to get their property back. 19. His teaching … amounted to
three and a half hours daily for five days a week.
B: Fill in the appropriate proposition or adverb where necessary.
1. Was there much damage … the car? 2. He is … debt … me … a large sum. 3. I don't approve … his
staying … their place. 4. Doubts arose … his mind. 5. Do write … your mother to ease her … her worry.
6. I don't know if I can handle ….the job. 7. The bus came ... a halt just ... time to avoid hitting the wall.
8. He was indicted … theft. 9. She sued him … a large sum … money.
7. Match the words given on the left with their definitions on the right.
1. judiciary                  a. serious argument or disagreement
2. appeal                     b. something of value such as land or a patent that is owned; a piece of
                              land or real estate that is owned by somebody; the right to own, possess,
                              or use something
3. court                      c. the authority to enforce laws or pronounce legal judgments;
                              the area over which legal authority extends
4. case                       d. an action prohibited by law, or a failure to act as required by law;
                              activity that involves breaking the law
5. contract                   e. to promise something or make something certain to promise to fulfill
                              another person’s debts or obligations if that person fails to meet them
6. jurisdiction               f. an exclusive right officially granted by a government to an inventor to
                              make or sell an invention
7. minority                   g. the basis for demanding or getting something;
                              a demand for something somebody has a right to or owns
8. to guarantee               h. a matter examined or judged in a court of law
                              a matter in question or a problem
9. judge                      i. a session of an official body that has authority to try criminals, resolve
                              disputes, or make other legal decisions
10. dispute                   j. the hearing of part or the whole of a previously tried case by a superior
                              court, a request for a hearing, or the right to have such a hearing
11. patent                    k. a formal or legally binding agreement, such as one for the sale of
                              something, or one setting out terms of employment
                              a document that records a formal or legally binding agreement
12. theft                     l. high-ranking court officer, formerly a lawyer, who supervises court
                              trials, instructs juries, and pronounces sentences
13. property                  m. the branch of a country’s central administration that is concerned with
                              dispensing justice
                              a country’s system of law courts
14. crime                     n. a crime or infringement of a law or rules, especially one less serious
                              than a misdemeanor or a foul in sports
15. claim                     o. the stealing of somebody else’s property
16. violation                 p. a group of people, within a society, whose members have different
                              ethnic, racial, national, religious, sexual, political, linguistic, or other
                              characteristics from the rest of society

                                                     82
8. Answer the following questions.
1. What do the words ‘Equal Justice under Law’ affirm? 2. What jurisdiction do state courts have? 3.
What is the structure of the Federal courts? Why can this structure be compared with a pyramid? 4. How
can the Supreme Court decisions affect the lives of all Americans? 5. What are the most important duties
of the Supreme Court justices? 6. What range of questions do federal courts decide? 7. What are the
courts of appeal empowered to do? 8. What kinds of cases are heard by district courts? 9. Why are courts
for special purposes called “legislative” courts?
9. Fill in a correct word or phrase from the list below using the appropriate form of each:
To divide; to be based on; to track down; to be put; to break; to manage; to follow; to deal with; to
be enforced; to be established; to warrant; to provide; to cross; to involve; to be presented
    The whole system of American government (1) ____ the principles (2) ____ in the Constitution and
Bill of Rights. The people believe that the government should (3) ____ a frame work of law and order in
which they are left free to run their own lives.
    The state government (4) ____ much the same pattern as the federal government. Each has a governor
as the chief executive, with power (5) ____ among the Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches. State
governments (6)____ such affairs as maintaining order, educating children and young adults, and building
highways. The federal government (7)____ national problems and international relations and with
regional problems that (8 ) ____ more than one state. Laws affecting the daily lives of citizens (9)____ by
police in the cities and towns. Agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation – the famous FBI – (10)
____ who (11) ___ state borders or who (12) ___ federal laws.
    Before an accused person can (13) ___ on trial for a serious crime in a federal court – or in the courts
of many states – the case must (14) ____ (15) ____ to a grand jury of private citizens who decide whether
there is enough evidence of probable guilt (16) ____ a trial.

