Origin and History by JyLifTad

VIEWS: 2 PAGES: 48

									EDUCATIONAL STATUS OF MUSAHAR COMMUNITY




            RESEARCH REPORT
                  2008




                Submitted

                    To
Social Inclusion Research Fund Secretariat
                 SNV Nepal




                Submitted

                   By
          BAL MAYA BISHWAKARMA
                  May 2008




                     1
                            Table of Contents
Acknowledgement                                                   iv
Abbreviation                                                      v
Abstract                                                          vi
                                   CHAPTER I
Introduction
Background                                                        1
Objectives, problems and issues                                   1
Research questions                                                2

                                   CHAPTER II
Research methodology
Study Area                                                        3
The study Objectives                                              4
Data Collection Techniques                                        4
Data Analysis and Interpretation                                  4
Limitation of the Study                                           5
Organization of the study                                         5


                                   Chapter III
Literature review
Review of the literatures                                         6
Caste system in Nepal                                             8
State obligation                                                  10
Legal provisions                                                  10
       Constitution
       Laws
Government policy                                                 12
       Tenth Plan
       Education for All

                                   CHAPTER IV
Musahar Community- A Glimpse
Origin and History                                                13
Population Size and Distribution                                  13
Language                                                          14
Economic Status                                                   14

                                   CHAPTER V
Findings of the study
Status of Enrollment                                              15
The main causes behind the children not sending/ not going to school 16
The main causes of the children drop out                          17


                                        2
Reasons behind the children going to school                    18
Performance level of the school going children                 19
The main foundations to deserve good performance               19
Causes behind not deserving good performance (promoted pass)   20

                              CHAPTER VI
Conclusions                                                    22



References

Annexes




                                     3
                              Acknowledgements

There are different kinds of discrimination practicing in Nepal. Caste discrimination
is deeply rooted in the society for centuries. Effects of the caste discrimination are
everywhere. Caste discrimination specially untouchability has put so-called Dalits
in the bottom of the social status. Due to the practice of untouchability, Dalits are
backward in every steps of the life. They are still deprived from different
opportunities. Their backwardness arose from the exclusion on the basis of caste.

Caste discrimination also created within Dalit community. So called lower caste
within the Dalit community are more marginalized. Terai Dalit community is one of
the Dalit community upon whom there is again discrimination. Due the manifold
discrimination, they are more vulnerable in every sectors of life. Effects of the
manifold discrimination and exclusion are everywhere including education. Due to
its effect the educational status of Dalit community is low.

Musahar is one of the Terai Dalit communities perceived as lowest rank in the
social status. Poor economic condition and caste discrimination education status
of this community is very low. Illiteracy and poverty are features of the community.
This study has tried to find educational status, obstacles and ways to improve the
situation.

It is hoped that this study will help to contribute for the improvement of the
community heading toward mainstreaming.

Finally, I am particularly grateful to the Social Inclusion Research Fund, SNV
Nepal for providing financial support to administer this research and to explore the
educational situation of Musahar community for taking initiatives towards
improvement and mainstreaming. I would like to express my sincere thanks to my
mentor Dr. Pramod Bhatta of Martin Chautari for providing me valuable comments
and advising me in every steps of the research.

I would also like to thank research assistants Mr. Naresh Pariyar, Bachchu
Sarbariya, Dharmendra Sada, Bala Ram Khang, Asha Ram Sada, Baby Sada,
Bishwa Raj Paswan and Raj Kumar Sada for helping me to collect data from the
field. I wish to extend my thanks to all the students, parents, teachers, VDC
chairman, social leaders for their help without which this study was not possible. I
would like to thank Mr. Bharat Babu Trikhatri for helping me in interpretation of
data collected from the field.




                                          4
                             Abbreviation


CBS -     Central Bureau of Statistics
NHDR-     Nepal Human Development Report
SLC-      School Leaving Certificate
VDC-      Village Development Committee
I/NGO-    International/Non-governmental Organization
NNDSWO-   Nepal National Dalit Social Welfare Organization
B.S. -    Bikram Sambat
Ph.D. -   Doctor of Philosophy
CRC-      Convention on the Rights of the Child
CERD-     International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial
          Discrimination
KTM-      Kathmandu




                                     5
                                   Abstract
Introduction
Caste discrimination specially untouchability is deeply rooted in Nepali society for
centuries. Due to the practice of untouchability, Dalits are backward in every steps
of the life.
Nepali society is deeply influenced by the Hindu Caste system with the hierarchy
of different groups of people and Dalits so-called “untouchables” are one of the
groups possess the lowest rank in the hierarchy. Literacy is highly unequally
distributed among the various caste and ethnic groups. The high-caste groups and
a few of the smaller ethnic groups are located in the upper literacy-ranges while
the lowest-caste groups are relegated to the bottom of the literacy hierarchy.

Musahar is one of the Terai Dalit communities perceived as lowest rank in the
social status. Educational status of this community is very low. Illiteracy and
poverty are the features of this community.

The study was conducted within four VDCs of the Saptari district where the
population of the Musahar community is dense with the specific objectives: to find
out educational status of Musahar community and to identify the obstacles to uplift
their educational situation.

Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were
collected from the field in the form of structured interview through random
sampling and Key Informant Survey.

Major Findings of the study
Status of Enrollment
The survey was conducted among 202 Musahar children among them 72 children
are going to school, 97 children are never been to school and 33 children were
dropped out from the school in between the academic year which is in percentage
36, 48 and 16 respectively. This figure shows that 64 percent of the Musahar
children are out of school which shows that educational status of Musahar
community is very low.
The main causes behind the children not sending/ not going to school
The causes of not sending and not going to school are manifold as per
respondents. The main causes are not having money for admission, copy and
pen, due to not having literate persons at home, for taking care of the siblings at
home and graze the cattle, due to work at other’s house. Other causes as
respondents said are don’t know to study, no use of study and due to no birth
certificate/ citizenship.
The main causes of the children drop out in between the academic year
The main causes of the students drop out in between the academic year as
respondents verified are due to not having money for admission, copy and pen, no
literate persons at home, due to work other’s home, due to take care of siblings at
home and graze the cattle and due to involve in labour works. Other causes


                                         6
verified are no use of study by daughter, due to language problem and caste and
gender discrimination.
Reasons behind the children going to school
The survey was conducted between the Musahar communities' children who are
going to school to find out the compelling factors behind going to school. Most of
the school going Musahar children responded that know to study, parents suggest
going to school, teacher requests to come to school are the compelling factors for
going to school. Other factors as they responded are school near from home,
literate persons at home, getting scholarship and after the awareness programs.
Performance level of the school going Musahar children
More than half of the school going Musahar children deserves only promoted
pass.
The main foundations to deserve good performance by the Musahar children
The main foundations for deserving good performance are regular going to school,
doing assigned home works, taking tuition classes, teaching by other persons at
home, time is available to study at home, getting scholarship and good
environment at school and teacher’s due care.
Causes behind not deserving good performance (promoted pass)
No money for copy, pen and to take tuition classes is identified as main cause of
not deserving good performance (promoted pass). Other major causes are not
availability of time to study at home, due to involve in the household works, not
going to school regularly and due to involve in labour works.
Parents' habit towards sending their children to school
Differences were found on the habits towards sending their children to school. The
differences were found according to categories of the children. Not sending habits
were found for the first child and daughters. Drop out also found maximum within
children whose parents were able to send to school. Altogether it constitutes two
third majorities of the children who don't have access to education. A little bit
differences were found among other categories of the children but there are not
found substantial differences regarding school sending habits.
Causes behind not sending children to school/ dropped out in between the
academic year
Not having money for admission, copy and pen (poverty), due to not having literate
persons at home, due to work in others house, due to involve in labour works, not
having knowledge to study, due to take care for siblings at home and graze the
cattle, not having school near from home and due to birth certificate/citizenship
problem are the main causes behind not sending children to school/dropped out in
between the academic year.

Conclusion
The study shows that 64 percent Musahar children are out of school. Apparently
the educational status of Musahar community is very low. Despite international
obligations, legal provisions and government initiatives Musahar community has
less access to the education. Main cause of less access to the education and low
educational status of the Musahar Community is adverse economic condition
(poverty) as study and most of the reviewed literatures show.



                                        7
The study shows that habit towards sending Musahar children to school is very
low. Drop out rate is also high within the school going Musahar children. More than
seventy percent of the Musahar parents don't send their children to school. Only
one fourth of the Musahar parents send their children to school. Drop out also
happens on that. This causes low educational status of Musahar community.

