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Gasifier Introduction,Methodology and Vendors

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Gasifier Introduction,Methodology and Vendors Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                ITCOT




                            CONTENTS

A.   ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

B.   CONTENT TABLE

C.   LIST OF TABLES

D.   LIST OF FIGURES

E.   CHAPTERS

Chapter #   DESCRIPTION                                PAGE #

     1      Introduction                                 1

     2      Methodology                                  2

     3      Performance Of Ten Select Gasifier           9
            Installations

     4      Vendor Capability And Technology             58
            Penetration

     5      Barriers To Gasifier Programme And           68
            Policy Issues

     6      Case Studies Of Successful Installations     75

     7      Conclusion                                  115

F.   ANNEXURES

G.   ENCLOSURES

H.   PHOTOGRAPHS
                                                            ITCOT




                         LIST OF TABLES

S.NO.   DESCRIPTION                                PAGE #

1       Letters from BERI                            2

2       List of State Nodal Agencies Contacted       3

3       List of Vendors Contacted                    4

4       List of installation visited                 6

5       Design Vs Actual Performance (PEC)           15

6       Project Cost of Chottomollakhali             23
        Installation

7       Three Year Performance of                    24
        Chottomollokhali Installation

8       Total Project Cost of PSG College            29
        Installation

9       Operation & Manual Parameters of PSG         33
        College of Technology

10      Actual operation of PSG College of           33
        Technology Gasifier System

11      Performance during April ’04 – March ’05     43
        of Odanthurai Installation

12      Cost of Energy Generation at Odanthurai      45
        Panchayat

13      Nellithurai Plant Performance during         46
        August 2004 to March 2005

14      Vendors Supplying Gasifiers                  58
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15   Ankur Gasifier – Technical Specifications     59

16   Vendor Capability in supplying the system     60

17   Typical Technical Data of an IISc.- Netpro    60
     Biomass Gasification Plant

18   Data Table – Associated Engineering –         62
     Electrical / Power Application

19   Grain Processing Industries (India) Pvt.      63
     Ltd. – Technical Specifications

20   List of Installations with 100% Producer      64
     Gas Engine

21   List of Installations with Dual Fuel Engine   65

22   Cost of Biomass at Various Installations      70

23   Performance of VCC for the period July        80
     2004 to March 2005

24   Design Vs. Actual Performance of VCC,         83
     Kovilpatti

25   Performance of Gosaba Installation –          97
     Design Vs. Actual

26   MVIT – Plant Performance                      104

27   Design Vs. Actual Performance of MVIT         108

28   Plant Performance of Bagavathi Bio            110

29   Plant Generation and Consumption Details      111

30   Cost of Production at Bagavathi Bio           113
     Energy Ltd.
                                                             ITCOT




                  LIST OF ANNEXURES


S.NO. DESCRIPTION


1    Detailed list of gasifier collected along with vendor
     name


2    Detailed Questionnaire


3    Site visit details
                                                     ITCOT




              LIST OF ENCLOSURES


S.NO. DESCRIPTION


I     Copy of plant layout drawing of MVIT


II    Performance Data of Odanthurai Panchayat
      system from July 2003 to March 2005


III   Performance Data of Bagavathy Bio Power Ltd.
      the system till March 2005
                                                          ITCOT




                  LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS

                     DESCRIPTION

1.   BIOMASS STORAGE YARD AT MVIT, BANGALORE

2.   BIOMASS PROCESSING SHED AT MVIT, BANGALORE

3.   GASIFIERS INSTALLED IN CHOTUMULAKHALLI

4.   200 kW BIOMASS GASIFICATION PLANT LAYOUT IN PMCTW,
     VALLAM

5.   STORAGE YARD AT VALLI CHLORATE COMPANY, KOVILPATTI

6.   100% PRODUCER GAS BASED CUMMINS ENGINE AT VCC,
     KOVILPATTI

7.   DISCUSSION WITH MEDA OFFICIAL, PUNE, MAHARASHTRA

8.   1 X 500 GASIFIER INSTALLATION AT JAGAT ALLOYS PVT.
     LTD., KHOPOLI, MAHARASHTRA
                                                               ITCOT




                       LIST OF FIGURES

S.NO.   DESCRIPTION                                   PAGE #

1       PEC Gasifier Performance Analysis               12

2       PEC – Specific Fuel Consumption Vs Gasifier    13
        Loading

3       PEC Gasifier – Dual Fuel mode Power            14
        Generation Cost Breakup

4       PEC – Performance Comparison – Design Vs       16
        Actual

5       Electrical Schematic Diagram of                22
        Chottomollakhali Installation

6       PSG College of Technology – Performance        30
        Data from 3.7.2004 to 30.10.2004

7       Cost of Power Generation at PSG College of     32
        Technology (From 3.7.2004 to 30.10.2004)

8       Performance of Jagat Alloys Private Ltd.        39

9       Performance of Odanthurai Panchayat            44
        System

10      Cost of Production at Odanthurai Panchayat      45

11      Performance Valuation of Nellithurai           47
        Panchayat

12      Unit Generation – Breakup Cost at VIT in %      51

13      Layout of Valli Chlorate Company               76

14      VCC Gasifier Average Plant Load Factor and      80
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     Overall Gasifier Conversion Efficiency


15   VCC –Biomass Gasifier Plant Performance       81
     Data – 2002 to 2004

16   Energy Generation and Consumption Details     81
     of VCC

17   Unit Generation – Breakup Cost in % at VCC    82

18   Electrical Schematic Diagram of Gosaba        88
     Installation

19   Gosaba Gasifier Plant Performance data –      92
     August 1997 – March 1998

20   Gosaba Island March Operating Data            94

21   Gosaba Island Power generation cost           96
     breakup

22   Gosaba Biomass Gasifier Plant Performance     98
     – Design Vs Actual

23   MVIT Gasifier Average Plant Load Factor and   105
     Overall Gasifier Conversion Efficiency

24   MVIT Gasifier plant performance data –        105
     2002 to 2005

25   Energy Generation and Consumption details     106
     of MVIT

26   Unit Generation Break up Cost in % at MVIT    107

27   Performance of Bagavathi Bio Energy           112
                                                                                 ITCOT




                                     CHAPTER 1
                                  INTRODUCTION


1.1   Background
      Government of Karnataka (GoK), has signed an agreement with International
      Funding agencies – UNDP (United Nations Development Program), ICEF (India -
      Canada Environment Facility) and Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources
      (MNES), Government of India (GOI) to implement the project “India: Biomass
      Energy for Rural India (PMU - BERI)” in Tumkur district.


      In this connection, it has been planned to set up biomass – gasifier decentralized
      power generation units in rural areas under the project. To have an appreciation
      of technical and financial issues for setting up the project, BERI has initiated to
      take up a study on the performance of Biomass Gasifier based power generation
      systems in Southern India and Sunderbunds in West Bengal.


1.2   Consultancy
      BERI has appointed ITCOT Consultancy and Services Limited, Chennai vide their
      letter no: PMU/BERI/34/Enc/2004/1809 dated 8th February 2005, to carry out the
      study on Biomass Gasifier based Power Generating Systems in Southern India
      and Sunderbunds. Accordingly, ITCOT conducted the study and submits this
      report on the performance of the gasifiers


1.3   Structure of the Report
      The report has the following structure:
      Chapter 1 details the introduction of the project followed by methodology in
      Chapter 2. Performance of nine selected gasifier units is detailed in Chapter 3.
      Vendors available in Indian market for supplying gasifier and the technology
      penetration are detailed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 details barriers to gasifier
      programmes and policy issues. Successful implementations and case studies of 4
      units are detailed in Chapter 6 and Chapter 7 concludes the report.




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                                     CHAPTER 2
                                    METHODOLOGY


2.1   Methodology
      The methodology adopted for carrying out the study is as follows:


2.1.1 Letters to Nodal Agencies and Vendors
      ITCOT drafted letters for Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources (MNES),
      State Nodal Agencies and vendors, and submitted to BERI. BERI forwarded the
      letters to various agencies through letters as indicated in the Table 1 below:


                                           Table 1
                                     Letters from BERI
      S. No           Name of the                  Letter No                  Date
                     Organisation
        1      Ministry       of      Non BERI/34/ENE/2004/1882 March 1, 2005
               Conventional         Energy and                         and
               Sources, New Delhi           BERI/34/En/2004/1917       March 17, 2005
        2      State Nodal Agencies in BERI 34 ENE 2004 / February                     22,
               Southern India               1856                       2005
        3      Gasifier    Vendors       / BERI 34 ENE 2004 / February                 22,
               Suppliers                    1855                       2005


2.1.2 Preparation of complete list of gasifiers
      The complete list of gasifier installed in South India, West Bengal and
      Maharashtra, from the beginning of Ninth Five Year Plan i.e., between 1997 – to
      till date was collected along with year of installation, location, capacity,
      application and present status. The list of gasifiers was obtained from the State
      Nodal Agencies as detailed in Table 2 and from Vendors as detailed in Table 3
      below:




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                                 Table 2
                 List of State Nodal Agencies Contacted
No     Letter       Name of the Organisation       Letter Received vide
     Date from               Contacted            No. and Date (if any)
       ITCOT
1    March 14,     Agency for Non Conventional
     2005          Energy and Rural Technology                -
                   (ANERT), Trivandrum, Kerala
2.   March 14,     Karnataka Renewable Energy
     2005          Development Limited (KREDL),               -
                   Bangalore, Karnataka
3.   March 14,     Maharashtra Energy             BERI 34 ENE 2004/57
     2005 and      Development Agency, Pune,      dated 21st April 2005
     April 26,     Maharashtra                    enclosed with MEDA
     2005                                         letter No. REN/BMS
                                                  002/2004-05/1686 dated
                                                  11th April 2005
4.   March 14,     Non Conventional Energy        NEDCAP/PD/BG/3552/03-
     2005          Development Corporation of     04 dated 28th February
                   Andhra Pradesh (NEDCAP)        2005
                   Ltd., Hyderabad, Andhra
                   Pradesh
5.   March 14,     Tamilnadu Energy
     2005          Development Agency (TEDA),                 -
                   Chennai, Tamilnadu
6.   March 14,     West Bengal Renewable
     2005          Energy Development Agency
                                                              -
                   (WBREDA), Kolkata, West
                   Bengal




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                                      Table 3
                          List of Vendors Contacted
                                                             Letter Received
         Letter Date        Name of the Organisation
 No                                                            vide No. and
         from ITCOT                   Contacted
                                                                    Date
  1    February 24,      Ankur Scientific Energy             Replied via email
       2005              Technologies private Limited,       dated February 25,
                         Baroda, Gujarat                     2005 and March
                                                             10, 2005
  2    February 24,      Ankur Scientific Energy             Replied via email
       2005              Technologies private Limited,       dated February 25,
                         Regional Office, Kolkata, West      2005 and March
                         Bengal                              10, 2005
  3    February 23,      Centre for Gasification and         Letter dated 16th
       2005 and          Propulsion Laboratory (CGPL),       March 2005
       Email on March    Indian Institute of Science,
       14, 2005          Bangalore, Karnataka
  4    February 24,      Associated Engineering Works
       2005              (AEW), Hyderabad, Andhra
                         Pradesh
  5    February 24,      Netpro Renewable Energy (India)
       2005              Limited, Bangalore, Karnataka
  6    February 24,      Grain Processing Industries
       2005              (India) Private Limited, Kolkata,
                         West Bengal
  7    February 24,      Cosmo Powertech Private
       2005              Limited, Raipur, Chhattisgarh
  8    February 24,      Energreen Power Limited,
       2005              Chennai, Tamilnadu


The detailed list of gasifier installations collected along with vendor name and
capacity is enclosed in Annexure 1.



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2.1.3 Preparation of Questionnaire
      The detailed questionnaire including Technical and Financial Parameters required
      for carrying out the study was prepared and sent to BERI for clarifications/
      correction vide letter No. ENERGY/DV/2005 dated February 21, 2005.


      The questionnaire with clarifications was received from BERI vide letter No. BERI
      34 ENE 004 / 1889 dated March 3, 2005 and the same was used for survey of
      gasifier installations across Southern India, West Bengal and Maharashtra. The
      detailed questionnaire is enclosed as Annexure 2.


2.1.4 Selection of Gasifier systems for study
      As mentioned in Para 2.1.1, the complete list of gasifiers was analyzed and
      letters were sent to all the units detailed in Annexure 1 for carrying out site visits
      Gasifier systems of various capacities on electrical mode, spread over various
      locations were selected for carrying out the study.


      Following are the units under various categories selected for the field study.
      a. Educational Institutions – 6 Installations
      b. Gram Panchayat – 2 Installations
      c. Industrial Units – 4 Installations
      d. Island under Village Electrification – 2 Installations


2.1.5 Site Visit
      After receiving the consent of BERI for the units selected, ITCOT Consultants
      carried out the site visits. The details visits undertaken along with the date are
      enclosed in Annexure 3 and an extract of the same for ready reference is
      detailed in Table 4 below.




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                                     Table 4
             List of Installation visited (in the order visited)
S. No             Name of the Gasifier Installation                   State
 1        M. Vishveswaraiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore     Karnataka
 2        WBREDA Installation of Chotamulakalli                    West Bengal
 3        WBREDA Installation of Gosaba                            West Bengal
 4        Odanthurai Panchayat, Coimbatore District                Tamilnadu
 5        Nellithurai Panchayat, Coimbatore District               Tamilnadu
 6        PSG Institute of Technology, Coimbatore District         Tamilnadu
 7        Bagavathi Bio Private Limited, Coimbatore District       Tamilnadu
 8        Pondicherry Engineering College                          Pondicherry
 9        Valli Chlorate Company, Kovilpatti                       Tamilnadu
 10       Periyar Maniammai College of Technology for              Tamilnadu
          Women, Vallam (Phase I and Phase II)
 11       GB Food Oils Limited, Pudupatty                          Tamilnadu
 12       Jagat Alloys Private Limited, Savroli Village, Khopoli   Maharashtra
 13       Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore                 Tamilnadu


 Of these 14 installations, 9 installations are discussed in Chapter 3, while the
 balance 4 units are discussed in Chapter 6 under successful Case Studies. Four
 installations have been chosen for successful case studies and are detailed
 below.


 1. Valli Chlorate Company at Kovilpatti, Tamil Nadu
      Valli Chlorate Company has been chosen as a successful case study for the
      reason that it has revived itself from closure by installing 100% producer gas
      based gasifier. The company has also increased its profitability by installing
      the gasifier by reducing cost of energy purchased from TNEB.


 2. Gosaba Island Installation, Sunderbunds
      Gosaba Island installation has been as a successful case study for the reason
      that the energy generated from gasifier has turned the socio economic status



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        of the Island along with community development. Even when the cost of
        energy generation is high, the energy generated from gasifier has played a
        pivotal role in improving the life style of the rural masses of Sunderbunds,
        where grid penetration is impossible in the near future.


     3. M. Vishveswaraiah Institute of Technology installation at Bangalore
        In the educational institutions category, MVIT is the oldest gasifier unit
        operating successfully for the last three years. The unit also operates for
        longer period in a year and has generated more units when compared to
        other units.


     4. Bagavathi Bio Energy Limited installation at Coimbatore
        In the industry sector, the unit that is successful in implementing the gasifier
        program is Bagavathi Bio Energy installation at Mettupalayam. The company
        has successfully been running as a separate entity to serve the energy
        demand of a Textile bleaching unit by installing the system in their premises
        without any major problem.


     Though other units covered by the study were also operating the gasifiers, the
     data available from the units other than the above four is scanty and further,
     units were also not willing to share the real performance of the gasifiers. Some
     units found the operation not economical on dual mode due to high cost of
     diesel, and hence, gasifiers are not run.


2.1.6 Limitation of the Study
     Most of the units observed that the data questionnaire was very exhaustive and
     the units do not have the classified data. Units in general are very reluctant to
     share the actual field data especially the financials and absence of the
     authentication letter from MNES added to the cause. Thus, ITCOT consultants
     based on the discussions, observations and log sheets filled the data
     questionnaire. Some units refused to share any details in the absence of MNES




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letter. This resulted in a considerable delay in the unit visit scheduling and data
collection.


Thus, the study is based only on the data collected during the site visit and not
furnished by the unit.




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                                     CHAPTER 3


      PERFORMANCE OF GASIFIERS AT NINE SELECTED INSTALLATIONS


3.1   Name of Installation: Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry


A.    Project Background
      Objective
      District Rural Development Agency (DRDA), Pondicherry through Ministry of Non-
      Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) New Delhi implemented the 1x 100kW
      biomass gasifier on electrical mode at the Pondicherry Engineering College (PEC)
      campus, to promote gasifier system based academic research projects.
      Year of Installation
      The plant is installed in June 1, 2004
      Location
      The engineering college is located at a distance of 10 km from Pondicherry town
      Plant lay out Size
      5m X15m
      Type
      Woody biomass down draft gasifier with batch feeding


B.    Technical Specifications
      Gasifier (supplier - Associated Engineering works (AEW), Tanuku,
      Andhra Pradesh)
         i)     Capacity: 100 kW (250 m3/h)
         ii)    Biomass fuel consumption: 100kg/h
         iii)   Biomass fuel size: 15 mm~75mm
         iv)    Moisture: < 20%
         v)     Hopper holding capacity: 500kg
         vi)    Loading of biomass: manual feeding and intermittent
         vii) Gasifier starting: By hand blower
         viii) Diesel replacement: average: 70%



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   ix)    Gas cooling and cleaning of tar removal, particulates: Water spray
          cooler, scrubber, 4 nos. of centrifugal tar removing pumps, service filter
          (fabric), additional filter with pebbles
   x)     Gas flaring provision before service filter
   xi)    Height of reactor 12 ft.
   xii) Auxiliary power: 12 hp includes wood cutter of 3 hp, water circulation
          pump, and make up water pump, scrubber and centrifugal tar removal
          pumps (4 nos).
   xiii) Water circulation: 250 litres per minute.
   xiv) Recommended biomass fuels: Casuarina, eucalyptus, Subabul, Neem,
          Cashew, Coconut shells and any hardwood
   xv) Gasifier material of construction: Stainless Steel for nozzle and throat
          and MS for Hopper, body and pipe line
   xvi) Life of Gasifier: 20 years
   xvii) Turn down ratio: 30%
   xviii) Starting time from cold start: 30 minutes
Engine (make - Ashok Leyland)
   •     Capacity 151 hp
   •     Manual starting system with battery
Alternator (Make – Kirloskar)
   •     KVA: 125, Speed rpm: 1500, Voltage: 415 V
   •     Load: 175 Ampere
   •     Frequency: 50Hz
   •     Power factor: 0.8
   •     Continuous duty, S1 IS: 4722-1992
Electrical panels
The plant is designed to operate on stand alone mode and the gasifier power is
transferred to the college for captive consumption after switching off the state
electricity board supply and by providing suitable interlocks to avoid parallel
operation with the grid. Electrical control panel of 200 Ampere rating is provided
with Molded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB) of 175 A rating with built in protections
of under voltage, over voltage, over current and earth fault protection. The



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     college has provided 125 A feeder for supplying auxiliary power for starting of
     gasifier plant auxiliaries. The power generated from the Gasifier is transferred by
     way of change over switch of 400 A rating in the college electrical control. The
     main loading point is administrative block but provision is there is to supplement
     the loading in other areas.