                                                    UNIT 6
                                         Political System of Ukraine
1. Look through the words and expression to make sure that you know them. Learn those you don’t know
foundation                                         основа, принцип, підвалини
in accordance with                                 згідно з
organic law;                                       основний закон
jural state/ law ruled state;                      правова держава
to be enshrined by the constitutional              бути запровадженою/ захищеною констит.
provisions;                                        положеннями
to envisage the principle of the political         передбачати принцип політ. різноманітності
diversity of the social life;                      суспільного життя
property right                                     право власності
equality before the law                            рівність перед законом
maintenance of ecologic safety                     підтримка, збереження екологічної безпеки
jural/ legal essence                               правова сутність
the supremacy of law;                              верховенство права
establish and promote human rights                 встановлювати та підтримувати людські права
unitary state;                                     унітарна держава
an integral and inviolable territory               неподільна та непорушна територія
specify the powers and obligations                 установлювати (визначати) повноваження та
                                                   обов’язки
to be the guarantor of state sovereignty;          бути гарантом державного суверенітету
the territorial indivisibility;                    територіальна цілісність
the observance of the Constitution                 дотримання Конституції
to be elected on the basis of universal, equal     бути обраним загальним, рівним, прямим
and direct suffrage;                               голосуванням
to be elected by secret ballot;                    бути обраним таємним голосуванням
to attain the age                                  досягти віку
to have a command of the state language            володіти державною мовою
to hold one’s post for no longer than two          перебувати на посаді не більш ніж 2
                                                       83
consecutive terms;                               послідовних термінів
to enjoy the right of immunity;                  мати право недоторканості
the term of authority;                           строк повноваження
the procedure of impeachment;                    проведення імпічменту
to ensure the legal succession of the state      забезпечувати правонаступництво держави
people’s deputy                                  народний депутат
equal and direct universal suffrage              рівне, пряме, загальне виборче право
secret vote                                      таємне голосування
multi-mandate national constituency              багатомандатний національний виборчий округ
election block                                   виборчий блок
voluntarily                                      добровільно
faction                                          фракція
relevant                                         доречний
share the views of economic development          поділяти погляди щодо економічного розвитку
supreme executive authority                      вищий виконавчий орган
presidential orders                              президентські укази
consent                                          згода
suspend Prime Minister’s authorities             тимчасово припинити (призупинити)
                                                 повноваження прим’єр-міністра
discharge                                        звільнення від обов’язків
submission                                       подання, представлення (документів), покора
approval of government-submitted annual          затвердження щорічно поданого державного
budget                                           бюджету
fulfillment of budgetary provision               виконання бюджетного положення
rejection                                        відмова, відхилення
home policy                                      внутрішня політика
humanitarian matters                             гуманітарні питання
to be outlined by the Constitution               визначений Конституцією
watch over the power                             наглядати за владою
legal proceeding                                 юридична справа
courts of general jurisdiction                   суди загальної юрисдикції
entity                                           суб’єкт, суть, юридична особа
cassation                                        касація
supervisory authority                            контрольний орган
promote constitutional control in all spheres    підтримувати, підвищувати конституційний
                                                 контроль в усіх сферах
strengthen the constitutional order              зміцнювати конституційний порядок
principle of primacy of law/ the rule of law     принцип верховенства права
 2. Read and translate the text:
                     General Foundations of Ukraine’s Political System
    General foundations of the political system of Ukraine are defined by its Constitution. In accordance
with its organic law, Ukraine is a sovereign, independent, democratic, social and jural state.
 Democratic essence of the Ukrainian state is enshrined by the constitutional provisions concerning its
form of government – a republic governed by sovereignty of the people. State power is divided into
legislative, executive and judicial branches, acting within their competence.
Constitution envisages the principle of political, economic and ideological diversity of social life.
The social character of Ukrainian state results in constitutional regulation of issues related to use of
property and protection of all subjects of property right, social orientation of the economy, equality of all
subjects of property right before the law, maintenance of ecologic safety and balance within Ukraine’s
territory and other socially important measures.
Jural essence of the state is supported by provisions related to supremacy of law and direct action of
constitutional norms. The state is responsible before the people for its activities. According to the
Constitution, the main task of the state is to establish and promote human rights and freedoms.

