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Detailed presentation of Gasifier, Introduction, methodology and vendors of Gasifier.
ITCOT CONTENTS A. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT B. CONTENT TABLE C. LIST OF TABLES D. LIST OF FIGURES E. CHAPTERS Chapter # DESCRIPTION PAGE # 1 Introduction 1 2 Methodology 2 3 Performance Of Ten Select Gasifier 9 Installations 4 Vendor Capability And Technology 58 Penetration 5 Barriers To Gasifier Programme And 68 Policy Issues 6 Case Studies Of Successful Installations 75 7 Conclusion 115 F. ANNEXURES G. ENCLOSURES H. PHOTOGRAPHS ITCOT LIST OF TABLES S.NO. DESCRIPTION PAGE # 1 Letters from BERI 2 2 List of State Nodal Agencies Contacted 3 3 List of Vendors Contacted 4 4 List of installation visited 6 5 Design Vs Actual Performance (PEC) 15 6 Project Cost of Chottomollakhali 23 Installation 7 Three Year Performance of 24 Chottomollokhali Installation 8 Total Project Cost of PSG College 29 Installation 9 Operation & Manual Parameters of PSG 33 College of Technology 10 Actual operation of PSG College of 33 Technology Gasifier System 11 Performance during April ’04 – March ’05 43 of Odanthurai Installation 12 Cost of Energy Generation at Odanthurai 45 Panchayat 13 Nellithurai Plant Performance during 46 August 2004 to March 2005 14 Vendors Supplying Gasifiers 58 ITCOT 15 Ankur Gasifier – Technical Specifications 59 16 Vendor Capability in supplying the system 60 17 Typical Technical Data of an IISc.- Netpro 60 Biomass Gasification Plant 18 Data Table – Associated Engineering – 62 Electrical / Power Application 19 Grain Processing Industries (India) Pvt. 63 Ltd. – Technical Specifications 20 List of Installations with 100% Producer 64 Gas Engine 21 List of Installations with Dual Fuel Engine 65 22 Cost of Biomass at Various Installations 70 23 Performance of VCC for the period July 80 2004 to March 2005 24 Design Vs. Actual Performance of VCC, 83 Kovilpatti 25 Performance of Gosaba Installation – 97 Design Vs. Actual 26 MVIT – Plant Performance 104 27 Design Vs. Actual Performance of MVIT 108 28 Plant Performance of Bagavathi Bio 110 29 Plant Generation and Consumption Details 111 30 Cost of Production at Bagavathi Bio 113 Energy Ltd. ITCOT LIST OF ANNEXURES S.NO. DESCRIPTION 1 Detailed list of gasifier collected along with vendor name 2 Detailed Questionnaire 3 Site visit details ITCOT LIST OF ENCLOSURES S.NO. DESCRIPTION I Copy of plant layout drawing of MVIT II Performance Data of Odanthurai Panchayat system from July 2003 to March 2005 III Performance Data of Bagavathy Bio Power Ltd. the system till March 2005 ITCOT LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS DESCRIPTION 1. BIOMASS STORAGE YARD AT MVIT, BANGALORE 2. BIOMASS PROCESSING SHED AT MVIT, BANGALORE 3. GASIFIERS INSTALLED IN CHOTUMULAKHALLI 4. 200 kW BIOMASS GASIFICATION PLANT LAYOUT IN PMCTW, VALLAM 5. STORAGE YARD AT VALLI CHLORATE COMPANY, KOVILPATTI 6. 100% PRODUCER GAS BASED CUMMINS ENGINE AT VCC, KOVILPATTI 7. DISCUSSION WITH MEDA OFFICIAL, PUNE, MAHARASHTRA 8. 1 X 500 GASIFIER INSTALLATION AT JAGAT ALLOYS PVT. LTD., KHOPOLI, MAHARASHTRA ITCOT LIST OF FIGURES S.NO. DESCRIPTION PAGE # 1 PEC Gasifier Performance Analysis 12 2 PEC – Specific Fuel Consumption Vs Gasifier 13 Loading 3 PEC Gasifier – Dual Fuel mode Power 14 Generation Cost Breakup 4 PEC – Performance Comparison – Design Vs 16 Actual 5 Electrical Schematic Diagram of 22 Chottomollakhali Installation 6 PSG College of Technology – Performance 30 Data from 3.7.2004 to 30.10.2004 7 Cost of Power Generation at PSG College of 32 Technology (From 3.7.2004 to 30.10.2004) 8 Performance of Jagat Alloys Private Ltd. 39 9 Performance of Odanthurai Panchayat 44 System 10 Cost of Production at Odanthurai Panchayat 45 11 Performance Valuation of Nellithurai 47 Panchayat 12 Unit Generation – Breakup Cost at VIT in % 51 13 Layout of Valli Chlorate Company 76 14 VCC Gasifier Average Plant Load Factor and 80 ITCOT Overall Gasifier Conversion Efficiency 15 VCC –Biomass Gasifier Plant Performance 81 Data – 2002 to 2004 16 Energy Generation and Consumption Details 81 of VCC 17 Unit Generation – Breakup Cost in % at VCC 82 18 Electrical Schematic Diagram of Gosaba 88 Installation 19 Gosaba Gasifier Plant Performance data – 92 August 1997 – March 1998 20 Gosaba Island March Operating Data 94 21 Gosaba Island Power generation cost 96 breakup 22 Gosaba Biomass Gasifier Plant Performance 98 – Design Vs Actual 23 MVIT Gasifier Average Plant Load Factor and 105 Overall Gasifier Conversion Efficiency 24 MVIT Gasifier plant performance data – 105 2002 to 2005 25 Energy Generation and Consumption details 106 of MVIT 26 Unit Generation Break up Cost in % at MVIT 107 27 Performance of Bagavathi Bio Energy 112 ITCOT CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Government of Karnataka (GoK), has signed an agreement with International Funding agencies – UNDP (United Nations Development Program), ICEF (India - Canada Environment Facility) and Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources (MNES), Government of India (GOI) to implement the project “India: Biomass Energy for Rural India (PMU - BERI)” in Tumkur district. In this connection, it has been planned to set up biomass – gasifier decentralized power generation units in rural areas under the project. To have an appreciation of technical and financial issues for setting up the project, BERI has initiated to take up a study on the performance of Biomass Gasifier based power generation systems in Southern India and Sunderbunds in West Bengal. 1.2 Consultancy BERI has appointed ITCOT Consultancy and Services Limited, Chennai vide their letter no: PMU/BERI/34/Enc/2004/1809 dated 8th February 2005, to carry out the study on Biomass Gasifier based Power Generating Systems in Southern India and Sunderbunds. Accordingly, ITCOT conducted the study and submits this report on the performance of the gasifiers 1.3 Structure of the Report The report has the following structure: Chapter 1 details the introduction of the project followed by methodology in Chapter 2. Performance of nine selected gasifier units is detailed in Chapter 3. Vendors available in Indian market for supplying gasifier and the technology penetration are detailed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 details barriers to gasifier programmes and policy issues. Successful implementations and case studies of 4 units are detailed in Chapter 6 and Chapter 7 concludes the report. 1 ITCOT CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY 2.1 Methodology The methodology adopted for carrying out the study is as follows: 2.1.1 Letters to Nodal Agencies and Vendors ITCOT drafted letters for Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources (MNES), State Nodal Agencies and vendors, and submitted to BERI. BERI forwarded the letters to various agencies through letters as indicated in the Table 1 below: Table 1 Letters from BERI S. No Name of the Letter No Date Organisation 1 Ministry of Non BERI/34/ENE/2004/1882 March 1, 2005 Conventional Energy and and Sources, New Delhi BERI/34/En/2004/1917 March 17, 2005 2 State Nodal Agencies in BERI 34 ENE 2004 / February 22, Southern India 1856 2005 3 Gasifier Vendors / BERI 34 ENE 2004 / February 22, Suppliers 1855 2005 2.1.2 Preparation of complete list of gasifiers The complete list of gasifier installed in South India, West Bengal and Maharashtra, from the beginning of Ninth Five Year Plan i.e., between 1997 – to till date was collected along with year of installation, location, capacity, application and present status. The list of gasifiers was obtained from the State Nodal Agencies as detailed in Table 2 and from Vendors as detailed in Table 3 below: 2 ITCOT Table 2 List of State Nodal Agencies Contacted No Letter Name of the Organisation Letter Received vide Date from Contacted No. and Date (if any) ITCOT 1 March 14, Agency for Non Conventional 2005 Energy and Rural Technology - (ANERT), Trivandrum, Kerala 2. March 14, Karnataka Renewable Energy 2005 Development Limited (KREDL), - Bangalore, Karnataka 3. March 14, Maharashtra Energy BERI 34 ENE 2004/57 2005 and Development Agency, Pune, dated 21st April 2005 April 26, Maharashtra enclosed with MEDA 2005 letter No. REN/BMS 002/2004-05/1686 dated 11th April 2005 4. March 14, Non Conventional Energy NEDCAP/PD/BG/3552/03- 2005 Development Corporation of 04 dated 28th February Andhra Pradesh (NEDCAP) 2005 Ltd., Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 5. March 14, Tamilnadu Energy 2005 Development Agency (TEDA), - Chennai, Tamilnadu 6. March 14, West Bengal Renewable 2005 Energy Development Agency - (WBREDA), Kolkata, West Bengal 3 ITCOT Table 3 List of Vendors Contacted Letter Received Letter Date Name of the Organisation No vide No. and from ITCOT Contacted Date 1 February 24, Ankur Scientific Energy Replied via email 2005 Technologies private Limited, dated February 25, Baroda, Gujarat 2005 and March 10, 2005 2 February 24, Ankur Scientific Energy Replied via email 2005 Technologies private Limited, dated February 25, Regional Office, Kolkata, West 2005 and March Bengal 10, 2005 3 February 23, Centre for Gasification and Letter dated 16th 2005 and Propulsion Laboratory (CGPL), March 2005 Email on March Indian Institute of Science, 14, 2005 Bangalore, Karnataka 4 February 24, Associated Engineering Works 2005 (AEW), Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 5 February 24, Netpro Renewable Energy (India) 2005 Limited, Bangalore, Karnataka 6 February 24, Grain Processing Industries 2005 (India) Private Limited, Kolkata, West Bengal 7 February 24, Cosmo Powertech Private 2005 Limited, Raipur, Chhattisgarh 8 February 24, Energreen Power Limited, 2005 Chennai, Tamilnadu The detailed list of gasifier installations collected along with vendor name and capacity is enclosed in Annexure 1. 4 ITCOT 2.1.3 Preparation of Questionnaire The detailed questionnaire including Technical and Financial Parameters required for carrying out the study was prepared and sent to BERI for clarifications/ correction vide letter No. ENERGY/DV/2005 dated February 21, 2005. The questionnaire with clarifications was received from BERI vide letter No. BERI 34 ENE 004 / 1889 dated March 3, 2005 and the same was used for survey of gasifier installations across Southern India, West Bengal and Maharashtra. The detailed questionnaire is enclosed as Annexure 2. 2.1.4 Selection of Gasifier systems for study As mentioned in Para 2.1.1, the complete list of gasifiers was analyzed and letters were sent to all the units detailed in Annexure 1 for carrying out site visits Gasifier systems of various capacities on electrical mode, spread over various locations were selected for carrying out the study. Following are the units under various categories selected for the field study. a. Educational Institutions – 6 Installations b. Gram Panchayat – 2 Installations c. Industrial Units – 4 Installations d. Island under Village Electrification – 2 Installations 2.1.5 Site Visit After receiving the consent of BERI for the units selected, ITCOT Consultants carried out the site visits. The details visits undertaken along with the date are enclosed in Annexure 3 and an extract of the same for ready reference is detailed in Table 4 below. 5 ITCOT Table 4 List of Installation visited (in the order visited) S. No Name of the Gasifier Installation State 1 M. Vishveswaraiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore Karnataka 2 WBREDA Installation of Chotamulakalli West Bengal 3 WBREDA Installation of Gosaba West Bengal 4 Odanthurai Panchayat, Coimbatore District Tamilnadu 5 Nellithurai Panchayat, Coimbatore District Tamilnadu 6 PSG Institute of Technology, Coimbatore District Tamilnadu 7 Bagavathi Bio Private Limited, Coimbatore District Tamilnadu 8 Pondicherry Engineering College Pondicherry 9 Valli Chlorate Company, Kovilpatti Tamilnadu 10 Periyar Maniammai College of Technology for Tamilnadu Women, Vallam (Phase I and Phase II) 11 GB Food Oils Limited, Pudupatty Tamilnadu 12 Jagat Alloys Private Limited, Savroli Village, Khopoli Maharashtra 13 Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore Tamilnadu Of these 14 installations, 9 installations are discussed in Chapter 3, while the balance 4 units are discussed in Chapter 6 under successful Case Studies. Four installations have been chosen for successful case studies and are detailed below. 1. Valli Chlorate Company at Kovilpatti, Tamil Nadu Valli Chlorate Company has been chosen as a successful case study for the reason that it has revived itself from closure by installing 100% producer gas based gasifier. The company has also increased its profitability by installing the gasifier by reducing cost of energy purchased from TNEB. 2. Gosaba Island Installation, Sunderbunds Gosaba Island installation has been as a successful case study for the reason that the energy generated from gasifier has turned the socio economic status 6 ITCOT of the Island along with community development. Even when the cost of energy generation is high, the energy generated from gasifier has played a pivotal role in improving the life style of the rural masses of Sunderbunds, where grid penetration is impossible in the near future. 3. M. Vishveswaraiah Institute of Technology installation at Bangalore In the educational institutions category, MVIT is the oldest gasifier unit operating successfully for the last three years. The unit also operates for longer period in a year and has generated more units when compared to other units. 4. Bagavathi Bio Energy Limited installation at Coimbatore In the industry sector, the unit that is successful in implementing the gasifier program is Bagavathi Bio Energy installation at Mettupalayam. The company has successfully been running as a separate entity to serve the energy demand of a Textile bleaching unit by installing the system in their premises without any major problem. Though other units covered by the study were also operating the gasifiers, the data available from the units other than the above four is scanty and further, units were also not willing to share the real performance of the gasifiers. Some units found the operation not economical on dual mode due to high cost of diesel, and hence, gasifiers are not run. 2.1.6 Limitation of the Study Most of the units observed that the data questionnaire was very exhaustive and the units do not have the classified data. Units in general are very reluctant to share the actual field data especially the financials and absence of the authentication letter from MNES added to the cause. Thus, ITCOT consultants based on the discussions, observations and log sheets filled the data questionnaire. Some units refused to share any details in the absence of MNES 7 ITCOT letter. This resulted in a considerable delay in the unit visit scheduling and data collection. Thus, the study is based only on the data collected during the site visit and not furnished by the unit. 8 ITCOT CHAPTER 3 PERFORMANCE OF GASIFIERS AT NINE SELECTED INSTALLATIONS 3.1 Name of Installation: Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry A. Project Background Objective District Rural Development Agency (DRDA), Pondicherry through Ministry of Non- Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) New Delhi implemented the 1x 100kW biomass gasifier on electrical mode at the Pondicherry Engineering College (PEC) campus, to promote gasifier system based academic research projects. Year of Installation The plant is installed in June 1, 2004 Location The engineering college is located at a distance of 10 km from Pondicherry town Plant lay out Size 5m X15m Type Woody biomass down draft gasifier with batch feeding B. Technical Specifications Gasifier (supplier - Associated Engineering works (AEW), Tanuku, Andhra Pradesh) i) Capacity: 100 kW (250 m3/h) ii) Biomass fuel consumption: 100kg/h iii) Biomass fuel size: 15 mm~75mm iv) Moisture: < 20% v) Hopper holding capacity: 500kg vi) Loading of biomass: manual feeding and intermittent vii) Gasifier starting: By hand blower viii) Diesel replacement: average: 70% 9 ITCOT ix) Gas cooling and cleaning of tar removal, particulates: Water spray cooler, scrubber, 4 nos. of centrifugal tar removing pumps, service filter (fabric), additional filter with pebbles x) Gas flaring provision before service filter xi) Height of reactor 12 ft. xii) Auxiliary power: 12 hp includes wood cutter of 3 hp, water circulation pump, and make up water pump, scrubber and centrifugal tar removal pumps (4 nos). xiii) Water circulation: 250 litres per minute. xiv) Recommended biomass fuels: Casuarina, eucalyptus, Subabul, Neem, Cashew, Coconut shells and any hardwood xv) Gasifier material of construction: Stainless Steel for nozzle and throat and MS for Hopper, body and pipe line xvi) Life of Gasifier: 20 years xvii) Turn down ratio: 30% xviii) Starting time from cold start: 30 minutes Engine (make - Ashok Leyland) • Capacity 151 hp • Manual starting system with battery Alternator (Make – Kirloskar) • KVA: 125, Speed rpm: 1500, Voltage: 415 V • Load: 175 Ampere • Frequency: 50Hz • Power factor: 0.8 • Continuous duty, S1 IS: 4722-1992 Electrical panels The plant is designed to operate on stand alone mode and the gasifier power is transferred to the college for captive consumption after switching off the state electricity board supply and by providing suitable interlocks to avoid parallel operation with the grid. Electrical control panel of 200 Ampere rating is provided with