C.   Financial Parameters
     Building and civil works
     (Comprising of fuel storage yard, biomass sizing, gasifier system with DG set,
     control panel, water storage tank with filtration) Rs. 6.82 lakhs
     For Gasifier system with DG set
            DRDA: Rs .21.45 lakhs
            MNES subsidy: Rs. 1.50 lakhs
     Total Project cost: Rs. 29.77 lakhs

D.   Project Status
     The plant was commissioned on June 1, 2004 and was under trial operation from
     October 2004 to December 2004 by the supplier, for establishing the guaranteed
     performance. On completion of the same the project was accepted by DRDA for
     handing over to PEC. It was noted that discussions are underway between DRDA
     and PEC on official handing over for subsequent plant operation and
     maintenance. The plant has not been functional since January 2005.


E.   Plant Performance Summary for the monitored Period
     (8 weeks in November 2004 and December 2004)
        •   Gross Power Generation: 15,995 kWh
        •   Average kW loading: 63.42
        •   Total biomass consumption: 22,630 Kgs
        •   Total diesel consumption: 1,780 litres
        •   No. of Operating Hours: 252 hours
        •   Average diesel replacement: 54%
        •   Average cost of gross power generation: Rs.5.40/kWh



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        •    Average PLF: 49.98 %
        •    Average specific biomass consumption: 1.46 kg/kWh
        •    Average specific diesel consumption: 0.12 litre/ kWh
        The auxiliary consumption data is not provided and hence, not indicated in
        the summary.


F.   Plant Performance Analysis
     (a) The plant performance in terms of following indices has been discussed in
     the chart given below:
            a. Average Gasifier system kW loading
            b. Gasifier system overall conversion efficiency %
            c. % Diesel replacement
            d. Gross power generation cost Rs/kWhr


                  FIGURE – 1 Pondicherry Engineering College
                           Gasifier Performance Analysis




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Observations:
 i. The highest average kW loading which has been recorded is 83.38 kW in the
    fifth week of the monitored period
ii. The highest loading shows the best diesel replacement at 67% with optimum
    power generation cost per kWh ie. Rs. 3.97/kWh
iii. The overall gasifier system conversion efficiency (including gasifier, engine,
    Alternator) is also highest in the 5th week due to improved loading over the
    previous weeks. This index is arrived based on the following assumptions;
              GCV of HSD – 10,000 kCal/Kg
              GCV of biomass @ 20% moisture while feeding gasifier – 3,500
              kCal/Kg
              GCV of 1 kWh = 860 kCal
iv. The chart indicates poor performance indices due to fluctuations in loading in
    the 3rd week of monitored period.


(b) Specific fuel consumption with respect to gasifier system loading is
       presented in the following chart.


            FIGURE 2 Pondicherry Engineering College
           Specific fuel consumption Vs Gasifier loading




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          Observations:
                i. As stated earlier, 5th week of monitored period has shown best
                      performance indices with highest PLF at 70.88 %.
                ii. PLF is arrived at considering the installed capacity of 100 kW, with daily
                      operating hours of 8 and 5 days a week
               iii. The specific fuel consumption of biomass is 1.08 kg/kWh and for diesel is
                      0.08 litre/kWh


G.        Cost of Production
          The breakup cost for gross power generation is given in the chart below:


                            FIGURE 3 Pondicherry Engineering College
                            Gasifier – Dual fuel mode Power Generation
                                   Cost Break Up Cost (Rs./kWh)




                                                                       Biomass cost
Diesel Cost Rs/kWh                                                        Rs/kWh
            3.46
                                                                            1.75
            65%
                                                                            32%




                                                 Operators cost
                                                    Rs/kWh
                                                      0.19
                                                       3%



        Observations:
              i. In the dual fuel mode of operation the impact of diesel cost is well noticed
                     in the above pie chart. 65% of the average power generation cost is due to
                     diesel at an average diesel replacement of 54%.



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                                                                            ITCOT




      ii. The share of diesel could be reduced further at higher % of diesel
         replacement with the improved loading, as average PLF in the monitored
         period is low at 49.98%.


     iii. One operator with one helper is considered here and their contribution is
         negligible at 3% of the total cost. Based on the discussion, the operator
         salary is assumed at Rs. 3,500 per month and salary for the helper is
         Rs.1,500 per month.


     iv. Repairs and maintenance cost is not considered as the plant is new and it
         was conveyed that it is covered under 2 years equipment guarantee with
         the supplier for replacement of defective items for the entire gasifier
         system.


H.   Performance: Design Vs Actual


                                       Table 5
       Design Vs Actual Performance of Pondicherry Engineering College
                   Performance
      S. No                                Unit        Design          Actual
                    indicator
        1     Average kW loading                  KW         100            63.42
              Average Specific
        2     Biomass                       Kg/kWh              1            1.46
              consumption
              Average Diesel
        3                                Litre/kWh           0.06            0.12
              consumption
              Average % diesel
        4                              Percentage               70              54
              replacement




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                                 FIGURE 4 - Pondicherry Engineering College (1 x 100 kW)
                                              Performance Comparison design Vs actual



                       1.6                                                                                                   120
                                                                                         1.46

                       1.4                        100
                                                                                                                             100
kg/kWh and litre/kWh




                       1.2




                                                                                                                                   kW and percentage
                                          1
                                                                                                                             80
                        1                                   70
                                                                                            63.42

                       0.8                                                                               54                  60


                       0.6
                                                                                                                             40

                       0.4

                                                                                                                             20
                       0.2                                                                                    0.12
                                                                  0.06

                        0                                                                                                    0
                                                   Design                                       Actual
                                  Average Specific Biomass consumption Kg/kWh    Average Diesel consumption Litre/kWh

                                  Average kW loading                             Average % diesel replacement Percentage




                             •    The design value is considered at 100 % loading and is compared with
                                  actual performance in the monitored period.
                             •    The loading in trial operation is lesser compared to the design value and
                                  hence, the performance could not be better at par with design.
                             •    The plant has been operated only for eight weeks and is yet to commence
                                  its commercial operation in full swing. Hence, it is expected to achieve a
                                  better performance in loading, specific fuel consumption and better diesel
                                  replacement with optimum constant loading of 80% and above in future.




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I.   Summary of notes of discussion with PEC and DRDA:
       •   Both DRDA and PEC conveyed that plant operation in the monitored
           period was satisfactory
       •   During the trials the supplier has introduced a fine filter made of pebble
           stones after the service filter and before air and gas mixer, for achieving
           the desired quality of gas
       •   The power generation was fed to college administrative block, which has
           an average load of 65 KW. The administrative block comprises load points
           of A/C’s, lighting, computers etc. The load test was carried out from 9.00
           am to 5.00 pm in 5 days a week.
       •   The entire gasifier system has been delivered at site in a month time
       •   The supplier has offered 2 years guarantee for equipment against
           manufacturing defects
       •   The college has plans to operate the system for academic research
           projects under M. Tech, Energy technology programme
       •   The best wood suggested by DRDA is pencil wood
       •   The college has done an analysis on generated Charcoal and is given
           below:
                    Volatile matter – 19.11%
                    Ash – 22.87%
                    Fixed Carbon – 58.02%

J.   Issues
       •   The college has a contract demand of 500 kVA from the state electricity
           board and the average power cost per kWh is Rs.2.10 (inclusive of
           demand charges). The college needs to pay a fixed demand cost of 75%
           of contracted demand. The average cost of power per kWh from the
           gasifier is Rs.5.40 and is higher when compared to state electricity board
           tariff. Hence, the college management is exploring the ways and means of
           operating the system not for the purpose of captive power alone but also
           for academic research projects under M. Tech energy technology
           programme.



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        •   The college has expressed its inability to allocate a dedicated team for
            operating the gasifier installation and discussions are underway between
            DRDA and PEC in launching a tendering process to operate the system
            through private operator on O&M basis. However, consumables like diesel,
            wood, lubricating oils etc. have to be arranged by DRDA/PEC through
            Pondicherry Government. The entire process is yet to be finalized and
            hence the system is non-functional since January 2005.


K.   General Issues on site operations
     It was observed that the following parameters, which have affected the gasifier
     performance, have never been tested at the site:
        •   Moisture of biomass fuels at gasifier feeding point
        •   Emission of tar and particulates level
        •   Effectiveness of cooling and gas cleaning system and Producer gas quality
            – Calorific value
        •   Vibration and noise levels of the installation


L.   Operating Problems:
        •   In dual fuel mode the problems of filters – coarse and fine filters, block
            the producer gas line very often and creates reduced producer gas flow
            and lead to poor quality, resulting in increased diesel consumption for the
            same load.
        •   The coarse and fine filters filled with dry wood dust of different grading
            often demands cleaning and changing due to frequent choking.
        •   The fabric filter cloth choking problem is experienced frequently in the
            installations
        •   Due to the prevailing dusty atmosphere and poor filtering of gas, often
            creates choking of air cooled after cooler in engine. The performance of
            water based after cooler, is better in maintenance when compared to air
            cooled system, as the fins require more cleaning in these dusty
            atmosphere.



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                                                                                 ITCOT




3.2   Name of Installation: Chotamulakalli Island, 24 Parganas District,
      West Bengal


A.    Project Background
      Objective
      West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency (WBREDA) in association
      with MNES, Government of India, Sunderbunds Development Department, Forest
      Department, and South 24 Parganas Zilla Parisad decided to install a 500 kW (4
      x 125 kW) biomass based power plant and Chotamulakalli has been identified by
      the WBREDA as a probable location for setting up the woody biomass based
      power plant. This place is situated in Gosaba Block of 24 Parganas District of
      West Bengal.    This has been selected, as it is one of the Gateways to the
      interiors of Sunderbunds.


      The locality has a population of 28,000 with a good market where people from
      interior areas come for buying and selling products. This market is a good
      commercial Centre in the Sunderbunds area. With the availability of electricity,
      many small scale entrepreneurs could develop small industries like mini rice mills,
      ice plants, pumping /irrigation and water supply, saw mill, cold storage etc.,
      where it is almost impossible to extend the conventional power grid line. The
      prime objective of this power plant is to improve socio economic condition of the
      local people in Chotamulakalli Island.


      This power plant may also be utilized for supplying power to the adjacent areas
      of Chotamulakalli by installing 11 kV sub-transmission systems and the areas,
      which may get the benefit of electric supply, are mentioned below:
                   a. Tara Nagar
                   b. Boro Mullakhali
                   c. Kachukhalli
                   d. Hetalbari
                   e. Kalidaspur




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                                                                             ITCOT




     Year of Installation
     The 500 kW woody biomass based power plant was commissioned on 19th
     October 2001
     Plant lay out Size
     2000 sq. ft
     Type
     Woody biomass down draft gasifier with batch feeding


B.   Technical Specifications
     Gasifier (supplier – Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies, Baroda)
        1.     Model: WBG –120
        2.     Capacity: 125 kW
        3.     Rated gas flow: 300 m3/h
        4.     Average gas Calorific value: > 1,000 kCal/m3
        5.     Biomass fuel consumption: 96 ~ 120kg/h
        6.     Gasification temperature: 1050 ~ 1100 deg. C
        7.     Indicative gasification efficiency:
                   Hot gas mode: > 85%
                   Cold gas mode: > 75%
        8.     Temperature at gasifier outlet: 250 ~ 400 deg. C
        9.     Biomass fuel size:
                    Minimum diameter 10 mm and length 10 mm
                    Maximum diameter 60 mm and length 75 mm
        10.    Moisture: < 20% on wet basis
        11.    Hopper holding capacity: 500kg
        12.    Loading of biomass: intermittent manual feeding per hour
        13.    Ash removal: Continuous through proprietary control and water seal
        14.    Gasifier starting: Through scrubber pump/blower
        15.    Specific fuel consumption: 250 ml/kWh – full diesel mode
        16.    Indicative diesel replacement: average 65 ~ 75% depending on
               operating load
        17.    Engine conversion efficiency: 25%



                                          20
                                                                            ITCOT




   18.      Gas cooling and cleaning of tar removal, particulates: Venturi scrubber
            with water re-circulation and ultra clean gas for power generation
            mode through proprietary and fine filters
   19.      Gas flaring provision before service filter
   20.      Height of reactor 4 ft.
   21.      Auxiliary power: 8 kW
   22.      Water circulation: 250 litres per minute.
   23.      Recommended biomass fuels: Casuarina, eucalyptus, subabul, Neem,
            Cashew, Coconut shells and any hardwood
   24.      Gasifier material of construction: Stainless Steel for nozzle and throat
            and MS for Hopper, body and pipe line
   25.      Life of Gasifier: 5 years
   26.      Turn down ratio: 30%
   27.      Starting time from cold start: 30 minutes
   28.      Maximum permissible particulate: 50 mg/m3
   29.      Typical producer gas composition (%)
               CO=19 +/- 3%                  N2 – 50%
               CO2=10 +/- 3%                 H2=18 +/- 2% CH4=up to 3%
Engine (make - Greaves)
   •     Capacity 160 kVA
   •     Mechanical B1 class governor
   •     Manual starting system with battery
Alternator (Make – Crompton Greaves)
   •     KVA: 160, Speed rpm: 1500, Voltage: 415 V
   •     Load: 222 Ampere, Frequency: 50Hz
   •     Power factor: 0.8
   •     Continuous duty, S1 IS: 4722-1992
Electrical Systems
Chotamulakalli Island was an un-electrified village until this project was
commissioned, and the plant was designed to operate on stand alone mode for
village electrification purpose, as extension of the conventional grid power is
impossible.



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                                                                              ITCOT




                      FIGURE 5 - Electrical Schematic Diagram


                                      Feeder 1

Provision given for
future expansion
                                                              415 V bus




                           Bus
                           coupler




                              DG sets 1, 2, 3 and 4

     The power generated from the five DG’s can be synchronized at the 415 V bus
     and is taken through feeders 1 with a step up transformer of 315 kVA for power
     distribution at 11 kV. The existing 11 kV distribution circuit comprises of 1 km,
     and 415 V distribution circuit comprises of 5 km. The 415 V distributions has 1
     no of 100 kVA and 1 no of 63 kVA step down transformers located at various
     load ends. During the discussion it was informed that distribution loss has been
     estimated at 8%. The plant has been provided with a bay for second 315-kVA-
     distribution transformer. WBREDA has approached MNES for second phase grid
     extension of 15 km.


     Electrical control panel of 2000 Ampere capacity rating and each DG set is
     provided with Molded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB) of 300 A rating with built in
     protections for under voltage, over voltage, over current, earth fault protection
     and reverse power. The synchronizing panel has synchroscope and the operators
     check synchronizing relay and synchronizing operation manually. The outgoing
     feeder and bus coupler is provided with 630 A ACB. The distribution panel is



                                        22
                                                                                     ITCOT




     provided with Enercon make EM 3360 – 2 nos for registering power at the feeder
     levels.


C.   Financial Parameters


                                          Table 6
                     Project Cost of Chottomollokhali Installation
       S. No             Items                            Unit                Cost Rs lakh
          1      Land                      1 acre                                 150.00
          2     Fuel storage yard          2,500 sq ft
          3     Gasifier system with DG    7,000 sq ft
          4     Power evacuation           315      kVA     transformer,
                system                     100 kVA and 63 kVA
                                           distribution transformers
                                           associated            electrical
                                           system


     Total project cost: Rs.150 lakhs


     Source of funds:
     75% of the project cost from MNES
     25% of the project from West Bengal State Government


     Power evacuation cost:
     Cost for 11 kV (HT) distribution: Rs 2.5 lakhs/km
     Cost for 415 V (LT) distribution: Rs 1.5 lakhs/km
     The plant has 5km of LT line and 1 km of HT line. WBREDA has planned to
     expand the distribution network by another 10 km with the support of MNES in
     second phase.




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                                                                            ITCOT




Consumers and Tariff structure
The island has an area of 25 sq km with a population of 15,000. It was informed
that around 350 consumers are availing this power supply and are grouped as
below.


   •     Domestic: Rs.4.00/kWh
   •     Commercial: Rs 4.50/kWh
   •     Hospital: Rs.4.50/kWh
   •     Ice factory: Rs 5.00/kWh
   •     Small industries like band saw mill and others: Rs 5.00/kWh


Deposit fees towards service connection @ Rs 500/consumer and Rs 20/month
as meter rent is charged from the consumers. The above are flat tariff charges
without taxes. Around 95% of the customers are coming under domestic group.


Operation and Maintenance cost
Based on the discussion with WBREDA, the past operating data is summarized
below in Table 7:


                                         Table 7
          Three Year Performance of Chottomollokhali Installation
 S. No                           Items                   2002    2003       2004
   1       Average Processed biomass fuel tonnes           120     144        180
   2       Average fuel cost Rs/kg                        1.00     1.00      1.00
   3       Average Diesel in Kilo litres                    12         15      18
   4       Average Diesel price Rs/litre                    15         20      29
   5       No. of operators                                  9         9       9
   6       Average Operators salary/annum Rs lakh         2.40     2.40      2.40
   7       Electricity generation cost Rs/kWhr            2.75     3.50      4.50
   8       Total revenue generated Rs lakh                4.20     6.00      7.20
   9       Total expenditure Rs lakh                      5.20     7.30      9.00
  10       Net deficit Rs lakh                            1.00     1.30      1.80



                                         24
                                                                                 ITCOT




D.   Chotamulakalli Power Plant Operation
     The power plant though, has an installed capacity of 4 x 125 kW, but presently
     one system is operated, due to the non-completion of grid extension network.
     The power plant is starts at 5.30 pm and stops at 11.00 pm, and the peak
     loading is around 110kW at 8.30 pm, and after 6.30 pm the loading drastically
     reduces to 60%.


     Society for plant operation
     Eight member beneficiary committee comprising of personnel from Panchayat
     head, Panchayat Samithi, WBREDA, political party, consumer representative,
     Sunderbunds development board and state government, manage the power
     plant..


     Diesel replacement
     The plant operating data was not provided by WBREDA and the plant was not in
     operation during the site visit of ITCOT Consultants (Visit was made at 2.30 pm)
     and hence, no reading was taken from logbook. WBREDA informed that at peak
     load of 110 kW in one gasifier, following would be the consumption levels, as
     experienced by them:


                   •   Total diesel consumption at peak: 10 litres/hour
                   •   Total biomass consumption at peak: 100 kg/hour
                   •   Total diesel consumption on diesel mode: 26 litres/hour
                   •   Diesel replacement at peak load of 88%: 62%

E.   General Issues
        •      It was informed that fluctuating demand was a main attribute for the poor
               performance of the gasifier. The load points are predominantly lighting
               (domestic, commercial, and street) fans, irrigation pumps, commercial
               establishment like education institutions and hospital. Before this power
               plant, consumers were using SPV for lighting systems and fans.
        •      Though three gasifiers were replaced with new gasifiers in 2002 (Gasifier
               1,3 and 5), it was informed that gasifier three has still problems in the



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                                                                           ITCOT




    coarse & fine filters, often leading to pressure build up and reduced flow
    of producer gas. Other two units also have intermittent problems related
    to filters.
•   Fabric filter, which exists before the air fuel mixture, also has similar
    problems of choking in all the working gasifiers.
•   WBREDA has conveyed that the whole system of gas cleaning and cooling
    needs a thorough study on the system design and actual performance. It
    was also conveyed that vendor had never checked the performance
    indicators like gas quality, tar and particulate emissions at a specified
    loading, vibration levels, and wear & tear of the engine on poor gas
    quality.
•   Due to the frequent problems in the filters and resultant poor gas quality,
    operators were forced to operate on diesel to maintain the same load.
•   The entire operation of DG set and gasifier is manual; hence, if producer
    gas generation is of poor quality then it warrants more attention in
    operating the DG set on diesel mode, as more operator intervention is
    required. . This could result in increased cost of power generation.
•   The operating nature is such that any fall in the gas flow due to filter
    choking will throw an impact on the sudden reduction of frequency and
    this has to be immediately attended to by the operator to increase the
    diesel flow to maintain loading. Hence, gasifier operation with frequent
    filter problems poses a great challenge to operators.
•   The problems faced in the coarse and fine filter is due to the sizing of
    sawdust, which is used as filter medium for removal of tar and other
    particulate. Incorrect sizing could lead to blockage of sawdust at the mesh
    pores and reduction in gas flow.
•   Engine after-cooler has a direct impact on the engine efficiency and one
    DG set at Gosaba has air-cooled-after-cooler and due to dusty atmosphere
    with biomass fines, air-cooled-after-cooler fins are found to be choked
    very often and demand cleaning of filter once a week.
•   R&D on gasifier reactor and material thickness should be conducted.