                                                     84
Ukraine is a unitary state, which territory is integral and inviolable. The state has a single citizenship. The
state language of Ukraine is Ukrainian.
                      State Power Institutions in Ukraine: The President of Ukraine
     The President of Ukraine is the Head of the State and acts in its name. Chapter V of the Ukrainian
Constitution specifies the powers and obligations of the President. The President of Ukraine is the
guarantor of state sovereignty and territorial indivisibility of Ukraine, the observance of the Constitution
of Ukraine and human and citizens’ rights and freedoms.
The President, as guarantor of the Constitution, is obliged to put a stop to any actions of the legislative,
executive and judicial branches of power which directly or indirectly violate the Core Law of Ukraine.
The President is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Ukrainian Army and heads the National
Security and Defense Council.
The President of Ukraine is elected by the citizens of Ukraine for a five-year term, on the basis of
universal, equal and direct suffrage, by secret ballot.
A citizen of Ukraine who has attained the age of thirty-five, has the right to vote, has resided in Ukraine
for the past ten years prior to the day of elections, and has a command of the state language, may be
elected the President of Ukraine.
One and the same person shall not be the President of Ukraine for more than two consecutive terms. The
term of presidential office is five years. The President of Ukraine enjoys the right of immunity during the
term of authority. The title of the President of Ukraine is protected by law and is reserved for the
President for life, unless the President of Ukraine has been removed from office by the procedure of
impeachment. The President of Ukraine ensures state independence, national security and the legal
succession of the state.
State Power Institutions in Ukraine: The Verhovna Rada (Parliament) of Ukraine
     The only legislative body of Ukraine is the Parliament – the Verhovna Rada of Ukraine. People’s
deputies of Ukraine are elected by the citizens of Ukraine on the basis of equal and direct universal
suffrage through secret vote. The election system is proportional.
Altogether 450 deputies are elected proportionally at multi-mandate national constituency from the lists
of candidates coming from political parties and their election blocks.
The powers of people’s deputies of Ukraine are established by the Constitution and laws of Ukraine.
People’s deputies of Ukraine may voluntarily unite themselves into the deputies’ groups (factions) of no
less than 25 members. Deputies’ groups are formed both at party and non-party basis. Deputies’ groups
formed at party basis are called “factions”. Non-party deputies may join a faction if they support the
program of a relevant party. Deputies’ groups formed at the non-party basis unite deputies who share the
same or similar views of national, social and economic development.
                       State Power Institutions in Ukraine: Government of Ukraine
  The Cabinet of Ministers (Government) of Ukraine is the supreme executive authority. Its actions are
based on the Constitution, laws of Ukraine and presidential orders. The Government is responsible to the
President and is controlled by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, to which it also must report. In practice,
this dependency results in presidential appointment of a Prime Minister (with parliamentary consent). The
President may also suspend Prime Minister’s authorities and discharge him /her. Upon Prime Minister’s
submission, the President appoints and discharges the members of Cabinet of Ministers and other heads
of central executive authorities. Parliamentary control of the Government and its reporting to the
Verkhovna Rada result in parliamentary approval of government-submitted annual budget, parliamentary
resolutions on fulfillment of budgetary provisions, approval or rejection of governmental program and
control of government’s work. The main responsibilities of the Cabinet of Ministers lie in the areas of
foreign affairs, home policy, economy, science and technology, industry, law and humanitarian matters.
                 State Power Institutions in Ukraine: The System of Judicial Authority
    The activities of the judicial power are outlined by the Constitution. The judicial power is represented
by the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court. They watch over the executive and legislative
powers and are nominated by Supreme Rada. Legal proceedings are carried out by the Constitutional
Court and courts of general jurisdiction. The supreme authority of the system of courts of general
jurisdiction is the Supreme Court of Ukraine. Legal proceedings may be carried out only by courts.
Courts’ jurisdiction covers all legal relationship in the state. The system of courts of general jurisdiction
is based on the principles of territorial and special jurisdiction.
                                                      85
     The Constitutional Court of Ukraine is a separate entity, independent from the courts of general
jurisdiction. It cannot be used as a cassation, appeal or supervisory authority for the courts of general
jurisdiction. The activities of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine promote constitutional control in all
spheres, stabilization and strengthening of constitutional order, establishment of principle of primacy of
law and the supreme legal force of the Constitution, promotion of constitutional rights and freedoms of
citizens.
                                                       Part 1
                             General Foundations of Ukraine’s Political System
                      State Power Institutions in Ukraine: The President of Ukraine
1. Answer the questions:
1. What defines the general foundations of the political system of Ukraine? 2. What type of a state is
Ukraine? 3. What branches is the state power in Ukraine divided into? 4. What does the social character
of Ukrainian state result in? 5. What provisions of the Constitution support the jural essence of the state?
6. The main task of the state is to establish and promote human rights and freedoms, isn’t it?
2. Match the political terms listed up in column A with the definitions provided in column B.
               A                                                   B
1. executive                      a. relating to a legislature, having the power to make laws;
2. inviolable                     b. pertaining to the body of ideas, reflecting the social needs
                                  and aspirations of a group or culture;
3. organic                        c. constituting the essential part of something,
                                  constitutional;
4. jural                          d. incapable of being violated;
5. legislative                    e. pertaining to the law;
6. ideological                    f. the branch of government charged with putting into effect
                                  the country’s laws.
 3. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and expressions:
Основа політичної системи; згідно з; основний закон; правова держава; сутність; бути захищеною
конституційними положеннями; правоздатність; законодавча влада; виконавча влада ; судова
влада; передбачати принцип політ. різноманітності суспільного життя; право власності; рівність
перед законом; збереження екологічної безпеки; правова сутність; верховенство права;
встановлювати та підтримувати людські права; унітарна держава; неподільна та непорушна
територія.
4. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and expressions:
The foundation of political system; jural state; competence; maintenance of ecologic safety; the
supremacy of law; in accordance with; organic law; an essence; to be enshrined by the constitutional
provisions; the legislative, executive and judicial branches; to envisage the principle of the political
diversity of the social life; property right; equality before the law; jural essence; to establish and promote
human rights; unitary state; an integral and inviolable territory.
5. Develop the idea.
1) State power is divided … . 2) Constitution envisages the principle of … . 3) The social character of
Ukrainian state results in … 4) Ukraine is a unitary state which … 5) The state has a single … 6) The
main task of the state is …
6. Translate into English.
1. Згідно з основним законом, Україна є суверенною, незалежною, демократичною та правовою
державою. 2. Демократична сутність України захищена конституційними положеннями щодо її
форми правління як суверенної республіки. 3. З соціальної точки зору такі конституційні
положення України, як захист суб’єктів власності та їх рівність перед законом, є врегульованими.