Molded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB) of 175 A rating with built in protections of under voltage, over voltage, over current and earth fault protection. The 10 ITCOT college has provided 125 A feeder for supplying auxiliary power for starting of gasifier plant auxiliaries. The power generated from the Gasifier is transferred by way of change over switch of 400 A rating in the college electrical control. The main loading point is administrative block but provision is there is to supplement the loading in other areas. C. Financial Parameters Building and civil works (Comprising of fuel storage yard, biomass sizing, gasifier system with DG set, control panel, water storage tank with filtration) Rs. 6.82 lakhs For Gasifier system with DG set DRDA: Rs .21.45 lakhs MNES subsidy: Rs. 1.50 lakhs Total Project cost: Rs. 29.77 lakhs D. Project Status The plant was commissioned on June 1, 2004 and was under trial operation from October 2004 to December 2004 by the supplier, for establishing the guaranteed performance. On completion of the same the project was accepted by DRDA for handing over to PEC. It was noted that discussions are underway between DRDA and PEC on official handing over for subsequent plant operation and maintenance. The plant has not been functional since January 2005. E. Plant Performance Summary for the monitored Period (8 weeks in November 2004 and December 2004) • Gross Power Generation: 15,995 kWh • Average kW loading: 63.42 • Total biomass consumption: 22,630 Kgs • Total diesel consumption: 1,780 litres • No. of Operating Hours: 252 hours • Average diesel replacement: 54% • Average cost of gross power generation: Rs.5.40/kWh 11 ITCOT • Average PLF: 49.98 % • Average specific biomass consumption: 1.46 kg/kWh • Average specific diesel consumption: 0.12 litre/ kWh The auxiliary consumption data is not provided and hence, not indicated in the summary. F. Plant Performance Analysis (a) The plant performance in terms of following indices has been discussed in the chart given below: a. Average Gasifier system kW loading b. Gasifier system overall conversion efficiency % c. % Diesel replacement d. Gross power generation cost Rs/kWhr FIGURE – 1 Pondicherry Engineering College Gasifier Performance Analysis 12 ITCOT Observations: i. The highest average kW loading which has been recorded is 83.38 kW in the fifth week of the monitored period ii. The highest loading shows the best diesel replacement at 67% with optimum power generation cost per kWh ie. Rs. 3.97/kWh iii. The overall gasifier system conversion efficiency (including gasifier, engine, Alternator) is also highest in the 5th week due to improved loading over the previous weeks. This index is arrived based on the following assumptions; GCV of HSD – 10,000 kCal/Kg GCV of biomass @ 20% moisture while feeding gasifier – 3,500 kCal/Kg GCV of 1 kWh = 860 kCal iv. The chart indicates poor performance indices due to fluctuations in loading in the 3rd week of monitored period. (b) Specific fuel consumption with respect to gasifier system loading is presented in the following chart. FIGURE 2 Pondicherry Engineering College Specific fuel consumption Vs Gasifier loading 13 ITCOT Observations: i. As stated earlier, 5th week of monitored period has shown best performance indices with highest PLF at 70.88 %. ii. PLF is arrived at considering the installed capacity of 100 kW, with daily operating hours of 8 and 5 days a week iii. The specific fuel consumption of biomass is 1.08 kg/kWh and for diesel is 0.08 litre/kWh G. Cost of Production The breakup cost for gross power generation is given in the chart below: FIGURE 3 Pondicherry Engineering College Gasifier – Dual fuel mode Power Generation Cost Break Up Cost (Rs./kWh) Biomass cost Diesel Cost Rs/kWh Rs/kWh 3.46 1.75 65% 32% Operators cost Rs/kWh 0.19 3% Observations: i. In the dual fuel mode of operation the impact of diesel cost is well noticed in the above pie chart. 65% of the average power generation cost is due to diesel at an average diesel replacement of 54%. 14 ITCOT ii. The share of diesel could be reduced further at higher % of diesel replacement with the improved loading, as average PLF in the monitored period is low at 49.98%. iii. One operator with one helper is considered here and their contribution is negligible at 3% of the total cost. Based on the discussion, the operator salary is assumed at Rs. 3,500 per month and salary for the helper is Rs.1,500 per month. iv. Repairs and maintenance cost is not considered as the plant is new and it was conveyed that it is covered under 2 years equipment guarantee with the supplier for replacement of defective items for the entire gasifier system. H. Performance: Design Vs Actual Table 5 Design Vs Actual Performance of Pondicherry Engineering College Performance S. No Unit Design Actual indicator 1 Average kW loading KW 100 63.42 Average Specific 2 Biomass Kg/kWh 1 1.46 consumption Average Diesel 3 Litre/kWh 0.06 0.12 consumption Average % diesel 4 Percentage 70 54 replacement 15 ITCOT FIGURE 4 - Pondicherry Engineering College (1 x 100 kW) Performance Comparison design Vs actual 1.6 120 1.46 1.4 100 100 kg/kWh and litre/kWh 1.2 kW and percentage 1 80 1 70 63.42 0.8 54 60 0.6 40 0.4 20 0.2 0.12 0.06 0 0 Design Actual Average Specific Biomass consumption Kg/kWh Average Diesel consumption Litre/kWh Average kW loading Average % diesel replacement Percentage • The design value is considered at 100 % loading and is compared with actual performance in the monitored period. • The loading in trial operation is lesser compared to the design value and hence, the performance could not be better at par with design. • The plant has been operated only for eight weeks and is yet to commence its commercial operation in full swing. Hence, it is expected to achieve a better performance in loading, specific fuel consumption and better diesel replacement with optimum constant loading of 80% and above in future. 16 ITCOT I. Summary of notes of discussion with PEC and DRDA: • Both DRDA and PEC conveyed that plant operation in the monitored period was satisfactory • During the trials the supplier has introduced a fine filter made of pebble stones after the service filter and before air and gas mixer, for achieving the desired quality of gas • The power generation was fed to college administrative block, which has an average load of 65 KW. The administrative block comprises load points of A/C’s, lighting, computers etc. The load test was carried out from 9.00 am to 5.00 pm in 5 days a week. • The entire gasifier system has been delivered at site in a month time • The supplier has offered 2 years guarantee for equipment against manufacturing defects • The college has plans to operate the system for academic research projects under M. Tech, Energy technology programme • The best wood suggested by DRDA is pencil wood • The college has done an analysis on generated Charcoal and is given below: Volatile matter – 19.11% Ash – 22.87% Fixed Carbon – 58.02% J. Issues • The college has a contract demand of 500 kVA from the state electricity board and the average power cost per kWh is Rs.2.10 (inclusive of demand charges). The college needs to pay a fixed demand cost of 75% of contracted demand. The average cost of power per kWh from the gasifier is Rs.5.40 and is higher when compared to state electricity board tariff. Hence, the college management is exploring the ways and means of operating the system not for the purpose of captive power alone but also for academic research projects under M. Tech energy technology programme. 17 ITCOT • The college has expressed its inability to allocate a dedicated team for operating the gasifier installation and discussions are underway between DRDA and PEC in launching a tendering process to operate the system through private operator on O&M basis. However, consumables like diesel, wood, lubricating oils etc. have to be arranged by DRDA/PEC through Pondicherry Government. The entire process is yet to be finalized and hence the system is non-functional since January 2005. K. General Issues on site operations It was observed that the following parameters, which have affected the gasifier performance, have never been tested at the site: • Moisture of biomass fuels at gasifier feeding point • Emission of tar and particulates level • Effectiveness of cooling and gas cleaning system and Producer gas quality – Calorific value • Vibration and noise levels of the installation L. Operating Problems: • In dual fuel mode the problems of filters – coarse and fine filters, block the producer gas line very often and creates reduced producer gas flow and lead to poor quality, resulting in increased diesel consumption for the same load. • The coarse and fine filters filled with dry wood dust of different grading often demands cleaning and changing due to frequent choking. • The fabric filter cloth choking problem is experienced frequently in the installations • Due to the prevailing dusty atmosphere and poor filtering of gas, often creates choking of air cooled after cooler in engine. The performance of water based after cooler, is better in maintenance when compared to air cooled system, as the fins require more cleaning in these dusty atmosphere. 18 ITCOT 3.2 Name of Installation: Chotamulakalli Island, 24 Parganas District, West Bengal A. Project Background Objective West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency (WBREDA) in association with MNES, Government of India, Sunderbunds Development Department, Forest Department, and South 24 Parganas Zilla Parisad decided to install a 500 kW (4 x 125 kW) biomass based power plant and Chotamulakalli has been identified by the WBREDA as a probable location for setting up the woody biomass based power plant. This place is situated in Gosaba Block of 24 Parganas District of West Bengal. This has been selected, as it is one of the Gateways to the interiors of Sunderbunds. The locality has a population of 28,000 with a good market where people from interior areas come for buying and selling products. This market is a good commercial Centre in the Sunderbunds area. With the availability of electricity, many small scale entrepreneurs could develop small industries like mini rice mills, ice plants, pumping /irrigation and water supply, saw mill, cold storage etc., where it is almost impossible to extend the conventional power grid line. The prime objective of this power plant is to improve socio economic condition of the local people in Chotamulakalli Island. This power plant may also be utilized for supplying power to the adjacent areas of Chotamulakalli by installing 11 kV sub-transmission systems and the areas, which may get the benefit of electric supply, are mentioned below: a. Tara Nagar b. Boro Mullakhali c. Kachukhalli d. Hetalbari e. Kalidaspur 19 ITCOT Year of Installation The 500 kW woody biomass based power plant was commissioned on 19th October 2001 Plant lay out Size 2000 sq. ft Type Woody biomass down draft gasifier with batch feeding B. Technical Specifications Gasifier (supplier – Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies, Baroda) 1. Model: WBG –120 2. Capacity: 125 kW 3. Rated gas flow: 300 m3/h 4. Average gas Calorific value: > 1,000 kCal/m3 5. Biomass fuel consumption: 96 ~ 120kg/h 6. Gasification temperature: 1050 ~ 1100 deg. C 7. Indicative gasification efficiency: Hot gas mode: > 85% Cold gas mode: > 75% 8. Temperature at gasifier outlet: 250 ~ 400 deg. C 9. Biomass fuel size: Minimum diameter 10 mm and length 10 mm Maximum diameter 60 mm and length 75 mm 10. Moisture: < 20% on wet basis 11. Hopper holding capacity: 500kg 12. Loading of biomass: intermittent manual feeding per hour 13. Ash removal: Continuous through proprietary control and water seal 14. Gasifier starting: Through scrubber pump/blower 15. Specific fuel consumption: 250 ml/kWh – full diesel mode 16. Indicative diesel replacement: average 65 ~ 75% depending on operating load 17. Engine conversion efficiency: 25% 20 ITCOT 18. Gas cooling and cleaning of tar removal, particulates: Venturi scrubber with water re-circulation and ultra clean gas for power generation mode through proprietary and fine filters 19. Gas flaring provision before service filter 20. Height of reactor 4 ft. 21. Auxiliary power: 8 kW 22. Water circulation: 250 litres per minute. 23. Recommended biomass fuels: Casuarina, eucalyptus, subabul, Neem, Cashew, Coconut shells and any hardwood 24. Gasifier material of construction: Stainless Steel for nozzle and throat and MS for Hopper, body and pipe line 25. Life of Gasifier: 5 years 26. Turn down ratio: 30% 27. Starting time from cold start: 30 minutes 28. Maximum permissible particulate: 50 mg/m3 29. Typical producer gas composition (%) CO=19 +/- 3% N2 – 50% CO2=10 +/- 3% H2=18 +/- 2% CH4=up to 3% Engine (make - Greaves) • Capacity 160 kVA • Mechanical B1 class governor • Manual starting system with battery Alternator (Make – Crompton Greaves) • KVA: 160, Speed rpm: 1500, Voltage: 415 V • Load: 222 Ampere, Frequency: 50Hz • Power factor: 0.8 • Continuous duty, S1 IS: 4722-1992 Electrical Systems Chotamulakalli Island was an un-electrified village until this project was commissioned, and the plant was designed to operate on stand alone mode for village electrification purpose, as extension of the conventional grid power is impossible. 21 ITCOT FIGURE 5 - Electrical Schematic Diagram Feeder 1 Provision given for future expansion 415 V bus Bus coupler DG sets 1, 2, 3 and 4 The power generated from the five DG’s can be synchronized at the 415 V bus and is taken through feeders 1 with a step up transformer of 315 kVA for power distribution at 11 kV. The existing 11 kV distribution circuit comprises of 1 km, and 415 V distribution circuit comprises of 5 km. The 415 V distributions has 1 no of 100 kVA and 1 no of 63 kVA step down transformers located at various load ends. During the discussion it was informed that distribution loss has been estimated at 8%. The plant has been provided with a bay for second 315-kVA- distribution transformer. WBREDA has approached MNES for second phase grid extension of 15 km. Electrical control panel of 2000 Ampere capacity rating and each DG set is provided with Molded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB) of 300 A rating with built in protections for under voltage, over voltage, over current, earth fault protection and reverse power. The synchronizing panel has synchroscope and the operators check synchronizing relay and synchronizing operation manually. The outgoing feeder and bus coupler is provided with 630 A ACB. The distribution panel is 22 ITCOT provided with Enercon make EM 3360 – 2 nos for registering power at the feeder levels. C. Financial Parameters Table 6 Project Cost of Chottomollokhali Installation S. No Items Unit Cost Rs lakh 1 Land 1 acre 150.00 2 Fuel storage yard 2,500 sq ft 3 Gasifier system with DG 7,000 sq ft 4 Power evacuation 315 kVA transformer, system 100 kVA and 63 kVA distribution transformers associated electrical system Total project cost: Rs.150 lakhs Source of funds: 75% of the project cost from MNES 25% of the project from West Bengal State Government Power evacuation cost: Cost for 11 kV (HT) distribution: Rs 2.5 lakhs/km Cost for 415 V (LT) distribution: Rs 1.5 lakhs/km The plant has 5km of LT line and 1 km of HT line. WBREDA has planned to expand the distribution network by another 10 km with the support of MNES in second phase. 