The main cause of Musahar Children not sending and not going to school are not
having money for admission, copy and pen although the government says that the
primary education is free but the schools are taking some amount for admission so
that Musahar people can't afford and they don't send their children to school.
Another cause is due to not having literate persons at home as guardians can't
guide to the children's study. Other causes are for taking care of the siblings at
home and graze the cattle, due to work at other’s house so that children don't get
time to study at home. Other causes as respondents said are don’t know to study
so that they don't give the priority to education, no use of study and due to no birth
certificate/ citizenship.

The main causes of the students drop out in between the academic year as
respondents verified are due to not having money for admission, copy, pen and
they don't have money to pay exam fee and to buy stationary, no literate persons
at home, due to work other’s home, due to take care of siblings at home and graze
the cattle and due to involve in labour works then children don't have time do
home work and study at home. Other causes verified are no use of study by
daughter. Due to the gender discrimination they discontinue their daughter from
school. Other cause is language problem. They use Maithali language at home
and Nepali language is used in school so they can't understand easily. Another
cause is caste and gender discrimination.

Know to study, parents suggest going to school, teacher requests to come to
school, school near from home, literate persons at home, getting scholarship and
the awareness programs are the compelling factors for Musahar children going to
school. The study also shows that performance level is very low among the school
going Musahar children.

The other causes of low education status of Musahar community are lack of
awareness on the importance of education, domination upon them, illiteracy
among the community, parents early expectation of income from the children, child
marriage, and not having govt. initiatives for their education.




                                          8
                                   CHAPTER I
                                   Introduction
Background
Caste discrimination is rampant in Nepal. Social inclusion is one of the most
popular issues in the development field. The issues of inclusion for Dalits, women,
Janajati and disables are the example of that many forums have been convened to
discuss about this issue but the magnitude of the problem has not been explored
yet.

Nepali society has historically been divided along class, caste and ethnic lines.
The so-called Dalits cover 13 percentage of the total population (CBS 2001). For
centuries members of three castes –Brahmins, Chhetris and Newars- have been
economically and politically dominant. The outcome has been an extremely
disappropriate concentration of power in the hands of a few and has resulted on a
society in which most others been marginalized.

Nepali society is deeply influenced by the Hindu Caste system with the hierarchy
of different groups of people and Dalits so-called “untouchables” are one of the
groups possess the lowest rank in the hierarchy. Literacy is highly unequally
distributed among the various caste and ethnic groups. The high-caste groups and
a few of the smaller ethnic groups are located in the upper literacy-ranges while
the lowest-caste groups are relegated to the bottom of the literacy hierarchy.
(NHDR 1998 p.118) Furthermore, the hierarchy doesn’t mean just occupation it is
hierarchy in all dimensions of life; political power, financial, social, educational and
others. Thus, it is clear that Dalits are the groups who are facing tremendous
discrimination and torture in all aspects for centuries. Within the Dalit community,
Terai dalits are more marginalized (ActionAid et. al. 2002). One of the
marginalized Terai dalit communities is Musahar. Educational status of Musahar
community is the lowest. For the literacy rates of the population 6 years and above
by Dalit Caste/Ethinicity and Sex see annex 1 and literacy rates of the population 6
to 10 years and above by Dalit Caste/Ethnicity and Sex see annex 2


Objectives, problems and issues
Specifically, while talking about the cause of social exclusion, the caste
discrimination is the major factor causing Dalit deprivation leading to a worse
situation in our country. Dalits have low access to education, employment,
resources, property, security and livelihood. On arriving to situation of Dalits where
they expect to be safer and easier destination they are faced with numerous
problems such as deprivation of education, basic health, nutrition, violation of
human rights, unemployment, psychosocial problems, scarcity etc.

There are marginalized communities which are known as untouchables within Dalit
community. Musahar community is one of the most marginalized communities.


                                           9
Musahar community is facing manifold problems. Poverty, caste discrimination,
exclusion in every sector of life are main. Caste discrimination upon them is not
only vertical but also horizontal. Caste discrimination by so-called upper class
which is vertically and they are also discriminated by the so-called upper caste
within dalit community horizontally. Due to including these problems literacy rate of
Musahar community is poor. Low educational status is prevalent. (ActionAid et. al.
2002 and CBS 2001).

The overall literacy rate of Nepal is 54% as of the census of 2001. However,
Dalit’s literacy is 33% which is lower than the national literacy rate. Moreover,
there is significantly difference in the literacy rates between Tarai and Hill area
Dalits. The literacy rates for Hill areas Dalits is 38.8 % whereas Tarai Dalits has
only 21 % in literacy. Again, Mushar, one of the Tarai Dalit groups has the mere
literacy rate of seven percentages. (CBS 2001)

The main objective of the study is to explore the educational status of Musahar
Community in relation to untouchability and social exclusion. This study aims to
find out the root causes of low educational status of Mushahar community.

The specific objectives of the study are:
     To find out educational status of Musahar community;
     To identify the obstacles to uplift their educational situation.

Research questions
Research questions were as follows:
   What is the relationship between caste discrimination, economic status and
     educational situation of Musahar community?
   What are the causes of low educational status of Musahar children with
     respect to access to schooling and achievement in the school?




                                          10
                                 CHAPTER II
                            Research Methodology
Study Area

Saptari district is one of the districts where population of Musahar community is
dense. Population of Musahar community in Saptari is 29739 (CBS 2001). The
survey was conducted at four VDCs viz. Rayapur, Kanchanpur, Phattepur and
Nargo of Saptari district. The survey was conducted among the Musahar parents
and students. Teachers, social leaders, NGO leaders, and VDC chairman were
interviewed as Key Informants. Number of the parents interviewed were 60 among
them 41 were male and 19 were female which is 68.3 and 31.7 respectively (See
table 1). Number of the student respondents were 60, among them 34 were boys
and 26 were girls which is 57 and 43 percent respectively (See table 2 & 3).
Survey was done by dividing students into three categories. The categories were
having good performance, drop out in between the academic year and school not
going students. Among them categories of the students includes students who
have good performance, drop out and school not going. That number includes 42,
33 and 25 percent (in numbers are 25, 20 and 15) respectively (See table 5).

                                      Table 1
                                Parent respondents
 S.N       Sex of parent         Frequency             Percent
  1            Male                  41                 68.3
  2          Female                  19                 31.7
               Total                 60                 100



                                      Table 2
                           Student respondents per VDCS
                                                 Sex of student            Total
   SN     Village Development Committee          Male      Female
    1     Rayapur                                  8         7              15
    2     Kanchanpur                              12         2              14
    3     Phattepur                                9         7              16
    4     Nargo                                    5         10             15
    5     Total                                   34         26             60


                                      Table 3
                            Student respondents by sex
   SN     Sex of student              No. of student             Percent
    1     Male                              34                    56.7
    2     Female                            26                    43.3
          Total                             60                     100


                                         11
                                    Table 4
                             Students' performance

                                       students performance                 Total
      Village
      Development             Good           Drop out
 SN   Committee.           Performance       student    School not going student
  1   Rayapur                    5               5             5             15
  2   Kanchanpur                 5               4             5             14
  3   Phattepur                 11               5                           16
  4   Nargo                      4               6             5             15
      Total                     25              20            15             60
      In Percent                42              33            25            100

The Study Objectives
The major objectives of this research are to identify the obstacles to uplift their
educational situation and to find out educational status of Musahar community of
Saptari.

Data Collection Techniques
Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were
collected from the field and secondary data were collected from study reports,
books and writings.

The findings of this study are based on the primary data as a main source of
information collected in the form of structured interview. Interview with key
informants was complement for the process of data collection. Primary data were
collected from the field study through random sampling from the Musahar
Community. Some of the information about Musahar community was taken from
the secondary sources. Structured interview schedule constituted the major tool of
the study.

Structured interview schedule was applied to collect primary data from the
universe. Key Informant Interview was also done to collect data. Key Informants
were Teachers, political leaders, Community leaders, VDC chairman, and NGO
leaders.


Data Analysis and Interpretation
The collected data analyzed by researcher in different forms and then gathered
together for final report. The information collected from secondary sources
organized in a content form and incorporated with the findings of the research. The
data were interpreted along with simple tables and charts. Mainly Microsoft Excel
was used to analyze the information.



                                        12
Limitation of the study
The study is focused on the educational status of Musahar community rather than
their social and political status. Study is focused to explore the educational status.
The study will be limited to find the causes of the low percentage of educational
status and to find the ways to address the problem.

Organization of the study
The report is divided into five parts. First part deals about introduction, second part
explains about Research methodology, part three deals about literature review,
part four provides a glimpse of the Musahar community, findings of the study are
explained in part five and lastly, in part six conclusions are drawn from the study.