                                                   Part 2
                    State Power Institutions in Ukraine: The President of Ukraine
1. Answer the questions:
1. What does the President of Ukraine guarantee? 2. Who can be elected the President of Ukraine? 3.
What is the term of the presidential office? 4. What rights does the President enjoy? 5. Is the title of the
resident of Ukraine reserved for the President for life? 6. What does the President ensure?
                                                      86
2. Match the political terms listed up in column A with the definitions provided in column B.
                 A                                                  B
1. the guarantor                      a. the act, process, or method of voting;
2.sovereignty                         b. the right of being protected;
3. suffrage                           c. the action of bringing charges of a serious crime
                                      against a public official;
4. immunity                           d. complete independence and self- government;
5. impeachment                        e. one that gives a guarantee or guaranty;
5. ballot                              f. the right or privilege of voting.
3. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and expressions:
Установлювати (визначати) повноваження та обов’язки; бути гарантом державного суверенітету;
територіальна цілісність; дотримання Конституції; бути обраним загальним, рівним, прямим
виборчим првом; бути обраним таємним голосуванням; досягти віку; володіти державною мовою;
перебувати на посаді не більш ніж 2 послідовних термінів; мати право недоторканості;термін
повноваження; проведення імпічменту; забезпечувати правонаступництво держави.
4. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and expressions:
To attain the age; the territorial indivisibility; to specify the powers and obligations; to be the guarantor of
state sovereignty; the observance of the Constitution; to be elected on the basis of universal, equal and
direct suffrage; to be elected by secret ballot; to ensure the legal succession of the state; to have a
command of the state language; to hold one’s post for no longer than two consecutive terms; to enjoy the
right of immunity; the term of authority; the procedure of impeachment.
5. Develop the idea:
1. The President of Ukraine is the guarantor of … 2. The President of Ukraine is elected by … 3. A
citizen of Ukraine who has attained … 4. The President of Ukraine enjoys … 5. The title of the President
of Ukraine is protected by … 6. The President of Ukraine ensures …
6. Translate into English.
1. Президент України є гарантом суверенітету, територіальної цілісності, дотримання Конституції
України та людських прав і свобод. 2. Громадянин України віком 35 років, який має право голосу,
мешкає в Україні впродовж останніх десяти років, володіє державною мовою може бути
претендентом у Президенти. 3. Одна й та ж людина не обирається на пост Президента України
більше, ніж двох послідовних термінів. 4. Звання Президента України передбачене
законодавством ї є довічним лише за умови, якщо президент не був відсторонений з посади за
процедурою імпічменту.
                                                       Part 3
 State Power Institutions in Ukraine: The Verhovna Rada (Parliament) of Ukraine
1. Answer the fact-finding questions trying not to give a one-word answer, add some more information to
develop the idea.
1. What power institution represents the legislative body of Ukraine? 2. In what way are the people’s
deputies elected? 3. What establishes the powers of people’s deputies? 4. How are deputies’ groups
formed? 5. What is a faction? 6. In what case may non-party deputies join a faction?
2. Match the political terms listed up in column A with the definitions provided in column B.

