Geothermal

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					It is a form of renewable energy derived from heat deep in the earth’s crust,
in the earths molten interior.
It is the heat energy that is responsible for tectonic plates, volcanoes and
earthquakes. The origin of this heat is from heat generated during the earths
formation and heat generated from the decay of radioactive isotopes.
The temperatures within the earth are extremely high, and can reach as
high as 7000 degrees.
The heat is brought to the near-surface by thermal conduction and by
intrusion into the earth's crust of molten magma originating from great depth.
The hot molten rock heats the surrounding groundwater, which is forced to
the surface in the form of hot steam or water.
 When the heat comes close or near to the earths surface it can therefore
be utilized as a source of energy. This is known as GEOTHERMAL
ENERGY! This produces electrictiy.
        The regions where the energy can be utilised –
        regions where the most heat is produced.

Many areas have
accessible
geothermal
resources,
especially countries
along the circum-
Pacific "Ring of
Fire," spreading
centers, continental
rift zones and other
hot spots. In these
regions the heat is
conducted very
rapidly from the
earths interior to the
earths surface so
that geothermal
energy can therefore
be produced, and
used.
                  Geothermal electricity
             Installed capacity MWe 2001

                                    Iceland 200
                                                                             Russia 23

 USA 2002                              Italy 762
                                                Turkey 20                       Japan 549
                           Azores 16
Mexico 858                                                                     China 29
Guatemala 33                                                Thailand 0.3
El Salvador 161      Guadeloupe 4
                                                                               Philippines
Nicaragua 70                                           Ethiopia 9                 1931
Costa Rica 143                                       Kenya 58
                                                                 Indonesia 787


                                                             Australia 0.2

                                                                             New Zealand 437
These were the first type of
power generation plants
built.
They use steam from the
geothermal reservoir ( in the
earths surface) from wells
and the steam is transferred
through generators and
turbines to produce
electricity.
An example of a dry steam
generation operation is at
the Geysers in northern
California.
These are the plants that are most
common type of geothermal power
generation plants used today.
They use water at temps more
than 186 degrees, and that is
pumped under high pressure to the
generation equipment at the
surface.
When it reaches the surface the
pressure is reduced, allowing some
of the hot water to convert or ‘flash’
into steam.
This steam is then used to power
the turbine /generator units to
produce electricity.
The remaining hot water not
flashed into steam and the water
condensed from the steam is
pumped back into the reservoir.
An example of an area that uses
the flash steam operation is
Calenergy Navy 1 Flash.
Differs from flash and dry
steam,.
The water or steam from the
geothermal reservoir never
comes in contact with the
turbine or generator units.
The water from the
geothermal reservoir is used
to heat another fluid which is
vaporized and used to turn the
turbine/generator.
The geothermal water and
the working fluid are confined
in separate circulating systems
and never come in contact
with each other.
These plants can operate at
a lower temp which is an
advantage., and produce no
air emissions.
An example of an area using
a Binary Cycle power
generation system is the
Mammoth Pacific binary
geothermal power plants at
the Casa Diablo geothermal
field.
The operating costs are low.
Earth energy can provide heating in winter, cooling in summer, and year-round hot water for
home use. A single system performs all necessary functions and requires only a flick of a switch
to reverse the unit for a seasonal change .
The systems do not produce the odour that is found in natural gas, oil or propane furnaces.
That makes earth energy systems perfect for highly-insulated buildings or for people who are
allergic or sensitive to noxious gases and poor air quality.
The land area required for geothermal power plants is smaller per megawatt than for almost
every other type of power plant. Geothermal installations don't require damming of rivers or
harvesting of forests -- and there are no mine shafts, tunnels, open pits, waste heaps or oil spills.

Geothermal projects can offer all of the above benefits to help developing countries grow
without pollution. And installations in remote locations can raise the standard of living and quality
of life by bringing electricity to people far from "electrified" population centers.
the processes used to extract energy move at a much higher rate
than the processes that return energy into the geothermal
environment.
There are not many places where you can build a geothermal power
station, this is due to the fact that the plants cannot be built in areas
where the temp in the earth is low. Also a large depth is needed to
drill holes into the ground.
Hazardous gases and minerals may come up from underground,
and can be difficult to safely dispose of.
Geothermal energy doesn’t create much employment. This could
affect some people and therefore the standard of living for these could
reduce , and income, and problems would be created with finding
employment,
The impact on the environment is considerably lower than using fossil fuels or a
nuclear plant.
The hydrogen sulphide released could convert to sulphur dioxide that contributes to
acid rain but it is highly unlikely.
Instead it converts into sulphur which falls with precipitation and collects harmless
salts.
Geothermal power plants, like wind and solar power plants, do not have to burn fuels
to manufacture steam to turn the turbines. Therefore this helps to conserve
nonrenewable fossil fuels, and by decreasing the use of these fuels, we reduce
emissions that harm our atmosphere. There is no smoky air around geothermal power
plants -- in fact some are built in the middle of farm crops and forests, and share land
with cattle and local wildlife.
Most of it is generated by
hydroelectric stations.            Sits on mid Atlantic ridge.
                                   Significant producer of
Geothermal is used in
                                   geothermal energy for some time.
Wairahei. The power station here
has been running since 1958.       Has 250 low temp geothermal
and has generated 192mw.           fields and 23 high temps.
                                   86% of its domestic usage is
The geothermal energy             from geothermal sources.
capacity in New Zealand is over
2000 megawatts and supplies for    It currently produces 40ej in this
                                   way and has a capacity of 1000ej.
industrial and domestic demand.
                                   Heating bills are lower for the
There is scope in New Zealand     residents , and are lower than
for more geothermal power          those in the UK despite the colder
stations as demand increases.      climate and higher cost of living.
                                   The smell from the hydrogen
                                   sulphide is a minor inconvenience
                                   to tolerate for the sake of a cheap
                                   energy supply.
There is some potential in the uk, which is distant from plate
boundaries.
Some low flow aquifers are found in the Southampton and
Cleethorpes areas, while better prospects exist in the igneous rocks of
south west England,
These are hot dry rocks which could heat water pumped down to
them.
Improvements in technology are required before the uk would be able
to carry out geothermal energy production, and rival Iceland.

				
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posted:1/31/2013
language:English
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