                                          13
                                 CHAPTER III
                            LITERATURE REVIEW
Review of the literatures
Few literatures which are available in relation to Musahar community is not
focused on the educational status rather these are focused in other sectors of the
life like health etc. Dhana Bahadur Moktan (1997) in his study 'Socio-economic
Factors Affecting the Health Status of Musahar Women: A Case Study of
Badahara Maal VDC of Siraha District' shows that the socio-economic status of
Musahar women of the study area is absolutely poor and their health status is also
poor. The study found that respondents were almost illiterate. The study explored
the relation between education and age at marriage which are strongly associated
both with the individual as well as at the societal level. The study has given highest
priority to the female education in relation to the health of Musahar community in
the study area. This study is not focused on the overall education development of
the Musahar community.

Bhabani Pokharel in his study 'An Ethnographic Study of the Musahar of Kharji
Kovara of Morang District' (1997) focused on the ethnography of the Musahar
community. The study said that Musahar are backwarded people. They all live in
lower standard way of life. They have been neglected in all aspects pf social life.
Economically they are also poor. They can be called backward and under
developed people who have less chance in every aspect of social life.

Nepal National Dalit Social Welfare Organization (NNDSWO) has done an
'Ethnographic Study of Terai Dalits in Nepal' (2006). The study is focused on the
Terai Dalits with emphasis on their ethnography. The study also includes the
ethnography of Musahar community. It shows that adult literacy rate of Musahar
community is the lowest (6.9 percent) among all groups in Nepal. The drop out
rate among the children belonging to this community is very high and is more so
among the girls. But the study doesn't focus on the causes of the low educational
participation.

Nepal National Dalit Social Welfare Organization has done a 'Demographic and
Socio-economic Survey of Dalits' (2006) in selected six districts which covers all
development regions of the country. The survey report focused on the
demographic and socio-economic status. The report shows that more than 72
percent of the Dalits are illiterate in Saptari. Finding of the report indicates that
adverse economic condition is the main cause of the not attending school.
A book written by Madhusudhan Pandeya entitled 'Nepalka Dalitharu (Dalits of
Nepal)' (2062 B.S.) has explained about their ethnography of Musahar which
simply includes introduction, occupation, population, surnames, tradition, culture,
educational status. He further writes that Musahar community has the perception
that to study is the main function of the elite group who has well economic
condition. Due to such perception to education, most of Musahar are still illiterate


                                         14
as well as representation in the state machinery is almost nil and they are limited
to the peon, guard, sweeper etc. level. He has revealed that landlessness,
unemployment, low income, etc. are the main cause of poverty among the
Musahars.

National Dalit Confederation-Nepal (2007) has published a research report on
'Terai Dalit Women'. The study focused on the Terai Dalit women's issues related
to citizenship, political participation and good governance.

Bidya Nath Koirala has completed his Ph.D. in the subject ' Schooling and the
Dalits of Nepal: A Case Study of Bungkot Dalit Community'. His study shows that
the caste system as the major structural problem in Nepali society, not the
economy or the political system or even the educational system. Besides, the
research concluded that a lot of intellectual work related to Hindu teachings about
caste and the cosmogenic relations of the world are one to the main ways to
address this problem, as well as some specific change in schooling.

Lok Bahadur Tharu in his study 'Educational Status of Tharu women in Nepal'
(2001 June) focused on the educational status of Kamaiya and labor Tharu
women. This study shows that the educational attainment of Tharu females in
level-wise high disparity whereas, educated females is found more in primary level
than other levels. Due to poor economic condition, the females of Kamaiya and
labor families have been found deprived from formal education. The dropout rate
before completing the grade is also high in these families. More concentration of
literate females are in the age group of less than 15 years but more number of
informal literate females are in the age group of more than 26 years. Dropout
situation in these VDCs seems to be a major problem of educational development
in the Tharu community. A large numbers of students go to school but rarely very
few of them complete their education. With the increasing the level, dropout rate
also increases. Out of total dropped out students, more than 50 percent students
dropped in secondary level. Poor economic condition and engagement of children
in the farm are the major responsible causes for dropout. As per the responses of
dropout students, due to the heavy load of household work, they do not get
enough time to study at home. So, they become weak in the study and fail in the
examination Apart from this, ignorance of parents in education, early marriage and
interest of students are the other contributing causes of dropout.

Abdul Salam in his study 'Educational Status of Muslim Community Ajigara VDC,
Kapilbastu District, Nepal' (2003) focused on the Muslim community educational
status. The major problems of the Nepalese Muslims are illiteracy, poverty and
lower standard of living. Considering the Muslim community as backward, some
efforts of the government of Nepal is need to improve their lot. Most of the Muslim
households have their own land and their major occupations is agriculture but low
living standard, high child dependency ratio, high old dependency ratio indicates
high fertility and mortality rate in this community. Moreover, traditional and
intensive subsistence farming has added to the root causes of their poverty and



                                        15
low annual income. Educational attainment of Muslim females in level-wise shows
high disparity whereas educated females is found more in primary level than other
levels. Due to poor economic condition; the females of labor families have been
found deprived from formal education.

Rajendra Prasad Parajuli in his study 'Educational Status of Women in Nepal'
(2005) focused on the educational status of Tharu women. This study shows that
the education status of women is general lag far behind men which cause women
here low status occupations, health, nutrition, political participation, ownership of
assets, decision making etc. Not sending girls to school or keeping girls at home
is common practice in Nepal. Very few Nepalese women continue school beyond
the age of ten because of their value of the household work or female domestic
and agriculture. Even among those who have the opportunity to go to school, the
dropout rate is very high. Girls have a heavy work burden starting from the early
age which includes sibling care, animal grazing, fuel collection, and domestic work
and farm activies. These activities prevent young women from attending school.
Strong son preference is another important that keeps women out of school and
also leads to high drop out rate.


Caste system in Nepal
Caste system specially untouchability is practicing in Nepal. The original roots of
the Nepali caste system can be traced to the Hindu Varna system, practiced
during medieval times, in which people were grouped into four groups, Brahmin,
Kshetriya, Vaishya and Sudras. Although this system included a distinct hierarchy,
with Brahmin on the top and Sudras at the bottom. In Nepal King Jayasthiti Malla
of Kathmandu introduced different social, economic, religious and legal traditions.
He embodied "Manav Nyayasastra" with the help of five Brahmins invited from
India and established penal system on the basis of Caste. He divided society into
four Varnas and 36 castes. Brahmin's status set on the top and Sudras on the
lowest and untouchable. The caste system was codified with some changes by
Junga Bahadur Rana in National Code (Miluki Ain) in 1854 (1910 BS) which
prescribed punishment for transgressions of caste laws. The code provided for the
differential legal treatment and sentencing of individuals on the basis of their caste.
The Muluki Ain (National Code) separated the population into four fold caste
hierarchy. Tagadhari (Sacred thread wearing), Matawali (Liquor drinking), Pani
Nachalne Chhoi Chhito Halnu Naparne (Water unacceptable, sprinkling of holy
water not required), and Pani nachalne, Chhoi Chhito Halnu Parne (Water
unacceptable, sprinkling of holy water required). Last category of the community
considered as untouchables. The untouchables are known as dalits in Nepal. They
are discriminated on the basis of caste and excluded in the every sector of the
state mechanism.
The caste system was repealed by the Muluki Ain (National Code) in 1963 (2020
BS) but in the practice it was at it is. After the restoration of the democracy the
Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal 1990 made the practice of untouchability as
a punishable offence.