23 ITCOT Consumers and Tariff structure The island has an area of 25 sq km with a population of 15,000. It was informed that around 350 consumers are availing this power supply and are grouped as below. • Domestic: Rs.4.00/kWh • Commercial: Rs 4.50/kWh • Hospital: Rs.4.50/kWh • Ice factory: Rs 5.00/kWh • Small industries like band saw mill and others: Rs 5.00/kWh Deposit fees towards service connection @ Rs 500/consumer and Rs 20/month as meter rent is charged from the consumers. The above are flat tariff charges without taxes. Around 95% of the customers are coming under domestic group. Operation and Maintenance cost Based on the discussion with WBREDA, the past operating data is summarized below in Table 7: Table 7 Three Year Performance of Chottomollokhali Installation S. No Items 2002 2003 2004 1 Average Processed biomass fuel tonnes 120 144 180 2 Average fuel cost Rs/kg 1.00 1.00 1.00 3 Average Diesel in Kilo litres 12 15 18 4 Average Diesel price Rs/litre 15 20 29 5 No. of operators 9 9 9 6 Average Operators salary/annum Rs lakh 2.40 2.40 2.40 7 Electricity generation cost Rs/kWhr 2.75 3.50 4.50 8 Total revenue generated Rs lakh 4.20 6.00 7.20 9 Total expenditure Rs lakh 5.20 7.30 9.00 10 Net deficit Rs lakh 1.00 1.30 1.80 24 ITCOT D. Chotamulakalli Power Plant Operation The power plant though, has an installed capacity of 4 x 125 kW, but presently one system is operated, due to the non-completion of grid extension network. The power plant is starts at 5.30 pm and stops at 11.00 pm, and the peak loading is around 110kW at 8.30 pm, and after 6.30 pm the loading drastically reduces to 60%. Society for plant operation Eight member beneficiary committee comprising of personnel from Panchayat head, Panchayat Samithi, WBREDA, political party, consumer representative, Sunderbunds development board and state government, manage the power plant.. Diesel replacement The plant operating data was not provided by WBREDA and the plant was not in operation during the site visit of ITCOT Consultants (Visit was made at 2.30 pm) and hence, no reading was taken from logbook. WBREDA informed that at peak load of 110 kW in one gasifier, following would be the consumption levels, as experienced by them: • Total diesel consumption at peak: 10 litres/hour • Total biomass consumption at peak: 100 kg/hour • Total diesel consumption on diesel mode: 26 litres/hour • Diesel replacement at peak load of 88%: 62% E. General Issues • It was informed that fluctuating demand was a main attribute for the poor performance of the gasifier. The load points are predominantly lighting (domestic, commercial, and street) fans, irrigation pumps, commercial establishment like education institutions and hospital. Before this power plant, consumers were using SPV for lighting systems and fans. • Though three gasifiers were replaced with new gasifiers in 2002 (Gasifier 1,3 and 5), it was informed that gasifier three has still problems in the 25 ITCOT coarse & fine filters, often leading to pressure build up and reduced flow of producer gas. Other two units also have intermittent problems related to filters. • Fabric filter, which exists before the air fuel mixture, also has similar problems of choking in all the working gasifiers. • WBREDA has conveyed that the whole system of gas cleaning and cooling needs a thorough study on the system design and actual performance. It was also conveyed that vendor had never checked the performance indicators like gas quality, tar and particulate emissions at a specified loading, vibration levels, and wear & tear of the engine on poor gas quality. • Due to the frequent problems in the filters and resultant poor gas quality, operators were forced to operate on diesel to maintain the same load. • The entire operation of DG set and gasifier is manual; hence, if producer gas generation is of poor quality then it warrants more attention in operating the DG set on diesel mode, as more operator intervention is required. . This could result in increased cost of power generation. • The operating nature is such that any fall in the gas flow due to filter choking will throw an impact on the sudden reduction of frequency and this has to be immediately attended to by the operator to increase the diesel flow to maintain loading. Hence, gasifier operation with frequent filter problems poses a great challenge to operators. • The problems faced in the coarse and fine filter is due to the sizing of sawdust, which is used as filter medium for removal of tar and other particulate. Incorrect sizing could lead to blockage of sawdust at the mesh pores and reduction in gas flow. • Engine after-cooler has a direct impact on the engine efficiency and one DG set at Gosaba has air-cooled-after-cooler and due to dusty atmosphere with biomass fines, air-cooled-after-cooler fins are found to be choked very often and demand cleaning of filter once a week. • R&D on gasifier reactor and material thickness should be conducted. 26 ITCOT 3.3 Name of Installation: PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu A. Project Background Objective PSG college of Technology, Coimbatore through Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) New Delhi implemented a 1x 100kW biomass gasifier on electrical mode at the PSG foundry campus, Neelambur to partially meet the foundry electrical energy requirement and also to promote gasifier system based academic research projects at the college. Year of commissioning The plant is commissioned in 30th July 2004. Location The gasifier is located in PSG foundry unit at a distance of 10 km from Coimbatore town. Plant lay out Size 12.1 m X 9.0 m Type Open top, down draft solid biomass gasifier. B. Technical Specifications Gasifier (Supplier – Netpro Renewable Energy (India) Pvt Ltd, Bangalore) 1. Capacity: 100 kW 2. Biomass fuel consumption: 135 kg/hr 3. Specific fuel consumption: 1.25 kg/kW +/_ 0.1 4. Bulk density of fuel: 250kg/m3 5. Biomass fuel size: 20mm x 20mm x 60 mm (max). Small particles (10mm x 10mm x 15mm) could be added but limited to maximum of 5 %. 6. Gas quality with ‘standard biomass’ 7. Moisture: < 15% 27 ITCOT 8. Gas cooling: Cold & Chilled Water spray -180 lpm (10 – 15 °C) 9. Tar & Particulate matter removal by: Cyclone separators, scrubber, chillers & fabric filter (Non – woven polyester cloth which retain dust particles up to 5 micron size- Fabric filter is approximately 4 m2) 10. Chilled water spray: 150 lpm 11. Moisture removal: Moisture traps-2nos 12. Gas flaring provision before fabric filter 13. Height of reactor: 5.5 m 14. Auxiliary power: 18 kW includes raw water 3 HP- 3nos, 2 HP- 3 no, Blower -2HP, Screw conveyor for ash removal- 1HP, ETP- 2HP CT fan 2HP -2nos, 15. Recommended biomass fuels: Besaram (Ipoemia), coconut shell, Casuarina (Equistifolia), Eucalyptus, Mulberry stalk, Lantana camara, Silver oak, Jungle wood, saw dust briquettes 16. Gasifier material of construction: high temperature ceramic and stain Engine (make – Cummins India) • Capacity: 140 kVA • Governing system: Hydraulic governor with manual air fuel adjustment and using Battery operated starting system Alternator (Make – Stamford) • KVA: 140 • Speed rpm: 1500 • Voltage: 415 V +/-2.5 % • Frequency: 50Hz • Power factor: 0.8 • Self excited, self regulated brush less design Type of circuit breaker: Molded case circuit breaker Protection system: Earth leakage relay with CBCT The system is provided with voltage, current and energy meter. 28 ITCOT C. Financial Parameters The system is installed in the PSG foundry campus itself and hence, land value is taken as nil. The unit does not have Biomass sizing unit as the unit is purchasing processed biomass. The break up cost of the system is given below in Table 8. Table 8 Total Project Cost of PSG College Installation S. No System Area Cost in Rs. lakhs 1 Gasifier & auxiliaries 5m x 5m x 7.5m 14.500 2 Gas engine, Alternator & 5.3m x 9.0m x 7.5 m 15.500 auxiliaries 3 Power distribution system - 1.500 4 Effluent treatment system - 0.350 5 Pumps - 0.386 Total 32.286 MNES subsidy on item 1 & 2 50 % D. Project Status The plant was commissioned on July 30, 2004 and put under operation intermittently. The system was not operational during the site visit due to problems in the engine in taking load. E. Plant Performance Summary available for the Period (3/7/2004 to 30/10/2004) The operating performance of the system as on 30/10/2004 is given below. • Engine Operating Hours: 263 Hrs. • Gasifier Operating Hours: 128 Hrs. • Total units generated: 4,363 units • Total biomass consumption: 14,562 kgs. • Average plant load, based on operating hours of the engine: 35.6% 29 ITCOT • Average cost of gross power generation as reported in the questionnaire: Rs.3.25/ kWh F. Plant Performance Analysis (a) The plant performance in terms of following indices has been discussed in the chart given below: 1. Specific fuel consumption- kg/kW 2. Gasifier system overall conversion efficiency % 3. % Loading of the system 4. Cost of generation Rs/kWh FIGURE 6 - PSG College of Technology Performance Data from 3.7.2004 to 30.10.2004 10.0 60.0 Date 50.8 50.0 Specifc fuel consumption-kg/kW 46.2 45.8 47.2 44.3 43.2 % of loading & Overall 41.9 40.0 38.5 37.4 efficiency 36.3 35.2 3.8 34.0 34.0 30.0 3.2 30.0 3.0 27.2 2.8 25.9 2.6 23.4 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2 20.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.8 1.9 1.8 14 14 1.7 13 13 12 11 12 12 11 11 11 9 10 10.0 8 9 8 6 1.0 0.0 Date Specific consumption kg/kW %of loading Overall efficiency 30 ITCOT Observations: 1. Loading plays an important role in the viability of the system 2. The highest operating kW, which has been recorded is 50.8 kW, while the average operating load is 37% 3. The average auxiliary consumption is around 43 % of the total gross generation, which in high due to low operating load 4. The average biomass consumption is 2.4 kg/kW, which is much higher compared to the design value of 1.3 kg/kW, which may be due to low operating load and high down time of the engine 5. Though the reported average power generation cost per kWh is Rs. 3.25, the actual power generation cost estimated during the above operating period is Rs.5.84/kWh 6. The overall gasifier system conversion efficiency (including gasifier, engine, Alternator) is also in the range of 8-14%, which is also low due to poor loading 7. The chart indicates poor performance indices due to fluctuations in loading G. Cost of Power Generation Cost of power generation with respect to gasifier system loading is presented in the following chart. 31 ITCOT FIGURE 7 - PSG College of Technology Cost of Power Generation (From 3.7.2004 to 30.10.2004) R &M 0.5 8% Man Power 0.14 2% Fuel 5.84 90% Fuel Manpower R&M Observations: • The fuel component of cost of generation based on the operating data of log book is very high due to low loading and operating period of the gasifier system though the data provided in the questionnaire is Rs 2.5 /kWh based on the specific consumption of Biomass of 1.43 kg/kW at the rate of Rs.1.75 per kg • The break up details of R & M is not provided and taken as Rs.0.5 /kWh, based on the questionnaire • The cost of manpower is very less as one operator and supervisor is in charge of the project and their contribution to cost of unit operation is negligible at 2% of the total cost. Based on the discussion, the operator salary is taken at Rs. 1000 per month and supervisor at Rs.2500 per month 32 ITCOT H. Technical performance data Operator’s manual has been referred for typical operating design pressure at various sections of the system during normal operation and the details are given below in Table 9 and Table 10. Table 9 Operation & Manual Parameters of PSG College of Technology Pressure in mm of H2O Biomass Inlet to Gas flow Outlet to Load consum Across Reactor R.W. rate- Chilled (kW) ption Venturi in (P1) in Cooler g/s cooler in Kg mm mm (P2) in mm mm 50 55 +/- 5 38 +/- 5 30 +/- 10% 60 +/- 10 20+/- 10% 100+/-10% 70 80+/-5 50+/-5 55+/-10% 70+/-10 25+/-10% 85+/-10% 85 90+/- 65+/-5 80+/-10% 80+/-10 30+/-10% 80+/-10% 100 110+/-5 75+/-5 110+/-10% 90+/-10 35+/-10% 80+/-10% 110 121+/-5 85+/-5 135+/-10% 100+/-10 40+/-10% 85+/-10% 120 132+/-5 90+/-5 160+/-10% 110+/-10 45+/-10% 85+/-10% Gas flow g/s: Venturi constant x sq. root of pressure drop at Venturi Based on the logbook, the following actual operating data is noted for a typical day (13/7/2004) is given below. Table 10 Actual Operation of PSG College of Technology Gasifier System S. No Parameter Unit Value/Range Load KW 11 ~ 73 1 Gas flow (Based on Venturimeter) g/sec 32 ~ 84 2 Differential pressure across Venturimeter Mm H2O 25~ 175 3 Reactor exit P1 Mm H2O 10 ~ 30 33 ITCOT Table 10 Contd.. S. No Parameter Unit Value/Range 4 Raw Water Cooler outlet P2 Mm H2O 20 ~ 60 5 Chiller outlet Mm H2O 55 ~115 6 Reactor exit temperature °C 258 ~ 586 7 Moisture Trap exit temperature °C 14~ 21 8 Charcoal Kg/day 6~10 9 O2 % 0~1 10 Voltage Volts 415~ 420 11 Currents Amps 25~ 120 12 Frequency Hz 47~ 51.5 13 Water Temperature °C 60~ 75 14 Oil Temperature °C 60~ 80 15 Oil pressure Psi 40 16 Exhaust Temperature °C 360 ~ 450 17 Speed Rpm 1400 ~1500 I. Issues: i. The gasifier with 100 % producer gas engine from Cummins is the first of its kind and the system is yet to get stabilized. ii. The load connected to the engine is foundry (Sand blasting -35 kW, Lighting load-20 kW, Auxiliary of gasifier system -20 kW) and facing fluctuating load predominantly due to sand blasting (For every 8 minutes, blower will be on for 3 sec.) and during overload, the gas quantity is not sufficient to meet the demand and hence, the engine trips. It was observed that engine could not take load more than 40kW often. The following are some of the problems encountered during the period. a) Screw conveyor for ash removal was getting choked often, which may be due to frequent on/off of the gasifier system b) Fabric filter is getting blocked often c) Biomass size is reduced from 30 mm x 20 mm to 20mm x 20mm 34 ITCOT d) It was noted that the management was trying to synchronize the system with Electricity Board recently with the technical input of PSG technology but could not succeed e) It was observed that no trained man power is available for operating the system and PSG technology was providing technical support as and when required 35 ITCOT 3.4 Name of Installation: Jagat Alloys Private Limited, Khopoli, Maharashtra A. Project Background Objective Jagat Alloys Private Limited (JAPL), Savroli Village, Khopoli planned to set up 2 x 500 kW gasifier for captive consumption. JAPL has set up only 1 x 500 kW gasifier to meet the load of Ferro Alloy Plant. Year of commissioning The plant is commissioned on July 4, 2001. Location The unit is located in Savroli Village 120 km from Pune. Type Open top, down draft solid biomass gasifier B. Technical Specifications Gasifier (Supplier – Cosmo Powertech Private Limited, Raipur) 1. Capacity: 500 kW 2. Rated Gas Output: 1250 Nm3 / h 3. Calorific Value of Gas: 1000 – 1200 kCal/ Nm3 4. Biomass to gas conversion Efficiency: 70% 5. Biomass fuel consumption: 400 kg/hr 6. Specific fuel consumption: 0.8 to 1.2 kg/kW 7. Bulk density of fuel: 250kg/m3 on dry basis 8. Biomass fuel size: Minimum 100 mm and Maximum 150mm of any shape 9. Moisture: < 20% 10. Water required: 300 – 350 litres per hour 11. Turn Down Ratio: 1:2 12. Contaminants in clean gas: Less than 100 mg/Nm3 13. Height of reactor: 10 feet 14. Auxiliary power: 10 units per hour 36 ITCOT 15. Recommended biomass fuels: Any woody biomass or low ash biomass briquettes 16. Gasifier material of construction: Reactor with 5mm thick MS plate and lower part made of 8mm thick MS Plate with air nozzle of SS make. 17. Hopper Capacity: 1500 – 2000 kg of biomass Engine (make – Yanmar) • Model No: T – 220 – ST • D1 Water Cooled • TCIC 6 Cylinder Engine • Speed 750 rpm • Compression Ratio: 13:1 • Injection System Make and Model: Diesel KIKI – DL 90S03N75 • Period of Operation: • Diesel Mode: 1500 Hours • Dual Fuel Mode: 1000 Hours • Rate of Lubricating Oil Consumption: 500 CC per hour Alternator (Make – Taiyo) • Rating: 560 kW • Type: FE – 45 E - S • Speed rpm: 1500 • Voltage: 450 V • Current: 898 Amps • Frequency: 50Hz • Power factor: 0.8 C. Financial Parameters Building and civil works The system is installed in the rear side of the unit and the cost of building and civil works is taken as nil. The unit does not have Biomass sizing unit as the unit is purchasing processed biomass. 37 ITCOT For Gasifier system with DG set Total Cost: Rs. 268.68 Lakhs Equity: JAPL: Rs.67.17 lakhs Loan from Banks including MNES Subsidy: Rs. 201.51 Lakhs MNES subsidy: Rs. 20.40 lakhs (Source MNES Letter to MEDA) a) Gasifier Subsidy: Rs. 8.5 Lakhs b) Instrumentation: Rs. 0.15 Lakhs c) Cooling and Cleaning System: 2.50 Lakhs d) Automation Subsidy: 1 Lakh e) Others (Pre processing Effluent treatment): 2 Lakhs f) Dual Fuel DG Set: 6.25 Lakhs D. Project Status The plant was commissioned on July 4, 2001 and put under operation intermittently. The system is not in operation for the past two years. E. Plant Performance Summary available for the Period (1/8/2001 to 10/09/2001) • Gross Power Generation 1,57,334 kWh • Average kW loading: 47.96% • Total biomass consumption: 1,87,935 Kgs • Total diesel consumption: 19,010 litres • No. of Operating Hours: 656 hours • Average diesel replacement: 58% • Average cost of gross power generation: Rs.4.6/kWh • Average PLF: 47.96 % • Average specific biomass consumption: 1.19 kg/kWh • Average specific diesel consumption: 0.12 litre/ kWh 38 ITCOT F. Plant Performance Analysis The plant performance in terms of following indices has been discussed in the chart given below: 1. Biomass consumption in kg. 2. Diesel consumption in litres and 3. Energy generated in kWh FIGURE 8 Energy Generated and Biomass Consumption in Performance of Jagat Alloys Private Limited 8000 700 7000 600 6000 500 5000 400 kgs 4000 300 3000 200 2000 1000 100 0 0 8/ /01 8/ /01 8/ /01 8/ /01 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 31 1 9/ /01 9/ /01 9/ /01 9/ /01 10 1 1 8/ 9/0 9/ 8/0 8/ 1/0 8/ 3/0 8/ 5/0 8/ 7/0 8/ 9/0 8/ 1/0 8/ 3/0 8/ 5/0 8/ 7/0 8/ 9/0 /0 1 3 5 7 2 4 6 8/ Biomass Consumption in Kgs Energy Generated in kWh Diesel Consumption in Litres Observations: 1. In the figure it could be seen that fuel replacement for unit generation follows the same pattern with respect to biomass consumption. 2. The highest loading has taken place on 3rd of September 2001. 3. The average biomass consumption is 1.19 kg/kW, which is almost the same to design value. 39 ITCOT 4. Though the reported average power generation cost per kWh is 3.25, the actual power generation cost estimated during the above operating period is Rs.4.6/kWh and this mainly because of diesel price. G. Issues: JAPL for setting up 2 x 500 kW gasifier based power generating system has approached Consultant to prepare Detailed Project Report (DPR) for submitting the same to MEDA, MNES and Development Credit bank limited. Central Financial Assistance (CFA) of 40.80 lakhs was approved by MNES for the year 2000 – 01. 