Mesopotamia ALDWN by u841Zr7

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									MESOPOTAMIA
        messy potatoes


         ALDWN
  A lively discussion with notes 
   Mesopotamia ALDWN
4 Cradles of Civilization:
          birth and infancy of civilization



__ Mesopotamia __
___ Indus River ___
___ Yellow River ___
__ Great Rift Valley (Nile) __
         Mesopotamia ALDWN
I. Mesopotamia: meaning: “__ land between two rivers __”
   A. geography of area: __ river __ __ civilization
       1. __Tigris___ & __Euphrates__ Rivers
               (provides everything needed)
           a. __ unpredictable ___ floods: depended on
               weather patterns in ___ Taurus ___ & Pontic
               Mountain regions
           b. no natural __ barriers __ : flat, open river bed
               (no protection from enemies) … solution?
                       build citadels: ___walled____
      ___cities____
           c. limited ___natural___ ___resources___ : used
               fertile & soil clay (for __bricks___ &
               __writing__ ___tablets__) smartly
Mesopotamia ALDWN
2. ____ agricultural _____ foundation:
     a. ___ domestication ___ of animals
     b. ____ cultivation ____ of crops
     c. allows for economic _ specialization _
     d. food such as _ grain _ & _ fruit _
     e. other valuable crops such as flax
          for making __ linen __ (cloth)
     f. excesses or _ surplus _ (of crops)
         led to trade with other groups &
         development of their _economy _
            (barter system)
    Mesopotamia ALDWN
B. creation of city-states: _ self-governing cities
         & surrounding land__
     1. became foundation of _ government _ &
         security
    2. inside the walls
         a. poor living conditions such as
        __ sanitation __, _ disease _
              & overcrowding
        b. bazaars: __ marketplace __
              for ___trading___ goods/services
        c. ___ziggurat___ : center of city-state
              & religion
     Mesopotamia ALDWN
C. daily life
    1. religion
          a. __ polytheism __: belief in many gods

          b. gods in a hierarchy: order of _importance_


   2. social classes mirrored ___ religion ___
         and were based on ___ family ___,
         wealth, education & _ occupation _
Mesopotamia ALDWN
     GODS

            kings, priests, scribes



                     soldiers, merchants,
                          workers, farmers


                                slaves
     Mesopotamia ALDWN
      3. society very patriarchal or_male-dominated _
      4. __warfare__ will lead to the downfall
          of Sumer & others
D. newcomers contribute to Mesopotamian civilization
(Remember… invasion does NOT always have a negative impact on society.)

       1. Hittites: _ invaders _ from the _north_
          a. introduced ____chariots____ to
              Mesopotamian kingdoms
          b. brought ___iron___ ___tools___ such
              as hammers & axes
 Mesopotamia ALDWN
2. Phoenicians: ___traders____ from
    what is now ___Lebanon____
      a. ____seafaring____ ___skills__
          such as fishing & ship building
      b. cartography: art of _mapmaking_
      c. ___alphabet_ of 22 characters
          based on ____sounds_____ 
          phonics!
      d. great wealth & trade from
          ___purple_____ __dye___
          (color of royalty)
 Mesopotamia ALDWN
3. Babylonians: _ nomads _ from _ Babylon _
      a. Hammurabi: __ great king __; ruled
          from 1800 BCE to 1750 BCE
             1) involved with _ daily _ _ events _
                 of people & city
             2) made himself _ visible _ & real
      b. Code of Hammurabi: _set of 282 laws_
             1) everyone is ___equal___ in the
               eyes of the law
            2) placed in public on a ___pillar___
               so all would remember
 Mesopotamia ALDWN
4. Hebrews form first “religion of history”
     a. monotheism: __ belief in 1 god __
         as foundation
     b. “_ people _ _ of _ _ the _ _book_”
         such as _ Abraham _ & _ Moses _
         create the history & serve as the
         roots for ___ Christianity ___ &
         600 years later, ___ Islam ___
     c. creating of the kingdom of _ Israel _
         allows Judaism to grow and
         strengthen…especially under 2 able
         kings __ Solomon __ & __ David __
    Mesopotamia ALDWN
E. legacy: (what a civilization leaves behind for
  others to use) of Mesopotamia
    1. agricultural advances such as _ irrigation _
    2. inventions/skills such as _ wheel_, _ music_,
         __ art__, ___ astronomy___ and
         __mathematics__
    3. writing & record keeping in cuneiform:
         __ wedge-shaped writing __
    4. law: __Code__ _of_ __Hammurabi___ made
        everyone equal in the eyes of the law
    5. _____monotheistic_____ religion
         (western world founded on basis of
         __ Judeo __-___ Christian ___ tradition)
               Egypt ALDWN
I Egypt
  A. Geography
     1. Nile River
        a. predictable _ floods _ (called inundation)
            _3_ (#) months out of each year; their
            __calendar__ was based on this event
        b. Herodotus (Greek historian) called Egypt
            the “__gift__ of the _Nile_” because
            __ everything Egypt needed came from
            the river (ex: papyrus, water, fish,
            transportation __
        c. river was worshipped as __ provider__ of
            everything
       Egypt ALDWN
2. natural barriers prevented _invasion_
   from outsiders; therefore, allowed
   for a stable ___ government ___ &
   ____ economic ____ specialization
   for 3000 years
     a. the __ Sahara __ Desert
     b. ___cataracts___: natural
         impassable areas in the river
     c. ___ Mediterranean ___ and
         ___ Red ___ Seas
        Egypt ALDWN
3. __agricultural__ foundation of Egypt’s
    civilization
       a. basis of Egypt’s__ economy __
           providing survival
       b. Nile provided ___silt__: mineral
            rich soil (clay) for farming and
            __irrigation__ developed for
            watering dry land
       c. allowed for ___trade___ due to
            __surplus__ of crops
         (ex: __ flax (linen) __ __ papyrus ___ ___ grain ___)
      d. economic ___ specialization ____
        developed
           Egypt ALDWN
B. civilization & society
    1. society was based on hierarchy:
        ___ order of importance ___
    2. ____pyramid_____ was the symbol of
         Egypt’s civilization
           a. shape reflected the ___ rays ___
              of the ___ sun ___ or a
              “stairway to _ heaven _” for
              their Ka: _ spirit double (soul) _
           b. built as a ___ temple ___ or
              ____ burial ___ place
                  Egypt ALDWN
       Pharaoh & family

