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THE UNITED STATES’ CIVIL WAR The Election of 1860 ► Southern Democrats: John C. Breckinridge (supported the aggressive expansion of slavery). ► Northern Democrats: Stephen Douglas (supported popular sovereignty). ► Republicans: Abraham Lincoln (containment of slavery; no more expansion). ► Lincoln won without a single electoral vote in the South (39% of the vote). ► The South was outraged that a President can be elected without a single southern vote. Lincoln was able to win the election of 1860 largely because... A.) most Americans had become abolitionists. B.) free blacks in the North gave him their support. C.) the Democratic Party had split in two. D.) Douglas threw his support behind Lincoln. Secession! Secessionists argued that, since the states voluntarily joined the Union, they could also choose to leave it. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina officially seceded. In the next weeks, six other states joined them. The seven states formed the Confederate States of America. Montgomery, Alabama was chosen as the capitol. Jefferson Davis was elected President. Lincoln's election led many Southerners to believe that... A.) the South controlled the nation's government. B.) slavery was evil and should be eliminated. C.) compromise between the North and South was possible. D.) the South must secede from the Union. James Buchanan ► Lincoln was elected in November of 1860… ► But did not take office until March of 1861… ► James Buchanan—a Democrat—was still in office when South Carolina left the union. ► He claimed that the Federal government HAD NO AUTHORITY to stop the SC secession… ► And did NOTHING when they did. ► His inaction encouraged SEVEN MORE STATES to leave the union… ► Before Abraham Lincoln was able to take office. Fort Sumter, Charleston S.C. ► Ft. Sumter sits in the middle of CHARLESTON HARBOR… ► In South Carolina. ► When SC seceded, the US Army was ordered to surrender the fort immediately… ► The Army REFUSED… ► And on April 12, 1860… ► The South Carolina militia OPENED FIRE… ► The fort was shelled for 24 hours… ► And the US Army surrendered. ► These are the FIRST SHOTS of the Civil War. Effects of Fort Sumter Before Fort Sumter, most people thought the conflict would be resolved through COMPROMISE. However, the actions of South Carolina showed that COMPROMISE would not be possible. President Lincoln responded by calling for volunteers to the US Army… The Confederates saw this as an action of war against them… And four more (upper South) states left the Union and joined the Confederate States. The PRIMARY effect of the Confederate Army's attack on Ft. Sumter was... A.) the start of the Civil War. B.) another compromise between North and South. C.) the Dred Scott decision. D.) the Kansas-Nebraska Act. The Confederate States of America ► President: Jefferson Davis. ► Capitol: Montgomery, Alabama; later Richmond Virginia ► Upper-South States: Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee & Arkansas. ► Deep South States: Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina & Florida. ► National Anthem: Dixie. The Confederate States of America Strengths and Weaknesses Union Confederacy ► Had double the amount ► Seven of the nation’s of railroad track. eight military colleges were in the ► Had twice as many South (most officers factories (guns, shoes, join the etc.) Confederacy). ► Had an economy ► The South did not balanced between need to invade, just farming and industry. defend. ► Had a functioning ► The South was government. defending its home, way of life, honor, ► Had an established etc. army and navy. ► Southerners were ► Had 2/3 of the US’ better outdoorsmen, population. hunters, horsemen. Which of the following was the North's greatest ADVANTAGE in the Civil War? A.) the fact that it was fighting a defensive war. B.) the performance of its brilliant military leadership. C.) the fact that most of the US' industry was in the North. D.) the value of its huge cotton crop. MAJOR FIGURES of the US Civil War Ulysses S. Grant ► Originally in charge of Union efforts in the West… ► First Union general to recognize the huge advantage in numbers held by the North. ► And often won battles by throwing thousands of men directly into the teeth of Confederate gunfire… ► Given command of all Union forces by Abraham Lincoln in 1864. ► Later elected President of the United States. Robert E. Lee ► Was a West Point graduate, born in Virginia to an old military family. ► Opposed slavery and secession, but could not fight against his home. ► Offered command of Union forces by Abraham Lincoln; refused. ► Given command of the Confederate