50% of 40.80 lakhs i.e. 20.40 lakhs was sent to MEDA from MNES for granting the subsidy. JAPL has mobilized equity through shares for their plant expansion & gasifier installation and arranged loans other than MNES subsidy through Development Credit bank limited. JAPL has installed 1 x 500 kW gasifier and received 50% grant from 20.40 lakhs i.e., 10.20 lakhs from MEDA. JAPL has commissioned 1st Phase 500 kW and provided Rs. 8 lakhs as advance to Gasifier Supplier Cosmo power tech for installing second phase. However, MNES has asked for bank guarantee from JAPL to pay the final 50% for 1st Phase and as bank guarantee could not be provided by JAPL though nationalized bank (as Development Credit bank were their bankers – a non Nationalized bank) the second payment got delayed. This has forced the company into financial crunch. Further to it, MNES after installation has requested for type certificate of Cosmo power tech gasifier, adding further delay in receiving the subsidy. After receiving the type certificate, MNES has requested IIT Mumbai to provide common performance report (CPR) on gasifier performance. During trial, the replacement of diesel was 58%. The reason indicated for lesser diesel replacement was the wetness prevailed in the biomass used as the trial was 40 ITCOT taken during rainy season and hence CPR submitted by GARP, IIT was rejected by MNES and added further delay. Then final trial run was conducted on 2nd April 2002 and diesel replacement was achieved around 71%. MNES has sanctioned the remaining subsidy for 1st Phase; however, JAPL has given up 2nd Phase and then requested MNES to cancel the second phase grant for another 500 kW, due to their own financial crunch and other hiccups in receiving the grant. 41 ITCOT 3.5 Name of Installation: Community Based Gasifier Project, Odanthurai, Coimbatore District A. Project Background The project is commissioned to meet the energy requirement of raw water pumping station of Odanthurai Municipality. The Gasifier system of 9kW is supplied by Ankur. The system is self-regulated and excited engine supplied by DIPCO and later replaced with Field Marshall as the engine could generate 7HP and the matching Compton Greaves Alternator. The project cost is as follows • The project cost is Rs.3.71lakhs • Panchayat contribution-Rs. 1.75 lakhs • MNES subsidy-Rs. 1.35 lakhs B. Technical Specifications Gasifier (Supplier – Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Private Limited, Baroda) 1. Model – Ankur Gas – 9 WBG – 15 2. Biomass Consumption: 13 kg./ hr. 3. Fuel: Hard Woody Biomass 4. Calorific Value of gas: 1100 – 1300 kCal/ Nm3 Alternator (Make – Crompton Greaves pf:0.8) • Rating: 15 kVA Alternator C. Financial Parameters The project cost is as follows: • The project cost is Rs.3.71 lakhs • Panchayat contribution: Rs.1.75 lakhs • MNES Subsidy – Rs.1.35 Lakhs 42 ITCOT D. Plant Performance The project is commissioned on 5th April 2004 and the performance data of the system till 29th March 2005 is given in Enclosure II, and the consolidated data is given below in Table 11. Table 11 Performance during April ‘04 – March ‘05 of Odanthurai Installation Specific Biomass Power No of operating biomass Month consumption consumption- hrs of the consumption -kgs kWhr system Kg/kWh Apr-04 660 344 1.92 57.50 May-04 1,223 587 2.08 116.20 Jun-04 787 395 1.99 78.45 Jul-04 1,070 535 2.00 102.00 Aug-04 876 473 1.85 80.30 Sep-04 850 506 1.68 90.80 Oct-04 360 201 1.79 35.50 Nov-04 650 346 1.88 67.60 Dec-04 403 198 2.04 39.75 Jan-05 390 341 1.14 34.50 Feb-05 621 341 1.82 62.25 Mar-05 755 569 1.33 74.90 Total 8645 4835 840 The above data on the performance is given in a graph shown below. 43 ITCOT FIGURE 9 - Odanthurai Performance of Odanthurai System P e rfo rm a n c e o f s y s t e m 2 .5 0 2 .0 0 1 .5 0 c o n s u m p t io n , S p e c if ic b io m a s s P o w e r g e n e r a t io n c o n s u m p t io n Wood 1 .0 0 0 .5 0 - A p r - 0 4 M a y - J u n - 0 4 J u l- 0 4 A ug- S e p - O c t- 0 4 N o v - D e c - Ja n -0 5 Fe b -0 5 M a r-0 5 04 04 04 04 04 W o o d c o n s u m p t io n n th P oMwo e r g e n e ra t io n S p e c ific b io m a s s c o n s u m p t io n • The above table indicates that specific biomass consumption decreases over the period of time • The power generation is low during the period of October & December which may be due to low operating days which may be due to weather conditions • The power generation is low with high specific biomass consumption during summer and low during winter seasons E. Cost of Production The cost of production before implementing the project and after biomass gasifier system is given below in Table 12. 44 ITCOT Table 12 Cost of Energy Generation at Odanthurai Panchayat No Before Gasifier system After Gasifier system 1. Electricity Rs.3.5 per kWh Biomass cost Rs.0.450* charges 2. Labour Rs.0.446 per kWh Labour Rs.0.664 3. Maintenance Rs.0.071 per kWh Maintenance Rs.0.281 Total Rs.4.017 Total Rs.1.395 Savings: 65% * Biomass consumption is @1.5kg@Rs.300 per ton The breakup of cost of production is given below. Figure 10 – Cost of Production at Odanthurai Panchayat 20% 32% 48% Biomass cost Labour Maintenance • It is observed that the labour cost contribute maximum in the cost of production, while maintenance cost is the lowest • The raw material cost is low as the biomass is being collected and sized locally using self-help group. 45 ITCOT 3.6 Name of Installation: Community Based Gasifier Project, Nellithurai, Coimbatore District A. Project Background Location: Nellithurai, Coimbatore district The project is commissioned to meet the energy requirement of the raw water pumping station at Nellithurai Municipality and the lighting of the surrounding area. The total power requirement is 3 HP and 2 HP for water pumps and a lighting load of 3 kW. B. Technical Specifications The Gasifier system supplied by Ankur . The system is 10kW self regulated & excited engine of DIPCO with matching Alternator. C. Financial Parameters Financial parameters not provided. D. Performance The project was commissioned in August 2004 and the performance data of the system till March 2005 is given in Enclosure III and the consolidated data is given below in Table 13. Table 13 Nellithurai Plant Performance during August 2004 to March 2005 Specific Biomass No of Hrs of No Month Biomass Units consumption- days generator kg/kW 1 Aug.04 13 645 436 10,383 1.48 2 Sep.04 9 250 172 9,980 1.45 3 Oct.04 20 250 215 37,204 1.16 4 Nov.04 28 580 193 9,980 3.01 46 ITCOT 5 Dec.04 19 870 555 45,398 1.57 6 Jan.05 19 640 560 37,204 1.14 7 Feb.05 18 1,230 573 26,787 2.15 8 Mar.05 30 3,500 1123 3.12 Total 156 7,965 3,827 176,936 The above data is represented in the graphical form below. FIGURE 11 – Performance Valuation of Nellithurai Panchayat Performance Valuation 4000 3.50 Power generation units in kWh 3500 3.00 Biomass consumption-kg & 3000 2.50 consumption-kg/kW Specific biomass 2500 2.00 2000 1.50 1500 1.00 1000 0.50 500 0 - Dec.04 Jan.05Feb.05Mar.05 Aug.04Sep.04Oct.04Nov.04 Month & Year Biomass Units specific Biomass consumption 47 ITCOT The above graph indicates the following. • The biomass consumption is lower for the initial period due to low loading. • The power generation and biomass consumption is higher for December to March period. 48 ITCOT 3.7 Name of Installation: Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore A. Project Background Objective Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT) has installed a 90 kWe Gasifier for generating power for captive consumption in the hostels and to carryout R & D activities in the field of Renewable Energy. Year of Installation The unit was installed during 2003. Location VIT is located at Vellore, which is 145 Kms from Chennai. Plant lay out Size The total plant area is 2,100 Sq feet covering 400 sq feet for fuel processing yard and 600 sq feet for Gasifier System and DG Set Type Woody biomass down draft gasifier with batch feeding B. Technical Specifications Gasifier (supplier – Netpro Renewable Energy Private Limited) iii. Capacity: 100 kW iv. Biomass fuel consumption: 135kg/h v. Biomass fuel size: 50 mm~50mm vi. Moisture: < 15% vii. Loading of biomass: manual feeding and intermittent viii. Gasifier starting: Manual ix. Diesel replacement: average: 75 - 85% x. Gas cooling and cleaning of tar removal, particulates: Water spray cooler, cyclone separator, scrubber, sand (coarse and fine) filter, fabric filter, 2°C output - water chiller xi. Gas flaring provision before gas entry into engine xii. Height of reactor: 2.9m 49 ITCOT xiii. Recommended biomass fuels: Casuarinas, eucalyptus, Julia flora and any hardwood xiv. Gasifier material of construction: Stainless Steel for nozzle and throat and SS 304 for Hopper, body and pipe line xv. Life of Gasifier: 10 years xvi. Turn down ratio: 1:3 xvii. Starting time from cold start: 15 - 30 minutes xviii. Conversion Efficiency (Fuel to Producer Gas): 92% xix. Conversion Efficiency (Engine): 30% xx. Auxiliary Consumption: 32 HP for pumps Engine • Make: Kirloskar • Capacity: 90 kW Alternator • Make: Kirloskar • Capacity: 125 kVA, Speed: 1500 rpm, Voltage: 415 V • Frequency: 50 Hz, Power Factor: 0.8, Insulation: Class H • Voltage Regulation: Automatic C. Financial Parameters Building and civil works The college has allotted land for installing gasifier. For Gasifier system with DG set Capital Subsidy: Rs. 1.35 Lakhs Total Project cost: Rs. 42.00 lakhs D. Project Status The plant was commissioned in 2003 and is in operation since then continuously for 300 days in a year. 50 ITCOT E. Plant Performance Summary for the monitored Period ♠ Average gross power generation per month: 24,000 kWh ♠ Average auxiliary power consumption per month: 3,500 kWh ♠ Average biomass consumption per month: 22,080 Kgs ♠ Average diesel consumption per month: 792 Litres ♠ Operating hours/day: 24 hours ♠ Average cost of gross power generation: Rs.3.22/kWh ♠ Average specific biomass consumption: 0.92 kg/kWh ♠ Average specific diesel consumption: 0.033 litres/kWh F. Cost of Production The unit cost breakup of gross power generation is given in Figure 12 below. Figure 12 –Unit Generation – Breakup Cost at VIT in % 30% 27% 40% 3% Diesel Cost Biomass Cost AMC Labour Observations: • Diesel cost plays a vital role in power generation cost. 51 ITCOT • Manpower is required for fuel sizing of non-processed wood. The salary for operators (Totaling fourteen in number for 3 shifts operation) is around Rs. 60 per day per person. • Repairs and maintenance cost is considered at 3% of the production cost G. Summary of notes of discussion with VIT About Fuel • Julia flora is the fuel used and the calorific value is around 3500 kCal/ kg • The size of the fuel is 1.5 inches in diameter and 3 inches in length • The moisture in the fuel is less than 15% at the feeding point of gasifier • Average replacement of diesel achieved – 87 % (Max: 88% and Min: 70%) Water Utilisation • The makeup water of 1000 litres is used for every two days. Load Pattern A section of hostel load is connected to the gasifier system and it provides a fairly constant demand of 50~60 kW. Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) VIT has installed a WHR at engine exhaust for drying biomass with 1,600 kg of drier holding capacity and it was informed as very effective. H. Issues Gas cooling and filter systems for gas cleaning have been highlighted as the problem prone area, which have been rectified by VIT themselves. However, the technical details on the modifications carried out have not been disclosed. VIT conveyed that overall performance of the gasifier was satisfactory. 52 ITCOT 3.8 Name of Installation: Periyar Maniammai College of Technology for Women A. Project Background Objective Periyar Maniammai College of Technology for Women (PMCTW) has installed 100 kW Dual Fuel Mode Gasifier system during 2001 and later installed 200 kW 100% producer gas based Gasifier system during 2004. The college has installed the gasifiers for captive consumption and for carrying out R&D activities in the field of renewable energy. Year of Installation The dual fuel based gasifier plant was installed during 2001 and the 100% producer gas based plant was installed on 24th June 2004. Location Periyar Maniammai College of Technology for Women is located at Vallam, and is accessible from Thanjavur by road at a distance of 20 Kms. Plant lay out Size 5m X15m Type Woody biomass down draft gasifier with batch feeding B. Technical Specifications The College has provided technical details for 200 kW system alone. Gasifier (Supplier – Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Private Limited, Baroda) i) Capacity: 200 kW ii) Biomass fuel consumption: 300 kg/h iii) Moisture: < 20% iv) Loading of biomass: Automatic v) Gasifier starting: Manual 53 ITCOT vi) Gas cooling and cleaning of tar removal, particulates: Cyclone Separator, 4 Nos. of active and passive coarse filters, fine filters with sawdust. vii) Gas flaring provision before engine entry viii) Height of reactor 10 ft. ix) Auxiliary power: 20 kW includes pumps in cooling tower, pumps in gasifier, pumps in engine and blower x) Recommended biomass fuels: Casuarinas, eucalyptus, Julia flora and any hardwood xi) Gasifier material of construction: Stainless Steel for nozzle and throat and MS for Hopper, body and pipe line xii) Life of Gasifier: 5 years xiii) Turn down ratio: 30% xiv) Starting time from cold start: 15 minutes Engine (make - Cummins) • Model: GTA – 1710 – G • Starting system: Battery Alternator (Make – Stamford) • KVA: 320, Speed rpm: 1500 • Voltage: 415 V, Amps: 445 Ampere, Frequency, 50Hz • Power factor 0.8, Continuous rating • DC Excitation 38 V: 2 A, Star Connected, Enclosure: IP 23 • Insulation: Class H Electrical panels The plant is designed to operate in stand-alone mode and the gasifier power is fed to six changeover points in the college. The panel is provided with over voltage, over current and over speed protection. The panel reads voltage, current and energy online. C. Financial Parameters Not Provided 54 ITCOT D. Project Status The plant was on run from July 2 2004 and is in operation without any trouble since then. The plant operates for 12 to 14 hours a day for 6 days a week. E. Average Plant Performance • Gross Power Generation: 50,000 kWh per month • Auxiliary Power Consumption: 5,000 kWh per month • Average kW loading: 87.50% • Total biomass consumption: 300 kgs per hour • Average cost of gross power generation: Rs.2.25/kWh without depreciation and interest on loan F. Overall Observations • Personnel required for loading the gasifier is eliminated in Ankur Scientific System since lift is used for loading the Gasifier; as the manual operation is not required, the cost of labour is only for processing the fuel; and hence, taken as Rs.0.10 per kg of fuel used. • Repairs and maintenance cost is not considered, as the plant is new. • The gasifier system has an improved version when compared to Valli Chlorate system (as it is the first gasifier) in gas distribution and governing. • The system is provided with gas controlled pneumatic systems. • Producer gas is fed into the engine through valve control and depending upon the load, gas is provided with these valve controls. G. Summary of notes on discussion with PMCTW • PMCTW gasifier is of Ankur Scientific Make with Cummins engine of 200 kW with a capital subsidy of Rs. 30 lakhs from MNES, New Delhi • There are 6 change over points (load points) connected to the gasifier. • Main building, computer building, Hostel 1, Hostel 2, Hospital and Farms are the six load points • EB tariff for the college is Rs. 4.80 per kWh and for the farm alone is Rs. 6 per kWh. 55 ITCOT • The gasifier fuel is Julia flora and Eucalyptus and fed at an interval of 2 hours in its 14-hour operation, which is acquired through Self Help Groups (SHG) and local villagers. • During each interval 240 kgs of wood is fed into the gasifier and the cost of biomass is Rs. 1200 per ton. • Average unit generated is Rs. 50,000 units per month and the auxiliary consumption is around 10% and the net export is Rs. 45,000 per month. • Auxiliary loads are as follows: a. The water cooling system for gasifier is served with three pumps (2 x 3 HP + 1 x 2 HP) – 7 HP b. Water cooling system for engine with two pumps (1 x 3 HP and 1 x 2 HP) – 5 HP c. Engine Cooler Pumps – 1 HP d. Blower – 12.5 HP • The live load pattern taken up from control panel on 11th April 2005 is as follows: a. Amps: 153 A b. KW: 125 kW c. Voltage: 414 V d. Frequency: 49.5 to 50.4 Hz H. Issues Since the college has been operating the system for the last two years, no major issues were highlighted during discussion. I. General Issues on site operations There are no major reported issues though constant loading is a problem. The college observed that, due to changing loads, it would not be possible for the system to be synchronized with the grid, due to changing frequency. 56 ITCOT 3.9 Name of Installation: G B Food Oils Private Limited, Pudupatty G. B. Food Oils has installed a 1x100 kW Gasifier supplied by Netpro Renewable Energy (India) Limited, Bangalore, Karnataka. The project is on a test run and highlights of the system are detailed below: • Netpro Renewable Energy (India) Limited, Bangalore, Karnataka and G. B. Food Oils Limited have 50 – 50 share in gasifier supply. • 1 x 100 kW gasifier is installed in G. B. Food Oils, Pudupatty and 1 x 100 kW gasifier is installed in GB Enterprises, Trichy. • These two gasifiers are test run gasifiers. • Gasifier at G. B. Food Oils is operated for 20 days in Dual Fuel Mode during December 2003 connected to one 125-kVA engine. The energy generation through engine was struck due to problems in engine and hence stopped operating diesel engine. • The unit has two engines of 125 and 63 kVA and the total load of the unit is 400 HP. The unit is connected to HT line at the rate of Rs. 4.80 per unit. • The unit has ordered for Greaves 300 kVA LPG based engine modified to 100% producer gas engine for Rs. 16 lakhs and Rs. 10 lakhs grant was agreed by MNES, New Delhi. 