The Age of Napoleon by ROY66xy


									                        The Age of Napoleon
                          Test 4 Questions
• 1. What personal qualities did Napoleon possess that gained
  him popular support?
• 2. What was the significance of Napoleon’s Civil Code?
• 3. What were the three parts of Napoleon’s Grand Empire?
• 4. Why did Napoleon invade Russia?
                       The Rise of Napoleon
                       The Rise of Napoleon
•   Napoleon Bonaparte dominated French and European history from 1799 to 1815.
•   Napoleon brought the chaos of the French Revolution to an end.
•   He told the French people “I am the French Revolution”.
•   He spread revolutionary ideas throughout Europe.

                       The Rise of Napoleon
• Napoleon was born in Corsica, a son of a lawyer of nobility.
• He earned a scholarship to French military schools and was commissioned an
  officer in 1785.
• He studied military history and became an expert in military tactics.
• He became a captain in 1792 and a general by age 24.
                       The Rise of Napoleon
• By 1796, Napoleon was commander of the French armies in Italy.
• In Italy, Napoleon earned many victories based upon his confidence of his men,
  his energy, charm, and ability to make quick decisions.
• These qualities combined with his keen intelligence, ease with words, and
  confidence in himself, won him support.

                       The Rise of Napoleon
• In 1797, Napoleon returned to France a conquering hero.
• He was given command of an army to invade England.
• He invaded British controlled Egypt and abandoned his army and returned to
  France in 1799.
• In Paris, Napoleon took part in the overthrow of the French government.
                       The Rise of Napoleon
•   He was 30 years old at the time.
•   A new government was formed, called the consulate.
•   Although the consulate was a republic, Napoleon held absolute power.
•   As First Consul, Napoleon controlled the entire government.
•   In 1802, he became Consul for life.
                       Napoleon’s Domestic Policies
                       Napoleon’s Domestic Policies
• Napoleon claimed he preserved the gains of the revolution for the French people.
• Napoleon made peace with the Catholic Church.
• In 1801, he made a deal with the pope.
• The Catholic Church was recognized as the majority religion in France.
• In return, the government kept church land that was seized during the
• This strengthen Napoleon’s grip on power.
                       Napoleon’s Domestic Policies
•   Napoleon’s most famous domestic achievement was his codification of the laws.
•   He created the Seven Codes of Law.
•   The most important code was the Civil Code or Napoleonic Code.
•   It was based upon equality of all citizens before the law, the right for an individual to choose a
    profession, religious toleration, and total elimination of feudalism.

                       Napoleon’s Domestic Policies
•   Property rights were protected.
•   And unions were outlawed.
•   But women were given less rights than men in the Civil Codes.
•   In lawsuits, women were treated as “minors” in courts.
•   They were considered less reliable than men as witnesses.
                       Napoleon’s Domestic Policies
•   Napoleon also developed a powerful, centralized administrative machine.
•   Promotion was based upon the quality of performance only.
•   He created a new aristocracy based upon merit in the state service.
•   But individual liberties were limited.
•   Napoleon shut down newspapers that wrote bad stories about him.
                       Napoleon’s Domestic Policies
•   Even the mail was opened by the government.
•   All books were read by governmental officials before being published.
•   Most of the rights gained through the revolution was removed by Napoleon.
•   Napoleon was a absolute dictator.
                               Napoleon’s Empire
                               Napoleon’s Empire
• When Napoleon came to power in 1799, France was already at war with Russia,
  Great Britain and Austria.
• He signed a peace treaty in 1802.
• And broke the peace treaty with Great Britain in 1803.
• And gradually Great Britain was joined by Austria, Russia, Sweden, and Prussia.
                               Napoleon’s Empire
• In a series of battles between 1805-07, Napoleon defeated the Russians, the
  Austrians, and the Prussians.
• Napoleon had conquered all of mainland western Europe.
• His Grand Empire was composed of three major parts:
• 1. dependent states
                          Napoleon’s Empire
• 2. the French Empire
• 3. Allied nations
• Dependent states were kingdoms ruled by his relatives.
• Allied states were defeated nations forced to join the war against Prussia, Russia,
  Austria, and Sweden.
• Everywhere Napoleon gained control, he would impose his laws, thereby
  spreading religious toleration, property rights, and equality of all citizens before
  the law.
                          European Response
                          European Response
•   Napoleon (like Hitler) believed his empire would last a 1000 years.
•   But it failed quickly because of two major reasons…
•   1. Great Britain
•   2. the growing force of nationalism
•   Britain’s survival was due to its great sea power.
                          European Response
•   As long as Great Britain ruled the waves, Napoleon’s Empire could be attacked.
•   And Great Britain’s navy was invulnerable to military attack.
•   Napoleon tried to invade England in 1805 but failed at the battle of Trafalgar.
•   He then tried to bankrupt Great Britain with the Continental System.
•   But this failed too.
                          European Response
• Also defeating Napoleon was nationalism.
• Nationalism is the unique cultural identity of a people based on common
  language, religion, and national symbols.
• By invading so many different cultures, Napoleon had aroused a common hatred
  against the aggressor.
• Plus, by example, Napoleon had shown the European nations what a united
  people/nation could do.
                        The Fall of Napoleon
                        The Fall of Napoleon
• The beginning of Napoleon’s downfall began in 1812 with his invasion of Russia.
• The Russians had refused to obey the Continental System and Napoleon was
  forced to invade.
• He invaded with 600,000 French troops.
• He was hoping for a quick victory.
• But Russia kept retreating east, dragging the French troops deeper into Russia.
                       The Fall of Napoleon
• When the French finally entered Moscow, they found the city burning and
  lacking all supplies.
• Napoleon finally abandoned Moscow and started the “Great Retreat” home to
  France in October 1812.
• Only 40,000 French troops made it out of Russia by January 1813.
• This military defeat caused many European defeated nations to rise up against

                       The Fall of Napoleon
• Many armies attacked France and Paris was captured in March 1814.
• Napoleon was captured and sent to the island of Elba, and the old French royal
  family was reinstated. (the Bourbon monarch Louis XVIII, brother of the
  beheaded Louis XVI.)
• This new French king had little support and Napoleon slipped back into France.
                       The Fall of Napoleon
• Napoleon enters Paris in a grand parade March 20, 1815.
• He raised an army and attacked British forces stationed in Belgium.
• At Waterloo in Belgium, Napoleon suffered his final defeat by a brilliant British
  general named Wellington. (Duke)
• This time, Napoleon was sent to St. Helens island in the Atlantic Ocean.
                       The Fall of Napoleon
• Napoleon never left the island alive.
• Many say he was murdered, some say he fell ill.
• For sure Napoleon Bonaparte died on St. Helena island.
                                  The End

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