RENAISSANCE NONFICTION

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					RENAISSANCE
 NONFICTION

    QUEEN ELIZABETH
    SIR THOMAS MORE
   SIR FRANCIS BACON
PRIOR KNOWLEDGE PROMPT

 •   Complete the following sentence in as many
     ways as you can in the time allotted.
     I would support a leader who …
 Write a paragraph description of an effective leader
     for today. Include a comment if this is a
     universal description or pertinent to the United
     States alone.
 Share yours with a neighbor
    RHETORIC REVIEW

•   Define Rhetoric



•   Moving people to action; methods
    of persuasion, etc.
    RHETORICAL DEVICES

•    What rhetorical devices do you find in
     the following? What is their purpose or
     effect?
     As the highland path is shrouded in fog,
     so the future is unclear. Every turn is
     blind and every mile mysterious.
 RHETORICAL DEVICES:
Organization & Techniques
 •   Author uses the first sentence to
     present a brief analogy. The second
     sentence uses repetition of the
     word “every” for emphasis and to
     highlight characteristics in the
     analogy of the first sentence.
QUEEN ELIZABETH
   1533-1603
         INFERENCES

•   In each of the following statements from
    “Speech Before the Spanish Armada Invasion”,
    what does Elizabeth suggest about the
    responsibilities of leadership?
•   Lines 2-4 (“We have been persuaded…loving
    people.”)
•   Lines 6-10 (“I am come amongst you…even in
    the dust.”)
•   Lines 15-17 (“I know already…shall be duly paid
    you.”)
SIR THOMAS MORE


         UTOPIA
SYNTAX ANALYSIS: UTOPIA

 Choose two techniques that More uses
    in his selection.
 Write a paragraph for each explaining
    what he has used and why? For
    what purpose or effect?
SYNTAX ANALYSIS: UTOPIA

 •       Partners share           •   Imperative sentences:
         analysis and                 of, relating to, or
                                      constituting the
         discuss                      grammatical mood that
 •       Large group                  expresses the will to
         discussion                   influence the behavior
                                      or another; expressive
     –     Analogies
                                      of a command, entreaty
     –     Rhetorical Questions       or exhortation, having
     –     Imperative sentences       power to restrain,
     –     Others                     control and direct.
RHETORICAL PRECIS: UTOPIA

 •   Share precis with partner
 •   Large group sharing
INTERPRETATION: UTOPIA

1. Why does More keep referring to an
   incompetent king’s subjects as
   beggars?
2. Re-read the footnote about More’s
   allusion to the Bible. In what sense does
   his statement both clarify an idea and
   present a warning?
DRAW CONCLUSIONS: Explain
    fully using support
1. What conclusions can you draw about Elizabeth as a ruler?
2. Would Sir Thomas More have approved of her governing
     style?
3. Why would Henry VIII desire to have More as an advisor?
4. Which of the two selections conveys a greater sense of
     leadership?
5. Synthesizing the two selections write a general statement
     about a leader’s roles and responsibilities. How does
     your conclusion from the two selections compare to your
     prior knowledge “I would support…” statements and
     descriptive paragraph?
SIR FRANCIS BACON


      From Novum Organum
      “Idols of the Cave” and
         Selected Essays
PRIOR KNOWLEDGE ACTIVITY

 1.   Under each of the following headings, list at
      least two observations you have made.
      Being a teenager
      Being a student
      Being a friend
      Being a son/daughter
      Other (open-ended life observations)
         DISCUSS

“No man prospers so suddenly as by
    others’ errors.”
Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) from “Of
    Fortune”
    TERMS-Take notes!