57 ITCOT CHAPTER 4 VENDOR CAPABILITY AND TECHNOLOGY PENETRATION 4.1 Vendors There are only a few technology suppliers and manufacturers in India and to obtain the status of technology and capability of Gasifier and Engine suppliers, a detailed questionnaire was sent to the manufacturers of Gasifier systems for their feed back on their capabilities and list of Installations. The vendor list as follows: Table 14 Vendors supplying Gasifiers S. No Name of the Gasifier Supplier/ Technology Provider 1 Netpro Renewable Energy (India) Limited, Bangalore, Karnataka 2 Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Private Limited, Baroda 3 Energreen Power Limited, Chennai, Tamilnadu 4 Cosmo Powertech Private Limited, Raipur, Chhattisgarh 5 Centre for Gasification and Propulsion Laboratory (CGPL), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka 6 Grain Processing Industries (India) Private Limited, Kolkata, West Bengal 7 Associated Engineering Works (AEW), Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh Out of the above Ankur, Grain Processing, AEW and Cosmo have their own technologies, while the others use the technology developed by IISc. The feed back from the manufacturers was poor in that only one vendor responded with the filled in questionnaire, and ITCOT had one to one discussions with the following vendors after receiving their concurrence a. Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies private Limited, Regional office at Kolkata b. Netpro Renewable Energy (India) Limited, Bangalore, Karnataka c. Grain Processing Industries (India) Private Limited, Kolkata, West Bengal 58 ITCOT 4.1.1 Gasifier Type All vendors supply downdraft gasifiers except Grain Processing Private Limited. Woody biomass gasifier, fine biomass gasifier and gas based biomass gasifier are the different types supplied by the vendors. 4.1.2 Vendor Capability on Capacity Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Ltd The company is in operation for more than 15 years with many awards from Research institutions and Government, and is one of the MNES approved vendors. They are having the manufacturing capability to produce gasifier systems for both thermal and electrical applications based on both woody (WBG) and fine biomass (FBG). The highlights of technical specifications are given below as Table 15. Table 15 Ankur Gasifier – Technical Specifications Parameters FBG Series WBG Gasifier Modes FBG-40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 150, WBG; 40, 60, 80, 100, 200, 250, 300, 335 120, 150, 205, 250, 300, 400, 500 Type Down Draft - do - Size – Min. & 2 mm on cylindrical diameter D: 10 mm; L: 10 mm Max. Diameter: 3mm, L: 20 mm Moisture 10% (max.) < 20% Gasification 900-100 1,050-1,100 Temp. ° C Efficiency- Hot 65 to 75 > 85% Gas mode Efficiency - Cold 60 to 65 > 75% Gas mode 59 ITCOT The capability of the vendor in supplying the system as provided in the questionnaire is given below as Table 16. Table 16 Vendor capability in supplying the system S. No Type Model Capability 1 Woody Biomass WBG-5 to WBG-850 Can manufacture at 2 Fine Biomass FBG-40 to FBG-400 least 500 systems of 3 Combo Combo-150 to 350 small ratings and 4 100% producer gas based Gas-4 to 425 another 300 power pack systems systems of higher ratings NETPRO Renewable Energy (India) Pvt. Ltd. (NETPRO) The company was established in 1994 to design and manufacture biomass gasification plants in association with IISc, Bangalore and Dasag Energy Engineering Ltd., Switzerland. NETPRO’s current focus is on large scale Commercialisation of biomass gasification plants of various sizes for power generation as well as thermal applications. Netpro has a technical collaboration agreement with the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore, India, a premium-engineering institute of the country. NETPRO undertakes the turnkey execution of power generation facilities with unit capacities up to 500 kW and tailor made designs for thermal applications. It has supplied a large number of gasifiers in India, USA, Switzerland and Kenya. Table 17 Typical Technical Data of an IISc – Netpro Biomass Gasification Plant Parameter Specification Ratings of the Gasifier 25 kg/ h to 750 kg/ h of standard biomass Type Open top, down draft solid biomass gasifier Feed Stock Any solid biomass with bulk density over 200kg/m3, moisture content less than 15% cut to a maximum 60 ITCOT size of 60 mm x 20 mm x 20 mm Average Lower Calorific 4.5 + 0.2 Mj/ kg Value Typical gas composition (% CO: 20 + 1%: CH4 : 3 + 1%, H2 : 20 + 1%, CO2 : by volume) 12 + 1%; O2 : 0.1% (max) and rest N2. Turndown ratio 4:1 (max./min.) load Avg. specific weight of 1.12 kg/ Nm3 producer gas Auxiliary plant loads Water pump, Chiller, Suction blower, Chilled water pump Application Diesel substitution upto 70 – 80% is expected to be achieved in dual – fuel mode of operation on specified diesel engines at or above 75% of the rated load. The tune to which diesel substitution could be achieved is sensitive to the moisture content in the biomass Gas quantity with Hot end Cold end “standard” biomass Tar: 70 + 30 ppm < 40 + 10 ppm Particles: 600 + 100 ppm < 30 + 10 ppm Tar Gasification efficiency with Hot gas: 80 – 85% Cold gas: >75% at high loads “standard” biomass Specific Wood Consumption Depends upon the engine. Typically, with biomass of 12% moisture content: 1.1+0.1 kg/kWh in dual fuel mode and 1.3 + 0.1 kg/ kWh in pure gas mode. Associated Engineering Works Ltd The vendor is in operation for more than 10 years supplying gasifiers for both thermal & electrical dual fuel applications. The typical technical specification of models manufactured by the vendor as per the brochure is given below in Table 18. 61 ITCOT Table 18 Data Table - Associated Engineering Works Electrical / Power Application MODEL S.NO. SPECIFICATIONS GE-350 GE 450 GE 600 1 Nominal Rated output to KCal/Hr. 50000 1,00,000 2,50,000 2 Rated Electrical Output (kW) 20 40 100 3 Wood/ Biomass consumption in Kg./Hr. 20 40 100 4 Moisture content acceptable 5-20% 5-20% 5-20% 5 Hopper holding capacity in Kgs. 100 200 500 6 Aux. Power required (HP) 2 3 5 7 Wood Cutter Motor H.P 1.5 2 3 8 Wood chip size range (Diameter or 1/2" - 1 3/4" - 1 length) 1/2" 1/2" 1" - 2" 9 Typical diesel replacement (Average) 65% 65% 65% 10 Floor space required 8'-8' 10'-15' 10'-20' Energreen Power Ltd, Chennai The vendor is in operation for more than 5 years supplying Gasifiers system with technical know how from IISC, Bangalore. Though no details are provided on their capability or the current operation, based on the discussions, it was observed the first 1 MW grid connected Gasifier has been supplied by the vendor though no details could be obtained either from the vendor or from the promoter M/s. Arasi Hi Tech Bio Power Pvt Ltd, Tamil Nadu. Based on the secondary survey it is noted that the vendor is capable of supplying the following systems • Thermal systems: 100kW to 10MW • Electrical systems: 20kWe to 2 MW The technical specifications of the systems as per the claim of the vendor are given below. • Specific fuel consumption for dual fuel mode: 0.8 to 0.9 kg of biomass/kwh 62 ITCOT • Diesel replacement possible for dual fuel mode: 80% • Specific fuel consumption for producer gas mode: 1.0 to 1.2 kg of biomass/1kWh Grain processing Industries (India) Pvt. Ltd. The vendor is in operational for more than 10 years and the system design is based on updraft and the various models available are given below in Table 19. Table 19 Grain Processing Industries (India) Pvt. Ltd. – Technical Specifications Specifications GP 100 GP 200 GP 500 Max. Electrical output (kW) 100 200 500 Max. Thermal Output (KCal./hr.) 2,50,000 5,00,000 12,50,000 Rated Biomass Consumption 2,50,000 5,00,000 12,50,000 (Kg./hr.) (Including 10-15% diesel oil) Min. space required for plant (Sq. 40’ x 40’ 50’x40’ 50’x60’ ft.) Cosmo Power tech Pvt Ltd The company is in the process of supplying Gasifier systems with dual fuel mode and is one of the approved vendors of MNES and has supplied 500 kW dual fuel mode gasifier systems. 4.1.3 Guarantee/Warrantee Provided Though no guarantee is provided on the performance for the system as a whole by these vendors as characteristics of ‘standard biomass’ vary based on site conditions, few vendors like Ankur, have provided guarantee to following equipment supplied by them. a. Gasifier b. Burner 63 ITCOT c. Dual fuel engine d. Cutters e. Filters f. Skip Charger g. Wood Dryer h. Variable Load Control System 4.1.4 Annual Maintenance Contract Annual Maintenance Contract is provided to the equipment under guarantee. 4.2. Engine Various engine manufacturers have supplied engine for producing power from the gas generated from the gasifiers. Engines specific to 100% producer gas usage and with dual fuel option (usually Diesel) has been used for generating power. The vendors supplying 100% producer gas engine and Dual Fuel Engine for the gasifier system is detailed below. 4.2.1 100% Producer Gas Engine Supply, Erection, Testing and Commissioning of 100% Producer gas engine has been under the responsibility of Gasifier Suppliers / Vendors. So far for higher capacity range the engine has been supplied by Cummins. Of the 14 installations visited following are the systems with 100% producer gas engine. Table 20 List of Installations with 100% Producer Gas Engine NO. Name of the Engine Alternator Gasifier Unit make Make Supplier 1 PMCTW, Vallam Cummins Stamford Ankur 2 VCC, Kovilpatti Cummins Stamford Ankur 3 Nellithurai Dipco Compton Ankur replaced with Greaves Field Marshall 64 ITCOT 4 Odanthurai Dipco Crompton Ankur Greaves 5 Bagavathi Bio, Cummins Stamford Energreen Mettupalayam 6 PSG, Coimbatore Cummins Stamford Netpro 4.2.2 Dual Fuel Engine Supply, Erection, Testing and Commissioning of Dual Fuel Engine has been the responsibility of Gasifier Suppliers / Vendors. Gasifier supplier provides the Guarantee for the engines supplied. The engine for dual fuel mode has been Kirloskar, Greaves, Ashok Leyland and Yanmar. Of the 14 installations visited following are the systems with Dual Fuel Engine. Table 21 List of Installations with Dual Fuel Engine No. Name of the Unit Engine Alternator Gasifier make Make Supplier 1 MVIT, Bangalore Kirloskar Kirloskar and Netpro and Greaves Stamford 2 VIT, Vellore Netpro 3 Jagat Alloys, Khopoli Yanmar Taiyo Cosmo 4 PMCTW, Vallam Ashok Kirloskar AEW Leyland 5 Gosaba Islands Greaves Crompton Ankur Greaves 6 Chotamulakalli Greaves Crompton Ankur Islands Greaves 7 Pondicherry Ashok Kirloskar AEW Engineering College Leyland 8 G. B. Food Oils NA NA Netpro Private Limited 65 ITCOT 4.3. Technology Penetration Gasifiers have started as a thermal application device and with further improvements have been extended to electrical applications. Reasonable technology developments have taken place especially in gas cleaning and cooling system and in engines to use 100% producer for power generation. 4.4. Improvement Required Improvement in system performance could be further improved. Gas Cleaning System Gas Flow Controlling System Engine Cooling System 4.5. Research & Development Indian institute of science, Bangalore is the only institute in India who have developed laboratory models to commercialized gasifier systems in India and is actively involved in research and development activities and some of the current activities are given below Gas Engine Adaptation • Systematic Procedure – Experiments & Modeling • Testing of various capacity Engines – 0.5 to 200 kWe ~ at varying CR • Design of gas circuitry elements ~ Gas Carburetor • Identify key parameters like the optimum ignition timing and establish maximum rating in each case Engines tested in the laboratory and in the field • Kirloskar Oil engine (RB 33) (converted from available diesel engine to gas engine) • Greaves 250 kVA producer gas engine • Cummins G743G and GTA 855G Test Summary • G 743G & GTA855G adapted for producer gas operations replacing Natural gas carburetor with Producer gas carburetor • Engines tested at different ignition timings and optimum identified 66 ITCOT • Tested for 75 hours at the laboratory; two 24 hour run – active participation from Cummins • Parameters monitored – energy input, power output and emissions • Engine run smooth with clean gas admitted to the engine • No deposition found in the Throttle valve, Intake manifold & Cylindrical Head • A peak load of 55 kWe (60 kW) recorded in PG against 84 kW in NG 67 ITCOT CHAPTER 5 BARRIERS TO GASIFIER PROGRAMME AND POLICY ISSUES 5.1. Barrier Identification Gasifier based power production is under development and has the following barriers. 5.1.1 Biomass Resource Identification and Logistics in Collection Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources has carried out Biomass Resource Assessment study in four phases at Taluka level through National Biomass Resource Assessment Program (NBRAP) with the help of National Focal Point, Apex Institutions and Consultants. This has been carried out for taluka level and further extended to the district level. This study, especially in South India focuses on forest wood, agricultural field level residue, agro industries residue and the wood traded around in the area concerned. The report gives a broad outline of biomass availability in the area concerned. However, this does not provide any clear indication of the biomass quantity and availability at closer vicinity and at desired price suitable for gasifier operation. The units however before putting up their individual gasifier unit should assess the biomass required for operation. Collecting the biomass from various sources requires better and controlled logistics. The units in operation consume biomass from traders and brokers. If the unit handles the collection of biomass themselves, they find it tough to handle. However, if the biomass is purchased in open market, then the cost, collection, handling of biomass becomes very sensitive to market changes, which leads to high landing cost, poor quality of the purchased biomass and un processed fuel for the gasifier. 68 ITCOT Site-specific conditions with respect to Biomass Resource Identification are detailed below: a. M. Vishveswaraiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, PSG Institute of Technology, Coimbatore and Periyar Maniammai College of Technology for Women, Vallam have assessed the requirement of biomass at site and purchase wood before processing from local traders at a feasible price. Thus, these units do not have any barrier to biomass resource. b. Valli Chlorate company, Kovilpatti is gifted with plenty of woody biomass (as recommended by vendors) in and around the plant site and hence, resource is not a constraint for smooth operation of the unit. c. Bagavathi Bio Private Limited, Coimbatore has drafted an agreement with the local traders for smooth supply of biomass to the unit and hence, faces no barrier currently on biomass availability. d. Gosaba Islands and Chotamulakalli Islands enjoy the benefits from Government of West Bengal, as the fuel (both wood and diesel) is supplied by the Government. However, if a private entity puts up a unit in these Islands, then it would not be financially feasible if fuel is purchased. However, private units would enjoy smooth operation when the wood is from the local Energy Plantation. e. Nellithurai Panchayat and Odanthurai Panchayat has a low capacity gasifier installed and hence the biomass requirement is met through local self-help groups. f. Pondicherry Engineering College, Jagat Alloys Private Limited, Khopoli and G. B. Food Oils Private Limited, Pudupatty currently does not operate the gasifier units. 69 ITCOT 5.1.2 Cost of Biomass Biomass cost is a matter of concern before putting up the gasifier unit. The cost of woody biomass at most of the installations visited was around Rs. 800 to Rs. 850 during the time of installation and has soared up to Rs. 1200 per ton presently in a span of 2 to 3 years. The cost is inclusive of a. Processing the wood either at site or at source b. Loading and unloading c. Labour Charges d. Moisture content in wood Of the points mentioned above from a to d even if one changes it has a direct impact on the cost of biomass. If the cost escalates in a unrealistic manner, then the feasibility of the project would be at stake. Cost of biomass at sites visited is listed below in Table 22. Table 22 Cost of Biomass at Various Installations Cost of Biomass in Rs. Per ton S. No Name of the Unit During Current Cost Installation 1 MVIT, Bangalore 800 1,100 2 PMCTW, Vallam NA NA 3 PSG, Coimbatore 1,000 NA 4 Pondicherry Engineering College 1,100 NA 5 VIT, Vellore 1,200 1,400 6 Gosaba Islands NA NA 7 Chotamulakalli Islands NA NA 8 Valli Chlorate Company, Kovilpatti 800 1,200 9 Bagavathi Bio Energy Limited 800 1,200 10 Jagat Alloys Private Limited 1,200 NA 11 G. B. Food Oils Private Limited NA NA 12 Odanthurai Panchayat NA NA 13 Nellithurai Panchayat NA NA 70 ITCOT 5.1.3 Choice of Fuel Restriction Gasifiers installed in various units in southern India use predominantly hardwood as fuel to the gasifier. Biomass other than woods like straw, stalks, sawdust, coir pith are not used which are available in plenty. 