                                 26
                                                                              ITCOT




3.3   Name of Installation: PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore,
      Tamilnadu


A.    Project Background
      Objective
      PSG college of Technology, Coimbatore through Ministry of Non-Conventional
      Energy Sources (MNES) New Delhi implemented a 1x 100kW biomass gasifier on
      electrical mode at the PSG foundry campus, Neelambur to partially meet the
      foundry electrical energy requirement and also to promote gasifier system based
      academic research projects at the college.
      Year of commissioning
      The plant is commissioned in 30th July 2004.
      Location
      The gasifier is located in PSG foundry unit at a distance of 10 km from
      Coimbatore town.
      Plant lay out Size
      12.1 m X 9.0 m
      Type
      Open top, down draft solid biomass gasifier.


B.    Technical Specifications
      Gasifier (Supplier – Netpro Renewable Energy (India) Pvt Ltd,
      Bangalore)
           1.     Capacity: 100 kW
           2.     Biomass fuel consumption: 135 kg/hr
           3.     Specific fuel consumption: 1.25 kg/kW +/_ 0.1
           4.     Bulk density of fuel: 250kg/m3
           5.     Biomass fuel size: 20mm x 20mm x 60 mm (max). Small particles
                  (10mm x 10mm x 15mm) could be added but limited to maximum of
                  5 %.
           6.     Gas quality with ‘standard biomass’
           7.     Moisture: < 15%



                                         27
                                                                            ITCOT




    8.     Gas cooling: Cold & Chilled Water spray -180 lpm (10 – 15 °C)
    9.     Tar & Particulate matter removal by: Cyclone separators, scrubber,
           chillers & fabric filter (Non – woven polyester cloth which retain dust
           particles up to 5 micron size- Fabric filter is approximately 4 m2)
    10.    Chilled water spray: 150 lpm
    11.    Moisture removal: Moisture traps-2nos
    12.    Gas flaring provision before fabric filter
    13.    Height of reactor: 5.5 m
    14.    Auxiliary power: 18 kW includes raw water 3 HP- 3nos, 2 HP- 3 no,
           Blower -2HP, Screw conveyor for ash removal- 1HP, ETP- 2HP CT fan
           2HP -2nos,
    15.    Recommended biomass fuels:          Besaram (Ipoemia), coconut shell,
           Casuarina (Equistifolia), Eucalyptus, Mulberry stalk, Lantana camara,
           Silver oak, Jungle wood, saw dust briquettes
    16.    Gasifier material of construction: high temperature ceramic and stain
Engine (make – Cummins India)
      •   Capacity: 140 kVA
      •   Governing system: Hydraulic governor with manual air fuel adjustment
          and using Battery operated starting system
Alternator (Make – Stamford)
      •   KVA: 140
      •   Speed rpm: 1500
      •   Voltage: 415 V +/-2.5 %
      •   Frequency: 50Hz
      •   Power factor: 0.8
      •   Self excited, self regulated brush less design


Type of circuit breaker: Molded case circuit breaker
Protection system: Earth leakage relay with CBCT
The system is provided with voltage, current and energy meter.




                                    28
                                                                                  ITCOT




C.   Financial Parameters
     The system is installed in the PSG foundry campus itself and hence, land value is
     taken as nil. The unit does not have Biomass sizing unit as the unit is purchasing
     processed biomass. The break up cost of the system is given below in Table 8.


                                                Table 8
                        Total Project Cost of PSG College Installation
       S. No                  System                        Area           Cost in Rs.
                                                                             lakhs
            1       Gasifier & auxiliaries                5m x 5m x 7.5m       14.500
            2       Gas engine, Alternator &         5.3m x 9.0m x 7.5 m       15.500
                    auxiliaries
            3       Power distribution system                          -        1.500
            4       Effluent treatment system                          -        0.350
            5       Pumps                                              -        0.386
                                                                   Total      32.286
                                        MNES subsidy on item 1 & 2             50 %


D.   Project Status
     The plant was commissioned on July 30, 2004 and put under operation
     intermittently. The system was not operational during the site visit due to
     problems in the engine in taking load.


E.   Plant Performance Summary available for the Period (3/7/2004 to
     30/10/2004)
     The operating performance of the system as on 30/10/2004 is given below.
        •       Engine Operating Hours: 263 Hrs.
        •       Gasifier Operating Hours: 128 Hrs.
        •       Total units generated: 4,363 units
        •       Total biomass consumption: 14,562 kgs.
        •       Average plant load, based on operating hours of the engine: 35.6%




                                             29
                                                                                                                                                                              ITCOT




                    •                         Average cost of gross power generation as reported in the questionnaire:
                                              Rs.3.25/ kWh


F.   Plant Performance Analysis
     (a) The plant performance in terms of following indices has been discussed in
                                        the chart given below:
                    1. Specific fuel consumption- kg/kW
                    2. Gasifier system overall conversion efficiency %
                    3. % Loading of the system
                    4. Cost of generation Rs/kWh


                                                             FIGURE 6 - PSG College of Technology
                                                 Performance Data from 3.7.2004 to 30.10.2004




                               10.0                                                                                                                                    60.0
                                                                                                       Date


                                                                                                                                                          50.8         50.0
       Specifc fuel consumption-kg/kW




                                                                                                                         46.2 45.8                 47.2
                                                                                     44.3
                                                                                                                                            43.2




                                                                                                                                                                              % of loading & Overall
                                                                                            41.9
                                                                                                                                                                    40.0
                                                                                                                  38.5
                                                                                                                                                                 37.4


                                                                                                                                                                                     efficiency
                                                                36.3
                                                         35.2                                                                        3.8
                                                  34.0                                                    34.0

                                                                       30.0                        3.2                                                                 30.0
                                                         3.0                                       27.2
                                                                2.8           25.9                        2.6
                                                                                                                                     23.4                 2.5
                                                                              2.3                                                           2.3
                                                                       2.2           2.2                                                                               20.0
                                                  2.0                                                             2.0    2.0
                                                                                                                                                   1.8           1.9
                                                                                            1.8
                                                                                            14                                 14
                                                                                                                               1.7                 13            13
                                                  12                   11                                         12     12
                                                                              11     11                                                     11
                                                                                                          9                                               10           10.0
                                                         8      9
                                                                                                   8
                                                                                                                                     6


                                        1.0                                                                                                                            0.0
                                                                                                   Date
                                                         Specific consumption kg/kW                           %of loading            Overall efficiency




                                                                                                   30
                                                                               ITCOT




     Observations:
        1. Loading plays an important role in the viability of the system
        2. The highest operating kW, which has been recorded is 50.8 kW, while the
            average operating load is 37%
        3. The average auxiliary consumption is around 43 % of the total gross
            generation, which in high due to low operating load
        4. The average biomass consumption is 2.4 kg/kW, which is much higher
            compared to the design value of 1.3 kg/kW, which may be due to low
            operating load and high down time of the engine
        5. Though the reported average power generation cost per kWh is Rs. 3.25,
            the actual power generation cost estimated during the above operating
            period is Rs.5.84/kWh
        6. The overall gasifier system conversion efficiency (including gasifier,
            engine, Alternator) is also in the range of 8-14%, which is also low due to
            poor loading
        7. The chart indicates poor performance indices due to fluctuations in
            loading


G.   Cost of Power Generation
     Cost of power generation with respect to gasifier system loading is presented in
     the following chart.




                                         31
                                                                         ITCOT




               FIGURE 7 - PSG College of Technology
                       Cost of Power Generation
                    (From 3.7.2004 to 30.10.2004)




                                            R &M
                                           0.5 8%
       Man
      Power
     0.14 2%

                                            Fuel 5.84
                                              90%

                   Fuel         Manpower       R&M


Observations:
 •     The fuel component of cost of generation based on the operating data of
       log book is very high due to low loading and operating period of the
       gasifier system though the data provided in the questionnaire is Rs 2.5
       /kWh based on the specific consumption of Biomass of 1.43 kg/kW at the
       rate of Rs.1.75 per kg
 •     The break up details of R & M is not provided and taken as Rs.0.5 /kWh,
       based on the questionnaire
 •     The cost of manpower is very less as one operator and supervisor is in
       charge of the project and their contribution to cost of unit operation is
       negligible at 2% of the total cost. Based on the discussion, the operator
       salary is taken at Rs. 1000 per month and supervisor at Rs.2500 per
       month




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H.   Technical performance data
     Operator’s manual has been referred for typical operating design pressure at
     various sections of the system during normal operation and the details are given
     below in Table 9 and Table 10.


                                                                Table 9
                 Operation & Manual Parameters of PSG College of Technology
                                                                             Pressure in mm of H2O
                 Biomass                                                                    Inlet to
                                  Gas flow                                                               Outlet to
     Load        consum                                  Across               Reactor          R.W.
                                      rate-                                                               Chilled
     (kW)          ption                              Venturi in              (P1) in        Cooler
                                       g/s                                                                cooler in
                      Kg                                   mm                   mm          (P2) in
                                                                                                            mm
                                                                                                 mm
       50         55 +/- 5           38 +/- 5         30 +/- 10%              60 +/- 10 20+/- 10%        100+/-10%
       70            80+/-5            50+/-5            55+/-10%               70+/-10     25+/-10%      85+/-10%
       85             90+/-            65+/-5            80+/-10%               80+/-10     30+/-10%      80+/-10%
      100          110+/-5             75+/-5          110+/-10%                90+/-10     35+/-10%      80+/-10%
      110          121+/-5             85+/-5          135+/-10%               100+/-10     40+/-10%      85+/-10%
      120          132+/-5             90+/-5          160+/-10%               110+/-10     45+/-10%      85+/-10%
     Gas flow g/s: Venturi constant x sq. root of pressure drop at Venturi



     Based on the logbook, the following actual operating data is noted for a typical
     day (13/7/2004) is given below.



                                                             Table 10
              Actual Operation of PSG College of Technology Gasifier System
     S. No                                 Parameter                                      Unit        Value/Range
                                                Load                                      KW            11 ~ 73
         1         Gas flow (Based on Venturimeter)                                          g/sec         32 ~ 84
         2         Differential pressure across Venturimeter                              Mm H2O          25~ 175
         3         Reactor exit P1                                                        Mm H2O           10 ~ 30



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                                                                                      ITCOT




     Table 10 Contd..
     S. No                           Parameter                        Unit         Value/Range
           4        Raw Water Cooler outlet P2                        Mm H2O            20 ~ 60
           5        Chiller outlet                                    Mm H2O           55 ~115
           6        Reactor exit temperature                                 °C       258 ~ 586
           7        Moisture Trap exit temperature                           °C         14~ 21
           8        Charcoal                                           Kg/day             6~10
           9        O2                                                       %             0~1
           10       Voltage                                              Volts        415~ 420
           11       Currents                                            Amps           25~ 120
           12       Frequency                                                Hz        47~ 51.5
           13       Water Temperature                                        °C         60~ 75
           14       Oil Temperature                                          °C         60~ 80
           15       Oil pressure                                             Psi              40
           16       Exhaust Temperature                                      °C       360 ~ 450
           17       Speed                                                Rpm        1400 ~1500


I.   Issues:
     i.         The gasifier with 100 % producer gas engine from Cummins is the first of
                its kind and the system is yet to get stabilized.
     ii.        The load connected to the engine is foundry (Sand blasting -35 kW,
                Lighting load-20 kW, Auxiliary of gasifier system -20 kW) and facing
                fluctuating load predominantly due to sand blasting (For every 8 minutes,
                blower will be on for 3 sec.) and during overload, the gas quantity is not
                sufficient to meet the demand and hence, the engine trips. It was observed
                that engine could not take load more than 40kW often. The following are
                some of the problems encountered during the period.
           a) Screw conveyor for ash removal was getting choked often, which may be
                 due to frequent on/off of the gasifier system
           b) Fabric filter is getting blocked often
           c) Biomass size is reduced from 30 mm x 20 mm to 20mm x 20mm




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                                                                     ITCOT




d) It was noted that the management was trying to synchronize the system
   with Electricity Board recently with the technical input of PSG technology
   but could not succeed
e) It was observed that no trained man power is available for operating the
   system and PSG technology was providing technical support as and when
   required




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                                                                                 ITCOT




3.4   Name of Installation: Jagat Alloys Private Limited, Khopoli,
      Maharashtra


A.    Project Background
      Objective
      Jagat Alloys Private Limited (JAPL), Savroli Village, Khopoli planned to set up 2 x
      500 kW gasifier for captive consumption. JAPL has set up only 1 x 500 kW
      gasifier to meet the load of Ferro Alloy Plant.
      Year of commissioning
      The plant is commissioned on July 4, 2001.
      Location
      The unit is located in Savroli Village 120 km from Pune.
      Type
      Open top, down draft solid biomass gasifier


B.    Technical Specifications
      Gasifier (Supplier – Cosmo Powertech Private Limited, Raipur)
       1.    Capacity: 500 kW
       2.    Rated Gas Output: 1250 Nm3 / h
       3.    Calorific Value of Gas: 1000 – 1200 kCal/ Nm3
       4.    Biomass to gas conversion Efficiency: 70%
       5.    Biomass fuel consumption: 400 kg/hr
       6.    Specific fuel consumption: 0.8 to 1.2 kg/kW
       7.    Bulk density of fuel: 250kg/m3 on dry basis
       8.    Biomass fuel size: Minimum 100 mm and Maximum 150mm of any shape
       9.    Moisture: < 20%
       10. Water required: 300 – 350 litres per hour
       11. Turn Down Ratio: 1:2
       12. Contaminants in clean gas: Less than 100 mg/Nm3
       13. Height of reactor: 10 feet
       14. Auxiliary power: 10 units per hour




                                           36
                                                                                ITCOT




      15. Recommended biomass fuels: Any woody biomass or low ash biomass
            briquettes
      16. Gasifier material of construction: Reactor with 5mm thick MS plate and
            lower part made of 8mm thick MS Plate with air nozzle of SS make.
      17. Hopper Capacity: 1500 – 2000 kg of biomass
     Engine (make – Yanmar)
      •     Model No: T – 220 – ST
      •     D1 Water Cooled
      •     TCIC 6 Cylinder Engine
      •     Speed 750 rpm
      •     Compression Ratio: 13:1
      •     Injection System Make and Model: Diesel KIKI – DL 90S03N75
      •     Period of Operation:
      •     Diesel Mode: 1500 Hours
      •     Dual Fuel Mode: 1000 Hours
      •     Rate of Lubricating Oil Consumption: 500 CC per hour
     Alternator (Make – Taiyo)
      •     Rating: 560 kW
      •     Type: FE – 45 E - S
      •     Speed rpm: 1500
      •     Voltage: 450 V
      •     Current: 898 Amps
      •     Frequency: 50Hz
      •     Power factor: 0.8


C.   Financial Parameters
     Building and civil works
     The system is installed in the rear side of the unit and the cost of building and
     civil works is taken as nil.
     The unit does not have Biomass sizing unit as the unit is purchasing processed
     biomass.




                                         37
                                                                              ITCOT




     For Gasifier system with DG set
     Total Cost: Rs. 268.68 Lakhs
     Equity: JAPL: Rs.67.17 lakhs
     Loan from Banks including MNES Subsidy: Rs. 201.51 Lakhs
     MNES subsidy: Rs. 20.40 lakhs (Source MNES Letter to MEDA)
     a) Gasifier Subsidy: Rs. 8.5 Lakhs
     b) Instrumentation: Rs. 0.15 Lakhs
     c) Cooling and Cleaning System: 2.50 Lakhs
     d) Automation Subsidy: 1 Lakh
     e) Others (Pre processing Effluent treatment): 2 Lakhs
     f) Dual Fuel DG Set: 6.25 Lakhs


D.   Project Status
     The plant was commissioned on July 4, 2001 and put under operation
     intermittently. The system is not in operation for the past two years.


E.   Plant Performance Summary available for the Period (1/8/2001 to
     10/09/2001)


        •   Gross Power Generation 1,57,334 kWh
        •   Average kW loading: 47.96%
        •   Total biomass consumption: 1,87,935 Kgs
        •   Total diesel consumption: 19,010 litres
        •   No. of Operating Hours: 656 hours
        •   Average diesel replacement: 58%
        •   Average cost of gross power generation: Rs.4.6/kWh
        •   Average PLF: 47.96 %
        •   Average specific biomass consumption: 1.19 kg/kWh
        •   Average specific diesel consumption: 0.12 litre/ kWh




                                          38
                                                                                                                      ITCOT




F.                                             Plant Performance Analysis
                                               The plant performance in terms of following indices has been discussed in the
                                               chart given below:
                                                     1.     Biomass consumption in kg.
                                                     2.     Diesel consumption in litres and
                                                     3.     Energy generated in kWh


                                                                              FIGURE 8
 Energy Generated and Biomass Consumption in




                                                             Performance of Jagat Alloys Private Limited
                                      8000                                                                               700

                                      7000                                                                               600

                                      6000
                                                                                                                         500
                                      5000
                                                                                                                         400
                     kgs




                                      4000
                                                                                                                         300
                                      3000
                                                                                                                         200
                                      2000

                                      1000                                                                               100

                                                 0                                                                       0
                                    8/ /01
                                    8/ /01
                                    8/ /01
                                    8/ /01

                                     1 1
                                     1 1
                                     1 1
                                     1 1
                                     1 1
                                     2 1
                                     2 1
                                     2 1
                                     2 1
                                     2 1
                                     31 1
                                    9/ /01
                                    9/ /01
                                    9/ /01
                                    9/ /01

                                     10 1
                                          1
                                   8/ 9/0




                                   9/ 8/0
                                   8/ 1/0
                                   8/ 3/0
                                   8/ 5/0
                                   8/ 7/0
                                   8/ 9/0
                                   8/ 1/0
                                   8/ 3/0
                                   8/ 5/0
                                   8/ 7/0
                                   8/ 9/0




                                       /0
                                      1
                                      3
                                      5
                                      7




                                      2
                                      4
                                      6
                                    8/




                                                             Biomass Consumption in Kgs            Energy Generated in kWh
                                                             Diesel Consumption in Litres


                                               Observations:
                                                  1. In the figure it could be seen that fuel replacement for unit generation
                                                     follows the same pattern with respect to biomass consumption.
                                                  2. The highest loading has taken place on 3rd of September 2001.
                                                  3. The average biomass consumption is 1.19 kg/kW, which is almost the
                                                     same to design value.



                                                                                  39
                                                                              ITCOT




        4. Though the reported average power generation cost per kWh is 3.25, the
            actual power generation cost estimated during the above operating period
            is Rs.4.6/kWh and this mainly because of diesel price.