                                          16
Despite all the efforts of the state and dalit community to eliminate the practice of
untouchability it is rampant.
Dalits are discriminated on the basis of caste for centuries. Due to the centuries
discrimination they are still backward not only from the economically, socially but
also educationally. Caste discrimination is vertically and horizontally. Dalits are
discriminated by the so-called upper class vertically and within dalits there is
discrimination horizontally. Society has divided Dalit community into two
categories as Hill and Terai Dalit. Within the Terai Dalit community Musahar
community is considered in 5th rank in the social practices (see table 5). Though,
Interim Constitution of Nepal 2007 considered caste discrimination as a
punishable crime.
                                       Table 5
                                     Social Order
     Social Ranking                         Caste Groups
     1st                                    Dhobi
     2nd                                    Tatma
     3rd                                    Khatwe
     4th                                    Bantar
     5th equal                              Dushad
                                            Chamar
                                            Musahar
     8th                                    Pathharkatta
     9th                                    Dom
     10th                                   Halkhor
    Source: NNDSWO: 2006


Educational status of Dalit community is very low compared to the national literacy
rate. They are marginalized in terms of social, economic and educational.
Representation of the Dalit community is almost nil in the state machinery. Poverty
is one of the identities of them. With in the Terai Dalit community Dhobi has high
literacy rate 33.6 (male-46.5 and female-19.1) and Musahar has lowest literacy
rate 6.9 (male-9.8 and female-3.8) for details see table 6
                                       Table 6
                             Percentage of Literacy rate
      Caste Group Literacy Rate
                       Male                 Female              Both Sexes
      Dhobi            46.5                 19.1                33.6
      Halkhor          38.1                 21.7                30.1
      Bantar           35.9                 10.2                23.4
      Tatma            33.0                 10.2                22.2
      Dushad           28.5                 8.6                 19.1
      Chamar           27.9                 9.0                 18.9
      Khatwe           26.3                 7.1                 17.2
      Dom              14.9                 5.2                 10.3
      Musahar          9.8                  3.8                 6.9
Source: Census 2001, Central Bureau of Statistics




                                                    17
State obligation
Nepal is a party to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) 1989 and
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
(CERD) 1965. Nepal has an obligation under the CRC to recognize the right of the
child to education. Nepal has also an obligation under CERD to take special and
concrete measures to ensure the adequate development and protection of the dalit
community for the purpose of guaranteeing them the full and equal enjoyment of
human rights and fundamental freedoms.

Legal provisions

Constitution
Article 14 of the Interim Constitution of Nepal 2007 has guaranteed right against
untouchability and caste discrimination and declared caste discrimination as a
punishable crime. Article 17 has guaranteed education right to free from the State
up to secondary level. Article 21 has guaranteed right to social justice for dalits
who are also economically, socially and educationally backward, to participate in
the state mechanism on the basis of proportional inclusive principles.
Article 33 (h) has posed responsibility upon state to pursue a policy of establishing
the rights of all citizens to education, health, housing, employment and food
sovereignty.
Article 35 of the Interim Constitution has categorically outlined state policy of
raising the standards of living of the general public through the development of
infrastructures such as education, health, transportation, housing, and
employment of the people of all regions, by equitably distributing investment of
economic resources for balanced development of the country.

Laws
Education Act and regulation has guaranteed for free education and free of cost
textbooks by the government. Section 11 (O) and 16 (D) of the Education Act 1971
(2028 BS) reads as follows (8th/9th Amendment 2007):

11(O) Provision for scholarship can be made: His Majesty's Government can
      arrange scholarship for the students enrolled at Lower Secondary
      Education and Secondary Education as per the rules specified.


16(D) Rules of fee structure: (1)The education provided by Community Schools
      up to the Primary level will be free, and the students enrolled in such
      schools will be provided free of cost textbooks by His Majesty's
      Government.
            (2) A provision of free education will be made for girl children and the
      students from the dalits and the tribal class that fall below the poverty line.




                                         18
              (3) Once the schools charge admission fees to the students while
      getting admitted to a particular grade, the same school cannot collect any
      kind of tax from the same student while getting readmitted to another grade.
              (4) The school will not be allowed to collect any kind of fees towards
      building the physical infrastructure of the school from the students.
              (5) The fees that a school is to collect from the students should be
      decided only with the permission of His Majesty's Government or the
      person authorized. The permission of the fee structure will be based on the
      classification of schools.
              (6) The concerned authority must make the school return the fee
      provided that the school has collected fees from the students against this
      Act.
              (7) The concerned authority can punish the school with a fine of up
      to Rupees twenty five thousand provided that the school has collected fees
      against this act.

As well as Rule 152 of Education Rules 2002 (2059 BS) reads as follows:

152. Free Education to be Provided : (1) Community school shall make
     provisions for providing free education to the students living below the
     poverty line, ethnic and dalits community students and female students.
            (2)     For the purpose of providing free education in accordance
     with Sub-rule (1), the school shall publish notice at the school for submitting
     application for such free education.
            Explanation : For the purpose of these Rules "students living
      below the poverty line" means dalit students, ethnic communities, women
      and others who have been recommended by the Village Education
      Committee or the concerned Ward Office of Municipality stating that such
      students are as follows:-
                    (a)   Since no member of the family of the student has a job,
                          business, profession or means of livelihood and no
                          minimum income required for living they, she/he is
                          unable to pay school fees.
                    (b)   Having arable land less than five, ten and fifteen percent
                          of the maximum ceiling of land which one family is
                          entitled to own as in the capacity of a landowner in Tarai
                          and Valley, Hilly areas and Himalayan areas respectively
                          under the Land Reform Act, 2021 (1964).
                    (c)   Having income falling into or below poverty line as
                          defined by National Planning Commission.




                                        19
Government Policy
Tenth Plan
10th five year plan of Nepal has the following policy and strategy:
      to develop the free primary education towards compulsory education and to
       provide scholarship for Dalits, disadvantaged, ethnic groups, girls,
       handicapped children, economically poor children.
      To set special program to increase access of the Girls, Dalits and
       disadvantaged group in the qualitative education
      To encourage program of providing the education on their mother language
       to increase access of the various lingual community children


Education for All (EFA)
Education for All is the five years (2004-2009) strategy of the government. The
objectives of the EFA are as follows:
          1. To ensure access and equity in primary education
          2. To enhance the quality and relevance of the primary education; and
          3. To improve the capacity and efficiency of the organization.
In the Main Document for the EFA government of Nepal has indicated that there
are many aspects to be focused regarding the basic and primary education with
the focused program and policies. Govt. has the policy to achieve 96% enrollment
rate in reality. The document has indicated that only 53% of the 6-15 years
children are going to primary school, 29% to Lower Secondary and 18% to the
Secondary school. The enrollment rate is lowest (72%) in the Terai region in
comparison with Hill (77%) and Mountain (90%). Enrollment from the
disadvantaged group is less than 50% in above mentioned percentage. The
document has also indicated that learning motivation and children-friendly
environment is far from the children. Govt. has indicated that prevailed poverty,
gender discrimination, centralized educational management, political instability etc.
are the causes behind the educational status.




                                         20
                                       Chapter IV

Musahar Community- A Glimpse

Origin and History

There is no historical document about Musahars dealing their origin and migration,
yet as per oral tradition and stories which exist among these people they migrated
seven centuries ago and settled down permanently in Tarai region of Nepal.
Musahars' ancestral aborigine is Uttar Pradesh and Bihar of India. Oral tradition
suggests that they were ancient hunting tribes. They claimed that they are the
descendants of great sage Valmiki, the author of religious epic The Ramayan.
(Moktan: 1997)

Musahars are like nomads who migrated from Chhotnagapur plateau of Bihar and
have been staying in Nepal for 6-7 generations. He added that the culturte they
follow is more or less similar to that of the Munda tribe of Chhotnagar. However,
some Mushars of the some area disagree with this belief and claim themselves to
be an indigenous community living in Nepal for thousands of years. (NNDSWO:
2006)

Some Musahars trace their origin to the legend of the low caste women Sabari a
devotee of god 'Ram' in the great Hindu epic the Ramayan. By virtue of her love
and devotion of Lord Ram who is regarded as in carnation of Lord Vishnu, she
came to occupy an exalted position in the galaxy of great devotees (Moktan:
1997).

Only the groups such as the Chamar, Dushad, Dom and Halkhor accept water and
cooked food from the Mushahar. Earth-work and catching rats are considered their
traditional occupation. It is said that they are the rat-eaters group in the Tarai. As
they eat rats (Mus in Maithili language), it is likely that they are known as Musahar.
Traditionally, they are used to be collecting leaves and medicinal herbs from the
forests and selling them in the market (Save the Children US and INHURED
International, 1999). They are also known as Sada in their area. Musahars are
mostly landless or marginal landholders in the Terai. Adult literacy is the lowest
(4.2 %) among all groups in Nepal. (ActionAid Nepal et.al. : 2002)

Population Size and Distribution
The Mushahar is the second larges group in terms of population size among the
Tarai Dalits. In the 2001 census, they numbered 172,434 in the total Dalit
population of Nepal. The Musahar population with more than 10,000 is found in six
districts but their heavy concentration is noted in Siraha and Saptari district the
population is 31,519 and 29,739 respectively. See table 7.