5.1.4 Soaring Cost of Diesel in Dual Fuel Mode The gasifier units in Dual Fuel Mode operation face the heat on the soaring price of diesel. The units’ installed three years ago derived the feasibility based on diesel price of Rs. 18 per litre which is currently at Rs. 30 per litre. M. Vishveswaraiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore has signed a PPA with Netpro Renewable, Bangalore on the purchase of Power at Rs. 5 per kWh escalated with respect to increase in Diesel price. Current purchase price is Rs. 5.70 per KWhr. If this price exceeds KPTCL price of Rs. 6 per kWh, then the college might opt for KPTCL power and might stop the gasifier operation. Jagat Alloys Private Limited, Khopoli, Maharashtra has installed gasifier of 500 kW in dual fuel mode but stopped operation by 2002 due to internal financial problems. Also the hike in Diesel price made the project not financially feasible. Islands of Sunderbunds enjoy the fuel supply from Government of West Bengal and hence the cost does not play a vital role as the entire project is for the community development and for socio economic improvement of these Islands. Periyar Maniammai College of Technology for Women, Vallam currently does not operate 100 kW dual fuel mode based gasifier and uses only 200 kW 100% producer gas based system for energy generation. G. B. Food Oils Private Limited and Pondicherry Engineering College currently does not operate the system. 71 ITCOT Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT), is effectively loading the system by which diesel replacement is by 87% and hence faces no major problem at present. All the other units apart from the units mentioned above are 100% producer gas engine systems, which does not require diesel for their operation. 5.1.5 Technology Although technical feasibility is available for the gasifier-based systems, the operational problems are found especially in gas cleaning and cooling system. The technology adopted in filters used in gas cleaning system plays a crucial role in gasifier operation. Currently coarse sand, fine sand, fabric filters and saw dust is used in cleaning system. Also chiller based gas cooling has been introduced to bring down dust and tar levels in the gas. Cooling tower based Engine-Cooling and Gas-Cooling is costlier in operation. The desired cooling is also not achieved in these systems. Islands of Sunderbunds often faces problem in gas cleaning system. The sawdust used in the filters restricts the flow of gas into engines thus increasing the consumption of diesel. M. Vishveswaraiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore, has opted for a chiller based gas cooling system in their Second phase, which solves the problem of dust and tar generation. Valli Chlorate Company, Kovilpatti has shut the plant for four months in the year 2004 due to high operational cost of cooling towers and has installed coil based cooling system for engine to reduce cost. 72 ITCOT 5.1.6 Delay in Disbursement of Loans and Subsidy Many units currently has adopted gasifier based energy generation system not only on the basis of adopting renewable energy technology but for availing subsidies and soft loans from Government to generate energy at a cheaper rate. If the delay in disbursement persists it might lead to a closure of the parent company itself. Jagat Alloys Private Limited (JAPL) is a classical example. JAPL for setting up 2 x 500 kW gasifier based power generating system has approached Consultant to prepare Detailed Project Report (DPR) for submitting the same to MEDA, MNES and Development Credit bank limited. Central Financial Assistance (CFA) of 40.80 lakhs was approved by MNES for the year 2000 – 01. 50% of 40.80 lakhs i.e. 20.40 lakhs was sent to MEDA from MNES for granting the subsidy. JAPL has mobilized equity through shares for their plant expansion & gasifier installation and arranged loans other than MNES subsidy through Development Credit bank limited. JAPL has installed 1 x 500 kW gasifier and received 50% grant from 20.40 lakhs i.e., 10.20 lakhs from MEDA. JAPL has commissioned 1st Phase 500 kW and provided Rs. 8 lakhs as advance to Gasifier Supplier Cosmo power tech for installing second phase. However, MNES has asked for bank guarantee from JAPL to pay the final 50% for 1st Phase and as bank guarantee could not be provided by JAPL though nationalized bank (as Development Credit bank were their bankers – a non Nationalized bank) the second payment got delayed. This has forced the company into financial crunch. Further to it, MNES after installation has requested for type certificate of Cosmo power tech gasifier, adding further delay in receiving the subsidy. 73 ITCOT After receiving the type certificate, MNES has requested IIT Mumbai to provide common performance report (CPR) on gasifier performance. During trial, the replacement of diesel was 58%. The reason indicated for lesser diesel replacement was the wetness prevailed in the biomass used as the trial was taken during rainy season and hence CPR submitted by GARP, IIT was rejected by MNES and added further delay. Then final trial run was conducted on 2nd April 2002 and diesel replacement was achieved around 71%. MNES has sanctioned the remaining subsidy for 1st Phase; However JAPL has given up 2nd Phase and requested MNES to cancel the second phase grant for another 500 kW. 5.2. Measures to overcome Barriers Following are some of the measures to overcome the above said barriers. a. Support from Central and State Governments from scratch to commissioning of the project. b. Timely disbursement of loans and grants for smooth functioning in the commissioning of the project. c. Approvals of 100% producer gas system alone to prevent diesel playing a pivot role in the operation of entire system. d. Better biomass resource assessment e. Better logistics in biomass trading and handling f. Technology improvement in Cooling and Cleaning Systems 74 ITCOT CHAPTER 6 CASE STUDIES ON SUCCESSFUL INSTALLATIONS 6.1 Name of Installation: Valli Chlorate Company, Kovilpatti, Tamilnadu A. Project Background Objective Valli Chlorate Company (VCC), Kovilpatti is in operation from 1989 for producing potassium chlorate (Kclo3), a major chemical for making matchsticks. The company has its own matchsticks making factory called Meenakshi Match factory at Kovilpatti. The company earlier had a High Tension (HT) service connection from Tamilnadu Electricity Board (TNEB) for a connected load of 500 kVA. The company uses D.C. Power supply in their operation for producing Potassium Chlorate. During 1999, when the cost of kWh increased to Rs. 4.20 per kWh, VCC has decided to shutdown the operations of the potassium chlorate company. The company disconnected the HT service connection. In the year 2003, the company planned to use Gasifier and approached an engineering company in Kerala to modify their DG set into dual fuel mode engine. With the direction of the engineering company, VCC approached Ankur Scientific, Baroda and revised the plan of setting up a duel fuel engine to set up 100% producer gas system. The company thus set up the first 200 kW / 100% producer gas based Gasifier in Tamilnadu. When the company resumed operation in 2003, it has acquired an LT connection of 50 HP load for auxiliary consumption. The plant capacity is around 1 ton / day and based on the demand the current production is around 10 tons per month. Year of Installation The gasifier was installed on June 23, 2003 Plant layout and Size Total area of 3,000 Square feet 75 ITCOT Location Valli Chlorate Company is located in Uppathur Road, Ovanayakanpatti village, Sattur Taluka, Virudhunagar District, Tamilnadu. The unit is accessible from Tirunelveli by road at a distance of 80 Kms via Kovilpatti. FIGURE 13 – Lay out of Valli Chlorate Company COIL RECTIFIER BASED TRANSFORMER COOLER CONTROL ALTERNATOR PANEL GASIFIER AND COOLING GAS CLEANING SYSTEM SYSTEM CUTTING MACHINES ENTRANCE 76 ITCOT Type Woody biomass down draft gasifier with batch feeding B. Technical Specifications Gasifier (supplier – Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Private Limited, Baroda) (i) Capacity: 200 kW (ii) Biomass fuel consumption: 300 kg/h (iii) Moisture: < 20% (iv) Loading of biomass: Automatic using lift (v) Gasifier starting: Manual (vi) Gas cooling and cleaning of tar removal, particulates: Cyclone Separator, 4 Nos. of active and passive coarse filters, fine filters with sawdust. (vii) Gas flaring provision before engine entry (viii) Height of reactor 10 ft. (ix) Auxiliary power: 20 kW includes pumps in cooling tower, pumps in gasifier, pumps in engine and blower (x) Recommended biomass fuels: Casuarinas, eucalyptus, Julia flora and any hardwood (xi) Gasifier material of construction: Stainless Steel for nozzle and throat and MS for Hopper, body and pipe line (xii) Life of Gasifier: 5 years (xiii) Turn down ratio: 30% (xiv) Starting time from cold start: 15 minutes Engine (make - Cummins) • Model: GTA – 1710 – G • Date of Manufacture – 11/10/2001 • S. No: 35020 • Manual starting system with battery 77 ITCOT Alternator (Make – Stamford) • KVA: 320 • Speed rpm, 1500 • Voltage, 415 V • Load, 445 Ampere • Frequency, 50Hz • Power factor 0.8 • Continuous rating • DC Excitation 38 V: 2 A • Star Connected • Enclosure: IP 23 • Insulation: Class H Rectifier Transformer • Make: Hind Rectifier (Bombay) • DC Volt 60 V Current 4000 A • Phase 3 Ǿ • Frequency 50 Hz • Tank 700 kgs • Resistance 2.099 • Oil 900 kgs • Rating: Continuous • Input KVA: 307.22 • Primary: Main ∆ 415 V 427.4 A • Secondary: 894 – 801 ץ – גV 1156 x 2 A Electrical panels The plant is designed to operate in stand-alone mode and the power generated from gasifier is fed to rectifier transformer for AC to DC Conversion. Electrical control panel is provided with Oil Circuit Breaker (OCB) of 400/440 Volts and 400 A rating with built in protections of under voltage, over voltage, over current and 78 ITCOT earth fault protection. The company has an LT connection of 50 HP for supplying auxiliary power for starting gasifier plant auxiliaries. C. Financial Parameters Building and civil works The company had land area for gasifier installation and hence spent negligible amount for installing gasifier. For Gasifier system with DG set Equity: Rs.18.00 lakhs MNES subsidy: Rs. 30.00 lakhs Total Project cost: Rs. 48.00 lakhs D. Project Status The plant was commissioned on June 23, 2003 and was in operation for 9 months till March 31 2004. Due to Generator Breakdown, the operation resumed from July 2004. The high operational cost of cooling tower has forced the unit to install coil based cooler for engine, for which the installation period was four months from November 2004 to March 2005. The gasifier operation was shutdown during this period. The plant has been functional since then. E. Plant Performance Summary for the monitored Period (5 months from July 2004 to October 2004 and March 2005) • Gross Power Generation 1,72,890 kWh • Auxiliary Power Consumption: 38,868 kWh • Average kW loading: 91.25% • Total biomass consumption: 2,62,360 Kgs • No. of Operating Hours: 957 hours • Average cost of gross power generation: Rs.1.97/kWh • Average PLF: 34.63 % • Average specific biomass consumption: 1.51 kg/kWh 79 ITCOT Table 23 Performance of VCC for the period July 2004 to March 2005 Month Date (Excl. Units Aux. Oper Biomass Holidays Generat Cons. ation consumption From To ed in In Hrs. kgs. KWh kWh July ‘04 12.704 31.07.04 25,040 5,008 138 37,560 Aug ‘04 2.8.04 31.8.04 40,480 8,070 220 60,870 Sep ‘04 1.9.04 30.9.04 36,000 7,200 200 54,720 Oct ‘04 1.10.04 31.10.04 27,300 5,450 151 41,500 Mar ‘05 1.3.05 31.03.05 44,070 13,140 248 67,710 TOTAL 172,890 38,868 957 262,360 FIGURE 14 – VCC Gasifier Average Plant Load Factor and Overall Gasifier Conversion Efficiency 100.00% 90.00% 90.72% 92.00% 90.00% 90.40% 88.85% 80.00% 70.00% Percentage % 60.00% 50.00% 39.07% 38.64% 40.00% 39.16% 38.65% 38.23% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% July 2004 August 2004 September October 2004 March 2005 2004 Weeks Avg PLF Overall % Gasifier Conv Efficiency 80 ITCOT FIGURE 15 - VCC, Kovilpatti – 1 x 200 kW Biomass Gasifier Plant Performance Data – 2002 to 2004 1.54 50000 1.54 44070 45000 1.53 40480 40000 1.52 35000 1.52 36000 1.52 30000 kg/kWh 27300 kWh 1.51 25040 25000 1.50 20000 1.50 1.50 15000 10000 1.49 5000 1.48 0 July 2004 August 2004 September October 2004 March 2005 2004 kg/kWh Total Energy Generated in kWh FIGURE 16 - Energy Generation and Consumption Details at VCC, Kovilpatti 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 Jul-04 Aug-04 Sep-04 Oct-04 Nov-04 Dec-04 Jan-05 Feb-05 Mar-05 Biomass Consumption in kgs Energy Generated in kWh Auxiliary Consumption in kWh 81 ITCOT Observations: • It could be seen from Figure 14 and 15 that when the Plant Load Factor (PLF) increases on 100% producer gas mode, the gasifier conversion efficiency also increases and vice versa. • It could be seen from Fig.15 that at various energy generation levels fuel consumption per kWh is 1.50 to 1.52 kg/kWh. • It could be seen from Figure 16 that Auxiliary consumption is almost the same throughout the period of operation i.e. around 20% F. Cost of Production The cost breakup cost of gross power generation is given below: FIGURE 17 - Unit Generation - Breakup Cost in % 8% 92% Fuel Cost Labour Cost Observations Personnel required for loading the gasifier is eliminated in Ankur Scientific System since lift is used for loading the Gasifier. As the manual operation is not required, the cost of labour is only for processing the fuel and hence, taken as Rs. 0.10 per kg of fuel used. Based on the discussion, the operator salary is Rs. 340 per day for 8-hour operation for 25 days a month and the annual salary is around Rs. 8,500 per month. 82 ITCOT Repairs and maintenance cost is not considered as the plant is new and it was conveyed that it is covered under 2 years equipment guarantee with the supplier for replacement of defect items for the entire gasifier system G. Performance: Design Vs actual Table 24 Design Vs Actual Performance of VCC, Kovilpatti S. No Performance indicator Unit Design Actual 1 Average kW loading KW 200 185 2 Average Specific Biomass Consumption Kg/kWh 1.3 1.51 The design value is considered at 100 % loading and is compared with actual performance in the monitored period. The loading in operation is lesser compared to the design value and hence, the performance could not be better or at par with design. H. Summary of notes of discussion with VCC • The company sells Potassium Chlorate at a rate of Rs. 36 per kg. The production cost with EB Power Supply was around Rs. 34 to 35 per kg results in a meager profit margin. Due to gasifier installation, the production cost of Potassium chlorate has come down to Rs. 28 to Rs. 30. This has helped the plant in improving their profits. • The power generated is used into their titanium cell chamber by converting it to DC source by rectifier transformer. • The operation of the unit is for 8 hours a day and extends some times to 10 hours a day and six days a week. • Spares, consumables are provided by Ankur as and when required • No major problem reported apart from generator – cooling system failure and breakdowns • Water requirement is met from 36,000 litres common sump, from where water is pumped to a 12,000 litres an individual sump for Gasifier operation 83 ITCOT • The company has its own lorry with two sintex tanks of 300 litres capacity each to supply water from their farm. • The charcoal generation from Gasifier is around 10% of biomass used in a day and sold in 40 kg bags at Rs.60 per bag. • The other small particulate residue apart from charcoal is used as manure for their farms. • No tar is reported in the Ankur system I. Issues Since the company has been operating the system for the last two years, no major issues was found during the operating period. 84 ITCOT 6.2 Name of Installation: Gosaba Island, 24 Parganas District, West Bengal A. Project Background Objective West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency (WBREDA) in association with MNES, Government of India, Sunderbunds Development Department, Forest Department, and South 24 Parganas, Zilla Parisad installed a 500 kW (5 x 100 kW) capacity biomass based power plant at Gosaba Island of Sunderbunds where it is almost impossible to extend the conventional power grid line. The prime objective of this power plant is to provide socio economic improvement of the local people in Gosaba Island. Year of Installation The 500 kW woody biomass based power plant was commissioned in Gosaba on 20th June 1997. Location Gosaba is situated at a distance of about 120 Km. from Kolkata (100 Km by road and the rest by water transport). The nearest Rail Stations are Howrah & Sealdah. Road Distance from Sealdah to Sonakhali is 107 Kms. and waterway distance between Sonakhali and Gosaba is about 10 Kms. Diesel Engine driven Launches/ Mechanized boats operate between Sonakhali & Gosaba and takes about 60 meters to reach Gosaba from Sonakhali. Adjacent to Sir Hamilton’s Estate Geographical co-ordinates: Latitude: 22° 12’ N, Longitude: 88° 48’ N. Plant lay out Size 2,000 sq. ft. Type Woody biomass down draft gasifier with batch feeding. 