G.   Issues:
     JAPL for setting up 2 x 500 kW gasifier based power generating system has
     approached Consultant to prepare Detailed Project Report (DPR) for submitting
     the same to MEDA, MNES and Development Credit bank limited. Central Financial
     Assistance (CFA) of 40.80 lakhs was approved by MNES for the year 2000 – 01.


     50% of 40.80 lakhs i.e. 20.40 lakhs was sent to MEDA from MNES for granting
     the subsidy. JAPL has mobilized equity through shares for their plant expansion
     & gasifier installation and arranged loans other than MNES subsidy through
     Development Credit bank limited.


     JAPL has installed 1 x 500 kW gasifier and received 50% grant from 20.40 lakhs
     i.e., 10.20 lakhs from MEDA. JAPL has commissioned 1st Phase 500 kW and
     provided Rs. 8 lakhs as advance to Gasifier Supplier Cosmo power tech for
     installing second phase.


     However, MNES has asked for bank guarantee from JAPL to pay the final 50%
     for 1st Phase and as bank guarantee could not be provided by JAPL though
     nationalized bank (as Development Credit bank were their bankers – a non
     Nationalized bank) the second payment got delayed. This has forced the
     company into financial crunch. Further to it, MNES after installation has
     requested for type certificate of Cosmo power tech gasifier, adding further delay
     in receiving the subsidy.


     After receiving the type certificate, MNES has requested IIT Mumbai to provide
     common performance report (CPR) on gasifier performance. During trial, the
     replacement of diesel was 58%. The reason indicated for lesser diesel
     replacement was the wetness prevailed in the biomass used as the trial was



                                         40
                                                                         ITCOT




taken during rainy season and hence CPR submitted by GARP, IIT was rejected
by MNES and added further delay. Then final trial run was conducted on 2nd April
2002 and diesel replacement was achieved around 71%.


MNES has sanctioned the remaining subsidy for 1st Phase; however, JAPL has
given up 2nd Phase and then requested MNES to cancel the second phase grant
for another 500 kW, due to their own financial crunch and other hiccups in
receiving the grant.




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                                                                             ITCOT




3.5   Name of Installation: Community Based Gasifier Project, Odanthurai,
      Coimbatore District


A.    Project Background


      The project is commissioned to meet the energy requirement of raw water
      pumping station of Odanthurai Municipality.    The Gasifier system of 9kW is
      supplied by Ankur. The system is self-regulated and excited engine supplied by
      DIPCO and later replaced with Field Marshall as the engine could generate 7HP
      and the matching Compton Greaves Alternator.


      The project cost is as follows
         •   The project cost is Rs.3.71lakhs
         •   Panchayat contribution-Rs. 1.75 lakhs
         •   MNES subsidy-Rs. 1.35 lakhs


B.    Technical Specifications
        Gasifier (Supplier – Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Private
         Limited, Baroda)
         1. Model – Ankur Gas – 9 WBG – 15
         2. Biomass Consumption: 13 kg./ hr.
         3. Fuel: Hard Woody Biomass
         4. Calorific Value of gas: 1100 – 1300 kCal/ Nm3


         Alternator (Make – Crompton Greaves pf:0.8)
         •   Rating: 15 kVA Alternator


C.    Financial Parameters
         The project cost is as follows:
         •   The project cost is Rs.3.71 lakhs
         •   Panchayat contribution: Rs.1.75 lakhs
         •   MNES Subsidy – Rs.1.35 Lakhs



                                           42
                                                                                ITCOT




D.    Plant Performance
      The project is commissioned on 5th April 2004 and the performance data of the
      system till 29th March 2005 is given in Enclosure II, and the consolidated data
      is given below in Table 11.


                                        Table 11

       Performance during April ‘04 – March ‘05 of Odanthurai Installation
                                                    Specific
                 Biomass            Power                          No of operating
                                                    biomass
     Month    consumption consumption-                                hrs of the
                                                 consumption
                   -kgs             kWhr                               system
                                                    Kg/kWh
     Apr-04          660             344               1.92             57.50
     May-04        1,223             587               2.08           116.20
     Jun-04          787             395               1.99             78.45
     Jul-04        1,070             535               2.00           102.00
     Aug-04          876             473               1.85             80.30
     Sep-04          850             506               1.68             90.80
     Oct-04          360             201               1.79             35.50
     Nov-04          650             346               1.88             67.60
     Dec-04          403             198               2.04             39.75
     Jan-05          390             341               1.14             34.50
     Feb-05          621             341               1.82             62.25
     Mar-05          755             569               1.33             74.90
     Total         8645             4835                                 840



      The above data on the performance is given in a graph shown below.




                                        43
                                                                                                                                                                  ITCOT




                                                                          FIGURE 9 - Odanthurai
                                                                   Performance of Odanthurai System


                                                                                   P e rfo rm a n c e o f s y s t e m
                                                                                                                                                                   2 .5 0


                                                                                                                                                                   2 .0 0


                                                                                                                                                                   1 .5 0
         c o n s u m p t io n ,




                                                                                                                                                                            S p e c if ic b io m a s s
     P o w e r g e n e r a t io n




                                                                                                                                                                                 c o n s u m p t io n
                     Wood




                                                                                                                                                                   1 .0 0



                                                                                                                                                                   0 .5 0


                                                                                                                                                                   -
                                     A p r - 0 4 M a y - J u n - 0 4 J u l- 0 4   A ug-   S e p - O c t- 0 4 N o v -      D e c - Ja n -0 5 Fe b -0 5 M a r-0 5
                                                  04                               04       04                 04           04

                                                  W o o d c o n s u m p t io n                    n th
                                                                                           P oMwo e r g e n e ra t io n          S p e c ific b io m a s s c o n s u m p t io n


                        •           The above table indicates that specific biomass consumption decreases over
                                    the period of time
                        •           The power generation is low during the period of October & December which
                                    may be due to low operating days which may be due to weather conditions
                        •           The power generation is low with high specific biomass consumption during
                                    summer and low during winter seasons


E.                      Cost of Production
                        The cost of production before implementing the project and after biomass
                        gasifier system is given below in Table 12.




                                                                                            44
                                                                              ITCOT




                                          Table 12
                Cost of Energy Generation at Odanthurai Panchayat
       No    Before Gasifier system                       After Gasifier system
       1.    Electricity           Rs.3.5 per kWh      Biomass cost     Rs.0.450*
             charges
       2.    Labour                Rs.0.446 per kWh    Labour            Rs.0.664
       3.    Maintenance           Rs.0.071 per kWh    Maintenance       Rs.0.281
             Total                 Rs.4.017            Total             Rs.1.395
             Savings: 65%
       * Biomass consumption is @1.5kg@Rs.300 per ton


The breakup of cost of production is given below.


              Figure 10 – Cost of Production at Odanthurai Panchayat




                           20%
                                                                32%




                                 48%


                       Biomass cost      Labour       Maintenance

   •    It is observed that the labour cost contribute maximum in the cost of
        production, while maintenance cost is the lowest
   •    The raw material cost is low as the biomass is being collected and sized
        locally using self-help group.


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                                                                              ITCOT




3.6   Name of Installation: Community Based Gasifier Project, Nellithurai,
      Coimbatore District


A.    Project Background
      Location: Nellithurai, Coimbatore district
      The project is commissioned to meet the energy requirement of the raw water
      pumping station at Nellithurai Municipality and the lighting of the surrounding
      area. The total power requirement is 3 HP and 2 HP for water pumps and a
      lighting load of 3 kW.


B.    Technical Specifications
      The Gasifier system supplied by Ankur . The system is 10kW self regulated &
      excited engine of DIPCO with matching Alternator.


C.    Financial Parameters
      Financial parameters not provided.


D.    Performance
      The project was commissioned in August 2004 and the performance data of the
      system till March 2005 is given in Enclosure III and the consolidated data is
      given below in Table 13.


                                           Table 13
             Nellithurai Plant Performance during August 2004 to March 2005
                                                                     Specific Biomass
                         No of                            Hrs of
        No     Month                 Biomass    Units                 consumption-
                          days                          generator
                                                                         kg/kW
        1      Aug.04          13        645      436       10,383                1.48
        2      Sep.04            9       250      172        9,980                1.45
        3      Oct.04          20        250      215       37,204                1.16
        4      Nov.04          28        580      193        9,980                3.01




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                                                                                                                                     ITCOT




                                                           5     Dec.04          19            870      555       45,398                1.57
                                                           6      Jan.05         19            640      560       37,204                1.14
                                                           7      Feb.05         18           1,230     573       26,787                2.15
                                                           8     Mar.05          30           3,500    1123                             3.12
                                                                     Total   156         7,965        3,827   176,936


                                              The above data is represented in the graphical form below.
                                                                FIGURE 11 – Performance Valuation of Nellithurai Panchayat


                                                                                   Performance Valuation




                                                           4000                                                                  3.50
                           Power generation units in kWh




                                                           3500                                                                  3.00
Biomass consumption-kg &




                                                           3000                                                                  2.50




                                                                                                                                                            consumption-kg/kW
                                                                                                                                         Specific biomass
                                                           2500
                                                                                                                                 2.00
                                                           2000
                                                                                                                                 1.50
                                                           1500
                                                                                                                                 1.00
                                                           1000
                                                                                                                                 0.50
                                                               500

                                                                 0                                                               -



                                                                                       Dec.04 Jan.05Feb.05Mar.05
                                                                Aug.04Sep.04Oct.04Nov.04

                                                                                               Month & Year
                                                                       Biomass        Units       specific Biomass consumption




                                                                                                 47
                                                                          ITCOT




The above graph indicates the following.


   •   The biomass consumption is lower for the initial period due to low loading.
   •   The power generation and biomass consumption is higher for December
       to March period.




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                                                                                   ITCOT




3.7   Name of Installation: Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore


A.    Project Background
      Objective
      Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT) has installed a 90 kWe Gasifier for
      generating power for captive consumption in the hostels and to carryout R & D
      activities in the field of Renewable Energy.
      Year of Installation
      The unit was installed during 2003.
      Location
      VIT is located at Vellore, which is 145 Kms from Chennai.
      Plant lay out Size
      The total plant area is 2,100 Sq feet covering 400 sq feet for fuel processing yard
      and 600 sq feet for Gasifier System and DG Set
      Type
      Woody biomass down draft gasifier with batch feeding


B.    Technical Specifications
      Gasifier (supplier – Netpro Renewable Energy Private Limited)
         iii.    Capacity: 100 kW
         iv.     Biomass fuel consumption: 135kg/h
         v.      Biomass fuel size: 50 mm~50mm
         vi.     Moisture: < 15%
         vii.    Loading of biomass: manual feeding and intermittent
         viii.   Gasifier starting: Manual
         ix.     Diesel replacement: average: 75 - 85%
         x.      Gas cooling and cleaning of tar removal, particulates: Water spray
                 cooler, cyclone separator, scrubber, sand (coarse and fine) filter, fabric
                 filter, 2°C output - water chiller
         xi.     Gas flaring provision before gas entry into engine
         xii.    Height of reactor: 2.9m




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                                                                                    ITCOT




        xiii.       Recommended biomass fuels: Casuarinas, eucalyptus, Julia flora and
                    any hardwood
        xiv.        Gasifier material of construction: Stainless Steel for nozzle and throat
                    and SS 304 for Hopper, body and pipe line
        xv.         Life of Gasifier: 10 years
        xvi.        Turn down ratio: 1:3
        xvii.       Starting time from cold start: 15 - 30 minutes
        xviii.      Conversion Efficiency (Fuel to Producer Gas): 92%
        xix.        Conversion Efficiency (Engine): 30%
        xx.         Auxiliary Consumption: 32 HP for pumps

     Engine
                •   Make: Kirloskar
                •   Capacity: 90 kW
     Alternator
                •   Make: Kirloskar
                •   Capacity: 125 kVA, Speed: 1500 rpm, Voltage: 415 V
                •   Frequency: 50 Hz, Power Factor: 0.8, Insulation: Class H
                •   Voltage Regulation: Automatic


C.   Financial Parameters
     Building and civil works
     The college has allotted land for installing gasifier.
     For Gasifier system with DG set
     Capital Subsidy: Rs. 1.35 Lakhs
     Total Project cost: Rs. 42.00 lakhs

D.   Project Status
     The plant was commissioned in 2003 and is in operation since then continuously
     for 300 days in a year.




                                                 50
                                                                              ITCOT




E.   Plant Performance Summary for the monitored Period
          ♠        Average gross power generation per month: 24,000 kWh
          ♠        Average auxiliary power consumption per month: 3,500 kWh
          ♠        Average biomass consumption per month: 22,080 Kgs
          ♠        Average diesel consumption per month: 792 Litres
          ♠        Operating hours/day: 24 hours
          ♠        Average cost of gross power generation: Rs.3.22/kWh
          ♠        Average specific biomass consumption: 0.92 kg/kWh
          ♠        Average specific diesel consumption: 0.033 litres/kWh



F.   Cost of Production
     The unit cost breakup of gross power generation is given in Figure 12 below.


               Figure 12 –Unit Generation – Breakup Cost at VIT in %




                                      30%




                        27%                                         40%
                                          3%


                       Diesel Cost     Biomass Cost      AMC        Labour




     Observations:
     •   Diesel cost plays a vital role in power generation cost.




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                                                                                   ITCOT




     •   Manpower is required for fuel sizing of non-processed wood. The salary for
         operators (Totaling fourteen in number for 3 shifts operation) is around Rs.
         60 per day per person.
     •   Repairs and maintenance cost is considered at 3% of the production cost



G.   Summary of notes of discussion with VIT
     About Fuel
     •   Julia flora is the fuel used and the calorific value is around 3500 kCal/ kg
     •   The size of the fuel is 1.5 inches in diameter and 3 inches in length
     •   The moisture in the fuel is less than 15% at the feeding point of gasifier
     •   Average replacement of diesel achieved – 87 % (Max: 88% and Min: 70%)
     Water Utilisation
     •   The makeup water of 1000 litres is used for every two days.


     Load Pattern
     A section of hostel load is connected to the gasifier system and it provides a
     fairly constant demand of 50~60 kW.
     Waste Heat Recovery (WHR)
     VIT has installed a WHR at engine exhaust for drying biomass with 1,600 kg of
     drier holding capacity and it was informed as very effective.


H.   Issues
     Gas cooling and filter systems for gas cleaning have been highlighted as the
     problem prone area, which have been rectified by VIT themselves. However, the
     technical details on the modifications carried out have not been disclosed.
     VIT conveyed that overall performance of the gasifier was satisfactory.




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                                                                                ITCOT




3.8   Name of Installation: Periyar Maniammai College of Technology for
      Women


A.    Project Background
      Objective
      Periyar Maniammai College of Technology for Women (PMCTW) has installed 100
      kW Dual Fuel Mode Gasifier system during 2001 and later installed 200 kW 100%
      producer gas based Gasifier system during 2004. The college has installed the
      gasifiers for captive consumption and for carrying out R&D activities in the field
      of renewable energy.
      Year of Installation
      The dual fuel based gasifier plant was installed during 2001 and the 100%
      producer gas based plant was installed on 24th June 2004.
      Location
      Periyar Maniammai College of Technology for Women is located at Vallam, and is
      accessible from Thanjavur by road at a distance of 20 Kms.
      Plant lay out Size
      5m X15m
      Type
      Woody biomass down draft gasifier with batch feeding


B.    Technical Specifications
      The College has provided technical details for 200 kW system alone.
      Gasifier (Supplier – Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Private
      Limited, Baroda)
                 i) Capacity: 200 kW
                 ii) Biomass fuel consumption: 300 kg/h
                 iii) Moisture: < 20%
                 iv) Loading of biomass: Automatic
                 v) Gasifier starting: Manual




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                                                                              ITCOT




               vi) Gas cooling and cleaning of tar removal, particulates: Cyclone
                  Separator, 4 Nos. of active and passive coarse filters, fine filters
                  with sawdust.
               vii) Gas flaring provision before engine entry
               viii) Height of reactor 10 ft.
               ix) Auxiliary power: 20 kW includes pumps in cooling tower, pumps in
                  gasifier, pumps in engine and blower
               x) Recommended biomass fuels: Casuarinas, eucalyptus, Julia flora
                  and any hardwood
               xi) Gasifier material of construction: Stainless Steel for nozzle and
                  throat and MS for Hopper, body and pipe line
               xii) Life of Gasifier: 5 years
               xiii) Turn down ratio: 30%
               xiv) Starting time from cold start: 15 minutes


     Engine (make - Cummins)
           •   Model: GTA – 1710 – G
           •   Starting system: Battery
     Alternator (Make – Stamford)
           •   KVA: 320, Speed rpm: 1500
           •   Voltage: 415 V, Amps: 445 Ampere, Frequency, 50Hz
           •   Power factor 0.8, Continuous rating
           •   DC Excitation 38 V: 2 A, Star Connected, Enclosure: IP 23
           •   Insulation: Class H
     Electrical panels
     The plant is designed to operate in stand-alone mode and the gasifier power is
     fed to six changeover points in the college. The panel is provided with over
     voltage, over current and over speed protection. The panel reads voltage,
     current and energy online.


C.   Financial Parameters
     Not Provided



                                            54
                                                                                       ITCOT




D.   Project Status
     The plant was on run from July 2 2004 and is in operation without any trouble
     since then. The plant operates for 12 to 14 hours a day for 6 days a week.


E.   Average Plant Performance
         •      Gross Power Generation: 50,000 kWh per month
         •      Auxiliary Power Consumption: 5,000 kWh per month
         •      Average kW loading: 87.50%
         •      Total biomass consumption: 300 kgs per hour
         •      Average    cost    of   gross   power    generation:    Rs.2.25/kWh    without
                depreciation and interest on loan


F.   Overall Observations
     •       Personnel required for loading the gasifier is eliminated in Ankur Scientific
             System since lift is used for loading the Gasifier; as the manual operation is
             not required, the cost of labour is only for processing the fuel; and hence,
             taken as Rs.0.10 per kg of fuel used.
     •       Repairs and maintenance cost is not considered, as the plant is new.
     •       The gasifier system has an improved version when compared to Valli Chlorate
             system (as it is the first gasifier) in gas distribution and governing.
     •       The system is provided with gas controlled pneumatic systems.
     •       Producer gas is fed into the engine through valve control and depending
             upon the load, gas is provided with these valve controls.


G.   Summary of notes on discussion with PMCTW
     •       PMCTW gasifier is of Ankur Scientific Make with Cummins engine of 200 kW
             with a capital subsidy of Rs. 30 lakhs from MNES, New Delhi
     •       There are 6 change over points (load points) connected to the gasifier.
     •       Main building, computer building, Hostel 1, Hostel 2, Hospital and Farms are
             the six load points
     •       EB tariff for the college is Rs. 4.80 per kWh and for the farm alone is Rs. 6
             per kWh.



                                                55
                                                                                  ITCOT




     •   The gasifier fuel is Julia flora and Eucalyptus and fed at an interval of 2 hours
         in its 14-hour operation, which is acquired through Self Help Groups (SHG)
         and local villagers.
     •   During each interval 240 kgs of wood is fed into the gasifier and the cost of
         biomass is Rs. 1200 per ton.
     •   Average unit generated is Rs. 50,000 units per month and the auxiliary
         consumption is around 10% and the net export is Rs. 45,000 per month.
     •   Auxiliary loads are as follows:
         a. The water cooling system for gasifier is served with three pumps (2 x 3
            HP + 1 x 2 HP) – 7 HP
         b. Water cooling system for engine with two pumps (1 x 3 HP and 1 x 2 HP)
            – 5 HP
         c. Engine Cooler Pumps – 1 HP
         d. Blower – 12.5 HP
     •   The live load pattern taken up from control panel on 11th April 2005 is as
         follows:
         a. Amps: 153 A
         b. KW: 125 kW
         c. Voltage: 414 V
         d. Frequency: 49.5 to 50.4 Hz


H.   Issues
     Since the college has been operating the system for the last two years, no major
     issues were highlighted during discussion.