                        A                                                 B
     1. constituency;                        a. a legislative body;
     2. candidate;                           b. a person empowered to act for others;
     3. faction;                             c. a person who seeks or is nominated for an office;
     4. parliament;                          d. the body of voters represented by an elected legislator
                                               (an electoral district);
     5. deputy;                              e. the act or process of electing;
     6. election.                            f. a group forming a minority within larger group.

3. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and expressions:


                                                      87
Народні депутати; рівне, пряме, загальне виборче право; таємне голосування;багатомандатний
національний виборчий округ;виборчий блок;добровільно;фракція;доречний;поділяти погляди
щодо економічного розвитку.
4. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and expressions:
People’s deputy; equal and direct universal suffrage; secret vote; voluntarily; multi-mandate national
constituency; election block; faction; relevant; share the views of economic development.
5. Develop the idea:
1. People’s deputies of Ukraine are elected by … 2. The election system is … 3. Other 450 deputies are
elected … 4. The powers of people’s deputies of Ukraine are established … 5. Deputies’ groups are
formed … 6. Non-party deputies may join a faction if …
                                                    Part 4
                     State Power Institutions in Ukraine: Government of Ukraine
1. Provide a complete answer for the following fact-finding questions.
1. What is the supreme executive authority in Ukraine? 2. What are the actions of the Ukrainian
government based on? 3. What are the main responsibilities of the Cabinet of Ministers? 4. What do
parliamentary control of the government and its reporting to the Verkhovna Rada result in?

 2. Match the political terms listed up in column A with the definitions provided in column B.
            A                                                 B
 1. authority;             a. the act of yielding oneself (surrendering) to the will or authority
                           of another / the process of committing (something) to the
                           consideration of another;
 2. appointment;           b. the administration of public policy in a political unit /a
                           governing body;
 3. resolution;            c. the act of appointing;
 4. government;            d. a person or group (government officials) with the right and power
                             to command, enforce laws, exact obedience, determine, influence,
                             or judge;
 5. submission.            e. a course of action determined or decided upon /a formal
                           statement of a decision put before or adopted by an assembly
3. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and expressions:
Вищий виконавчий орган; президентські укази; призначення; згода; тимчасово припинити
(призупинити) повноваження прим’єр-міністра; звільнення від обов’язків; подання, представлення
(документів), покора;
затвердження щорічно поданого державного бюджету; виконання бюджетного положення;
відмова, відхилення; внутрішня політика; гуманітарні питання.
4. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and expressions:
Supreme executive authority; presidential orders; appointment; consent; approval of government-
submitted annual budget; suspend Prime Minister’s authorities; discharge; submission; fulfillment of
budgetary provision; rejection; home policy; humanitarian matters.
5. Develop the idea
1. The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine is the … 2. The actions of the government are based on … 3. The
government is responsible to the … 4. The government is controlled by the … 5. The President may
suspend … 6. Upon Prime Minister’s submission, the President appoints…
                                                     Part 5
                 State Power Institutions in Ukraine: The System of Judicial Authority
1. Answer the questions:
1. What bodies represent the judicial power in Ukraine? 2. What powers are watched over by the judicial
    one? 3. What bodies carry legal proceedings in Ukraine? 4. What is the supreme authority of the
    system of courts of general jurisdiction? 5. What is the system of courts of general jurisdiction based
    on? 6. Speak on the Constitutional Court of Ukraine as a separate entity.
2. Match the political terms listed up in column A with the definitions provided in column B.
             A                                                 B

