The Civil War by wPCg26

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									THE UNITED STATES’
CIVIL WAR
      The Election of 1860
►   Southern Democrats: John
    C. Breckinridge (supported
    the aggressive expansion of
    slavery).
►   Northern Democrats:
    Stephen Douglas (supported
    popular sovereignty).
►   Republicans: Abraham
    Lincoln (containment of
    slavery; no more expansion).
►   Lincoln won without a single
    electoral vote in the South
    (39% of the vote).
►   The South was outraged
    that a President can be
    elected without a single
    southern vote.
    Lincoln was able to win the
      election of 1860 largely
             because...
A.) most Americans had become
abolitionists.
B.) free blacks in the North gave him their
support.
C.) the Democratic Party had split in two.

D.) Douglas threw his support behind
Lincoln.

    Secession!
    Secessionists argued that,
    since the states voluntarily
    joined the Union, they could
    also choose to leave it.
   On December 20, 1860, South
    Carolina officially seceded.
   In the next weeks, six other
    states joined them.
   The seven states formed the
    Confederate States of
    America.
   Montgomery, Alabama was
    chosen as the capitol.
   Jefferson Davis was elected
    President.
    Lincoln's election led many
   Southerners to believe that...
A.) the South controlled the nation's
government.
B.) slavery was evil and should be
eliminated.
C.) compromise between the North and
South was possible.
D.) the South must secede from the Union.
            James Buchanan
►   Lincoln was elected in
    November of 1860…
►   But did not take office until
    March of 1861…
►   James Buchanan—a
    Democrat—was still in office
    when South Carolina left the
    union.
►   He claimed that the Federal
    government HAD NO
    AUTHORITY to stop the SC
    secession…
►   And did NOTHING when they
    did.
►   His inaction encouraged
    SEVEN MORE STATES to
    leave the union…
►   Before Abraham Lincoln was
    able to take office.
Fort Sumter, Charleston S.C.
►   Ft. Sumter sits in the
    middle of CHARLESTON
    HARBOR…
►   In South Carolina.
►   When SC seceded, the US
    Army was ordered to
    surrender the fort
    immediately…
►   The Army REFUSED…
►   And on April 12, 1860…
►   The South Carolina militia
    OPENED FIRE…
►   The fort was shelled for 24
    hours…
►   And the US Army
    surrendered.
►   These are the FIRST SHOTS
    of the Civil War.
      Effects of Fort Sumter
   Before Fort Sumter, most people
    thought the conflict would be resolved
    through COMPROMISE.
   However, the actions of South Carolina
    showed that COMPROMISE would not
    be possible.
   President Lincoln responded by calling
    for volunteers to the US Army…
   The Confederates saw this as an
    action of war against them…
   And four more (upper South) states left
    the Union and joined the Confederate
    States.
    The PRIMARY effect of the
   Confederate Army's attack on
        Ft. Sumter was...
A.) the start of the Civil War.

B.) another compromise between North and
South.
C.) the Dred Scott decision.

D.) the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
The Confederate States of America
►   President: Jefferson
    Davis.
►   Capitol: Montgomery,
    Alabama; later
    Richmond Virginia
►   Upper-South States:
    Virginia, North
    Carolina, Tennessee &
    Arkansas.
►   Deep South States:
    Texas, Louisiana,
    Mississippi, Alabama,
    Georgia, South
    Carolina & Florida.
►   National Anthem:
    Dixie.
The Confederate States of America
       Strengths and Weaknesses
           Union                    Confederacy
►   Had double the amount     ► Seven of the nation’s
    of railroad track.          eight military
                                colleges were in the
►   Had twice as many           South (most officers
    factories (guns, shoes,     join the
    etc.)                       Confederacy).
►   Had an economy            ► The South did not
    balanced between            need to invade, just
    farming and industry.       defend.
►   Had a functioning         ► The South was
    government.                 defending its home,
                                way of life, honor,
►   Had an established          etc.
    army and navy.
                              ► Southerners were
►   Had 2/3 of the US’          better outdoorsmen,
    population.                 hunters, horsemen.
 Which of the following was the
 North's greatest ADVANTAGE in
          the Civil War?
A.) the fact that it was fighting a defensive
war.
B.) the performance of its brilliant military
leadership.
C.) the fact that most of the US' industry was
in the North.
D.) the value of its huge cotton crop.
MAJOR FIGURES
of the US Civil War
           Ulysses S. Grant
► Originally in charge of
  Union efforts in the
  West…
► First Union general to
  recognize the huge
  advantage in numbers
  held by the North.
► And often won battles by
  throwing thousands of
  men directly into the
  teeth of Confederate
  gunfire…
► Given command of all
  Union forces by Abraham
  Lincoln in 1864.
► Later elected President
  of the United States.
              Robert E. Lee
►   Was a West Point graduate,
    born in Virginia to an old
    military family.
►   Opposed slavery and
    secession, but could not
    fight against his home.
►   Offered command of Union
    forces by Abraham Lincoln;
    refused.
►   Given command of the
    Confederate Army in 1862.
►   Universally admired for his
    skill as a general…
►   Often won battles in which
    he was hugely outnumbered.
      Abraham Lincoln
►   Elected President of
    the United States in
    1860.
►   Very moderate on the
    slavery issue (wished
    only to prevent its
    spread).
►   Election caused
    southern secession…
►   Very unpopular as a
    President…
►   Almost beaten in the
    election of 1864…
►   Assassinated in 1865.
             Jefferson Davis
►   US Representative from
    Mississippi, prior to the
    Civil War.
►   Ardent supporter of
    slavery and states’
    rights.
►   Elected CSA President in
    1860.
►   Prolonged the Civil War
    by refusing to give up…
►   Imprisoned for two years
    after the end of the war;
    later pardoned and set
    free.
         Stonewall Jackson
►   Born Thomas Jackson…
►   Gets nickname in the
    first battle of Bull Run.
►   Robert E. Lee’s “right
    arm”.
►   Responsible for many
    important Confederate
    victories.
►   Considered one of the
    most gifted tacticians in
    US History.
►   Killed by friendly fire in
    the Battle of
    Chancellorsville.
►   His death was a huge
    blow to the Confederacy,
    morally and strategically.
  William Tecumseh Sherman
► Major  General in the
  Union Army.
► Invaded Georgia
  three separate
  times…
► Broke the South’s
  spirit by burning
  Atlanta…
► Capturing
  Savannah…
► And conducting what
  he called “total war”.
     Confederate War Strategy
1. Fall back and play
   defense…
2. Convince Great
   Britain to enter the
   war on its side…
3. Try to kill so many
   Union soldiers that
   the North loses its
   will to continue
   fighting…
4. Force Lincoln to seek
   a peace agreement.
   The South planned to win the
            war by...
A.) ending slavery on its own.