•   ESSAY:
    Relatively brief work of nonfiction that
    offers an opinion on a subject.
    Purpose may be to express ideas or
    feelings, to inform, to entertain, or to
    persuade
    May be formal or informal
TERMS-Essay continued

• It is structure not topic that makes
  an essay formal or informal.
FORMAL ESSAY: highly structured,
  examines a topic in a thorough,
  serious, highly organized manner.
TERMS-Essay continued

INFORMAL ESSAY: presented in a less
   serious manner or less formal tone; may
   include humor, a personal or
   confidential approach, a loose and
   sometimes rambling style and often a
   surprising or unconventional topic.
    TERMS: APHORISM

APHORISM: brief statements that express general
   observations about life in a witty, pointed way;
   often, but not always, offers advice.
•  Discuss: “Knowledge is power.”
   How might one observe this in today’s world?
   Is it true?
   This does not contain advice. How might you
   reword it to include advice?
          TERMS:

INDUCTIVE REASONING: moving from
   the particular to the general.
   Observations to premise to general
   conclusion
INDUCTIVE REASONING

“Early proponents of induction, such as Francis
      Bacon, saw it as a way of understanding
      nature in an unbiased way, as it derives
      laws from neutral observation.” (bold
      emphasis added)
http://changingminds.org/disciplines/argument/types_reasoning/induction.htm
    Inductive examples

•   All sheep I have seen are white,
    therefore, all sheep are white.
•   All 10 dogs have fleas-All dogs
    have fleas
    INDUCTIVE EXAMPLES

•    All men are mortal.
•    Socrates is a man.
•    Therefore, Socrates is mortal.
            TERMS

DEDUCTIVE REASONING: general to
  specific. Start with a generally accepted
  truth.
• All turtles have shells
• The animal I have captured is a turtle
• I conclude that the animal in my bag has
  a shell
           WEAKNESSES

•   There are weaknesses to both methods
    known as inductive fallacies or deductive
    fallacies respectively.
•   For example, in the turtle shell example, the
    creature in the bag could be a snail.
•   Many great websites explain these fallacies. Check out
    changingminds.org for example
Which type of reasoning?

 – All apples are fruit.
 – All fruits grow on trees.
 – Therefore all apples grow on trees.
          TERMS

VALID GENERALIZATION: a statement,
  supported by evidence, that holds
  true in a large number of cases.
          TERMS

HASTY GENERALIZATION: a
  generalization based upon too few
  examples without taking exceptions
  or qualifying facts into account.
        ASSIGNMENT

INDIVIDUALLY:
•   Read pages 454-455 new textbook.
•   Read pages 356-359 old textbook.
•   Paraphrase each aphorism on
    pages 357-358
    WITH A PARTNER

• Compare paraphrases of the aphorisms
Then-
• Do all of page 358 (q’s 1-9)
• Do Understanding Aphorism, Reasoning,
   and Words from Latin Roots page 359.
• Large group sharing/discussion (if time
   allows)
          FOLLOW-UP

•   Choose any two from your list of advice and
    observations and write each as an aphorism.
•   Read “Of Studies” and “Of Marriage”p. 456-460.
•   Make a chart that lists the following:
•   Opinions/Aphorisms
•   Agree/Disagree
•   Based on reasoning-identify type
SAMPLE ASSIGNMENT:
    Essay Title
Opinion/ Agree or   Type of     Valid or Hasty
                                Generalization
Aphorism Disagree   reasoning   -Explain
         & Why      used
    “Of Studies” p. 456

1. In lines 24-26, what connections does
   Bacon make between certain kinds of
   books and certain character traits?
2. In lines 30-34, what kinds of study can
   improve a person’s critical thinking
   skills?
3. Which of these traits or skills seem to be
   emphasized in school today? Explain.
“Of Marriage and Single Life”

  1. Based on lines 13-18, what advice might
     Bacon offer someone who is considering
     hiring a single man? Explain.
  2. Why didn’t Bacon discuss romantic love
     in his essay?
  3. What characteristics of a formal essay
     do you observe in lines 27-29?
EVALUATE STRUCTURE

•   Choose one of the two essays.
•   Write a paragraph or two in which you evaluate
    the effectiveness of Bacon’s presentation.
•   If you find the essay smooth and logical then
    outline the essay.
•   If you find it difficult to follow then suggest a
    more effective structure-create an outline that
    reflects your changes.

				
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posted:1/31/2013
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