I.   General Issues on site operations
     There are no major reported issues though constant loading is a problem. The
     college observed that, due to changing loads, it would not be possible for the
     system to be synchronized with the grid, due to changing frequency.




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                                                                                  ITCOT




3.9   Name of Installation: G B Food Oils Private Limited, Pudupatty


      G. B. Food Oils has installed a 1x100 kW Gasifier supplied by Netpro Renewable
      Energy (India) Limited, Bangalore, Karnataka. The project is on a test run and
      highlights of the system are detailed below:


      •   Netpro Renewable Energy (India) Limited, Bangalore, Karnataka and G. B.
          Food Oils Limited have 50 – 50 share in gasifier supply.
      •   1 x 100 kW gasifier is installed in G. B. Food Oils, Pudupatty and 1 x 100 kW
          gasifier is installed in GB Enterprises, Trichy.
      •   These two gasifiers are test run gasifiers.
      •   Gasifier at G. B. Food Oils is operated for 20 days in Dual Fuel Mode during
          December 2003 connected to one 125-kVA engine. The energy generation
          through engine was struck due to problems in engine and hence stopped
          operating diesel engine.
      •   The unit has two engines of 125 and 63 kVA and the total load of the unit is
          400 HP. The unit is connected to HT line at the rate of Rs. 4.80 per unit.
      •   The unit has ordered for Greaves 300 kVA LPG based engine modified to
          100% producer gas engine for Rs. 16 lakhs and Rs. 10 lakhs grant was
          agreed by MNES, New Delhi.




                                             57
                                                                                  ITCOT




                                      CHAPTER 4
           VENDOR CAPABILITY AND TECHNOLOGY PENETRATION


4.1   Vendors
      There are only a few technology suppliers and manufacturers in India and to
      obtain the status of technology and capability of Gasifier and Engine suppliers, a
      detailed questionnaire was sent to the manufacturers of Gasifier systems for
      their feed back on their capabilities and list of Installations. The vendor list as
      follows:


                                            Table 14
                                 Vendors supplying Gasifiers
        S. No           Name of the Gasifier Supplier/ Technology Provider
          1        Netpro Renewable Energy (India) Limited, Bangalore, Karnataka
          2        Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Private Limited, Baroda
          3        Energreen Power Limited, Chennai, Tamilnadu
          4        Cosmo Powertech Private Limited, Raipur, Chhattisgarh
          5        Centre for Gasification and Propulsion Laboratory (CGPL), Indian
                   Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka
          6        Grain Processing Industries (India) Private Limited, Kolkata, West
                   Bengal
          7        Associated Engineering Works (AEW), Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh


      Out of the above Ankur, Grain Processing, AEW and Cosmo have their own
      technologies, while the others use the technology developed by IISc.
      The feed back from the manufacturers was poor in that only one vendor
      responded with the filled in questionnaire, and ITCOT had one to one discussions
      with the following vendors after receiving their concurrence
      a. Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies private Limited, Regional office at
         Kolkata
      b. Netpro Renewable Energy (India) Limited, Bangalore, Karnataka
      c. Grain Processing Industries (India) Private Limited, Kolkata, West Bengal



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4.1.1 Gasifier Type
     All vendors supply downdraft gasifiers except Grain Processing Private Limited.
     Woody biomass gasifier, fine biomass gasifier and gas based biomass gasifier are
     the different types supplied by the vendors.


4.1.2 Vendor Capability on Capacity
     Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Ltd
     The company is in operation for more than 15 years with many awards from
     Research institutions and Government, and is one of the MNES approved
     vendors.       They are having the manufacturing capability to produce gasifier
     systems for both thermal and electrical applications based on both woody (WBG)
     and fine biomass (FBG). The highlights of technical specifications are given
     below as Table 15.


                                         Table 15
                         Ankur Gasifier – Technical Specifications
     Parameters           FBG Series                       WBG
     Gasifier Modes       FBG-40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 150, WBG; 40, 60, 80, 100,
                          200, 250, 300, 335               120, 150, 205, 250, 300,
                                                           400, 500
     Type                 Down Draft                        - do -
     Size – Min. & 2 mm on cylindrical diameter            D: 10 mm; L: 10 mm
     Max.                 Diameter: 3mm, L: 20 mm
     Moisture             10% (max.)                       < 20%
     Gasification         900-100                          1,050-1,100
     Temp. ° C
     Efficiency-     Hot 65 to 75                          > 85%
     Gas mode
     Efficiency - Cold 60 to 65                            > 75%
     Gas mode




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The capability of the vendor in supplying the system as provided in the
questionnaire is given below as Table 16.


                                  Table 16
                Vendor capability in supplying the system
S. No   Type                        Model                 Capability
 1      Woody Biomass               WBG-5 to WBG-850      Can manufacture at
 2      Fine Biomass                FBG-40 to FBG-400     least 500 systems of
 3      Combo                       Combo-150 to 350      small     ratings    and
 4      100% producer gas based Gas-4 to 425              another              300
        power pack systems                                systems of higher
                                                          ratings


NETPRO Renewable Energy (India) Pvt. Ltd. (NETPRO)
The company was established in 1994 to design and manufacture biomass
gasification plants in association with IISc, Bangalore and Dasag Energy
Engineering Ltd., Switzerland. NETPRO’s current focus is on large scale
Commercialisation of biomass gasification plants of various sizes for power
generation as well as thermal applications. Netpro has a technical collaboration
agreement with the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore, India, a
premium-engineering institute of the country.
NETPRO undertakes the turnkey execution of power generation facilities with
unit capacities up to 500 kW and tailor made designs for thermal applications. It
has supplied a large number of gasifiers in India, USA, Switzerland and Kenya.


                                    Table 17
 Typical Technical Data of an IISc – Netpro Biomass Gasification Plant
 Parameter                    Specification
 Ratings of the Gasifier      25 kg/ h to 750 kg/ h of standard biomass
 Type                         Open top, down draft solid biomass gasifier
 Feed Stock                   Any solid biomass with bulk density over 200kg/m3,
                              moisture content less than 15% cut to a maximum



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                                size of 60 mm x 20 mm x 20 mm
 Average Lower Calorific        4.5 + 0.2 Mj/ kg
 Value
 Typical gas composition (%     CO: 20 + 1%: CH4 : 3 + 1%, H2 : 20 + 1%, CO2 :
 by volume)                     12 + 1%; O2 : 0.1% (max) and rest N2.
 Turndown ratio                 4:1
 (max./min.) load
 Avg. specific weight of        1.12 kg/ Nm3
 producer gas
 Auxiliary plant loads          Water pump, Chiller, Suction blower, Chilled water
                                pump
 Application                    Diesel substitution upto 70 – 80% is expected to
                                be achieved in dual – fuel mode of operation on
                                specified diesel engines at or above 75% of the
                                rated load. The tune to which diesel substitution
                                could be achieved is sensitive to the moisture
                                content in the biomass
 Gas quantity with              Hot end                       Cold end
 “standard” biomass             Tar: 70 + 30 ppm             < 40 + 10 ppm
                                Particles: 600 + 100 ppm      < 30 + 10 ppm Tar
 Gasification efficiency with   Hot gas: 80 – 85% Cold gas: >75% at high loads
 “standard” biomass
 Specific Wood Consumption Depends upon the engine. Typically, with biomass
                                of 12% moisture content: 1.1+0.1 kg/kWh in dual
                                fuel mode and 1.3 + 0.1 kg/ kWh in pure gas
                                mode.


Associated Engineering Works Ltd
The vendor is in operation for more than 10 years supplying gasifiers for both
thermal & electrical dual fuel applications. The typical technical specification of
models manufactured by the vendor as per the brochure is given below in Table
18.



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                                          Table 18
                         Data Table - Associated Engineering Works
                               Electrical / Power Application
                                                                    MODEL
 S.NO.                    SPECIFICATIONS
                                                      GE-350        GE 450        GE 600
       1       Nominal Rated output to KCal/Hr.         50000       1,00,000 2,50,000
       2       Rated Electrical Output (kW)                 20            40          100
       3       Wood/ Biomass consumption in
               Kg./Hr.                                      20            40          100
       4       Moisture content acceptable              5-20%         5-20%        5-20%
       5       Hopper holding capacity in Kgs.             100           200          500
       6       Aux. Power required (HP)                         2            3           5
       7       Wood Cutter Motor H.P                       1.5               2           3
       8       Wood chip size range (Diameter or       1/2" - 1      3/4" - 1
               length)                                    1/2"          1/2"       1" - 2"
       9       Typical diesel replacement (Average)       65%           65%          65%
   10          Floor space required                       8'-8'       10'-15'      10'-20'


Energreen Power Ltd, Chennai
The vendor is in operation for more than 5 years supplying Gasifiers system with
technical know how from IISC, Bangalore. Though no details are provided on
their capability or the current operation, based on the discussions, it was
observed the first 1 MW grid connected Gasifier has been supplied by the vendor
though no details could be obtained either from the vendor or from the promoter
M/s. Arasi Hi Tech Bio Power Pvt Ltd, Tamil Nadu.        Based on the secondary
survey it is noted that the vendor is capable of supplying the following systems
   •       Thermal systems: 100kW to 10MW
   •       Electrical systems: 20kWe to 2 MW
The technical specifications of the systems as per the claim of the vendor are
given below.
   •       Specific fuel consumption for dual fuel mode: 0.8 to 0.9 kg of
           biomass/kwh



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         •   Diesel replacement possible for dual fuel mode: 80%
         •   Specific fuel consumption for producer gas mode: 1.0 to 1.2 kg of
             biomass/1kWh


     Grain processing Industries (India) Pvt. Ltd.
     The vendor is in operational for more than 10 years and the system design is
     based on updraft and the various models available are given below in Table 19.


                                           Table 19
      Grain Processing Industries (India) Pvt. Ltd. – Technical Specifications
      Specifications                            GP 100       GP 200          GP 500

      Max. Electrical output (kW)                     100             200         500

      Max. Thermal Output (KCal./hr.)            2,50,000     5,00,000       12,50,000

      Rated Biomass Consumption                  2,50,000     5,00,000       12,50,000
      (Kg./hr.) (Including 10-15% diesel
      oil)
      Min. space required for plant (Sq.         40’ x 40’         50’x40’     50’x60’
      ft.)


     Cosmo Power tech Pvt Ltd
     The company is in the process of supplying Gasifier systems with dual fuel mode
     and is one of the approved vendors of MNES and has supplied 500 kW dual fuel
     mode gasifier systems.


4.1.3 Guarantee/Warrantee Provided
     Though no guarantee is provided on the performance for the system as a whole
     by these vendors as characteristics of ‘standard biomass’ vary based on site
     conditions, few vendors like Ankur, have provided guarantee to following
     equipment supplied by them.
     a. Gasifier
     b. Burner



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       c. Dual fuel engine
       d. Cutters
       e. Filters
       f. Skip Charger
       g. Wood Dryer
       h. Variable Load Control System


4.1.4 Annual Maintenance Contract
       Annual Maintenance Contract is provided to the equipment under guarantee.


4.2.   Engine
       Various engine manufacturers have supplied engine for producing power from
       the gas generated from the gasifiers. Engines specific to 100% producer gas
       usage and with dual fuel option (usually Diesel) has been used for generating
       power. The vendors supplying 100% producer gas engine and Dual Fuel Engine
       for the gasifier system is detailed below.


4.2.1 100% Producer Gas Engine
       Supply, Erection, Testing and Commissioning of 100% Producer gas engine has
       been under the responsibility of Gasifier Suppliers / Vendors. So far for higher
       capacity range the engine has been supplied by Cummins. Of the 14 installations
       visited following are the systems with 100% producer gas engine.


                                            Table 20
                    List of Installations with 100% Producer Gas Engine
         NO.          Name of the         Engine         Alternator       Gasifier
                           Unit            make            Make           Supplier
           1        PMCTW, Vallam      Cummins          Stamford      Ankur
           2        VCC, Kovilpatti    Cummins          Stamford      Ankur
           3        Nellithurai        Dipco            Compton       Ankur
                                       replaced with Greaves
                                       Field Marshall



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         4     Odanthurai            Dipco           Crompton        Ankur
                                                     Greaves
         5     Bagavathi        Bio, Cummins         Stamford        Energreen
               Mettupalayam
         6     PSG, Coimbatore       Cummins         Stamford        Netpro


4.2.2 Dual Fuel Engine
     Supply, Erection, Testing and Commissioning of Dual Fuel Engine has been the
     responsibility of Gasifier Suppliers / Vendors. Gasifier supplier provides the
     Guarantee for the engines supplied. The engine for dual fuel mode has been
     Kirloskar, Greaves, Ashok Leyland and Yanmar. Of the 14 installations visited
     following are the systems with Dual Fuel Engine.


                                         Table 21
                      List of Installations with Dual Fuel Engine
        No.     Name of the Unit         Engine         Alternator       Gasifier
                                             make          Make          Supplier
         1     MVIT, Bangalore         Kirloskar      Kirloskar and Netpro
                                       and Greaves    Stamford
         2     VIT, Vellore                                          Netpro
         3     Jagat Alloys, Khopoli   Yanmar           Taiyo        Cosmo
         4     PMCTW, Vallam           Ashok          Kirloskar      AEW
                                       Leyland
         5     Gosaba Islands          Greaves        Crompton       Ankur
                                                      Greaves
         6     Chotamulakalli          Greaves        Crompton       Ankur
               Islands                                Greaves
         7     Pondicherry             Ashok          Kirloskar      AEW
               Engineering College     Leyland
         8     G.   B.     Food   Oils NA             NA             Netpro
               Private Limited




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4.3.   Technology Penetration
       Gasifiers have started as a thermal application device and with further
       improvements have been extended to electrical applications. Reasonable
       technology developments have taken place especially in gas cleaning and cooling
       system and in engines to use 100% producer for power generation.


4.4.   Improvement Required
       Improvement in system performance could be further improved.
       Gas Cleaning System
       Gas Flow Controlling System
       Engine Cooling System

4.5.   Research & Development
       Indian institute of science, Bangalore is the only institute in India who have
       developed laboratory models to commercialized gasifier systems in India and is
       actively involved in research and development activities and some of the current
       activities are given below
       Gas Engine Adaptation
          •   Systematic Procedure – Experiments & Modeling
          •   Testing of various capacity Engines – 0.5 to 200 kWe ~ at varying CR
          •   Design of gas circuitry elements ~ Gas Carburetor
          •   Identify key parameters like the optimum ignition timing and establish
              maximum rating in each case
       Engines tested in the laboratory and in the field
          •   Kirloskar Oil engine (RB 33) (converted from available diesel engine to gas
              engine)
          •   Greaves 250 kVA producer gas engine
          •   Cummins G743G and GTA 855G
       Test Summary
          •   G 743G & GTA855G adapted for producer gas operations replacing
              Natural gas carburetor with Producer gas carburetor
          •   Engines tested at different ignition timings and optimum identified



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•   Tested for 75 hours at the laboratory; two 24 hour run – active
    participation from Cummins
•   Parameters monitored – energy input, power output and emissions
•   Engine run smooth with clean gas admitted to the engine
•   No deposition found in the Throttle valve, Intake manifold & Cylindrical
    Head
•   A peak load of 55 kWe (60 kW) recorded in PG against 84 kW in NG




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                                          CHAPTER 5


          BARRIERS TO GASIFIER PROGRAMME AND POLICY ISSUES


5.1.   Barrier Identification
       Gasifier based power production is under development and has the following
       barriers.


5.1.1 Biomass Resource Identification and Logistics in Collection
       Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources has carried out Biomass Resource
       Assessment study in four phases at Taluka level through National Biomass
       Resource Assessment Program (NBRAP) with the help of National Focal Point,
       Apex Institutions and Consultants. This has been carried out for taluka level and
       further extended to the district level. This study, especially in South India focuses
       on forest wood, agricultural field level residue, agro industries residue and the
       wood traded around in the area concerned. The report gives a broad outline of
       biomass availability in the area concerned.


       However, this does not provide any clear indication of the biomass quantity and
       availability at closer vicinity and at desired price suitable for gasifier operation.
       The units however before putting up their individual gasifier unit should assess
       the biomass required for operation.


       Collecting the biomass from various sources requires better and controlled
       logistics. The units in operation consume biomass from traders and brokers. If
       the unit handles the collection of biomass themselves, they find it tough to
       handle. However, if the biomass is purchased in open market, then the cost,
       collection, handling of biomass becomes very sensitive to market changes, which
       leads to high landing cost, poor quality of the purchased biomass and un
       processed fuel for the gasifier.




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Site-specific conditions with respect to Biomass Resource Identification are
detailed below:


a. M. Vishveswaraiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Vellore
   Institute of Technology, Vellore, PSG Institute of Technology,
   Coimbatore and Periyar Maniammai College of Technology for
   Women, Vallam have assessed the requirement of biomass at site and
   purchase wood before processing from local traders at a feasible price. Thus,
   these units do not have any barrier to biomass resource.


b. Valli Chlorate company, Kovilpatti is gifted with plenty of woody biomass
   (as recommended by vendors) in and around the plant site and hence,
   resource is not a constraint for smooth operation of the unit.


c. Bagavathi Bio Private Limited, Coimbatore has drafted an agreement
   with the local traders for smooth supply of biomass to the unit and hence,
   faces no barrier currently on biomass availability.


d. Gosaba Islands and Chotamulakalli Islands enjoy the benefits from
   Government of West Bengal, as the fuel (both wood and diesel) is supplied by
   the Government. However, if a private entity puts up a unit in these Islands,
   then it would not be financially feasible if fuel is purchased. However, private
   units would enjoy smooth operation when the wood is from the local Energy
   Plantation.


e. Nellithurai Panchayat and Odanthurai Panchayat has a low capacity
   gasifier installed and hence the biomass requirement is met through local
   self-help groups.


f. Pondicherry Engineering College, Jagat Alloys Private Limited,
   Khopoli and G. B. Food Oils Private Limited, Pudupatty currently does
   not operate the gasifier units.



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5.1.2 Cost of Biomass
     Biomass cost is a matter of concern before putting up the gasifier unit. The cost
     of woody biomass at most of the installations visited was around Rs. 800 to Rs.
     850 during the time of installation and has soared up to Rs. 1200 per ton
     presently in a span of 2 to 3 years.
     The cost is inclusive of
     a. Processing the wood either at site or at source
     b. Loading and unloading
     c. Labour Charges
     d. Moisture content in wood
     Of the points mentioned above from a to d even if one changes it has a direct
     impact on the cost of biomass.
     If the cost escalates in a unrealistic manner, then the feasibility of the project
     would be at stake. Cost of biomass at sites visited is listed below in Table 22.
                                            Table 22
                        Cost of Biomass at Various Installations
                                                       Cost of Biomass in Rs. Per ton
      S. No            Name of the Unit                   During
                                                                        Current Cost
                                                        Installation
        1      MVIT, Bangalore                                800            1,100
        2      PMCTW, Vallam                                   NA               NA
        3      PSG, Coimbatore                              1,000               NA
        4      Pondicherry Engineering College              1,100               NA
        5      VIT, Vellore                                 1,200            1,400
        6      Gosaba Islands                                  NA               NA
        7      Chotamulakalli Islands                          NA               NA
        8      Valli Chlorate Company, Kovilpatti             800            1,200
        9      Bagavathi Bio Energy Limited                   800            1,200
       10      Jagat Alloys Private Limited                 1,200               NA
       11      G. B. Food Oils Private Limited                 NA               NA
       12      Odanthurai Panchayat                            NA               NA
       13      Nellithurai Panchayat                           NA               NA



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5.1.3 Choice of Fuel Restriction
      Gasifiers installed in various units in southern India use predominantly hardwood
      as fuel to the gasifier. Biomass other than woods like straw, stalks, sawdust, coir
      pith are not used which are available in plenty.


