SIR THOMAS MORE
SIR FRANCIS BACON
PRIOR KNOWLEDGE PROMPT
• Complete the following sentence in as many
ways as you can in the time allotted.
I would support a leader who …
Write a paragraph description of an effective leader
for today. Include a comment if this is a
universal description or pertinent to the United
Share yours with a neighbor
• Define Rhetoric
• Moving people to action; methods
of persuasion, etc.
• What rhetorical devices do you find in
the following? What is their purpose or
As the highland path is shrouded in fog,
so the future is unclear. Every turn is
blind and every mile mysterious.
Organization & Techniques
• Author uses the first sentence to
present a brief analogy. The second
sentence uses repetition of the
word “every” for emphasis and to
highlight characteristics in the
analogy of the first sentence.
• In each of the following statements from
“Speech Before the Spanish Armada Invasion”,
what does Elizabeth suggest about the
responsibilities of leadership?
• Lines 2-4 (“We have been persuaded…loving
• Lines 6-10 (“I am come amongst you…even in
• Lines 15-17 (“I know already…shall be duly paid
SIR THOMAS MORE
SYNTAX ANALYSIS: UTOPIA
Choose two techniques that More uses
in his selection.
Write a paragraph for each explaining
what he has used and why? For
what purpose or effect?
SYNTAX ANALYSIS: UTOPIA
• Partners share • Imperative sentences:
analysis and of, relating to, or
discuss grammatical mood that
• Large group expresses the will to
discussion influence the behavior
or another; expressive
of a command, entreaty
– Rhetorical Questions or exhortation, having
– Imperative sentences power to restrain,
– Others control and direct.
RHETORICAL PRECIS: UTOPIA
• Share precis with partner
• Large group sharing
1. Why does More keep referring to an
incompetent king’s subjects as
2. Re-read the footnote about More’s
allusion to the Bible. In what sense does
his statement both clarify an idea and
present a warning?
DRAW CONCLUSIONS: Explain
fully using support
1. What conclusions can you draw about Elizabeth as a ruler?
2. Would Sir Thomas More have approved of her governing
3. Why would Henry VIII desire to have More as an advisor?
4. Which of the two selections conveys a greater sense of
5. Synthesizing the two selections write a general statement
about a leader’s roles and responsibilities. How does
your conclusion from the two selections compare to your
prior knowledge “I would support…” statements and
SIR FRANCIS BACON
From Novum Organum
“Idols of the Cave” and
PRIOR KNOWLEDGE ACTIVITY
1. Under each of the following headings, list at
least two observations you have made.
Being a teenager
Being a student
Being a friend
Being a son/daughter
Other (open-ended life observations)
“No man prospers so suddenly as by
Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) from “Of
Relatively brief work of nonfiction that
offers an opinion on a subject.
Purpose may be to express ideas or
feelings, to inform, to entertain, or to
May be formal or informal
• It is structure not topic that makes
an essay formal or informal.
FORMAL ESSAY: highly structured,
examines a topic in a thorough,
serious, highly organized manner.
INFORMAL ESSAY: presented in a less
serious manner or less formal tone; may
include humor, a personal or
confidential approach, a loose and
sometimes rambling style and often a
surprising or unconventional topic.
APHORISM: brief statements that express general
observations about life in a witty, pointed way;
often, but not always, offers advice.
• Discuss: “Knowledge is power.”
How might one observe this in today’s world?
Is it true?
This does not contain advice. How might you
reword it to include advice?
INDUCTIVE REASONING: moving from
the particular to the general.
Observations to premise to general
“Early proponents of induction, such as Francis
Bacon, saw it as a way of understanding
nature in an unbiased way, as it derives
laws from neutral observation.” (bold
• All sheep I have seen are white,
therefore, all sheep are white.
• All 10 dogs have fleas-All dogs
• All men are mortal.
• Socrates is a man.
• Therefore, Socrates is mortal.
DEDUCTIVE REASONING: general to
specific. Start with a generally accepted
• All turtles have shells
• The animal I have captured is a turtle
• I conclude that the animal in my bag has
• There are weaknesses to both methods
known as inductive fallacies or deductive
• For example, in the turtle shell example, the
creature in the bag could be a snail.
• Many great websites explain these fallacies. Check out
changingminds.org for example
Which type of reasoning?
– All apples are fruit.
– All fruits grow on trees.
– Therefore all apples grow on trees.
VALID GENERALIZATION: a statement,
supported by evidence, that holds
true in a large number of cases.
HASTY GENERALIZATION: a
generalization based upon too few
examples without taking exceptions
or qualifying facts into account.
• Read pages 454-455 new textbook.
• Read pages 356-359 old textbook.
• Paraphrase each aphorism on
WITH A PARTNER
• Compare paraphrases of the aphorisms
• Do all of page 358 (q’s 1-9)
• Do Understanding Aphorism, Reasoning,
and Words from Latin Roots page 359.
• Large group sharing/discussion (if time
• Choose any two from your list of advice and
observations and write each as an aphorism.
• Read “Of Studies” and “Of Marriage”p. 456-460.
• Make a chart that lists the following:
• Based on reasoning-identify type
Opinion/ Agree or Type of Valid or Hasty
Aphorism Disagree reasoning -Explain
& Why used
“Of Studies” p. 456
1. In lines 24-26, what connections does
Bacon make between certain kinds of
books and certain character traits?
2. In lines 30-34, what kinds of study can
improve a person’s critical thinking
3. Which of these traits or skills seem to be
emphasized in school today? Explain.
“Of Marriage and Single Life”
1. Based on lines 13-18, what advice might
Bacon offer someone who is considering
hiring a single man? Explain.
2. Why didn’t Bacon discuss romantic love
in his essay?
3. What characteristics of a formal essay
do you observe in lines 27-29?
• Choose one of the two essays.
• Write a paragraph or two in which you evaluate
the effectiveness of Bacon’s presentation.
• If you find the essay smooth and logical then
outline the essay.
• If you find it difficult to follow then suggest a
more effective structure-create an outline that
reflects your changes.