                                         21
                                         Table 7
                      Musahar Population More than 10,000 by District
District                  Total Population Male                Female
Siraha                    31519             16032              15487
Saptari                   29739             15076              14663
Sunsari                   21398             10885              10513
Morang                    17852             9195               8657
Mahottari                 18226             9331               8896
Dhanusa                   15744             8131               7613

Source: Census 2001, Central Bureau of Statistics


Terai Dalit has different surnames. Some of them are Chamar, Musahar, Dusad,
Tatma, Dhobi, Bantar etc. Among the Terai Dalit community Chamar has the
highest population 269,661 and the Musahar community has also second largest
population 172,434 and Pathharkatta has little population 552 only. See the table
below 8.
                                     Table 8
                    Population size of each Terai Dalit groups
Caste Group           Total Population Male                  Female
Chamar                269,661            13,878              130,783
Musahar               172,434            88,041              84,393
Dushad                158,525            82,173              76,352
Tatma                 76,512             39,606              36,906
Khatwe                74,972             38,643              36,329
Dhobi                 73,413             38,350              35,063
Bantar                35,839             18,439              17,700
Dom                   8,931              4,631               4,300
Halkhor               3,621              1,848               1,773
Pathharkatta          552                286                 266
Source: Census 2001, Central Bureau of Statistics


Language
Maithali language is widely spoken in Saptari district. Hindi is considered as
another dominate language. This might be due to their proximity to the neighboring
country India. The Devnagari script is used for writing purpose. (NNDSWO: 2006)

Economic status
There seems to have been a marked shift in all the caste groups’ occupations,
with most of them leaving their traditional occupation and engaging themselves as
agricultural laborers. Most of them cultivated land under the bataiya system (share
crop basis). Their financial condition was reported to be poor as most of them
were yet to have land of their own. Most of them had built their houses in ailani
jagga (unclaimed government land). Their houses were of thatched roof and
bamboo wall construction. The locality where they stayed was called Musahar
Tole. (NNDSWO: 2006)


                                                    22
                                 CHAPTER V

                            Findings of the study

Status of Enrollment
The survey was conducted among 202 Musahar children among them 72 children
are going to school, 97 children are never been to school and 33 children were
dropped out from the school in between the academic year which is in percentage
36, 48 and 16 respectively. This figure shows that 64 percent of the Musahar
children are out of school which shows that educational status of Musahar
community is very low (see table 9).

Survey was conducted among 60 Musahar parents in the universe to find out the
trends of their children’s school sending habit. Among parents 41 were male and
19 were female respondents. For their first son only 36 percent of them are
sending their children to school, 46 percent of them are not sending their children
to school and 18 percent of them are dropped out. 4 of them responded that they
don’t have son. 40 parents among 60 responded that they have second son. 40
percent among them responded that they send their children to school, 40 percent
said that they never sent their children to school and 20 percent said that they
were able to send their children to school but dropped out in between the
academic year. As well as for third son 41 percent of the parents responded that
they never sent their children to school. 29.5 percent said that their children
dropped out in between the academic year and 29.5 percent said that they are
sending their children to school. For fourth son 75 percent said that they are
sending their children to school and 25 percent of the parents said that they never
sent their children to school.

Survey was also conducted to find out the habits towards sending Musahar
daughters to school. Different school sending habit has been found at different
according to age level. For their first daughter 31 percent of the parent respondent
said that they sends their daughter to school but 54 percent of the responded that
they never sent their children to school and 15 percent responded that they were
dropped out in between the academic year. For second daughter 28 percent
parent respondent said that they send their children to school but 64 percent said
that they never sent their children to school and 8 percent respond that they sent
their children to school and dropped out in between the academic year. For third
daughter 40 percent of the parent said that they sends their children to school, 50
percent said that they never sent their children to school and 10 percent said that
they sent their daughter to school but dropped out in between the academic year
for this see the table 9.




                                        23
                                        Table 9
                Parents' habit towards sending their children to school
                                                                       School     Dropout from
 S                           No. of     No. of                 Study   has not    the school in
 .                           valid      respondent   Average     on    gone yet   the mid time.
 N                           responde   without      Age of    schoo
 .    Type of son            nt         child        child        l
  1   Older (Greatest) son       56            4         16     20        26           10
  2   Second son                 40           20         13     16        16           8
  3   Third son                  17           43         11     5          7           5
  4   Fourth son (smaller)        4           56          8     3          1           0
  5   One daughter(Older)        46           14         14     14        25           7
  6   Second daughter            25           35         10     7         16           2
  7   Third daughter             10           50          7     4          5           1
  8   Fourth daughter             3           57          7     2          1           0
      Fifth                                                     1          0           0
 9    daughter(smaller)         1           59          6
      Total                    202         338                  72       97           33
                                                               35.6     48.01        16.33
      Percent                                                   5


The main causes behind the children not sending/ not going to school
The causes of not sending and not going to school are manifold as per
respondents. The main causes are not having money for admission, copy and
pen, due to not having literate persons at home, for taking care of the siblings at
home and graze the cattle, due to work at other’s house. Other causes as
respondents said are don’t know to study, no use of study and due to no birth
certificate/ citizenship.

Questions were administered among the students who were not going to school to
identify the causes of not going to school. As shown in chart below, among the
respondents 20 percent students and 19 percent parents said that they never
went/send to school and dropout in between the academic year due to not having
money for admission, copy, pen and other educational materials. 19 percent
students and 18 percent parents said that due to no presence of literate persons at
home, 15 percent students and 13 percent parent responded due to not having the
knowledge to study, 15 percent students and 14 percent parent respondents said
that due to work at other’s house as a labor, 14 percent parents said that has to
work in others house, 11 percent students and parents despondent said that due
to take care for siblings at home and graze the cattle 10 percent students
responded due to thinking of no use of study, 10 percent students and 5 percent
parents are not going to school due to the problem of birth certificate/citizenship, 6
percent said that not having school near from home, (See chart 1&2).




                                             24
                                                   Chart 1
 The main causes of the children not going to
 school


                                                   No other literate
                 10
                                    19             persons at home.

                                                   Don't know to study
      10

                                                   No money for
                                                   admission, copy and pen

                                                   Have to take care for
                                              15
 15                                                small children at home
                                                   and graze the cattle
                                                   Due to work on others
                                                   home.

                                                   No use of study
           11
                               20
                                                   Due to no birth
                                                   certificate/ Citizenship.




                                                   Chart 2
                                                    School far from home
 Causes behind not sending to
                                                    No other literate persons at
 school
                                                    home.
                                                    Don't know to study
                                                    No money for admission,
                      5   6                         copy and pen
           14
                                     18             Have to take care for siblings at
                                                    home and graze the cattle
                                                    Has to work in others house
      14
                                         13         Has to Involve in labor works
            11            19
                                                    Due to no birth certificate/
                                                    Citizenship.




The main causes of the children drop out in between the academic year
The main causes of the students drop out in between the academic year as
respondents verified are due to not having money for admission, copy and pen, no
literate persons at home, due to work other’s home, due to take care of siblings at
home and graze the cattle and due to involve in labour works. Other causes
verified are no use of study by daughter, due to language problem and caste and
gender discrimination. 20 percent students and 19 percent parents respondents
said that students drop out due to not having money for admission, copy and pen,


                                                       25
19 percent students and 18 percents parents said that no literate persons at home,
16 percent students and 14 percent parents said that due to involve in labour
works, 15 percent students and 14 percent parents said that due to works in
other’s home and 11 percent students and parents respond that cause of drop out
in between the academic year is to take care of siblings at home and graze the
cattle (See chart 3).

Musahar community used to speak Maithali language (About 96% of the
population in Saptari district speaks Maithali. NNDSWO: 2006) but at the school
they have to speak Nepali language compulsorily. So, they can’t understand easily
Nepali language, and then they drop out from school.

                                      Chart 3
 The main causes of the children drop out in
        between the acadmic year

                                                School f ar f rom home

                                                No ot her lit erat e persons at
                                                home.
                                                No money f or admission, copy
                       2                        and pen.
                 8
           5 3                  19              Have t o t ake care of siblings at
                                                home and graze t he cat t le
      16                                        Due t o work in ot her's home.


                                     20         Due t o involve in t he labor
                                                works
            15             11                   No use of st udy by daught er

                                                Due t o langauge problem

                                                Cast e and gender
                                                discrimit at ion




Reasons behind the children going to school
The survey was conducted between the Musahar communities' children who are
going to school to find out the compelling factors behind going to school. Most of
the school going Musahar children responded that know to study, parents suggest
going to school, teacher requests to come to school are the compelling factors for
going to school. Other factors as they responded are school near from home,
literate persons at home, getting scholarship and after the awareness programs.
Survey was conducted among the 25 school going Musahar children. Among them
24 percent of the respondent verify that they are going to school due to school is
near from home. 6 percent verify due to literate persons at home, 26 percent verify
due to know to study, 11 percent verify due to getting scholarship, 26 percent
verify that parents suggest going to school, 21 percent verify due to teacher
suggests to come to school and 10 percent verify that they are going to school
after the awareness program (See chart 4 below).