                                           priests, military, scribes


Craftsmen/artisans




                                                   slaves /peasants

Note: as occupations move down in importance, there are more people
      Egypt ALDWN
3. believed ___ pharaohs ___ were
    god-kings (living gods on earth)
     a. monarchy: rule by _ 1 _ (#)
     b. rulers descended from a
        given dynasty: __ line of
        rulers from the same
        family/blood line __
       Egypt ALDWN
4. religion
    a. polytheistic: __worship__ of
       ___ many ___ gods
    b. based on mythology: __ collection of
       stories passed from generation to
       generation; 1st orally, then written _
             1) used to explain __WHY__
                 things that occurred in
                 _ nature _ happened that
              people could not explain easily
           2) or, to teach a _moral/lesson _
             Egypt ALDWN
B. 3 Kingdoms (3 main time periods in Egyptian history)
    ___ Narmer ___ (also called Menes) united
    Upper & Lower Egypt
        1. Old Kingdom: known as the “Age of
            ____ Pyramids ____”
                a. Imhotep (Djozer): designed step
                   ___ pyramid ___ of Saqqara
                b. Khufu (Cheops): “the Great
                    _ Pyramid _ at _ Giza _,”
                    (known as 1 of the Great ___Wonders___ of the World)

                 c. Sphinx: _ lion-headed colossi _
Egypt ALDWN
 d. period ends due to weakening of
     power & climate changes
       l) irregular _ flooding _ of Nile
       2) periods of _ drought _ and
            ___ famine ___
 e. pharaoh’s power diminishes with
    lack of __ surplus __ to sell/
    ___ trade ___ for needed goods
 f. people believed ___ gods ___
    were angry with __ pharaoh __
        Egypt ALDWN