                                                    88
 1. judicial;                a. pertaining to or proper to courts of law or the administration of
                             justice/ relative to judgement;
 2. court;                   b. established or authorized by law;
 3. jurisdiction;            c. the transfer of a case from a lower to a higher court for a new
                             hearing;
 4. legal;                   d. body of persons appointed to hear and submit a decision on
                               legal cases;
 5. appeal, n.               e. the authority to interpret and apply the law.
3. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and expressions:
Суб’єкт, суть, юридична особа; визначений Конституцією; наглядати за владою; юридична справа;
суди загальної юрисдикції; касація; контрольний орган; підтримувати, підвищувати
конституційний контроль в усіх сферах; зміцнювати конституційний порядок; принцип
верховенства права.
4. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and expressions:
Supervisory authority; to be outlined by the Constitution; promote constitutional control in all spheres;
watch over the power; legal proceeding; courts of general jurisdiction; entity; cassation; supervisory
authority; promote constitutional control in all spheres; strengthen the constitutional order; principle of
primacy of law/ the rule of law.
5. Develop the idea
1. The judicial power is represented by … 2. Legal proceedings are carried out by… 3. The supreme
authority of the system of courts of general jurisdiction is … 4. Courts’ jurisdiction covers … 5. The
Constitutional Court of Ukraine is … 6. The activities of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine promote …




                                            Grammar Supplement
                                                  Reported Speech
         The reported speech is used:
         In statements:
         'I will not come to the College tomorrow. She said (that) she would not come to the College the next
day.
         'This is the first bad letter we've had this month. He said (that) that was the first bad letter they had that
month.
        In requests:
        Can we send you these documents today? She asked whether she could send us those documents the
same day.
        'Will you for this year, please? They asked whether we would count our good/high grades for that year.
        In questions:
        Are you seeing my mates next week? She wanted to know if they were seeing her mates the week after.
        Which of the two grammar Tests is this year's?' They wanted to know which of the two grammar Tests
of accounts was that year's.
                                            Observe the Sequence of Tenses:
                        Simple                 Perfect            Continuous           Perfect Continuous
     Past                           →                                          (→)
   Present                  ↑                     ↑                    ↑                         ↑
    Future                  ↓                     ↓                    ↓                         ↓
  Future-in-
   the-Past

                                                           89
(a) She said," I make a deal every week".                She said (that) she made a deal every day.
(b) She said," I am making a deal today".                She said she was making a deal that day.
(c) She said," I have made a good deal".                 She said she had made a good deal.
(d) She said," I made a deal last week".                 She said she had made a deal the previous week.
(e) She said," I will make a deal soon".                 She said she would make a deal soon.
(f) She said," I am going to make a deal in May".        She said she was going to make a deal in May.

(g) She said," I can make a deal with the firm".         She said she could make a deal with the firm.
(h) She said," I may make a deal myself'.                She said she might make a deal herself.
(i) She said," I have to make a deal".                   She said she had to make a deal.
(j) She said," I must make a deal right now".            She said she had to make a deal right then.
(k) She said," I should make a deal with them".          She said she should make a deal with them.
(l) She said," I ought to make a deal".                  She said she ought to make a deal.
(m) She said, "Mr. Waterman, make a deal".               She told (asked) him to make a deal.
(n) She said," Do you often make deals?"                 She asked me (she wondered) if I often made deals.
(o) She said," I might make a deal".                     She said she might make a deal.