                                          26
                                         Chart 4
 Reasons behind the children going to school
                                         School near from home
                                         Literate persons at home
                10        24             Know to study
     21
                                6        Getting scholarship
                                         Parents suggest going to school
      26                       26        Teacher requests to come to school
                     11
                                         After the awareness program



Performance level of the school going Musahar children
The survey was conducted among 25 school going Musahar children to identify
their performance. 52 (13 among 25) percent (more than half) of the school going
Musahar children deserves only promoted (one/two subject's can't get pass mark)
pass. 32 (8 among 25) percent students deserves fairly (succeed to get the pass
mark in all subjects) pass, only 8 (2 among 25) percent students deserves up to
tenth position (with in class after 9th persons means good marks) and other 8 (2
among 25) percent students responded that they deserves with in
first/second/third position in the final examination for another grade. The Data
shows that the school going Musahar children's performance level is not high.

                                             Chart 5
                      Students' performance


                          8     8         First/Second/Third
                                          Up to tenth position
           52                             Fairly pass
                                    32
                                          Promoted pass




The main foundations to deserve good performance by the Musahar children
Questions were administered within the school going Musahar children to find out
the main foundations of the students deserving the good performance. The main
foundations for deserving good performance as they responded are regular going


                                            27
to school, doing assigned home works, taking tuition classes, teaching by other
persons at home, time is available to study at home, getting scholarship and good
environment at school and teacher’s due care. Most of the respondents verify that
main foundations behind good performance are doing assigned home works (32
percent), going school regularly (19 percent) and availability of the time to study
(19 percent) (See chart below.).

This data shows that if the children go to school regularly, do assigned their home
works and time is available to study at home, they could get good performance.

                                          Chart 6

                The main foundations of deserving good performance




                                                    Goes to school regularly

                                                    Do assigned home works
                  8       8          19
                                                    Takes tuition classes

                                                    Persons at home to teach
           19
                                          32        Time is available to study at home
                      8   6                         Getting scholarship
                                                    Good environment at school and
                                                    teachers’ due care




Causes behind not deserving good performance (promoted pass)
Survey was conducted among school going Musahar children to find out causes of
not deserving good performance. No money for copy, pen and to take tuition
classes is identified as main cause of not deserving good performance (promoted
pass). Other major causes identified are not availability of time to study at home,
due to involve in the household works and not going to school regularly. 35
percent of the students responded that they deserve promoted pass due to not
having money copy, pen and other educational materials (poverty) and 29 percent
respondents replied that they deserve promoted pass due to involve in the
household works and 19 percent said that not availability of the time to study is the
cause of deserving promoted pass. 13 percent responded they deserves promoted
pass due to not going to school regularly. But 3 percent responded that they are
going to school even in the situation of going for labour works and due to that they
deserves promoted pass.




                                            28
                                     Chart 7


Causes behind not deserving good performance (promoted pass)




                     3
             13                 19
                                                   Does not have time to study at home

                                                   No money for copy, pen and to
                                                   take tuition classes (poverty)
                                                   Has to involve in the house hold
                                                   works
                                                   Does not go to school regularly
        29
                                                   Has to go for labor works

                                  35




                                       29
                                 CHAPTER VI

                                 CONCLUSION
The study shows that 64 percent Musahar children are out of school. Apparently
the educational status of Musahar community is very low. Despite international
obligations, legal provisions and government initiatives Musahar community has
less access to the education. Main cause of less access to the education and low
educational status of the Musahar Community is adverse economic condition
(poverty) as study and most of the reviewed literatures show.

The study shows that habit towards sending Musahar children to school is very
low. Drop out rate is also high within the school going Musahar children. More than
seventy percent of the Musahar parents don't send their children to school. Only
one fourth of the Musahar parents send their children to school. Drop out also
happens on that. This causes low educational status of Musahar community.

The main cause of Musahar Children not sending and not going to school are not
having money for admission, copy and pen although the government says that the
primary education is free but the schools are taking some amount for admission so
that Musahar people can't afford and they don't send their children to school.
Another cause is due to not having literate persons at home as guardians can't
guide to the children's study. Other causes are for taking care of the siblings at
home and graze the cattle, due to work at other’s house so that children don't get
time to study at home. Other causes as respondents said are don’t know to study
so that they don't give the priority to education, no use of study and due to no birth
certificate/ citizenship.

The main causes of the students drop out in between the academic year as
respondents verified are due to not having money for admission, copy, pen and
they don't have money to pay exam fee and to buy stationary, no literate persons
at home, due to work other’s home, due to take care of siblings at home and graze
the cattle and due to involve in labour works then children don't have time do
home work and study at home. Other causes verified are no use of study by
daughter. Due to the gender discrimination they discontinue their daughter from
school. Other cause is language problem. They use Maithali language at home
and Nepali language is used in school so they can't understand easily. Another
cause is caste and gender discrimination.

Know to study, parents suggest going to school, teacher requests to come to
school, school near from home, literate persons at home, getting scholarship and
the awareness programs are the compelling factors for Musahar children going to
school. The study also shows that performance level is very low among the school
going Musahar children.




                                         30
The other causes of low education status of Musahar community are lack of
awareness on the importance of education, domination upon them, illiteracy
among the community, parents early expectation of income from the children, child
marriage, and not having govt. initiatives for their education.




                                       31
References
ActionAid Nepal, CARE Nepal, Save the Children, National Dalit Strategy
Report, KTM (2002)

ActionAid Nepal, Existing Practices of Caste-based Untouchability in Nepal
and Strategy for a Campaign for its Elimination, KTM (2003)

Bishwakarma, Luma Singh et.al., Reservation Modality for Dalit Community in
Nepal, DNF: KTM (2004)

Koirala, Dr. Bidya Nath, Schooling and the Dalits of Nepal: A Case Study of
Bongkot Dalit Community, University of Alberta (1996)

Moktan (Tamang), Dhana bahadur, Socio-economic Factors Affecting the
Health Status of Musahar Women: A Case Study of Badahara Maal VDC of
Siraha District A Dissertation, TU: KTM (1997)

National Dalit Commission, Dalits in NEPAL, Kathmandu (2005)

National Dalit Confederation, Terai Dalit Women, KTM (2007)

Nepal South Asia Centre, Nepal Human Development Report 1998 Submitted
to UNDP Nepal, KTM (1998)

NNDSWO, Ethnographic Study of Terai Dalits in Nepal, Lalitpur (2006)

NNDSWO, Demographic and Socio-economic Survey of Dalits, Lalitpur (2006)

Pandeya, Madhusudan, Nepalka Dalitharu (Dalits of Nepal), Pairavi: KTM
(2005)

Pokharel, Bhabani, An Ethnographic Study of the Musahar of Kharji Kovara of
Morang District Biratnagar Municipality Ward No. 5 A Dissertation, TU: KTM
(1997)

Robertson, Adam and Mishra, Shisham, Forced to Plough Bonded Labour in
Nepal's Agricultural Economy, Anti-Slavery International and INSEC: KTM
(1997)

Save the Children US and INSEC, Is There Room Enough?, KTM (2004)

Tharu, Lok Bahadur, Educational Status of Tharu women in Nepal TU: KTM
(2001 June)




                                     32
Salam, Abdul, Educational Status of Muslim Community Ajigara VDC,
Kapilbastu District, Nepal, TU: KTM (2003)

 Parajuli, Rajendra Prasad, Educational Status of Women in Nepal, TU: KTM
                                    (2005)




                                   33
                                                   Annexes
Annex 1

Literacy Rates of the population 6 years and above by Dalit Caste/Ethinicity and
Sex, 2001
S.N.        Caste/Ethnicity                            Sex
                                       Male           Female            Both
1      Kamai                      52.0            30.0             40.6
2      Damai/Dholi                54.0            33.5             43.3
3      Sarki                      48.8            27.3             37.6
4      Chamar/Harijan/Ram         27.0            8.5              18.1
5      Musahar                    9.3             3.5              6.5
6      Dusadh/Paswan/Pasi         27.7            8.0              18.3
7      Sonar                      66.1            41.2             53.7
8      Lohar                      52.1            21.7             37.4
9      Tatma                      32.1            9.5              21.4
10     Khatwe                     25.3            6.7              16.4
11     Dhobi                      45.2            18.1             32.4
12     Jhagar/Dhagar              33.7            13.1             23.6
13     Bantar                     34.4            9.5              22.0
14     Chidimar                   32.9            14.0             23.9
15     Dom                        14.4            4.8              9.9
16     Gaine                      58.4            39.8             48.7
17     Badi                       46.4            30.5             38.2
18     Halkhor                    37.2            20.7             29.3
19     Koche                      41.9            9.4              25.4
20     Kuswaqdiya/Patharkatta 18.4                7.1              13.6
21     Unidentified Dalit         46.6            22.6             34.4
       Nepal                      65.5            42.8             54.1
Source: Population Census 2001, CBS (Quoted from Dalits in Nepal: National Dalit Commission)