5.1.4 Soaring Cost of Diesel in Dual Fuel Mode
      The gasifier units in Dual Fuel Mode operation face the heat on the soaring price
      of diesel. The units’ installed three years ago derived the feasibility based on
      diesel price of Rs. 18 per litre which is currently at Rs. 30 per litre.


      M. Vishveswaraiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore has signed a PPA
      with Netpro Renewable, Bangalore on the purchase of Power at Rs. 5 per kWh
      escalated with respect to increase in Diesel price. Current purchase price is Rs.
      5.70 per KWhr. If this price exceeds KPTCL price of Rs. 6 per kWh, then the
      college might opt for KPTCL power and might stop the gasifier operation.


      Jagat Alloys Private Limited, Khopoli, Maharashtra has installed gasifier of
      500 kW in dual fuel mode but stopped operation by 2002 due to internal financial
      problems. Also the hike in Diesel price made the project not financially feasible.


      Islands of Sunderbunds enjoy the fuel supply from Government of West
      Bengal and hence the cost does not play a vital role as the entire project is for
      the community development and for socio economic improvement of these
      Islands.


      Periyar Maniammai College of Technology for Women, Vallam currently
      does not operate 100 kW dual fuel mode based gasifier and uses only 200 kW
      100% producer gas based system for energy generation.


      G. B. Food Oils Private Limited and Pondicherry Engineering College
      currently does not operate the system.




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     Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT), is effectively loading the system by
     which diesel replacement is by 87% and hence faces no major problem at
     present.


     All the other units apart from the units mentioned above are 100% producer gas
     engine systems, which does not require diesel for their operation.


5.1.5 Technology
     Although technical feasibility is available for the gasifier-based systems, the
     operational problems are found especially in gas cleaning and cooling system.


     The technology adopted in filters used in gas cleaning system plays a crucial role
     in gasifier operation. Currently coarse sand, fine sand, fabric filters and saw dust
     is used in cleaning system. Also chiller based gas cooling has been introduced to
     bring down dust and tar levels in the gas.


     Cooling tower based Engine-Cooling and Gas-Cooling is costlier in operation. The
     desired cooling is also not achieved in these systems.


     Islands of Sunderbunds often faces problem in gas cleaning system. The
     sawdust used in the filters restricts the flow of gas into engines thus increasing
     the consumption of diesel.


     M. Vishveswaraiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore, has opted for a
     chiller based gas cooling system in their Second phase, which solves the problem
     of dust and tar generation.


     Valli Chlorate Company, Kovilpatti has shut the plant for four months in the
     year 2004 due to high operational cost of cooling towers and has installed coil
     based cooling system for engine to reduce cost.




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5.1.6 Delay in Disbursement of Loans and Subsidy
     Many units currently has adopted gasifier based energy generation system not
     only on the basis of adopting renewable energy technology but for availing
     subsidies and soft loans from Government to generate energy at a cheaper rate.
     If the delay in disbursement persists it might lead to a closure of the parent
     company itself.


     Jagat Alloys Private Limited (JAPL) is a classical example.
     JAPL for setting up 2 x 500 kW gasifier based power generating system has
     approached Consultant to prepare Detailed Project Report (DPR) for submitting
     the same to MEDA, MNES and Development Credit bank limited. Central Financial
     Assistance (CFA) of 40.80 lakhs was approved by MNES for the year 2000 – 01.


     50% of 40.80 lakhs i.e. 20.40 lakhs was sent to MEDA from MNES for granting
     the subsidy. JAPL has mobilized equity through shares for their plant expansion
     & gasifier installation and arranged loans other than MNES subsidy through
     Development Credit bank limited.


     JAPL has installed 1 x 500 kW gasifier and received 50% grant from 20.40 lakhs
     i.e., 10.20 lakhs from MEDA. JAPL has commissioned 1st Phase 500 kW and
     provided Rs. 8 lakhs as advance to Gasifier Supplier Cosmo power tech for
     installing second phase.


     However, MNES has asked for bank guarantee from JAPL to pay the final 50%
     for 1st Phase and as bank guarantee could not be provided by JAPL though
     nationalized bank (as Development Credit bank were their bankers – a non
     Nationalized bank) the second payment got delayed. This has forced the
     company into financial crunch. Further to it, MNES after installation has
     requested for type certificate of Cosmo power tech gasifier, adding further delay
     in receiving the subsidy.




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       After receiving the type certificate, MNES has requested IIT Mumbai to provide
       common performance report (CPR) on gasifier performance. During trial, the
       replacement of diesel was 58%. The reason indicated for lesser diesel
       replacement was the wetness prevailed in the biomass used as the trial was
       taken during rainy season and hence CPR submitted by GARP, IIT was rejected
       by MNES and added further delay. Then final trial run was conducted on 2nd April
       2002 and diesel replacement was achieved around 71%.


       MNES has sanctioned the remaining subsidy for 1st Phase; However JAPL has
       given up 2nd Phase and requested MNES to cancel the second phase grant for
       another 500 kW.


5.2.   Measures to overcome Barriers
       Following are some of the measures to overcome the above said barriers.


       a. Support from Central and State Governments from scratch to commissioning
          of the project.
       b. Timely disbursement of loans and grants for smooth functioning in the
          commissioning of the project.
       c. Approvals of 100% producer gas system alone to prevent diesel playing a
          pivot role in the operation of entire system.
       d. Better biomass resource assessment
       e. Better logistics in biomass trading and handling
       f. Technology improvement in Cooling and Cleaning Systems




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                                    CHAPTER 6


               CASE STUDIES ON SUCCESSFUL INSTALLATIONS


6.1   Name of Installation: Valli Chlorate Company, Kovilpatti, Tamilnadu


A.    Project Background
      Objective
      Valli Chlorate Company (VCC), Kovilpatti is in operation from 1989 for producing
      potassium chlorate (Kclo3), a major chemical for making matchsticks. The
      company has its own matchsticks making factory called Meenakshi Match factory
      at Kovilpatti. The company earlier had a High Tension (HT) service connection
      from Tamilnadu Electricity Board (TNEB) for a connected load of 500 kVA. The
      company uses D.C. Power supply in their operation for producing Potassium
      Chlorate. During 1999, when the cost of kWh increased to Rs. 4.20 per kWh,
      VCC has decided to shutdown the operations of the potassium chlorate company.
      The company disconnected the HT service connection. In the year 2003, the
      company planned to use Gasifier and approached an engineering company in
      Kerala to modify their DG set into dual fuel mode engine. With the direction of
      the engineering company, VCC approached Ankur Scientific, Baroda and revised
      the plan of setting up a duel fuel engine to set up 100% producer gas system.
      The company thus set up the first 200 kW / 100% producer gas based Gasifier in
      Tamilnadu. When the company resumed operation in 2003, it has acquired an LT
      connection of 50 HP load for auxiliary consumption. The plant capacity is around
      1 ton / day and based on the demand the current production is around 10 tons
      per month.


      Year of Installation
      The gasifier was installed on June 23, 2003


      Plant layout and Size
      Total area of 3,000 Square feet



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Location
Valli Chlorate Company is located in Uppathur Road, Ovanayakanpatti village,
Sattur Taluka, Virudhunagar District, Tamilnadu. The unit is accessible from
Tirunelveli by road at a distance of 80 Kms via Kovilpatti.



           FIGURE 13 – Lay out of Valli Chlorate Company




             COIL                      RECTIFIER
            BASED                    TRANSFORMER
           COOLER

                                     CONTROL
            ALTERNATOR                PANEL

                                                       GASIFIER AND
                                                         COOLING
            GAS CLEANING SYSTEM                           SYSTEM




                   CUTTING
                   MACHINES




                                 ENTRANCE



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     Type
     Woody biomass down draft gasifier with batch feeding


B.   Technical Specifications
     Gasifier (supplier – Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Private
     Limited, Baroda)
      (i)          Capacity: 200 kW
      (ii)         Biomass fuel consumption: 300 kg/h
      (iii)        Moisture: < 20%
      (iv)         Loading of biomass: Automatic using lift
      (v)          Gasifier starting: Manual
      (vi)         Gas cooling and cleaning of tar removal, particulates: Cyclone Separator,
                   4 Nos. of active and passive coarse filters, fine filters with sawdust.
      (vii)        Gas flaring provision before engine entry
      (viii)       Height of reactor 10 ft.
      (ix)         Auxiliary power: 20 kW includes pumps in cooling tower, pumps in
                   gasifier, pumps in engine and blower
      (x)          Recommended biomass fuels: Casuarinas, eucalyptus, Julia flora and
                   any hardwood
      (xi)         Gasifier material of construction: Stainless Steel for nozzle and throat
                   and MS for Hopper, body and pipe line
      (xii)        Life of Gasifier: 5 years
      (xiii)       Turn down ratio: 30%
      (xiv)        Starting time from cold start: 15 minutes


     Engine (make - Cummins)
               •    Model: GTA – 1710 – G
               •    Date of Manufacture – 11/10/2001
               •    S. No: 35020
               •    Manual starting system with battery




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                                                                           ITCOT




Alternator (Make – Stamford)
      •   KVA: 320
      •   Speed rpm, 1500
      •   Voltage, 415 V
      •   Load, 445 Ampere
      •   Frequency, 50Hz
      •   Power factor 0.8
      •   Continuous rating
      •   DC Excitation 38 V: 2 A
      •   Star Connected
      •   Enclosure: IP 23
      •   Insulation: Class H


Rectifier Transformer


      •   Make: Hind Rectifier (Bombay)
      •   DC Volt 60 V Current 4000 A
      •   Phase 3 Ǿ
      •   Frequency 50 Hz
      •   Tank 700 kgs
      •   Resistance 2.099
      •   Oil 900 kgs
      •   Rating: Continuous
      •   Input KVA: 307.22
      •   Primary: Main ∆ 415 V 427.4 A
      •   Secondary: ‫ 894 – 801 ץ – ג‬V 1156 x 2 A


Electrical panels
The plant is designed to operate in stand-alone mode and the power generated
from gasifier is fed to rectifier transformer for AC to DC Conversion. Electrical
control panel is provided with Oil Circuit Breaker (OCB) of 400/440 Volts and 400
A rating with built in protections of under voltage, over voltage, over current and



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     earth fault protection. The company has an LT connection of 50 HP for supplying
     auxiliary power for starting gasifier plant auxiliaries.


C.   Financial Parameters
     Building and civil works
     The company had land area for gasifier installation and hence spent negligible
     amount for installing gasifier.
     For Gasifier system with DG set
     Equity: Rs.18.00 lakhs
     MNES subsidy: Rs. 30.00 lakhs
     Total Project cost: Rs. 48.00 lakhs

D.   Project Status
     The plant was commissioned on June 23, 2003 and was in operation for 9
     months till March 31 2004. Due to Generator Breakdown, the operation resumed
     from July 2004. The high operational cost of cooling tower has forced the unit to
     install coil based cooler for engine, for which the installation period was four
     months from November 2004 to March 2005. The gasifier operation was
     shutdown during this period. The plant has been functional since then.


E.   Plant Performance Summary for the monitored Period
     (5 months from July 2004 to October 2004 and March 2005)
        •   Gross Power Generation 1,72,890 kWh
        •   Auxiliary Power Consumption: 38,868 kWh
        •   Average kW loading: 91.25%
        •   Total biomass consumption: 2,62,360 Kgs
        •   No. of Operating Hours: 957 hours
        •   Average cost of gross power generation: Rs.1.97/kWh
        •   Average PLF: 34.63 %
        •   Average specific biomass consumption: 1.51 kg/kWh




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                                                        Table 23
                      Performance of VCC for the period July 2004 to March 2005
                 Month          Date (Excl.             Units          Aux.     Oper        Biomass
                                 Holidays              Generat         Cons.    ation     consumption
                             From              To        ed in          In      Hrs.          kgs.
                                                         KWh           kWh
                 July ‘04   12.704      31.07.04         25,040         5,008     138        37,560
                 Aug ‘04    2.8.04      31.8.04          40,480         8,070     220        60,870
                 Sep ‘04    1.9.04      30.9.04          36,000         7,200     200        54,720
                 Oct ‘04    1.10.04     31.10.04         27,300         5,450     151        41,500
                 Mar ‘05    1.3.05      31.03.05         44,070        13,140     248        67,710
                                           TOTAL       172,890         38,868     957      262,360



                      FIGURE 14 – VCC Gasifier Average Plant Load Factor and
                                Overall Gasifier Conversion Efficiency


               100.00%
               90.00%            90.72%             92.00%          90.00%        90.40%        88.85%
               80.00%
               70.00%
Percentage %




               60.00%
               50.00%
                                                    39.07%                        38.64%
               40.00%
                                39.16%                            38.65%                        38.23%
               30.00%
               20.00%
               10.00%
                0.00%
                            July 2004     August 2004        September     October 2004    March 2005
                                                               2004
                                                               Weeks

                                     Avg PLF                     Overall % Gasifier Conv Efficiency




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              FIGURE 15 - VCC, Kovilpatti – 1 x 200 kW Biomass Gasifier
                               Plant Performance Data – 2002 to 2004



                    1.54                                                                             50000
                                                                                            1.54
                                                                                            44070    45000
                    1.53                        40480
                                                                                                     40000
                                                              1.52
                                                                                                     35000
                    1.52                                    36000
                                                                               1.52

                                                                                                     30000
           kg/kWh




                                                                               27300




                                                                                                             kWh
                    1.51         25040                                                               25000
                                                1.50                                                 20000
                    1.50         1.50
                                                                                                     15000
                                                                                                     10000
                    1.49
                                                                                                     5000
                    1.48                                                                             0
                           July 2004     August 2004 September October 2004 March 2005
                                                       2004

                           kg/kWh                                Total Energy Generated in kWh



        FIGURE 16 - Energy Generation and Consumption Details
                          at VCC, Kovilpatti

70000

60000

50000

40000

30000

20000

10000

   0
         Jul-04       Aug-04   Sep-04      Oct-04       Nov-04      Dec-04   Jan-05    Feb-05      Mar-05

           Biomass Consumption in kgs                    Energy Generated in kWh
           Auxiliary Consumption in kWh




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     Observations:
      •   It could be seen from Figure 14 and 15 that when the Plant Load Factor
          (PLF) increases on 100% producer gas mode, the gasifier conversion
          efficiency also increases and vice versa.
      •   It could be seen from Fig.15 that at various energy generation levels fuel
          consumption per kWh is 1.50 to 1.52 kg/kWh.
      •   It could be seen from Figure 16 that Auxiliary consumption is almost the
          same throughout the period of operation i.e. around 20%


F.   Cost of Production
     The cost breakup cost of gross power generation is given below:


              FIGURE 17 - Unit Generation - Breakup Cost in %




            8%


                                                                    92%




                                 Fuel Cost      Labour Cost

     Observations
     Personnel required for loading the gasifier is eliminated in Ankur Scientific
     System since lift is used for loading the Gasifier. As the manual operation is not
     required, the cost of labour is only for processing the fuel and hence, taken as
     Rs. 0.10 per kg of fuel used. Based on the discussion, the operator salary is Rs.
     340 per day for 8-hour operation for 25 days a month and the annual salary is
     around Rs. 8,500 per month.


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     Repairs and maintenance cost is not considered as the plant is new and it was
     conveyed that it is covered under 2 years equipment guarantee with the supplier
     for replacement of defect items for the entire gasifier system


G.   Performance: Design Vs actual


                                              Table 24
                    Design Vs Actual Performance of VCC, Kovilpatti
         S. No          Performance indicator               Unit      Design    Actual
          1      Average kW loading                       KW             200        185
          2      Average Specific Biomass Consumption     Kg/kWh          1.3      1.51


     The design value is considered at 100 % loading and is compared with actual
     performance in the monitored period. The loading in operation is lesser
     compared to the design value and hence, the performance could not be better or
     at par with design.


H.   Summary of notes of discussion with VCC
     •    The company sells Potassium Chlorate at a rate of Rs. 36 per kg. The
          production cost with EB Power Supply was around Rs. 34 to 35 per kg results
          in a meager profit margin. Due to gasifier installation, the production cost of
          Potassium chlorate has come down to Rs. 28 to Rs. 30. This has helped the
          plant in improving their profits.
     •    The power generated is used into their titanium cell chamber by converting it
          to DC source by rectifier transformer.
     •    The operation of the unit is for 8 hours a day and extends some times to 10
          hours a day and six days a week.
     •    Spares, consumables are provided by Ankur as and when required
     •    No major problem reported apart from generator – cooling system failure and
          breakdowns
     •    Water requirement is met from 36,000 litres common sump, from where
          water is pumped to a 12,000 litres an individual sump for Gasifier operation



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     •   The company has its own lorry with two sintex tanks of 300 litres capacity
         each to supply water from their farm.
     •   The charcoal generation from Gasifier is around 10% of biomass used in a
         day and sold in 40 kg bags at Rs.60 per bag.
     •   The other small particulate residue apart from charcoal is used as manure for
         their farms.
     •   No tar is reported in the Ankur system


I.   Issues
     Since the company has been operating the system for the last two years, no
     major issues was found during the operating period.




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6.2   Name of Installation: Gosaba Island, 24 Parganas District, West Bengal


A.    Project Background


      Objective
      West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency (WBREDA) in association
      with MNES, Government of India, Sunderbunds Development Department, Forest
      Department, and South 24 Parganas, Zilla Parisad installed a 500 kW (5 x 100
      kW) capacity biomass based power plant at Gosaba Island of Sunderbunds
      where it is almost impossible to extend the conventional power grid line. The
      prime objective of this power plant is to provide socio economic improvement of
      the local people in Gosaba Island.


      Year of Installation
      The 500 kW woody biomass based power plant was commissioned in Gosaba on
      20th June 1997.


      Location
      Gosaba is situated at a distance of about 120 Km. from Kolkata (100 Km by road
      and the rest by water transport).     The nearest Rail Stations are Howrah &
      Sealdah. Road Distance from Sealdah to Sonakhali is 107 Kms. and waterway
      distance between Sonakhali and Gosaba is about 10 Kms. Diesel Engine driven
      Launches/ Mechanized boats operate between Sonakhali & Gosaba and takes
      about 60 meters to reach Gosaba from Sonakhali. Adjacent to Sir Hamilton’s
      Estate Geographical co-ordinates: Latitude: 22° 12’ N, Longitude: 88° 48’ N.


      Plant lay out Size
      2,000 sq. ft.


      Type
      Woody biomass down draft gasifier with batch feeding.