2. Middle Kingdom: known as the “Age of the
   __ Common __ Man”
      a. order restored; prosperity returned
          through __trade__
      b. established public works: _city services_;
         improved _____irrigation______ & canals
      c. series of __ invasions __ from the east:
         Hyksos:_invading forces from the north_
           1) brought superior _ bronze _ weapons
           2) arrived on ___chariot (whoa!)___
              (invention of the wheel!)
           3) Egyptians learn much from these
              new people
         Egypt ALDWN
3. New Kingdom: known as the “Age of ___ Empire ___;”
     a. moved capital from ___ Memphis ___ to
         ___ Thebes ___
     b. elaborate __ tomb __ construction replaces
         __ pyramids __
         in the “____ Valley ____ of the ___ Kings ___”
     c. great pharaohs of the New Kingdom
          1) ___ Hatshepsut ___: 1st female pharaoh
          2) Thutmose III: called “_Napoleon_ of Egypt”
          3) Akhenaten: the “____ heretic ____ king”
          4) Tutankhamen: the “ ___ boy ___ king”
          5) Seti I: _great builder; groomed Ramses II_
          6)Ramses II: ”the great;” builder of colossi_
               Egypt ALDWN
VI. from pyramids to the Valley of the Kings
    A. the pyramid, as a burial site, called attention to
      itself
   B. consequences of
        1. _ pillage / plunder (robbing) _ of tombs for:
              a. precious stones & gold
              b. oils & unguents: _ valuable lotions; often
                   stolen 1st _
              c. other possessions necessary for the
                  afterlife
         2. too many times, _ tomb _ & _ mummy _ were
          violated
         Egypt ALDWN
C. led to final “resting place” of the
    pharaohs being moved (by Amenhotep I)
      l. to the west bank of the _ Nile _
          _ River _ because that is
        _ where the “dying” sun went
        each night to be reborn each day _
     2. opposite of the ancient capitols
        of _ Karnak _ & _ Luxor/Thebes_
            Egypt ALDWN
VII. famous pharaohs (__ kings __ ) reign
  during the New Kingdom
     A. _ 3000 _ + years of rule by Egyptian
            kings (new kingdom = last chapter)
      B. __ 33 __ (#) dynasties
      C. intermarriage through the centuries
          ledto: _ physical _ & _ mental _
          abnormalities, premature _ death _,
          birth ___ defects ___, & individual
          dynasties dying out
           Egypt ALDWN
D. 4 of the more famous pharaohs reigned
    during the New Kingdom
     l. Queen Hatshepsut (daughter of Thutmose I)
        a. __ woman __ who ruled as a _ man _
           in place of her step-son; wore nemes:
          _striped headdress_ & ceremonial beard
        b. repaired temples & built obelisks: 4
             sided needle-like structures
        c. 20 year reign; time of _ peace _ &
              prosperous _ trade _
         Egypt ALDWN
2. Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) “the
   ___ heretic ___ king”
      a. changed religion to monotheism:
          __ worship of 1 god __
      b. worshipped Aten: __ sun god __
      c. thought to have been a hydrocephalic:
          _ H2O on the brain _
      d. married to Nefertiti: __ most beautiful
          of Egyptian queens __
      e. most hated of pharaohs ~ images
          chiseled off walls after his death by
          priests & generals; name was lost
          through centuries
      Egypt ALDWN
3. Tutankhamen “_ the boy king _”
     a. son of Akhenaten & Queen Ty
     b. married & ascended to
         throne at _ 9_; reigned only
         _ 9_ years
     c. restored religion to polytheism:
               _ worship of many gods _
     d. ruled in time of economic
        prosperity but _ religious _
        disorder
 Egypt ALDWN
e. was probably closely counseled by
      his __advisor__, Ay & his
      __general__ Horemheb (later,
      we think, co-conspirators in
      Tut’s death)
f. significance of finding his tomb:
      the only time in archeological
      history that a tomb has been
      found ___intact____ &
      virtually __undisturbed__; tells
      little about Tut’s own life, but
      much about everyday Egyptian
      royal life
       Egypt ALDWN
4. Ramses II “___the Great___”
     a. greatest _ (ram) stone
          monument _ builder (to himself)
            1) Abu Simbel
            2) colossi: ( _colossal statues
                of himself_) at Memnon
     b. reigned as pharaoh for over _ 60_
          years
     c. produced over _200_ (#) children,
         by __90 __ (#) + wives and lived
         __ 90 __ (#) + years
             Egypt ALDWN
VIII. the decline & fall of the Egyptian Empire
     A. _ warfare _: too __ expensive __ & took
        too long
           l. decrease in __ population __ due to
               __ casualties __ of war
           2. too focused on _ military _ efforts
           3. loss of __ land __ & country’s
               ___ resources ___
           4. ran out of mercenaries: ___ paid
               soldiers for hire ___
       Egypt ALDWN
B. failure of its natural ___ barriers ___
      l. Red Sea & __ Nile __ River, itself,
          were now used for_ transportation_
          & ___ exploration___
      2. desert “conquered by” the use of
          ___ chariots ___
C. stronger ___invaders / enemies___ from
    other countries
      l. new ___ ideas ___ spread new
          ___ technology ___
      2. great ____ resources _____ lure
          others to conquer
           Egypt ALDWN
   3. Alexander the Great
         a. from _ Macedonia; son Phillip II _
         b. strategist: _ led military campaigns
              at l5-l6 yrs of age _
         c. strong ___ manager ___ of all
              aspects of his empire
   4. Roman Empire
         a. ___ from Rome came a supreme
              military force ___
         b. Julius Caesar: __ great military
                     general ___
D. weaker pharaohs due to __ inbreeding __
           Egypt ALDWN
IX. Legacies of Egypt
    A. written records left in hieroglyphics:
        _ alphabet of 3000 symbols _
          l. the word “scribe”: __ educated
               individuals who wrote __
          2. ___ papyrus ___ paper from
               Nile River reeds
    B. Arabic __ number __ system: had
          _ 0 _ (#) as a place value as well
          as new type of math: _ algebra _
         Egypt ALDWN
C. ___ calendar ___: solar-based
   on__ 365 __ (#) days

D. __ geometry __: advancements due
   to construction & land surveying &
   creation of “pi” __ 3.14 __ (# value)

E. ___ medicine ___ due to embalming
   by priests; included magic

								
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