                                                         34
Annex 2
Literacy Rates of the population 6 to 10 years and above by Dalit Caste/Ethnicity
and Sex, 2001
S.N.        Caste/Ethnicity                             Sex
                                       Male            Female           Both
1      Kamai                      52.5             42.7            47.6
2      Damai/Dholi                52.9             46.5            49.7
3      Sarki                      52.0             43.9            48.1
4      Chamar/Harijan/Ram         35.1             20.2            27.9
5      Musahar                    14.0             9.0             11.6
6      Dusadh/Paswan/Pasi         33.1             19.1            26.5
7      Sonar                      63.5             55.9            59.8
8      Lohar                      53.4             41.9            47.9
9      Tatma                      35.9             20.1            28.5
10     Khatwe                     34.2             20.0            27.6
11     Dhobi                      52.8             35.3            44.8
12     Jhagar/Dhagar              42.0             22.7            32.9
13     Bantar                     45.5             16.5            30.6
14     Chidimar                   41.0             29.1            35.3
15     Dom                        19.3             11.1            15.6
16     Gaine                      57.1             53.1            55.6
17     Badi                       48.7             57.1            52.2
18     Halkhor                    41.5             40.6            41.1
19     Koche                      -                -               72.7
20     Kuswaqdiya/Patharkatta -                    -               -
21     Unidentified Dalit         46.4             34.4            40.4
       Nepal                      63.2             55.2            59.3
Source: Population Census 2001, CBS (Quoted from Dalits in Nepal: National Dalit Commission)




                                                         35
Annex 3
Interview schedule administered for this study
cleefjsx?sf nflu
                    d';x/ ;d'bfosf] z}lIfs cj:yf
                                cGt/jftf{ kmf/fd

                                kl/rofTds ljj/0f

lhNnf—                            3/d'nLsf] gfdM—
uf=lj=;=÷g=kf=—
j8f g+=M—

u0fs                              ;j]{If0f clws[t
gfdM—                                     gfdM—
;lxM—                                     ;lxM—
ldltM—                                    ldltM—

!= kl/jf/ ;+VofM
@= kl/jf/sf ;b:osf] ljj/0fM

afa'sf] gfdM

cfdfsf] gfdM

5f]/f         pd]/         ljBfno hfFb} u/]sf]      hfFb} guPsf]
        aLrdf 5f8]sf]

!_

@_

#_

$_

5f]/L         pd]/         ljBfno hfFb} u/]sf]      hfFb} guPsf]
        aLrdf 5f8]sf]
!_

@_

                                        36
#_

$_



ljBfno hfG5g\ < eg] lsg <
    !_ 3/af6 ljBfno glhs 5 .
    @_ 3/df c? k9]sf dflg; 5g\ .
    #_ k9\g' k5{ eGg] yfxf ePsfn] .
    $_ 5fqj[lQ kfPsf]n] .
    %_ cfdf a'afn] hfpm eg]/ .
    ^_ lzIfsn] cfpm eg]/ .
    &_ hgr]tgf sfo{qmd kl5 .
    *_ cGo

ljBfno hfFb}gg\ < eg] lsg <
    !_ 3/af6 ljBfno 6f9f 5 .
    @_ 3/df c? k9]sf dflg; 5}gg .
    #_ k9\g' k5{ eGg] yfxf gePsfn] .
    $_ ljBfno egf{ ug]{, sfkL, snd lsGg] k};f 5}g .
    %_ 3/df efO{ alxgL, ufO{ j:t' x]g'{ kg]{ ePsfn] .
    ^_ c?sf] 3/df sfd ug]{ hfg' kg]{ ePsfn] . -x?jf r?jf_
    &_ dhb'/L ug{' k/]sf]n] .
    *_ hGdbtf{ gePsfn] ÷gful/stf gePsfn]
    (_ cGo

aLrdf ljBfno 5f8]sf 5g\ < 5g\ eg] 5f]/fn] ls 5f]/Ln] <

     5f]/Ln] lsg ljBfno 5f8]sf] <                     5f]/fn] lsg ljBfno 5f8]sf] <
     !_ 3/af6 ljBfno 6f9f 5 .                                !_
     @_ 3/df c? k9]sf dflg; 5}gg .                           @_
     #_ ljBfno egf{ ug]{, sfkL, snd lsGg] k};f 5}g .         #_
     $_ 3/df efO{ alxgL, ufO{ j:t' x]g'{ kg]{ ePsfn] .               $_
     %_ c?sf] 3/df sfd ug{ hfg' kg]{ ePsfn] .                %_
     ^_ dhb'/L ug{' k/]sf]n] .                               ^_
     &_ 5f]/Ln] k9]/ s] sfd .                                &_
     *_ efiffsf] ;d:ofn] .                            *_
     (_ljBfnodf hftLo lje]b ePsfn] .                         (_

                                        37
       lzIfs
       ljBfyL{
       cGo JolQmx?
              –
              –
   !)_ n}lËs lje]b .                             !)_
   !!_ zfl//Ls ÷dfgl;s b08                             !!_
   !@_        aRrfn] k9\g gdfg]/ .                           !@_




!_ tkfO{sf] 5f]/f5f]/Lsf] k9fO{ s:tf] 5 <
       kf; x'G5g\ .              km]n x'G5g\ .

s_ kf; x'G5g\ eg] s'g :yfgdf x'G5g\ .
       s_ k|yd÷låtLo÷t[tLo
       v_ bzf}+ leq k5{ .
       u_ ljifo gnfu]/ plQ{0f{ x'G5 .
       3_ ljifo nfu]/ plQ{0f{ x'G5 .

pQm :yfg xfl;n ug'{sf] sf/0f s] xf]nf <
        s_ ljBfno lgoldt hfG5 .
        v_ u[xsfo{ ;a} u5{ .
        u_ lbPsf] kf7 /fd|f] ;+u k9\5 .
        3_ l6o";g k9\5 .
        ª_ 3/df k9fpg] dflg;5g\ .
        r_ 3/df k9\gsf nflu ;do ldN5 .
        5_ 5fqj[lQ kfPsf]n] .
        h_ ;+:yfn] ;xof]u u/]sf]n] .
        em_ ljBfnosf] jftfj/0f /fd|f] eP/
              lzIfsn] dfof u/]/
              cGo
        `_ cGo
v_ ljifo nfu]/ kf; x'G5g\ .
        lsg<
        !_
        @_
        #_
        $_

                                        38
u_ km]n x'G5g\ < lsg <
     s_ ljBfno lgoldt hFfb}g .
     v_ u[xsfo{ ub}{g .
     u_ lbPsf] kf7 /fd|f] ;+u k9\b}g .
     3_ 6o";g k9\gsf nflu k};f 5}g .
     ª_ 3/df k9fpg] dflg; 5}gg .
     r_ 3/df k9\gsf nflu ;do ldNb}g .
     5_ ljBfnodf ;w}+ k5f8L a:5 . k9fPsf] s'/f /fd|/L g;'g]/ . a'em\b}gg\ .
     h_ csf{sf] sfd ug{ hfg' k5{ .
     em_ ljBfnodf lzIfsn] jf:tf ub}{gg .
     `_ 3/sf] sfd ug{' k5{ .
     6_ efO{ alxgL x]g{' k5{ .
     7_ dhb'/L ug{' k/]sf]n] .