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                                                                                ITCOT




B.   Technical Specifications
     Gasifier (supplier – Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies, Baroda)
       i)      Model: AG –100
       ii)     Capacity: 100 kW
       iii)    Components of gasifier
               ☼      Hopper
               ☼      Reactor
               ☼      Cyclone
               ☼      Venturi Scrubber
               ☼      Blower for Coarse filter
               ☼      Fine filter
               ☼      Safety Filter
       iv)     Rated gas flow: 250 m3/h
       v)      Average gas Calorific value: > 1,000 kCal/m3
       vi)     Biomass fuel consumption: 80 ~ 100kg/h
       vii)    Gasification temperature: 1050 ~ 1100 deg. C
       viii)   Indicative gasification efficiency:
                         Hot gas mode: > 85%
                         Cold gas mode: > 75%
       ix)     Temperature at gasifier outlet: 250 ~ 400 deg. C
       x)      Biomass fuel size:
                   Minimum diameter 10 mm and length 10 mm
                   Maximum diameter 60 mm and length 75 mm
       xi)     Moisture: < 20% on wet basis
       xii)    Hopper holding capacity: 500kg
       xiii)   Loading of biomass: intermittent manual feeding for every hour
       xiv)    Ash removal: Continuous through proprietary control and water seal
       xv)     Gasifier starting: Through scrubber pump/blower
       xvi)    Specific fuel consumption: 250 ml/kWh – full diesel mode
       xvii)   Indicative diesel replacement: average 65 ~ 75% depending on
               operating load
       xviii) Engine conversion efficiency: 25%



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   xix)    Gas cooling and cleaning of tar removal, particulates: Venturi scrubber
           with water re-circulation and ultra clean gas for power generation
           mode through proprietary and fine filters
   xx)     Gas flaring provision before service filter
   xxi)    Height of reactor 4 ft.
   xxii)   Auxiliary power: 8 kW
   xxiii) Water circulation: 250 litres per minute.
   xxiv) Recommended biomass fuels: Casuarina, eucalyptus, subabul, Neem,
           Cashew, Coconut shells and any hardwood
   xxv)    Gasifier material of construction: Stainless Steel for nozzle and throat
           and MS for Hopper, body and pipe line
   xxvi) Life of Gasifier: 5 years
   xxvii) Turn down ratio: 30%
   xxviii) Starting time from cold start: 30 minutes
   xxix) Maximum permissible particulate: 50 mg/m3
   xxx)    Typical producer gas composition (%)
                CO=19 +/- 3%               N2 – 50%
                CO2=10 +/- 3%              H2=18 +/- 2% CH4=up to 3%


Engine (make - Greaves)
            •    Capacity 151 hp
            •    Manual starting system with battery
Alternator (Make – Crompton Greaves)
            • KVA: 125, Speed rpm: 1500
            • Voltage: 415 V, Load: 175 Ampere
            • Frequency: 50Hz
            • Power factor 0.8
            • Continuous duty, S1 IS: 4722-1992
Electrical Systems
Gosaba Island was an un-electrified village until this project has been
commissioned and the plant was designed to operate in stand alone mode for




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village electrification purpose, as extension of the conventional grid power is
impossible.


FIGURE 18 - Electrical Schematic Diagram of Gosaba Installation

                                        Feeder 1
    Feeder 2

                                                        415 V bus




                     Bus
                     coupler




                        DG sets 1,2,3,4 and 5

The power generated from the five DG’s can be synchronized at the 415 V bus
for parallel operation through a bus coupler and is taken through feeders 1 and
2, with each having a step up transformer of 315 kVA for power distribution at
11 kV. The existing 11 kV distribution circuit is 14 km and 415 V distribution
circuit is 19 km. The 415 V distribution has 5 nos of 100 kVA, step down
transformers located at various load ends. During the discussion it was informed
that distribution loss has been estimated at 8%.


Electrical control panel of 1500 Ampere capacity rating and each DG set is
provided with Molded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB) of 300 A rating with built in
protections of under voltage, over voltage, over current, earth fault protection
and reverse power protections. The synchronizing panel has synchroscope and
the operators do a check-synchronizing relay and synchronizing operation
manually.




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C.   Financial Parameters
     Land: 3 acres
     Building and civil works:
           Fuel processing yard: 600 sq ft
           Fuel storage yard: 2000 sq ft
           Gasifier system with DG set: 2000 sq ft
     Plant and machinery cost: Rs 85 lakhs
     Cost for land, buildings, power evacuation, others: Rs 65 lakhs
     Total project cost: Rs 150 lakhs
     Source of funds:
     75% of the project cost from MNES
     25% of the project from West Bengal State Government
     Power evacuation cost:
           Cost for 11 kV distribution: Rs 2.5 lakhs/km
           Cost for 415 V distribution: Rs 1.5 lakhs/km


D.   Project in brief
     Gosaba Island is one of the important islands of Sunderbunds. It is located in
     South 24 Parganas District. The island is approximately at a distance of 120 km
     from Calcutta with 25 sq. km area and has a population of 25,000 people. Till
     May 1997, Gosaba Island did not have any electricity. The entire area used to
     become dark after sunset. The local people approached WBREDA in the year
     1996 for the provision of electricity from renewable sources of energy,
     considering the fact that conventional energy may never come to Gosaba Island
     after crossing of large number of creeks and rivers. After a careful survey of the
     area, WBREDA decided to set up a 500 kW gasifier based power plant at Gosaba
     Island along with energy plantation in wasteland and formation of a rural energy
     co-operative with local people.
     This project is a fine example of co-operation between MNES, WBREDA,
     Sunderbunds Development Department, South 24 Parganas Zilla Parisad and
     West Bengal State Electricity Board. The main motive force behind co-ordination




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     of various departments and completion of work on schedule is the continued
     efforts of WBREDA.


E.   Consumers and Tariff structure
     It was informed that around 1,065 consumers are availing the power supply
     through gasifiers and are grouped as below:
           Domestic: Rs.5.00/kWh
           Commercial: Rs 5.50/kWh
           Hospital: Rs.6.00/kWh
     There are no charges towards deposit fees and the above are flat tariff charges
     with no taxes charged from consumers. Around 95% of the customers are
     coming under domestic group.


F.   Gosaba plant operation
     Another very important aspect is that the power plant is being run by a local co-
     operative society, viz. Gosaba Rural Energy Co-operative Society, formed for this
     purpose. The society comprises of consumers representatives, WBREDA, WSEB,
     Sunderbunds Development Board, Forest co-operative department and from
     Govt. of West Bengal. The entire operation and maintenance of the plant is the
     responsibility of the Co-operative Society. WBREDA is responsible for providing
     diesel, biomass, and revenue collection and in rendering necessary assistance in
     repair, maintenance and other works from time to time. The salaries for the
     operating staff are met from the revenue collection through the prevailing
     consumer tariff and the balance of the revenue collection is paid to WBREDA,
     which takes care of diesel and biomass supply.


     WBREDA is providing all technical and resource backup to the society for running
     the plant. The plant has been working smoothly since commissioning.




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Biomass Fuel:
Woody biomass available in Sunderbunds is arranged through the society and
following are the different woody fuels that are used in the plant with an average
calorific value at 20 % moisture levels.
       Akash – 3,400 kCal/kg
       Shirish – 3,300 kCal/kg
       Eucalyptus – 3,600 kCal/kg
       Subabul – 3000 kCal/kg
       Mango – 3,000 kCal/kg
It was informed that moisture level at the time of purchasing will be around 70%
and is dried at the site to reduce to 20% before feeding into gasifier.


Revenue:
WBREDA indicated that the income and expenditure of the plant for the year
2003-2004, is as follows.
☼ Income: Rs 30 lakh
☼ Expenditure: Rs 33 lakhs
☼ Deficit: Rs 3 lakhs


Though the operating figure indicates a net deficit, the plant was
provided financial support from the West Bengal state government
along with the technical guidance from WBREDA. The project model is
aimed at providing a socio economic benefit to Gosaba and also
indirect benefit to the nearby islands.

Gosaba plant performance in August 1997 ~ March 1998
(Source WBREDA annual report -1996 ~1998)
The operation in that period was limited to 6 hrs/day, from 17.00 hrs to 23.00
hrs. Initial demand for power was very low at 60kW and within one year, it grew
sharply to 200 kW. The summary of performance is given below and is expected
to improve further with increase in demand:
       •   Total energy generated in that period, 77,505 kWh



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                                    •       Total diesel consumed, 10,174 litres
                                    •       Average specific diesel consumption, 0.13 litre / kWh
                                    •       Total biomass consumed, 68,482 kgs
                                    •       Average specific biomass consumption kg/kWh: 0.90
                                    •       Average diesel replacement - 47%


                              FIGURE 19 – Gosaba 5 x 100 Gasifier Plant Performance data –
                                                                    August 1997-March 1998



                       1.20                                                                                                                  14,000
                                    1.14                                  1.13                                                12,485


                                                                                                                                             12,000
                       1.00
                                                           0.91                       11,337
                                                                                                  9,974
                                                                                                                     10,515
                                                 0.85                                                                                        10,000
                       0.80                              10,480                       0.80
kg/kWh and litre/kWh




                                                                                                 0.84




                                                                                                                                                         kWh
                                                                          8,415
                                                                                                                   0.76        0.77          8,000
                                    7,180        7,119
                       0.60

                                                                                                                                             6,000


                       0.40
                                                                                                                                             4,000



                       0.20
                                    0.16                                                                                                     2,000
                                                 0.15        0.13                     0.14
                                                                          0.12                          0.13         0.12             0.12


                       0.00                                                                                                                  0
                              August '97 September '97 October '97 November '97 December'97    January'98      February'98    March'98

                                   litres/ kWh                      kg/ kWh                       Total Energy Generated in kWh


                          Gosaba plant performance in March 1~22, 2005
                          The plant was operating with 3 gasifiers 1,3 and 5. Gasifiers 2 and 4 were under
                          replacement with new ones and hence, are not in operating condition. The
                          gasifiers 1, 3 and 5 were replaced with new gasifier system in 2002.




                                                                                 92
                                                                           ITCOT




Present Operating mode:
The plant was feeding power to the consumers from 10.00 am to 12.00 pm (say
14 hrs/day). One DG set starts on diesel operating mode at 9.30 am with one
gasifier firing simultaneously with woody biomass, and after the gasifier
stabilization, producer gas is fed into the DG set and DG set is under dual fuel
mode from 10.00 am. One DG set operates till 4.30 pm and the second DG set
with gasifier under dual fuel starts and the third DG set with gasifier starts by
5.00 pm. Thus, three DG sets on dual fuel mode are operated. For meeting the
evening peak load, fourth DG set on diesel mode is started at 6.30 pm and goes
till 8.30 pm. From 8.30 pm to 12.00 pm, only two DG sets are operated.
The plant operating data for the period March 1~22, 2005 was collected from
the operators logbook and following curves were drawn for plant performance
assessment.


Observations:
   •   In that period, three gasifiers and four DG sets were operated to meet the
       load requirement
   •   From the logbook, it was observed that maximum load in Ampere
       recorded in a DG set was 150 A (rated 175 Ampere). Two DG sets were
       operated in that range, while the third DG set with a load of 110 Ampere
       and the fourth DG with a load of 80 Ampere, was operated in the evening.
   •   The cost of power generation was highest in March 17, 2005 at Rs
       8.82/kWh with an average loading of 252 kW and PLF of 63%. The reason
       could be the operating problems in the gasifier due to filter choking.
       Hence, more diesel was consumed to maintain the load.
   •   Producer gas from a particular gasifier is used in one or more DG sets in
       an operating day, by changing the feed of DG sets, time to time. Hence, it
       is difficult to assess the performance of a particular gasifier with a
       dedicated DG set, as there is a provision for providing gas from any
       gasifier to any DG set by shuffling the flexible hose piping of gas feeding,
       in   order   to   overcome   operating   problems   in   DG   sets/gasifiers




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                                   FIGURE 20 – Gosaba Island 5 x100 KW March Operating Data




              300                                                                                                                                                                   12

                             269   270
                    257                    256                                                                                    253     252
                                                         244           244




                                                                                                                                                                                         Power Generation Cost Rs/kWh
              250                                               239                                                 238                                       241           240
                                                  232                         233    235                                    233                        233
                                                                                                                                                226                                 10
                                                                                                    220                                                              219
                                                                                                             214


                                                                                            190                      8.41
              200
replacement




                                                                                                                                         8.82   8.37   8.35   8.34                  8
                                                                                                                                                                     8.15
                                                  7.92   7.85
                                   7.79    7.70                 7.73                        7.71
                            7.57                                       7.62          7.58
                    7.47                                                      7.45                                                                                          7.40
              150
                                                                                                    7.02                          7.06
                                                                                                             7.62     7.40                                                          6

              100

                    64       67    67      64                                                                                     63
                                                         61     60     61            59                             59                    63                  60            60
                                                  58                          58                                             58                 57     58
                                                                                                     55      54                                                      55             4
                                                                                            48
               50
                                                                                                     23                            21
                     14                                                               15                     17     16                                                       15
                             13             12                   11     10     12            13
                                    8              8      8
                                                                                                                                                 2      1      2      3
                                                                                                                             -1                                                     2
                                                                                                                                           -6
                0
                     1        2     3       4      5      6      7      8      9     10     11      12       13     14       15   16      17    18     19     20     21     22

                                                                                              Days
              -50                                                                                                                                                                   0

                           % Diesel Repl                          Avg kW                           Avg PLF                         Power generation cost Rs/kWh




                                                                                             94
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•   The availability of only three gasifiers, imminent filter problems (it was
    informed that Gasifier 3 has pending filter problem and hence, gasifier
    loading has been compared to the other two) and highly fluctuating load
    demand, resulted in a poor plant performance. The associated gasifier
    problems on power generation have contributed to the high cost of power
    generation.
•   It was informed that fluctuating load demand was the main attribute for
    the poor performance of the gasifiers. The load points are predominantly
    lighting   (domestic,   commercial,   street),   fans,   irrigation   pumping,
    commercial establishments like education institutions and hospital. Before
    this power plant, consumers were using SPV for lighting and fans.
•   Though three gasifiers were replaced with new gasifiers in 2002 (Gasifier
    1,3 and 5), it was informed that gasifier three has still problems in the
    coarse and fine filter, often leading to pressure build up and reduced flow
    of producer gas. Other two also have intermittent problems related to
    filters.
•   The following is the summary of plant performance during the observed
    period:
    o Total energy generated, 34,866 kWh (this value is summated value of
        energy meters at two outgoing feeders with added 10% auxiliary
        consumption. It was noted that energy meter for DG 2 was not
        working and hence, addition of individual DG energy meters for
        comparing with feeder energy meters was not possible)
    o Total biomass consumed: 26,733 kgs
    o Total Diesel consumed: 7,869 litres
    o Average diesel replacement: 10%
    o Average loading: 238 kW
    o Average PLF: 60%
    o Average cost of power generation: Rs 7.79/kWh
    o Average Specific diesel consumption: 0.23 litre/kWh
    o Average Specific biomass consumption: 0.77 kg/kWh




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G.      Power generation cost breakup


         FIGURE 21 – Sunderbunds Gasifiers Installations – Gosaba 5 x 100 kW
                – Dual Fuel mode power generation cost breakup (Rs./kWh)




                   operator cost Rs/kwh,
                          0.24, 3%

                                                          Maintenance Cost
                                                          Rs/kwh, 0.11, 1%
     Biomass cost Rs/kWh,
           0.77, 10%




                                                                             Diesel cost Rs/kWh,
                                                                                  6.77, 86%




     Diesel cost Rs/kWh        Biomass cost Rs/kWh    operator cost Rs/kwh    Maintenance Cost Rs/kwh




        •   86% of the power cost is due to diesel and it warrants immediate detailed
            performance evaluation of the gasifier systems
        •   10% of the power cost is due to biomass and is higher due to lower
            replacement of diesel
        •   Operator cost and maintenance cost is 3% and 1% respectively, which are
            negligible compared to the fuel cost
        •   List of assumptions on costing, based on the discussions:
                                   Biomass fuel cost @ Rs1.00/kg
                                   Diesel cost @ Rs 30/litre
                                   20 operators for the plant @Rs 2500/operator/month


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                              Annual maintenance cost/gasifier: Rs. 20,000
                              Annual maintenance cost of DG set: Rs 25,000


H.     Performance Design Vs Actual


                                             Table 25
                 Performance of Gosaba Installation - Design Vs Actual
        S. No    Performance indicator            Unit         Design          Actual
           1     Average kW loading               kW                    500             238
                 Average Specific Biomass
           2                                      Kg/kWh                  1         0.77
                 consumption
           3     Average Diesel consumption       Litre/kWh             0.06        0.23
                 Average % diesel
           4                                      Percentage             70             10
                 replacement


     Observations:
       •   The plant has consumed more diesel than the design value, and hence,
           biomass consumption has been lower than the design value due to poor and
           fluctuating load
       •   The reasons for the poor performance are problems of gas cooling and gas
           cleaning system, engine operating performance and moisture content of
           biomass.
       •   The situation demands a thorough study on load demand; operation
           performance of gasifiers on a continuous basis, issues related to gas quality
           and increased diesel consumption.


I.     Maintenance
       It was informed that no specific Annual Maintenance Contract (AMC) has been
       signed with vendors for gasifier and engine system.


                      Annual maintenance cost/gasifier: Rs. 20,000
                      Annual maintenance cost of DG set: Rs. 25,000



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                                             The above is inclusive of vendor representative site visit fees,
                                             consumables and spares
                                             A nominal charge of Rs 1000/day is charged by the vendors for site
                                             visit
                                             WBREDA is inviting vendors to the site in case of problems faced by
                                             the operator.


                                    FIGURE 22 – Gosaba 5 x 100 kW Biomass Gasifier Plant
                                                           Performance Design Vs Actual


                       1.2



                                 Kg/kWh, 1
                        1



                                                          Kg/kWh, 0.77
                       0.8
kg/kWh and litre/kWh




                       0.6




                       0.4


                                                                                                         Litre/kWh, 0.23

                       0.2

                                                                              Litre/kWh, 0.06


                        0
                                                 Kg/kWh                                    Litre/kWh

                                                Design                                          Actual




                             Following is the maintenance schedule for various systems, as informed by
                             WBREDA.


                             Engine
                             ☼ Checking of engine after 10,000 hours of operation
                             ☼ Checking of engine cylinder head, nozzle injectors after 4000 hours


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                                                                                   ITCOT




      ☼ First filling of lube oil 35 litre and changing of lube oil after 250 hrs. Lube oil
          grade – SAE 15W40
      ☼ Routine checkup for diesel filter, engine and alternator coupling
      ☼ Battery system weekly once


      Gasifier
      ☼ Generation of charcoal in kgs
      ☼ Water spraying nozzles for gas cooling
      ☼ Water pump and blowers motors
      ☼ Coarse and Fine filter - cleaning of dry wood dust choke once in a week
      ☼ Fabric cloth in check filter – cleaning once in a week
      ☼ The life of the filter material is 5,000 hrs and could be reused after washing
          and cleaning


      WBREDA informed that the overall service rendered by vendors have been
      satisfactory.


J.   GOSABA Energy plantation
     There are large areas of foreshore land on the riverbanks of Sunderbunds in
     West Bengal. This area in the whole of the Indian part of Sunderbunds is
     estimated to be about 0.15 million hectares, out of which 50,000 hectares are
     suitable for plantation.


     Energy plantation in an area of about 71 hectares was made for supplying woody
     biomass to the Gosaba power plant. About 71 hectares of plantation has been
     made under the captive energy plantation scheme attached to 500 kW capacity,
     Gosaba biomass based power plant. The growth of trees under the schemes
     appears to be satisfactory.