Army in 1862. ► Universally admired for his skill as a general… ► Often won battles in which he was hugely outnumbered. Abraham Lincoln ► Elected President of the United States in 1860. ► Very moderate on the slavery issue (wished only to prevent its spread). ► Election caused southern secession… ► Very unpopular as a President… ► Almost beaten in the election of 1864… ► Assassinated in 1865. Jefferson Davis ► US Representative from Mississippi, prior to the Civil War. ► Ardent supporter of slavery and states’ rights. ► Elected CSA President in 1860. ► Prolonged the Civil War by refusing to give up… ► Imprisoned for two years after the end of the war; later pardoned and set free. Stonewall Jackson ► Born Thomas Jackson… ► Gets nickname in the first battle of Bull Run. ► Robert E. Lee’s “right arm”. ► Responsible for many important Confederate victories. ► Considered one of the most gifted tacticians in US History. ► Killed by friendly fire in the Battle of Chancellorsville. ► His death was a huge blow to the Confederacy, morally and strategically. William Tecumseh Sherman ► Major General in the Union Army. ► Invaded Georgia three separate times… ► Broke the South’s spirit by burning Atlanta… ► Capturing Savannah… ► And conducting what he called “total war”. Confederate War Strategy 1. Fall back and play defense… 2. Convince Great Britain to enter the war on its side… 3. Try to kill so many Union soldiers that the North loses its will to continue fighting… 4. Force Lincoln to seek a peace agreement. The South planned to win the war by... A.) ending slavery on its own. B.) using its industrial advantage to crush the North. C.) wearing down the Union army. D.) capturing Lincoln and his advisors. Union Military Strategy 1. BLOCKADE the Southern coastline to prevent the South from selling cotton to Europe… 2. Take control of the Mississippi River to prevent Southern access to the Gulf of Mexico… 3. Wage “total war” by destroying the South’s agriculture and livestock. ► This strategy, called the ANACONDA PLAN, was designed to destroy the South’s ability to make war. The 1st Battle of Bull Run ► Union leaders identified MANASSAS, Virginia as their first military target… ► However, the Union Army was so POORLY TRAINED that it took them four days to march the 25 miles from DC to Manassas. ► During which time, the Confederates were able to call in reinforcements. ► By the time they met on the battle field, the two armies were of EQUAL SIZE. Disaster at Manassas About 35,000 soldiers clashed at Manassas… And early in the battle, the Union Army forced the Confederates to fall back… When a Confederate General shouted… “There is Jackson, standing like a stone wall. Rally around the Virginian!” Jackson then led a counterattack that forced a disorganized retreat… In which hundreds of Union soldiers threw down their rifles and ran away. The 1st Battle of Bull Run resulted in... A.) a major victory for the Union Army. B.) an attack on Washington, D.C. by the Confederate Army. C.) the realization that the Union Army was poorly trained. D.) the death of General Stonewall Jackson. Southern Victories ► In the early stages of the war, the Confederates won EVERY MAJOR BATTLE… ► The Confederate Army begins to seem UNBEATABLE… ► And Confederate General Robert E. Lee begins to think the Union will soon seek a peace agreement. ► In order to further break the Union’s will to continue fighting… ► Lee developed plans to INVADE the north. The Battle of Antietam ► General Lee hoped two things would result from his invasion of the North… 1. Great Britain would declare its support for the Confederacy and… 2. Abraham Lincoln would be forced to seek a peace deal. ► Confederate forces entered Union territory in western Maryland… ► And the resulting battle killed 26,000 men… ► In the single bloodiest day in US history. ► Although the Union once again failed to score a victory… ► Lee’s reputation for INVINCIBILITY was shaken. The Emancipation Proclamation As General Lee retreated from Antietam, Lincoln issued the “Emancipation Proclamation”. It freed the slaves in all “areas of rebellion” (i.e., areas not under Lincoln’s control)… Although the Proclamation did not free a SINGLE SLAVE… It changed the definition of the war… Made it a war to END SLAVERY… And eliminated ANY chance that Great Britain would enter on the side of the Confederacy. As a result of the Emancipation Proclamation... A.) the conflict was redefined as a war to end slavery. B.) European nations gave support to the Confederacy. C.) four more states seceded from the Union. D.) slaves were allowed to fight in the Confederate Army.
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