      8_ cGo
      9_

ljBfyL{x?sf nflu         d';x/ ;d'bfosf] z}lIfs cj:yf
                              cGt/jftf{ kmf/fd
                              kl/rofTds ljj/0f

lhNnf—                          ljBfyL{sf] gfdM—
uf=lj=;=÷g=kf=—
j8f g+=M—

u0fs                            ;j]{If0f clws[t
gfdM—                                   gfdM—
;lxM—                                   ;lxM—
ldltM—                                  ldltM—

s] sf/0fn] ubf{ ltdL ljBfno hfG5f}+, cfof}+ <
   !_ 3/af6 ljBfno glhs 5 .
   @_ 3/df c? k9]sf dflg; 5g\ .
   #_ k9\g' k5{ eGg] yfxf ePsfn] .
   $_ 5fqj[lQ kfPsf]n] .
   %_ cfdf a'afn] hfpm eg]/ .
   ^_ lzIfsn] cfpm eg]/ .
   &_ hgr]tgf sfo{qmd kl5 .
   *_ cGo


                                      39
s] sf/0fn] ubf{ ltdL ljBfno guPsf], <
   !_ 3/af6 ljBfno 6f9f 5 .
   @_ 3/df c? k9]sf dflg; 5}gg .
   #_ k9\g' k5{ eGg] yfxf gePsfn] .
   $_ ljBfno egf{ ug]{, sfkL, snd lsGg] k};f 5}g .
   %_ 3/df efO{ alxgL, ufO{ j:t' x]g'{ kg]{ ePsfn] .
   ^_ c?sf] 3/df sfd ug]{ hfg' kg]{ ePsfn] .
   &_ k9]/ s] sfd 5 .
   *_ hGdbtf{ gePsfn] ÷gful/stf gePsfn]
   (_ cGo

s] sf/0fn] ubf{ ltdL aLr}df ljBfno 5f8]sf] <
   s]6fn] lsg <                                           s]l6n] lsg <
   !_ 3/af6 ljBfno 6f9f 5 .                               !_
   @_ 3/df c? k9]sf dflg; 5}gg .                          @_
   #_ ljBfno egf{ ug]{, sfkL, snd lsGg] k};f 5}g .        #_
   $_ 3/df efO{ alxgL, ufO{ j:t' x]g'{ kg]{ ePsfn] .             $_
   %_ c?sf] 3/df sfd ug{ hfg' kg]{ ePsfn] .               %_
   ^_ dhb'/L ug{' k/]sf]n] .                              ^_
   &_ 5f]/Ln] k9]/ s] sfd .                               &_
   *_ efiffsf] ;d:ofn] .                            *_
   (_ljBfnodf hftLo lje]b ePsfn] .                        (_
       lzIfs
       ljBfyL{
       cGo JolQmx?
              –
              –
              –
   !)_ n}lËs lje]b                                  !)_
   !!_ cGo                                          !!_


ltd|f] k9fO{ s:tf] 5 <
        kf; x'G5f}+ .           km]n x'G5f}+ .

s_ kf; x'G5f}+ eg] s'g :yfgdf x'G5f}+ .
       s_ k|yd÷låtLo÷t[tLo
       v_ bzf}+ leq k5{ .
       u_ ljifo gnfu]/ plQ{0f{ x'G5' .

                                      40
      3_ ljifo nfu]/ plQ{0f{ x'G5' .


ltdLn] pQm :yfg xfl;n ug'{sf] sf/0f s] xf]nf <
      s_ ljBfno lgoldt hfG5' .
      v_ u[xsfo{ ;a} u5{' .
      u_ lbPsf] kf7 /fd|f] ;+u k9\5' .
      3_ l6o";g k9\5' .
      ª_ 3/df k9fpg] dflg;5g\ .
      r_ 3/df k9\gsf nflu ;do ldN5 .
      5_ 5fqj[lQ kfPsf]n] .
      h_ ;+:yfn] ;xof]u u/]sf]n] .
      em_ ljBfnosf] jftfj/0f /fd|f] eP/
            lzIfsn] dfof u/]/
            cGo
      `_ cGo

v_ ltdL ljifo nfu]/ kf; x'G5f}+ .
      eg] lsg<
      !_
      @_
      #_
      $_


u_ ltdL km]n x'G5f}+ < eg] lsg <
      s_ ljBfno lgoldt hFflbg .
      v_ u[xsfo{ ulb}g .
      u_ lbPsf] kf7 /fd|f] ;+u k9\lbg.
      3_ 6o";g k9\gsf nflu k};f 5}g\ .
      ª_ 3/df k9fpg] dflg; 5}gg\ .
      r_ 3/df k9\gsf nflu ;do ldNb}g\ .
      5_ ljBfnodf ;w}+ k5f8L a:5' . k9fPsf] s'/f /fd|/L g;'g]/ .
      h_ csf{sf] sfd ug{ hfg' k5{ .
      em_ ljBfnodf lzIfsn] jf:tf ub}{gg .
      `_ 3/sf] sfd ug{' k5{ .
      6_ efO{ alxgL x]g{' k5{ .
      7_ dhb'/L ug{' k/]sf]n] .
      8_ cGo
      9_

                                       41
sf] s:n] s] s] ul/ lbof] eg] ltdLn] cem /fd|/L k9\g ;S5f}+ < ljBfno hfg ;S5f}+
<




                                     42
lzIfsx?sf] nflu          d';x/ ;d'bfosf] z}lIfs cj:yf
                             cGt/jftf{ kmf/fd
                             kl/rofTds ljj/0f

lhNnf—                         lzIfssf] gfdM—
uf=lj=;=÷g=kf=—                       ljBfnosf] gfdM—
j8f g+=M—

u0fs                           ;j]{If0f clws[t
gfdM—                                  gfdM—
;lxM—                                  ;lxM—
ldltM—                                 ldltM—

!_ tkfO{sf] ljBfnosf] j/Lk/L /x]sf d';x/ a:tLsf ljBfno hfg] pd]/sf ;a}
afnaflnsfx? ljBfno cfpF5g\<

      !_ ;a} cfpF5g\ .

       @_ s_ s]xL dfqfdf cfpF5g\ <
         v_ cfpFb}gg\ <
;a} cfp+b}gg\ eg] lsg<
       s_

      v_

      u_

      3_

      ª_

      r_
@_ ljBfnodf egf{ ePsf afnaflnsfx?sf] ljBfno 5f8\g] u/]sf 5g\ < 5g\ eg] s] s]
sf/0fn] ubf{ 5f8]sf 5g\ <
      s_

      v_

      u_


                                      43
         3_

         ª_
         r_

#_ d';x/ ;d'bfosf] z}lIfs l:ylt s:tf] 5 <



$_ d';x/ ;d'bfosf /fd|f] k9\g] ljBfly{x? s] s] sf/0fn] ubf{ ;kmn ePsf x'g\ <




%_ d';x/ ;d'bfosf z}lIfs l:ylt ;'wf/sf afwsx? s] s] x'g\ <
     s_

         v_

         u_

         3_

         ª_

         r_

#_ d';x/ ;d'bfosf] z}lIfs l:yltdf ;'wf/ ug{sf nflusf] s;sf] s] e"ldsf x'g'kb{5 <

kl/jf/
         s_

         v_

         u_

         3_



                                            44
         ª_
lzIfs
         s_

         v_

         u_

         3_
         ª_
ljBfno
         s_

         v_

         u_

         3_

      ª_
uf=lj=;=÷g=kf=
      s_

         v_

         u_

         3_

         ª_
;/sf/
         s_

         v_

         u_

         3_

         ª_

                 45
;fdflhs ;+:yf s_

       v_

       u_

       3_

       ª_cGo




k|d'v cGt/jftf{sfx¿sf nflu
                     d';x/ ;d'bfosf] z}lIfs cj:yf
                                 cGt/jftf{ kmf/fd
                                 kl/rofTds ljj/0f

k|d'v cGt/jftf{sf/sf] gfdM—
sfof{noM
kbM

u0fs                               ;j]{If0f clws[t
gfdM—                                      gfdM—
;lxM—                                      ;lxM—
ldltM—                                     ldltM—

!_ d';x/ ;d'bfosf] z}lIfs l:ylt s:tf] kfpg' ePsf] 5 <




$_ d';x/ ;d'bfosf z}lIfs l:ylt ;'wf/sf afwsx? s] s] x'g <
      s_

       v_



                                         46
      u_

      3_

      ª_

        r_
#_ d';x/ ;d'bfosf] z}lIfs l:yltdf ;'wf/ ug{sf nflu sf] s;sf] s] e"ldsf x'g'kb{5 <
kl/jf/ s_

      v_

      u_

      3_

      ª_
lzIfs s_

      v_

      u_

      3_

       ª_
ljBfno s_

      v_

      u_

      3_

      ª_
uf=lj=;=÷g=kf=      s_

      v_

      u_

                                         47
      3_

      ª_
;/sf/ s_

      v_

      u_

       3_
;fdflhs ;+:yf s_
       s_

      v_

      u_

      3_

      ª_

cGo




                   48

								
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