85 ITCOT B. Technical Specifications Gasifier (supplier – Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies, Baroda) i) Model: AG –100 ii) Capacity: 100 kW iii) Components of gasifier ☼ Hopper ☼ Reactor ☼ Cyclone ☼ Venturi Scrubber ☼ Blower for Coarse filter ☼ Fine filter ☼ Safety Filter iv) Rated gas flow: 250 m3/h v) Average gas Calorific value: > 1,000 kCal/m3 vi) Biomass fuel consumption: 80 ~ 100kg/h vii) Gasification temperature: 1050 ~ 1100 deg. C viii) Indicative gasification efficiency: Hot gas mode: > 85% Cold gas mode: > 75% ix) Temperature at gasifier outlet: 250 ~ 400 deg. C x) Biomass fuel size: Minimum diameter 10 mm and length 10 mm Maximum diameter 60 mm and length 75 mm xi) Moisture: < 20% on wet basis xii) Hopper holding capacity: 500kg xiii) Loading of biomass: intermittent manual feeding for every hour xiv) Ash removal: Continuous through proprietary control and water seal xv) Gasifier starting: Through scrubber pump/blower xvi) Specific fuel consumption: 250 ml/kWh – full diesel mode xvii) Indicative diesel replacement: average 65 ~ 75% depending on operating load xviii) Engine conversion efficiency: 25% 86 ITCOT xix) Gas cooling and cleaning of tar removal, particulates: Venturi scrubber with water re-circulation and ultra clean gas for power generation mode through proprietary and fine filters xx) Gas flaring provision before service filter xxi) Height of reactor 4 ft. xxii) Auxiliary power: 8 kW xxiii) Water circulation: 250 litres per minute. xxiv) Recommended biomass fuels: Casuarina, eucalyptus, subabul, Neem, Cashew, Coconut shells and any hardwood xxv) Gasifier material of construction: Stainless Steel for nozzle and throat and MS for Hopper, body and pipe line xxvi) Life of Gasifier: 5 years xxvii) Turn down ratio: 30% xxviii) Starting time from cold start: 30 minutes xxix) Maximum permissible particulate: 50 mg/m3 xxx) Typical producer gas composition (%) CO=19 +/- 3% N2 – 50% CO2=10 +/- 3% H2=18 +/- 2% CH4=up to 3% Engine (make - Greaves) • Capacity 151 hp • Manual starting system with battery Alternator (Make – Crompton Greaves) • KVA: 125, Speed rpm: 1500 • Voltage: 415 V, Load: 175 Ampere • Frequency: 50Hz • Power factor 0.8 • Continuous duty, S1 IS: 4722-1992 Electrical Systems Gosaba Island was an un-electrified village until this project has been commissioned and the plant was designed to operate in stand alone mode for 87 ITCOT village electrification purpose, as extension of the conventional grid power is impossible. FIGURE 18 - Electrical Schematic Diagram of Gosaba Installation Feeder 1 Feeder 2 415 V bus Bus coupler DG sets 1,2,3,4 and 5 The power generated from the five DG’s can be synchronized at the 415 V bus for parallel operation through a bus coupler and is taken through feeders 1 and 2, with each having a step up transformer of 315 kVA for power distribution at 11 kV. The existing 11 kV distribution circuit is 14 km and 415 V distribution circuit is 19 km. The 415 V distribution has 5 nos of 100 kVA, step down transformers located at various load ends. During the discussion it was informed that distribution loss has been estimated at 8%. Electrical control panel of 1500 Ampere capacity rating and each DG set is provided with Molded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB) of 300 A rating with built in protections of under voltage, over voltage, over current, earth fault protection and reverse power protections. The synchronizing panel has synchroscope and the operators do a check-synchronizing relay and synchronizing operation manually. 88 ITCOT C. Financial Parameters Land: 3 acres Building and civil works: Fuel processing yard: 600 sq ft Fuel storage yard: 2000 sq ft Gasifier system with DG set: 2000 sq ft Plant and machinery cost: Rs 85 lakhs Cost for land, buildings, power evacuation, others: Rs 65 lakhs Total project cost: Rs 150 lakhs Source of funds: 75% of the project cost from MNES 25% of the project from West Bengal State Government Power evacuation cost: Cost for 11 kV distribution: Rs 2.5 lakhs/km Cost for 415 V distribution: Rs 1.5 lakhs/km D. Project in brief Gosaba Island is one of the important islands of Sunderbunds. It is located in South 24 Parganas District. The island is approximately at a distance of 120 km from Calcutta with 25 sq. km area and has a population of 25,000 people. Till May 1997, Gosaba Island did not have any electricity. The entire area used to become dark after sunset. The local people approached WBREDA in the year 1996 for the provision of electricity from renewable sources of energy, considering the fact that conventional energy may never come to Gosaba Island after crossing of large number of creeks and rivers. After a careful survey of the area, WBREDA decided to set up a 500 kW gasifier based power plant at Gosaba Island along with energy plantation in wasteland and formation of a rural energy co-operative with local people. This project is a fine example of co-operation between MNES, WBREDA, Sunderbunds Development Department, South 24 Parganas Zilla Parisad and West Bengal State Electricity Board. The main motive force behind co-ordination 89 ITCOT of various departments and completion of work on schedule is the continued efforts of WBREDA. E. Consumers and Tariff structure It was informed that around 1,065 consumers are availing the power supply through gasifiers and are grouped as below: Domestic: Rs.5.00/kWh Commercial: Rs 5.50/kWh Hospital: Rs.6.00/kWh There are no charges towards deposit fees and the above are flat tariff charges with no taxes charged from consumers. Around 95% of the customers are coming under domestic group. F. Gosaba plant operation Another very important aspect is that the power plant is being run by a local co- operative society, viz. Gosaba Rural Energy Co-operative Society, formed for this purpose. The society comprises of consumers representatives, WBREDA, WSEB, Sunderbunds Development Board, Forest co-operative department and from Govt. of West Bengal. The entire operation and maintenance of the plant is the responsibility of the Co-operative Society. WBREDA is responsible for providing diesel, biomass, and revenue collection and in rendering necessary assistance in repair, maintenance and other works from time to time. The salaries for the operating staff are met from the revenue collection through the prevailing consumer tariff and the balance of the revenue collection is paid to WBREDA, which takes care of diesel and biomass supply. WBREDA is providing all technical and resource backup to the society for running the plant. The plant has been working smoothly since commissioning. 90 ITCOT Biomass Fuel: Woody biomass available in Sunderbunds is arranged through the society and following are the different woody fuels that are used in the plant with an average calorific value at 20 % moisture levels. Akash – 3,400 kCal/kg Shirish – 3,300 kCal/kg Eucalyptus – 3,600 kCal/kg Subabul – 3000 kCal/kg Mango – 3,000 kCal/kg It was informed that moisture level at the time of purchasing will be around 70% and is dried at the site to reduce to 20% before feeding into gasifier. Revenue: WBREDA indicated that the income and expenditure of the plant for the year 2003-2004, is as follows. ☼ Income: Rs 30 lakh ☼ Expenditure: Rs 33 lakhs ☼ Deficit: Rs 3 lakhs Though the operating figure indicates a net deficit, the plant was provided financial support from the West Bengal state government along with the technical guidance from WBREDA. The project model is aimed at providing a socio economic benefit to Gosaba and also indirect benefit to the nearby islands. Gosaba plant performance in August 1997 ~ March 1998 (Source WBREDA annual report -1996 ~1998) The operation in that period was limited to 6 hrs/day, from 17.00 hrs to 23.00 hrs. Initial demand for power was very low at 60kW and within one year, it grew sharply to 200 kW. The summary of performance is given below and is expected to improve further with increase in demand: • Total energy generated in that period, 77,505 kWh 91 ITCOT • Total diesel consumed, 10,174 litres • Average specific diesel consumption, 0.13 litre / kWh • Total biomass consumed, 68,482 kgs • Average specific biomass consumption kg/kWh: 0.90 • Average diesel replacement - 47% FIGURE 19 – Gosaba 5 x 100 Gasifier Plant Performance data – August 1997-March 1998 1.20 14,000 1.14 1.13 12,485 12,000 1.00 0.91 11,337 9,974 10,515 0.85 10,000 0.80 10,480 0.80 kg/kWh and litre/kWh 0.84 kWh 8,415 0.76 0.77 8,000 7,180 7,119 0.60 6,000 0.40 4,000 0.20 0.16 2,000 0.15 0.13 0.14 0.12 0.13 0.12 0.12 0.00 0 August '97 September '97 October '97 November '97 December'97 January'98 February'98 March'98 litres/ kWh kg/ kWh Total Energy Generated in kWh Gosaba plant performance in March 1~22, 2005 The plant was operating with 3 gasifiers 1,3 and 5. Gasifiers 2 and 4 were under replacement with new ones and hence, are not in operating condition. The gasifiers 1, 3 and 5 were replaced with new gasifier system in 2002. 92 ITCOT Present Operating mode: The plant was feeding power to the consumers from 10.00 am to 12.00 pm (say 14 hrs/day). One DG set starts on diesel operating mode at 9.30 am with one gasifier firing simultaneously with woody biomass, and after the gasifier stabilization, producer gas is fed into the DG set and DG set is under dual fuel mode from 10.00 am. One DG set operates till 4.30 pm and the second DG set with gasifier under dual fuel starts and the third DG set with gasifier starts by 5.00 pm. Thus, three DG sets on dual fuel mode are operated. For meeting the evening peak load, fourth DG set on diesel mode is started at 6.30 pm and goes till 8.30 pm. From 8.30 pm to 12.00 pm, only two DG sets are operated. The plant operating data for the period March 1~22, 2005 was collected from the operators logbook and following curves were drawn for plant performance assessment. Observations: • In that period, three gasifiers and four DG sets were operated to meet the load requirement • From the logbook, it was observed that maximum load in Ampere recorded in a DG set was 150 A (rated 175 Ampere). Two DG sets were operated in that range, while the third DG set with a load of 110 Ampere and the fourth DG with a load of 80 Ampere, was operated in the evening. • The cost of power generation was highest in March 17, 2005 at Rs 8.82/kWh with an average loading of 252 kW and PLF of 63%. The reason could be the operating problems in the gasifier due to filter choking. Hence, more diesel was consumed to maintain the load. • Producer gas from a particular gasifier is used in one or more DG sets in an operating day, by changing the feed of DG sets, time to time. Hence, it is difficult to assess the performance of a particular gasifier with a dedicated DG set, as there is a provision for providing gas from any gasifier to any DG set by shuffling the flexible hose piping of gas feeding, in order to overcome operating problems in DG sets/gasifiers 93 ITCOT FIGURE 20 – Gosaba Island 5 x100 KW March Operating Data 300 12 269 270 257 256 253 252 244 244 Power Generation Cost Rs/kWh 250 239 238 241 240 232 233 235 233 233 226 10 220 219 214 190 8.41 200 replacement 8.82 8.37 8.35 8.34 8 8.15 7.92 7.85 7.79 7.70 7.73 7.71 7.57 7.62 7.58 7.47 7.45 7.40 150 7.02 7.06 7.62 7.40 6 100 64 67 67 64 63 61 60 61 59 59 63 60 60 58 58 58 57 58 55 54 55 4 48 50 23 21 14 15 17 16 15 13 12 11 10 12 13 8 8 8 2 1 2 3 -1 2 -6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Days -50 0 % Diesel Repl Avg kW Avg PLF Power generation cost Rs/kWh 94 ITCOT • The availability of only three gasifiers, imminent filter problems (it was informed that Gasifier 3 has pending filter problem and hence, gasifier loading has been compared to the other two) and highly fluctuating load demand, resulted in a poor plant performance. The associated gasifier problems on power generation have contributed to the high cost of power generation. • It was informed that fluctuating load demand was the main attribute for the poor performance of the gasifiers. The load points are predominantly lighting (domestic, commercial, street), fans, irrigation pumping, commercial establishments like education institutions and hospital. Before this power plant, consumers were using SPV for lighting and fans. • Though three gasifiers were replaced with new gasifiers in 2002 (Gasifier 1,3 and 5), it was informed that gasifier three has still problems in the coarse and fine filter, often leading to pressure build up and reduced flow of producer gas. Other two also have intermittent problems related to filters. • The following is the summary of plant performance during the observed period: o Total energy generated, 34,866 kWh (this value is summated value of energy meters at two outgoing feeders with added 10% auxiliary consumption. It was noted that energy meter for DG 2 was not working and hence, addition of individual DG energy meters for comparing with feeder energy meters was not possible) o Total biomass consumed: 26,733 kgs o Total Diesel consumed: 7,869 litres o Average diesel replacement: 10% o Average loading: 238 kW o Average PLF: 60% o Average cost of power generation: Rs 7.79/kWh o Average Specific diesel consumption: 0.23 litre/kWh o Average Specific biomass consumption: 0.77 kg/kWh 95 ITCOT G. Power generation cost breakup FIGURE 21 – Sunderbunds Gasifiers Installations – Gosaba 5 x 100 kW – Dual Fuel mode power generation cost breakup (Rs./kWh) operator cost Rs/kwh, 0.24, 3% Maintenance Cost Rs/kwh, 0.11, 1% Biomass cost Rs/kWh, 0.77, 10% Diesel cost Rs/kWh, 6.77, 86% Diesel cost Rs/kWh Biomass cost Rs/kWh operator cost Rs/kwh Maintenance Cost Rs/kwh • 86% of the power cost is due to diesel and it warrants immediate detailed performance evaluation of the gasifier systems • 10% of the power cost is due to biomass and is higher due to lower replacement of diesel • Operator cost and maintenance cost is 3% and 1% respectively, which are negligible compared to the fuel cost • List of assumptions on costing, based on the discussions: Biomass fuel cost @ Rs1.00/kg Diesel cost @ Rs 30/litre 20 operators for the plant @Rs 2500/operator/month 96 ITCOT Annual maintenance cost/gasifier: Rs. 20,000 Annual maintenance cost of DG set: Rs 25,000 H. Performance Design Vs Actual Table 25 Performance of Gosaba Installation - Design Vs Actual S. No Performance indicator Unit Design Actual 1 Average kW loading kW 500 238 Average Specific Biomass 2 Kg/kWh 1 0.77 consumption 3 Average Diesel consumption Litre/kWh 0.06 0.23 Average % diesel 4 Percentage 70 10 replacement Observations: • The plant has consumed more diesel than the design value, and hence, biomass consumption has been lower than the design value due to poor and fluctuating load • The reasons for the poor performance are problems of gas cooling and gas cleaning system, engine operating performance and moisture content of biomass. • The situation demands a thorough study on load demand; operation performance of gasifiers on a continuous basis, issues related to gas quality and increased diesel consumption. I. Maintenance It was informed that no specific Annual Maintenance Contract (AMC) has been signed with vendors for gasifier and engine system. Annual maintenance cost/gasifier: Rs. 20,000 Annual maintenance cost of DG set: Rs. 25,000 97 ITCOT The above is inclusive of vendor representative site visit fees, consumables and spares A nominal charge of Rs 1000/day is charged by the vendors for site visit WBREDA is inviting vendors to the site in case of problems faced by the operator. FIGURE 22 – Gosaba 5 x 100 kW Biomass Gasifier Plant Performance Design Vs Actual 1.2 Kg/kWh, 1 1 Kg/kWh, 0.77 0.8 kg/kWh and litre/kWh 0.6 0.4 Litre/kWh, 0.23 0.2 Litre/kWh, 0.06 0 Kg/kWh Litre/kWh Design Actual Following is the maintenance schedule for various systems, as informed by WBREDA. Engine ☼ Checking of engine after 10,000 hours of operation ☼ Checking of engine cylinder head, nozzle injectors after 4000 hours 98 ITCOT ☼ First filling of lube oil 35 litre and changing of lube oil after 250 hrs. Lube oil grade – SAE 15W40 ☼ Routine checkup for diesel filter, engine and alternator coupling ☼ Battery system weekly once Gasifier ☼ Generation of charcoal in kgs ☼ Water spraying nozzles for gas cooling ☼ Water pump and blowers motors ☼ Coarse and Fine filter - cleaning of dry wood dust choke once in a week ☼ Fabric cloth in check filter – cleaning once in a week ☼ The life of the filter material is 5,000 hrs and could be reused after washing and cleaning WBREDA informed that the overall service rendered by vendors have been satisfactory. J. GOSABA Energy plantation There are large areas of foreshore land on the riverbanks of Sunderbunds in West Bengal. This area in the whole of the Indian part of Sunderbunds is estimated to be about 0.15 million hectares, out of which 50,000 hectares are suitable for plantation. Energy plantation in an area of about 71 hectares was made for supplying woody biomass to the Gosaba power plant. About 71 hectares of plantation has been made under the captive energy plantation scheme attached to 500 kW capacity, Gosaba biomass based power plant. The growth of trees under the schemes appears to be satisfactory. Effects of Energy Plantation The biomass gasifiers consume woody biomass, which must be replaced to maintain ecological balance. The Gosaba Biomass based power plant has been 99 ITCOT planned in such a manner that the biomass produced by the captive energy plantation will generate more than the quantity it consumes. So in the long run it will have a positive impact on the environment and the same time result in employment generation as mentioned below: b. Mainly branches and twigs between ½” and 2” will be used in the gasifier and in most cases the main tree will not be affected much. c. New plantations are being made to replenish the biomass consumed by the machine and this quantity produced is much higher than that consumed. d. The new plantations are made for running the power