When the reporting verb is simple present, present perfect, or future, the verb in the clause is not changed.
         He says, ‘I listen to the music every day.’ ? He says he listens to the music every day.
         He has said, ‘I listen to the music every day.’ He has said (that) he listens to the music every day.
         He will say, ‘I listen to the music every day.’ He will say (that) he listens to the music every day.
         some pronouns, adverbs and words that indicate the time of acting are changed as follows:
         Quoted (or Direct) Speech → Reported Speech
this, these → that, those (time        the day after tomorrow → two         the day before yesterday → two
expressions)                           days later                           days before
today → that day                       here → there                         last → the previous / before
tonight → that night                   come → go                            last week – the week before, the
this week → that week                                                       previous week
tomorrow → the next day/the         in (a week) → (a week) later           yesterday → the day before
following day
next → the following                now → then                             ago → before
     When this/these are used in time expressions, they change to that/those. E.g. this week – that
following day
       week; these days – those days
     When this/these are not used in time expressions, they change as follows:
    a) They change to the when used as adjectives, that is, when they are followed by a noun. E.g. ‘This
       film is boring,’ Clare told me. – Clare told me that the film was boring.
    b) They change to it or they/them when used as pronouns, that is, when they are not followed by a
       noun. E.g. ‘This is an unusual situation,’ Dad said – Dad said (that) it was an unusual situation.
Would, could, might, should, ought to, had better, used to and mustn’t do not change. Must does not
change when it expresses a logical assumption. E.g. a) ‘I might talk to her,’ she said. - She said (that) she
might talk to her. b) ‘You must be tired,’ Paul told Susan. - Paul told Susan (that) she must be tired.
                                 An imperative sentence is changed to an infinitive
                                                 The Table of Rules
          Direct Speech                        Reported Speech                             Rules
General / Yes; No questions




                                                        90
She asked him, "Do you want to     She asked him if he Wanted to           Remove do or did. Add if.
dance?"                            dance.                                  Change present verbs to past.
He asked me, "Are you tired?"      he asked me if I was tired.             Change order of subject and
"Do you like coffee?" he asked.    He asked whether I liked coffee.        auxiliary. Change personal
                                                                           pronouns.

Special / Information questions
Tom asked Joan, "When do you       He asked / required Joan when she Remove do or did. Change
go to the College?"                went to the College.              present verb to past. Change
                                                                     personal pronouns.

Positive Commands
"Eat slowly," he said to me.       He told / ordered / recommended         Use told + person spoken to +
                                   me to eat slowly.                       infinitive verb. Change
                                                                           personal pronouns.

Negative commands
Jane said to her friend, "Don't    Jane told her friend not to drop out Use not before infinitive verb.
drop out of school."               of school.

Please, .............. do it!
"Please, please, don't go", he     He begged me not to go.                 Change personal pronouns. Use
said to me.                                                                beg.

Suggestions
‘How about going to the cinema?’
                                 I suggested going to the cinema.         Use suggest – V-ing.
I said to them.
Conversational formulas
She said to them, "How do you    She greeted them. She welcomed            Use the verb 'greet'. Use the
do?" She said to them, "Happy to them. He bade them.                       verb 'welcome'. Use the verb
see you at my place."            She wished them good night.               'bid'. Use the verb 'wish'.
He said to them, "Good-bye!"
She said to them, "Good night!"
Statements
He said, "I will teach you how to He said / offered (that) he would        Change personal pronouns. Add
skate."                           teach me how to skate.                   that. Change present v. to past.

       Reported Questions
       He asked (me)                           He asked (me)
       -"Where are you"                        - where I was
       -"Where were you?"                      - where I had been
       -"Where have you been?                  - where I had been
       -"Where had you been?                   - where I had been
       -"Where will you be?                    - where I would be
       -"Are you at home?"                     - whether I was at home.