     Effects of Energy Plantation
     The biomass gasifiers consume woody biomass, which must be replaced to
     maintain ecological balance. The Gosaba Biomass based power plant has been



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planned in such a manner that the biomass produced by the captive energy
plantation will generate more than the quantity it consumes. So in the long run it
will have a positive impact on the environment and the same time result in
employment generation as mentioned below:
   b. Mainly branches and twigs between ½” and 2” will be used in the gasifier
       and in most cases the main tree will not be affected much.
   c. New plantations are being made to replenish the biomass consumed by
       the machine and this quantity produced is much higher than that
       consumed.
   d. The new plantations are made for running the power plant, otherwise
       these plantations would not have come up.
   e. A number of people get employment for planting trees and for
       maintenance of plantations linked to the power plant.


So, it has positive effect on the environment as well as on employment
generation. The energy plantations will have the following positive effects:
   a. It will help generation of employment opportunities in rural area.
   b. Impact on rainfall pattern
   c. Prevention of soil erosion
   d. Preservation of flora and fauna




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                                                                                ITCOT




6.3   Name of Installation:        M Vishveswaraiah Institute of Technology,
      Bangalore, Karnataka


A.    Project Background
      Objective
      M Vishveswaraiah Institute of Technology (MVIT) has sought the assistance of
      Netpro Renewable Energy Private Limited, Bangalore to install a Dual Fuel
      gasifier-based power plant in their college premises and to supply power to the
      college. The cost of gasifier system, operation and maintenance and the other
      costs involved are under the scope of Netpro, and MVIT has allocated the land
      for installing the gasifier. The power Purchase agreement between them is for 10
      years @ Rs. 5 per kWh escalating with hike in diesel price. Current purchasing
      price of power by MVIT from Gasifier system is Rs. 5.60 per kWh while the
      current Electricity Board rate is Rs. 6 per kWh. The college has installed two 100
      kW gasifier systems in phase I and II.
      Year of Installation
      The month and year of installation of two phases are as follows.
      Phase I: June 2002
      Phase II: November 2002
      Location
      MVIT is located in Hunusumaranahalli, via Yelanka an hour drive from Bangalore.
      Plant lay out Size
      A copy of plant layout drawing is enclosed in Enclosure I.
      Type
      Woody biomass down draft gasifier with batch feeding.


B.    Technical Specifications
      Gasifier (supplier – Netpro Renewable Energy Private Limited,
      Bangalore)
       ii     Capacity: 100 kW
       iii    Biomass fuel consumption: 135kg/h
       iv     Biomass fuel size: 50 mm~50mm



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 v         Moisture: < 15%
 vi        Loading of biomass: manual feeding and intermittent
 vii       Gasifier starting: Manual
 viii      Diesel replacement: average: 75 - 85%
 ix        Gas cooling and cleaning of tar removal, particulates: Water spray
           cooler, cyclone separator, scrubber, sand (coarse and fine) filter, fabric
           filter, 6°C output - water chiller
 x         Gas flaring provision before gas entry into engine
 xi        Height of reactor: 2.9m
 xii       Recommended biomass fuels: Casuarinas, eucalyptus, Julia flora and
           any hardwood
 xiii      Gasifier material of construction: Stainless Steel for nozzle and throat
           and SS 304 for Hopper, body and pipe line
 xiv       Life of Gasifier: 10 years
 xv        Turn down ratio: 1:3
 xvi       Starting time from cold start: 15 - 30 minutes
 xvii      Conversion Efficiency (Fuel to Producer Gas): 75%
 xviii     Conversion Efficiency (Engine): 30%
 xix       Auxiliary Consumption: 32 HP for pumps

Engine
      Phase I
      •   Make: Kirloskar
      •   Capacity: 2 x 50 kW
      •   Governor: Mechanical
      Phase II
      •   Make: Greaves
      •   Capacity: 1 x 100 kW
      •   Governor: Electronic


Alternator
      Phase I
      •   Make: Kirloskar


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        •   Capacity: 2 x 62.5 kVA
        •   Speed: 1500 rpm
        •   Voltage: 415 V
        •   Frequency: 50 Hz
        •   Power Factor: 0.8
        •   Insulation: Class H
        •   Voltage Regulation: Automatic


        Phase II
        •   Make: Stamford
        •   Capacity: 1 x 160 kVA
        •   Speed: 1500 rpm
        •   Voltage: 415 V
        •   Frequency: 50 Hz
        •   Power Factor: 0.8
        •   Insulation: Class H
        •   Voltage Regulation: Automatic


     Electrical panels
     The plant is designed to operate on stand-alone mode. Electrical control panel is
     provided with 100 Amps MCCB for Phase I and with 250 Amps with Phase II. The
     panel is provided with under voltage, over voltage, earth fault and over current
     protection along with reverse power relay.


C.   Financial Parameters
     Building and civil works
     The college has allotted land for installing gasifier.
     For Gasifier system with DG set
     50% Equity by Netpro Renewable Energy Private Limited
     50% Grant from Dutch Government
     Total Project cost: Not disclosed




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D.   Project Status
     The plant was commissioned by November 2002 (both Phase I and Phase II) and
     was in operation since then, for 6 and half days a week and all weeks in a year.


E.   Plant Performance Summary for the monitored Period
     (3 years from June 2002 to December 2004)


        •   Gross Power Generation: 8,94,928 kWh
        •   Auxiliary Power Consumption: 1,00,496 kWh
        •   Total biomass consumption: 9,53,790 Kgs
        •   Total Diesel Consumption: 99,700 Litres
        •   No. of Operating Hours: 16,680 hours
        •   Average cost of gross power generation: Rs.5.35/kWh
        •   Average annual PLF: 21.07 %
        •   Average specific biomass consumption: 1.065 kg/kWh
        •   Average specific diesel consumption: 0.11 litres/kWh


     The plant performance for the period monitored with energy generation, auxiliary
     consumption, operating hours, Biomass consumption and Diesel Consumption, is
     given in Table 26 below.



                                        Table 26
                             MVIT - Plant Performance
     Year        Units          Aux.       Operat     Biomass        Diesel
              Generated         Cons.        ion      consump      Consumption
                  KWh          In kWh       Hrs.      tion kgs.       in KL
     2002           63,821        7,650         360      53,790         9,600
     2003         393,874        43,580      8,160     410,000         44,100
     2004         437,233        49,266      8,160     490,000         46,000
     TOTAL       894,928       100,496     16,680     953,790         99,700




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                                         FIGURE 23 - MVIT Gasifier Average Plant Load Factor and
                                                  Overall Gasifier Conversion Efficiency
                   35                                                            32.53

                   30                              31.41                                                      31.94

                                                                                                               26.79
                   25                                                             24.86
Percentage %




                   20

                   15
                                                    11.56
                   10

                                  5

                                  0
                                               2002                          2003                         2004
                                                                             Weeks
                                                     Avg PLF           Overall % Gasifier Conv Efficiency




                                      FIGURE 24 - MVIT, Bangalore - 2 x 100 kW biomass gasifier
                                               plant Performance data - 2002 to 2004
                                  1.20                                                             1.12          500000

                                                                                          437233                 450000
                                                                             1.04
                                  1.00
                                                                  393874                                         400000
           kg/kWh and litre/kWh




                                                        0.84                                                     350000
                                  0.80
                                                                                                                 300000
                                                                                                                          kWh




                                  0.60                                                                           250000
                                                                                                                 200000
                                  0.40
                                                                                                                 150000
                                                                                                                 100000
                                  0.20
                                           63821        0.15042
                                                                             0.11196                0.10521      50000
                                  0.00                                                                           0
                                                 2002                  2003                    2004

                                           litres/kWh             kg/kWh             Total Energy Generated in kWh




                                                                           105
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   FIGURE 25 - Energy Generation and Consumption Details of MVIT

500000                                                  490000

450000                                                           437233
                                 410000
400000                                    393874

350000

300000

250000

200000

150000

100000
          53970 63821                  44100 43580           46000 49266
50000
               9600     7650
    0
                 2002                   2003                   2004

         Biomass Consumption in kgs       Diesel Consumption in Litres
         Energy Generated in kWh          Auxiliary Consumption in kWh



   Observations:
    •    It could be seen from Figure 23 and 24 that when the Plant Load Factor
         (PLF) increases on the dual fuel mode operation, the diesel consumption
         gets reduced with more producer gas being taken in for energy generation.
    •    It could be seen from Figure 25 that Auxiliary consumption is almost the
         same throughout the period of operation i.e. 11%
    •    When annual PLF increases from 11 to 26%, the diesel replacement also
         increases from 66% to 78% for the observed period.
    •    When the biomass consumption increased by 19% in the last two years the
         diesel consumption has increased by 5% during the same period. This has
         resulted in the generation cost almost to be the same throughout the
         observation period even when the cost per litre of diesel has soared from
         Rs. 18 to Rs. 30 per litre.


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                                                                                 ITCOT




F.   Cost of Production
     The cost breakup for gross power generation per unit is given in Figure 26
     below:
          FIGURE 26 - Unit Generation Break up Cost in % at MVIT




                                                        58%




                   22%

                                            20%


                    Diesel Cost     Biomass Cost        Labour Cost



     Observations:
     •   Diesel Cost plays a vital role in unit cost of generation. In the PPA, MVIT and
         Netpro have worked out a formula for escalation in purchase price based on
         hike in Diesel price. The price of diesel at the time of installation was around
         Rs. 18 per litre. Currently it is more than Rs. 30 per litre at site. Manpower
         requirement is mainly for non-processed wood. The salary for operators
         (Seven in Number) is around Rs. 2 to 3 lakhs a year and for a supervisor it is
         around Rs. 0.72 to 0.84 lakhs a year.


     •   Repairs and maintenance cost is not considered as Netpro runs the plant.


G.   Performance: Design Vs Actual
     The design and actual performance comparison is detailed in the Table 27
     below:


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                                                                                     ITCOT




                                           Table 27
                          Design Vs Actual Performance of MVIT
         No   Performance indicator                      Unit        Design         Actual
         1    Average kW loading                         KW                   200      185
              Average Specific Biomass
         2                                               Kg/kWh               1.1     1.065
              consumption


     Observations:
     Actual kW loading and specific Biomass Consumption are closer to Design
     parameters. All other actual parameters are also in line with design parameters.


H.   Summary of notes on discussion with MVIT
     About Gasifier
     •    Gasifier installed in Phase II is an improved version of Phase I.
     •    Cyclone separator and chilled water spraying system have been introduced in
          the new version.
     •    The new phase has cyclone separators before water spraying, to reduce tar
          component in the gas. Chiller unit is provided to introduce water spraying at
          6°C before fabric filter to further reduce tar and dust content levels.
     About Fuel
     •    80 tons of wet Biomass is purchased every month and after drying 50 tons of
          dry biomass is used in the Gasifier
     •    Size of biomass used is 25 x 40 x 40 or 20 x 50 x 40 mm
     •    Feeding on the open top is for every 5 minutes minimum and every 15
          minutes maximum
     •    3000 to 4000 litres of diesel is used per month replacing 20-25% of biomass
          in the DG Set
     •    Average Replacement of Diesel – 81 % (Max: 85% and Min: 70%)
     •    Waste Heat from DG set is used to dry biomass before feeding into gasifier.
     About Energy Generation
     •    50,000 to 52,000 kWh is generated from gasifier system and 45,000 kWh
          (net) is exported to MVIT every month



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                                                                              ITCOT




     •   Current Energy Selling Price to college is Rs. 5.60 per kWh
     •   Commercial tariff of KPTCL for the institution is Rs. 6.00 per kWh
     Water Utilisation
     •   Water consumption is through the sump of 50,000 litres capacity
     •   The sump is cleaned every month and raw water of 50,000 litres is filled in
         the tank.
     •   10 loads of water per month are purchased of 6000 litres per load.
     •   The makeup water of 1000 litres is used for every two days.
     •   Water treatment is done while adding the make up water.
     •   The chemicals used every 1000 litres make up water are
              o Non Ferric Alum – 400 grams and
              o Poly electrolyte – 20 grams
     Load Pattern
     •   Load sharing details are as follows:
              o 86% of the college load is met by gasifiers
              o 6% by the local DG Set of 30, 20, 10 kVA each
              o 8% of the load is met from KPTCL Supply


I.   Issues
     Since the supplier is operating the gasifiers, no major issues were highlighted
     during discussion.


J.   General Issues on site operations
     It was observed that if the diesel price further hikes up, and if the generation
     cost using gasifier in dual fuel mode moves above Rs. 6 per kWh, then the
     college might opt for power supply from Karnataka Power Transmission
     Company Limited (KPTCL) forcing the project to close.


k.   Overall performance
     Netpro is presently successful in providing captive power to the college to the
     greatest satisfaction.




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6.4   Name of Installation: Bagavathi Bio Power Limited, Mettupalayam


A.    Project background
      M/s. Bagavathi Bio Power is a company, which was formed with the main aim of
      generating power from Biomass through gasification and selling the same. A
      company was formed and an agreement was made with M/s. United Bleachers
      Limited for power purchase and M/s. Bagavathi Bio power will provide the plant
      and machinery.


      The contract is to supply 250kW/hr. First phase of 120kW/hr plant has been
      commissioned and the plant has successfully completed six thousand eight
      hundred hours of operation. The technology provider is IISC Bangalore and the
      manufacturer is M/s. Energreen Power Ltd, Chennai. The gas engine used is
      from Cummins. The engine is 855 GTA coupled with Stanford Alternator. The
      maximum engine capacity is 130kW.After internal consumption of 23 kW for the
      various plant auxiliaries; 100kW is ready for export to the textile-processing unit.


      The plant operates continuously and generates around two thousand units per
      day for export. The plant operates for around 26 days in a month. If the load is
      constant then the plant operates in a trouble free manner


B.    Plant performance summary: 26th July, 2003 to 15th March 2005
      The data on the performance of the project from the commencement of the
      project was collected and given as Enclosure and based on the analysis, the
      highlights of the project performance are given below.


                                         Table 28
                         Plant Performance of Bagavathi Bio
            S. No Parameter                  Unit           Value
              1     Total no of days                                        532
              2     Total          Biomass          Tons                 753.29
                    consumption



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      Table 28 Contd..
      S. No Parameter                         Unit           Value
             3     Total            power       Lakh kWh                    6.36
                   generation
             4     Power exported               Lakh kWh                    4.55
             5     Total           gasifier          Hours                  6895
                   operated hours
             6     Total            Engine           Hours                  6637
                   operated hours



Based on the above performance, analysis on specific fuel consumption, plant
load factor etc were estimated and highlights of the performance are given
below.


                                         Table 29
                    Plant Generation and Consumption Details
     No          Parameter                           Unit            Value
         1       Average specific biomass            Kg/kWh           1.2
                 consumption
         2       Auxiliary Power consumption         %                28
         3       Availability of Gasifier on total   %                54
                 days
         4       Availability of generator on %                       52
                 total days
         5       PLF    based     on    generator %                   78
                 availability
         6       PLF based on total availability %                    46
                 days


The above table indicates the following




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          •     The average specific biomass consumption is 1.2 kg/kWh, which is higher
                than the design value, which may be due to low plant load factor.
          •     The auxiliary power consumption is higher, which may be due to higher
                installed capacity of the auxiliary equipments, which originally was planned
                for higher capacity


          •     Though the plant load factor of the system was 78% based on the actual
                available days of generator, the PLF on total days is only 46%, which may be
                due to down time of the engine /gasifier system


          The performance of the system indicating specific biomass consumption and PLF
          is given below.


                      Figure 27 – Performance of Bagavathi Bio Energy

          100                                                                          2.00

           90                                                                          1.80

           80                                                                          1.60
  Plan
  t        70                                                                          1.40 Specific energy
                                                                                             consumption
  load
  facto    60                                                                          1.20
  r
           50                                                                          1.00

           40                                                                          0.80

           30                                                                          0.60
                                         PLF            Specific biomass consumption
           20                                                                          0.40

           10                                                                          0.20

           0                                                                           0.00
                                                Operating period

Note: Each operating period is period run before gasifier un loading



C.        Cost of production


          The cost of production is as follows.




                                                       112
                                                                          ITCOT




 -   1.2 kg of Biomass gives 1 unit of electricity. Assuming raw material cost at
     Rs1200/tonne, Cost of processing at Rs 300 per ton- Rs.1500 is the net cost
     of raw material.
 -   The plant requires three people per shift and one technical supervisor. The
     engine is serviced at every 750hrs of operation.


                                    Table 30
            Cost of Production at Bagavathi Bio Energy Limited
      S. No                     Parameter                      Cost/unit-
                                                                 Rs/kWh
        1     Raw material cost per unit                           1.80
        2     Labour and Salary                                    0.35
        3     Maintenance and Repairs                              0.35
               Net cost before interest and depreciation          2.50


The above breakup of the cost of production is depicted in a graph shown below.


        FIGURE 28 – Cost of Production at Bagavathi Bio Limited




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                                                                               ITCOT




     The cost of production indicates that the raw material contributes 68% of the
     cost and the unit is planning for its own cultivation to optimize the raw material
     cost to around Rs.800 /ton.


D.   Issues relating to the performance
     •   The plant will be operating continuously for a period of 25 days and the plant
         load drops due to carbon deposit in the after cooler of engine. So stopping of
         engine is required for cleaning and maintenance.
     •   As the power is being exported to UBL, the plant will not be operating during
         Sundays and also during plant breakdown of UBL, which will be around 2-3
         days in a month.
     •   It is observed that the load of the system is highly fluctuating based on
         process requirement like intermittent operation of giggers and FD fans of
         Boiler which lead to starving or excess load throw in the engine.




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                                 CHAPTER 7
                                 CONCLUSION


•   Gasifier based Power Generating systems are technically feasible and
    financially more viable, when run on 100% producer gas mode and not on
    Dual Fuel Mode.


•   The project would be more successful if the availability and cost of biomass
    used in the system are kept at constant check. Energy Plantation would be
    the most feasible and reliable option for adequate and cheaper biomass
    availability.


•   Constant Load operation and increased Plant Load Factor (PLF) would further
    improve the financial viability of the Project.


•   Grid interfacing using gasifiers is very difficult and may not be possible as the
    synchronization of grid frequency and the system frequency is not possible.
    This is because of uneven flow of gas from the gasifier into the engine.


•   Technology available for gasifiers is satisfactory but not adequate. However,
    further improvement in Gas Cooling, Cleaning, Ash removal, and Engine
    Cooling Systems would increase the system availability and improve the
    overall performance of the system.


•   Vendors currently do not provide overall performance guarantee to the
    system as a whole though some vendors are providing guarantee to some of
    the components manufacturers are having tie up with engine manufacturers
    who are yet to provide performance guarantee for their engines with 100 %
    producer gas applications.


•   Though IISC is the sole technology developer and provided solutions for the
    operational problems of the gasifiers to a limited extend, most of the



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    developments /improvements in the field were carried out by the users only
    and there is no agency involved in monitoring the performance on a
    continuous basis.


•   The concept of Annual Maintenance contract is yet to be operational in the
    market and after sales service or service back up by the vendors is very
    limited as not many vendors are active in this field.


•   Well-trained technical manpower is limited in the market, which may affect
    the sustained performance of the system.


•   Though most of the units are supportive of the capital subsidy scheme,
    procedural delays from submission to actual disbursement of subsidy have
    extended the time schedule of project implementation.




                                    116

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: Detailed presentation of Gasifier, Introduction, methodology and vendors of Gasifier.