plant, otherwise these plantations would not have come up. e. A number of people get employment for planting trees and for maintenance of plantations linked to the power plant. So, it has positive effect on the environment as well as on employment generation. The energy plantations will have the following positive effects: a. It will help generation of employment opportunities in rural area. b. Impact on rainfall pattern c. Prevention of soil erosion d. Preservation of flora and fauna 100 ITCOT 6.3 Name of Installation: M Vishveswaraiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka A. Project Background Objective M Vishveswaraiah Institute of Technology (MVIT) has sought the assistance of Netpro Renewable Energy Private Limited, Bangalore to install a Dual Fuel gasifier-based power plant in their college premises and to supply power to the college. The cost of gasifier system, operation and maintenance and the other costs involved are under the scope of Netpro, and MVIT has allocated the land for installing the gasifier. The power Purchase agreement between them is for 10 years @ Rs. 5 per kWh escalating with hike in diesel price. Current purchasing price of power by MVIT from Gasifier system is Rs. 5.60 per kWh while the current Electricity Board rate is Rs. 6 per kWh. The college has installed two 100 kW gasifier systems in phase I and II. Year of Installation The month and year of installation of two phases are as follows. Phase I: June 2002 Phase II: November 2002 Location MVIT is located in Hunusumaranahalli, via Yelanka an hour drive from Bangalore. Plant lay out Size A copy of plant layout drawing is enclosed in Enclosure I. Type Woody biomass down draft gasifier with batch feeding. B. Technical Specifications Gasifier (supplier – Netpro Renewable Energy Private Limited, Bangalore) ii Capacity: 100 kW iii Biomass fuel consumption: 135kg/h iv Biomass fuel size: 50 mm~50mm 101 ITCOT v Moisture: < 15% vi Loading of biomass: manual feeding and intermittent vii Gasifier starting: Manual viii Diesel replacement: average: 75 - 85% ix Gas cooling and cleaning of tar removal, particulates: Water spray cooler, cyclone separator, scrubber, sand (coarse and fine) filter, fabric filter, 6°C output - water chiller x Gas flaring provision before gas entry into engine xi Height of reactor: 2.9m xii Recommended biomass fuels: Casuarinas, eucalyptus, Julia flora and any hardwood xiii Gasifier material of construction: Stainless Steel for nozzle and throat and SS 304 for Hopper, body and pipe line xiv Life of Gasifier: 10 years xv Turn down ratio: 1:3 xvi Starting time from cold start: 15 - 30 minutes xvii Conversion Efficiency (Fuel to Producer Gas): 75% xviii Conversion Efficiency (Engine): 30% xix Auxiliary Consumption: 32 HP for pumps Engine Phase I • Make: Kirloskar • Capacity: 2 x 50 kW • Governor: Mechanical Phase II • Make: Greaves • Capacity: 1 x 100 kW • Governor: Electronic Alternator Phase I • Make: Kirloskar 102 ITCOT • Capacity: 2 x 62.5 kVA • Speed: 1500 rpm • Voltage: 415 V • Frequency: 50 Hz • Power Factor: 0.8 • Insulation: Class H • Voltage Regulation: Automatic Phase II • Make: Stamford • Capacity: 1 x 160 kVA • Speed: 1500 rpm • Voltage: 415 V • Frequency: 50 Hz • Power Factor: 0.8 • Insulation: Class H • Voltage Regulation: Automatic Electrical panels The plant is designed to operate on stand-alone mode. Electrical control panel is provided with 100 Amps MCCB for Phase I and with 250 Amps with Phase II. The panel is provided with under voltage, over voltage, earth fault and over current protection along with reverse power relay. C. Financial Parameters Building and civil works The college has allotted land for installing gasifier. For Gasifier system with DG set 50% Equity by Netpro Renewable Energy Private Limited 50% Grant from Dutch Government Total Project cost: Not disclosed 103 ITCOT D. Project Status The plant was commissioned by November 2002 (both Phase I and Phase II) and was in operation since then, for 6 and half days a week and all weeks in a year. E. Plant Performance Summary for the monitored Period (3 years from June 2002 to December 2004) • Gross Power Generation: 8,94,928 kWh • Auxiliary Power Consumption: 1,00,496 kWh • Total biomass consumption: 9,53,790 Kgs • Total Diesel Consumption: 99,700 Litres • No. of Operating Hours: 16,680 hours • Average cost of gross power generation: Rs.5.35/kWh • Average annual PLF: 21.07 % • Average specific biomass consumption: 1.065 kg/kWh • Average specific diesel consumption: 0.11 litres/kWh The plant performance for the period monitored with energy generation, auxiliary consumption, operating hours, Biomass consumption and Diesel Consumption, is given in Table 26 below. Table 26 MVIT - Plant Performance Year Units Aux. Operat Biomass Diesel Generated Cons. ion consump Consumption KWh In kWh Hrs. tion kgs. in KL 2002 63,821 7,650 360 53,790 9,600 2003 393,874 43,580 8,160 410,000 44,100 2004 437,233 49,266 8,160 490,000 46,000 TOTAL 894,928 100,496 16,680 953,790 99,700 104 ITCOT FIGURE 23 - MVIT Gasifier Average Plant Load Factor and Overall Gasifier Conversion Efficiency 35 32.53 30 31.41 31.94 26.79 25 24.86 Percentage % 20 15 11.56 10 5 0 2002 2003 2004 Weeks Avg PLF Overall % Gasifier Conv Efficiency FIGURE 24 - MVIT, Bangalore - 2 x 100 kW biomass gasifier plant Performance data - 2002 to 2004 1.20 1.12 500000 437233 450000 1.04 1.00 393874 400000 kg/kWh and litre/kWh 0.84 350000 0.80 300000 kWh 0.60 250000 200000 0.40 150000 100000 0.20 63821 0.15042 0.11196 0.10521 50000 0.00 0 2002 2003 2004 litres/kWh kg/kWh Total Energy Generated in kWh 105 ITCOT FIGURE 25 - Energy Generation and Consumption Details of MVIT 500000 490000 450000 437233 410000 400000 393874 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 53970 63821 44100 43580 46000 49266 50000 9600 7650 0 2002 2003 2004 Biomass Consumption in kgs Diesel Consumption in Litres Energy Generated in kWh Auxiliary Consumption in kWh Observations: • It could be seen from Figure 23 and 24 that when the Plant Load Factor (PLF) increases on the dual fuel mode operation, the diesel consumption gets reduced with more producer gas being taken in for energy generation. • It could be seen from Figure 25 that Auxiliary consumption is almost the same throughout the period of operation i.e. 11% • When annual PLF increases from 11 to 26%, the diesel replacement also increases from 66% to 78% for the observed period. • When the biomass consumption increased by 19% in the last two years the diesel consumption has increased by 5% during the same period. This has resulted in the generation cost almost to be the same throughout the observation period even when the cost per litre of diesel has soared from Rs. 18 to Rs. 30 per litre. 106 ITCOT F. Cost of Production The cost breakup for gross power generation per unit is given in Figure 26 below: FIGURE 26 - Unit Generation Break up Cost in % at MVIT 58% 22% 20% Diesel Cost Biomass Cost Labour Cost Observations: • Diesel Cost plays a vital role in unit cost of generation. In the PPA, MVIT and Netpro have worked out a formula for escalation in purchase price based on hike in Diesel price. The price of diesel at the time of installation was around Rs. 18 per litre. Currently it is more than Rs. 30 per litre at site. Manpower requirement is mainly for non-processed wood. The salary for operators (Seven in Number) is around Rs. 2 to 3 lakhs a year and for a supervisor it is around Rs. 0.72 to 0.84 lakhs a year. • Repairs and maintenance cost is not considered as Netpro runs the plant. G. Performance: Design Vs Actual The design and actual performance comparison is detailed in the Table 27 below: 107 ITCOT Table 27 Design Vs Actual Performance of MVIT No Performance indicator Unit Design Actual 1 Average kW loading KW 200 185 Average Specific Biomass 2 Kg/kWh 1.1 1.065 consumption Observations: Actual kW loading and specific Biomass Consumption are closer to Design parameters. All other actual parameters are also in line with design parameters. H. Summary of notes on discussion with MVIT About Gasifier • Gasifier installed in Phase II is an improved version of Phase I. • Cyclone separator and chilled water spraying system have been introduced in the new version. • The new phase has cyclone separators before water spraying, to reduce tar component in the gas. Chiller unit is provided to introduce water spraying at 6°C before fabric filter to further reduce tar and dust content levels. About Fuel • 80 tons of wet Biomass is purchased every month and after drying 50 tons of dry biomass is used in the Gasifier • Size of biomass used is 25 x 40 x 40 or 20 x 50 x 40 mm • Feeding on the open top is for every 5 minutes minimum and every 15 minutes maximum • 3000 to 4000 litres of diesel is used per month replacing 20-25% of biomass in the DG Set • Average Replacement of Diesel – 81 % (Max: 85% and Min: 70%) • Waste Heat from DG set is used to dry biomass before feeding into gasifier. About Energy Generation • 50,000 to 52,000 kWh is generated from gasifier system and 45,000 kWh (net) is exported to MVIT every month 108 ITCOT • Current Energy Selling Price to college is Rs. 5.60 per kWh • Commercial tariff of KPTCL for the institution is Rs. 6.00 per kWh Water Utilisation • Water consumption is through the sump of 50,000 litres capacity • The sump is cleaned every month and raw water of 50,000 litres is filled in the tank. • 10 loads of water per month are purchased of 6000 litres per load. • The makeup water of 1000 litres is used for every two days. • Water treatment is done while adding the make up water. • The chemicals used every 1000 litres make up water are o Non Ferric Alum – 400 grams and o Poly electrolyte – 20 grams Load Pattern • Load sharing details are as follows: o 86% of the college load is met by gasifiers o 6% by the local DG Set of 30, 20, 10 kVA each o 8% of the load is met from KPTCL Supply I. Issues Since the supplier is operating the gasifiers, no major issues were highlighted during discussion. J. General Issues on site operations It was observed that if the diesel price further hikes up, and if the generation cost using gasifier in dual fuel mode moves above Rs. 6 per kWh, then the college might opt for power supply from Karnataka Power Transmission Company Limited (KPTCL) forcing the project to close. k. Overall performance Netpro is presently successful in providing captive power to the college to the greatest satisfaction. 109 ITCOT 6.4 Name of Installation: Bagavathi Bio Power Limited, Mettupalayam A. Project background M/s. Bagavathi Bio Power is a company, which was formed with the main aim of generating power from Biomass through gasification and selling the same. A company was formed and an agreement was made with M/s. United Bleachers Limited for power purchase and M/s. Bagavathi Bio power will provide the plant and machinery. The contract is to supply 250kW/hr. First phase of 120kW/hr plant has been commissioned and the plant has successfully completed six thousand eight hundred hours of operation. The technology provider is IISC Bangalore and the manufacturer is M/s. Energreen Power Ltd, Chennai. The gas engine used is from Cummins. The engine is 855 GTA coupled with Stanford Alternator. The maximum engine capacity is 130kW.After internal consumption of 23 kW for the various plant auxiliaries; 100kW is ready for export to the textile-processing unit. The plant operates continuously and generates around two thousand units per day for export. The plant operates for around 26 days in a month. If the load is constant then the plant operates in a trouble free manner B. Plant performance summary: 26th July, 2003 to 15th March 2005 The data on the performance of the project from the commencement of the project was collected and given as Enclosure and based on the analysis, the highlights of the project performance are given below. Table 28 Plant Performance of Bagavathi Bio S. No Parameter Unit Value 1 Total no of days 532 2 Total Biomass Tons 753.29 consumption 110 ITCOT Table 28 Contd.. S. No Parameter Unit Value 3 Total power Lakh kWh 6.36 generation 4 Power exported Lakh kWh 4.55 5 Total gasifier Hours 6895 operated hours 6 Total Engine Hours 6637 operated hours Based on the above performance, analysis on specific fuel consumption, plant load factor etc were estimated and highlights of the performance are given below. Table 29 Plant Generation and Consumption Details No Parameter Unit Value 1 Average specific biomass Kg/kWh 1.2 consumption 2 Auxiliary Power consumption % 28 3 Availability of Gasifier on total % 54 days 4 Availability of generator on % 52 total days 5 PLF based on generator % 78 availability 6 PLF based on total availability % 46 days The above table indicates the following 111 ITCOT • The average specific biomass consumption is 1.2 kg/kWh, which is higher than the design value, which may be due to low plant load factor. • The auxiliary power consumption is higher, which may be due to higher installed capacity of the auxiliary equipments, which originally was planned for higher capacity • Though the plant load factor of the system was 78% based on the actual available days of generator, the PLF on total days is only 46%, which may be due to down time of the engine /gasifier system The performance of the system indicating specific biomass consumption and PLF is given below. Figure 27 – Performance of Bagavathi Bio Energy 100 2.00 90 1.80 80 1.60 Plan t 70 1.40 Specific energy consumption load facto 60 1.20 r 50 1.00 40 0.80 30 0.60 PLF Specific biomass consumption 20 0.40 10 0.20 0 0.00 Operating period Note: Each operating period is period run before gasifier un loading C. Cost of production The cost of production is as follows. 112 ITCOT - 1.2 kg of Biomass gives 1 unit of electricity. Assuming raw material cost at Rs1200/tonne, Cost of processing at Rs 300 per ton- Rs.1500 is the net cost of raw material. - The plant requires three people per shift and one technical supervisor. The engine is serviced at every 750hrs of operation. Table 30 Cost of Production at Bagavathi Bio Energy Limited S. No Parameter Cost/unit- Rs/kWh 1 Raw material cost per unit 1.80 2 Labour and Salary 0.35 3 Maintenance and Repairs 0.35 Net cost before interest and depreciation 2.50 The above breakup of the cost of production is depicted in a graph shown below. FIGURE 28 – Cost of Production at Bagavathi Bio Limited 113 ITCOT The cost of production indicates that the raw material contributes 68% of the cost and the unit is planning for its own cultivation to optimize the raw material cost to around Rs.800 /ton. D. Issues relating to the performance • The plant will be operating continuously for a period of 25 days and the plant load drops due to carbon deposit in the after cooler of engine. So stopping of engine is required for cleaning and maintenance. • As the power is being exported to UBL, the plant will not be operating during Sundays and also during plant breakdown of UBL, which will be around 2-3 days in a month. • It is observed that the load of the system is highly fluctuating based on process requirement like intermittent operation of giggers and FD fans of Boiler which lead to starving or excess load throw in the engine. 114 ITCOT CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION • Gasifier based Power Generating systems are technically feasible and financially more viable, when run on 100% producer gas mode and not on Dual Fuel Mode. • The project would be more successful if the availability and cost of biomass used in the system are kept at constant check. Energy Plantation would be the most feasible and reliable option for adequate and cheaper biomass availability. • Constant Load operation and increased Plant Load Factor (PLF) would further improve the financial viability of the Project. • Grid interfacing using gasifiers is very difficult and may not be possible as the synchronization of grid frequency and the system frequency is not possible. This is because of uneven flow of gas from the gasifier into the engine. • Technology available for gasifiers is satisfactory but not adequate. However, further improvement in Gas Cooling, Cleaning, Ash removal, and Engine Cooling Systems would increase the system availability and improve the overall performance of the system. • Vendors currently do not provide overall performance guarantee to the system as a whole though some vendors are providing guarantee to some of the components manufacturers are having tie up with engine manufacturers who are yet to provide performance guarantee for their engines with 100 % producer gas applications. • Though IISC is the sole technology developer and provided solutions for the operational problems of the gasifiers to a limited extend, most of the 115 ITCOT developments /improvements in the field were carried out by the users only and there is no agency involved in monitoring the performance on a continuous basis. • The concept of Annual Maintenance contract is yet to be operational in the market and after sales service or service back up by the vendors is very limited as not many vendors are active in this field. • Well-trained technical manpower is limited in the market, which may affect the sustained performance of the system. • Though most of the units are supportive of the capital subsidy scheme, procedural delays from submission to actual disbursement of subsidy have extended the time schedule of project implementation. 116
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