B.) using its industrial advantage to crush
the North.
C.) wearing down the Union army.

D.) capturing Lincoln and his advisors.
          Union Military Strategy
1. BLOCKADE the Southern
   coastline to prevent the
   South from selling cotton
   to Europe…
2. Take control of the
   Mississippi River to
   prevent Southern access
   to the Gulf of Mexico…
3. Wage “total war” by
   destroying the South’s
   agriculture and livestock.
► This strategy, called the
  ANACONDA PLAN, was
  designed to destroy the
  South’s ability to make
  war.
The 1st Battle of Bull Run
►   Union leaders identified
    MANASSAS, Virginia as
    their first military target…
►   However, the Union Army
    was so POORLY TRAINED
    that it took them four days
    to march the 25 miles from
    DC to Manassas.
►   During which time, the
    Confederates were able to
    call in reinforcements.
►   By the time they met on
    the battle field, the two
    armies were of EQUAL
    SIZE.
    Disaster at Manassas
 About 35,000 soldiers
    clashed at Manassas…
   And early in the battle, the
    Union Army forced the
    Confederates to fall back…
   When a Confederate
    General shouted…
   “There is Jackson, standing
    like a stone wall. Rally
    around the Virginian!”
   Jackson then led a
    counterattack that forced a
    disorganized retreat…
   In which hundreds of Union
    soldiers threw down their
    rifles and ran away.
     The 1st Battle of Bull Run
           resulted in...
A.) a major victory for the Union Army.

B.) an attack on Washington, D.C. by the
Confederate Army.
C.) the realization that the Union Army was
poorly trained.
D.) the death of General Stonewall Jackson.
          Southern Victories
►   In the early stages of the
    war, the Confederates won
    EVERY MAJOR BATTLE…
►   The Confederate Army
    begins to seem
    UNBEATABLE…
►   And Confederate General
    Robert E. Lee begins to
    think the Union will soon
    seek a peace agreement.
►   In order to further break
    the Union’s will to continue
    fighting…
►   Lee developed plans to
    INVADE the north.
         The Battle of Antietam
►    General Lee hoped two things
     would result from his invasion
     of the North…
1.    Great Britain would declare
      its support for the
      Confederacy and…
2.    Abraham Lincoln would be
      forced to seek a peace deal.
►    Confederate forces entered
     Union territory in western
     Maryland…
►    And the resulting battle killed
     26,000 men…
►    In the single bloodiest day in
     US history.
►    Although the Union once again
     failed to score a victory…
►    Lee’s reputation for
     INVINCIBILITY was shaken.
The Emancipation Proclamation
 As General Lee retreated from
    Antietam, Lincoln issued the
    “Emancipation Proclamation”.
   It freed the slaves in all “areas
    of rebellion” (i.e., areas not
    under Lincoln’s control)…
   Although the Proclamation did
    not free a SINGLE SLAVE…
   It changed the definition of the
    war…
   Made it a war to END
    SLAVERY…
   And eliminated ANY chance
    that Great Britain would enter
    on the side of the Confederacy.
As a result of the Emancipation
        Proclamation...
A.) the conflict was redefined as a war to end
slavery.

B.) European nations gave support to the
Confederacy.
C.) four more states seceded from the Union.

D.) slaves were allowed to fight in the
Confederate Army.

								
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