                                            The Passive Voice
 The passive is formed with the appropriate tense of the verb to be + past participle (V3). Only transitive
verbs (which take an object) can be put into the passive.
                     Present                             Past                           Future
Simple      am
          S is    Past Participle (V3)     S was     Past Participle (V3)   S will be Past Participle (V3)
                                                     91
             are                                 were

Conti-       am
nuous      S is being PP (V3)                  S was being PP (V3)                   --------------- ----
             are                                 were
Perfect      have
           S has been PP (V3)                     S had been PP (V3)                     S will have been PP (V3)
                                                       The Passive
                                           Active                                      Passive
Present Simple            He delivers the parcels.                  The parcels are delivered.
Present Continuous        He is delivering the parcels.             The parcels are being delivered.
Present Perfect           He has delivered the parcels.             The parcels have been delivered.
Past Simple               He delivered the parcels.                 The parcels were delivered.
Past Continuous           He was delivering the parcels.            The parcels were being delivered.
Past Perfect              He had delivered the parcels.             The parcels had been delivered.
Future Simple             He will deliver the parcels.              The parcels will be delivered.
Future Perfect            He will have delivered the parcels.       The parcels will have been delivered.
Present Infinitive        He must deliver the parcels.              The parcels must be delivered.
Perfect Infinitive        He must have delivered the parcels. The parcels must have been delivered.
Simple –ing form          I object to his delivering the parcels. I object to parcels being delivered.
Perfect –ing form         Having delivered the parcels              The parcels having been delivered…
      The present continuous, the past perfect continuous, the future perfect continuous and the future
          continuous are normally not used in the passive.
      The verb to get is used instead of to be in every day speech when we talk about things that happen by
          accident or unexpectedly. E.g. Four people got hurt in the car crash.
                                                            Use
We use the passive:
a) when the person who carries out the action is unknown, unimportant or obvious from the context. E.g. a) My
flat was broken into last week. (We do not know who broke into the flat.) b) Coffee beans are grown in Brazil. (It is
not important to know who grows the coffee.) c) My car was serviced yesterday. (It is obvious that a mechanic
serviced it.)
b) When the action itself is more important that the person who carries it out, as in news headlines, newspaper
articles, formal notices, instructions, advertisements, processes, scientific literature, etc. E.g. a) The new hospital
will be opened by the Queen on May 15th. (formal notice) b) Then, the milk is taken to a factory where it is
pasteurized.(process)
c) when we refer to an unpleasant event and we do not want to say who or what is to blame. E.g. A lot of mistakes
have been made. (instead of ‘You have made a lot of mistakes.’)
                                           Changing from active into passive
To change a sentence from the active into the passive:
a) the object of the active sentence becomes the subject in the passive sentence.
b) the active verb remains in the same tense, but changes into a passive form.
c) the subject of the active sentence becomes the agent, and is either introduced with the proposition by or omitted.
                                           subject                        verb                            object
                active                      Tom                         invited                             me.
                                           subject                        verb                            object
                passive                       I                       was invited                        by Tom.
      Only transitive (перехідні) verbs (verbs followed by an object) can be changed onto the passive. E.g.
          Grandma knitted my jumper. – My jumper was knitted by Grandma. (transitive verb) BUT: They traveled
          to Lisbon last summer. (intransitive verb) Some transitive verbs such as have, fit, suit, resemble, etc,
          cannot be changed into the passive.
      We used by + agent to say who or what carries out the action. We use with + instrument / material /
          ingredient to say what the agent used. E.g. The pancakes were made by Clare. They were made with eggs,
          flour, and milk.
                                                            92
   The agent is often omitted in the passive sentence when the subject of the active sentence is one of the
    following words: people, one, someone/somebody, they, he, etc. E.g. Somebody has stolen my purse. –
    My purse has been stolen.
   Object pronouns (me, him, us them, etc.) become subject pronouns (I, he, we, they, etc.) in the passive.
    E.g. They arrested him. – He was arrested.
   With the verbs which take two objects such as bring, tell, send, show, teach, promise, buy, throw, write,
    award, hand, sell, owe, grant, allow, feed, pass, past, read, take, offer, give, pay, lend we can make
    two different passive sentences. E.g. He gave Laura some flowers. – 1) Laura was given some flowers. 2)
    Some flowers were given to Laura.
   When the verb in the active sentence is followed by a proposition, the proposition is kept in the passive
    sentence as well. E.g. The police accused him of the murder. – He was accused of the murder.
   When we want to find out who or what did something, then the passive question form is as follows: Who /
    What ….. by? E.g. Who was Australia discovered by? What was the fire caused by?




                                                   93

								
To top