The Human Body Bones: All the bones in your body make up the skeletal system. Five major functions; 1. Gives shape and support to the body 2. Protect the internal organs 3. Major muscles are attached to bone 4. Blood cells are formed in the red marrow of the bone 5. Stores calcium and phosphorous compounds, which make the bones hard. Why aren’t bones smooth? Muscles and ligaments attach to the bumps and pits of bones. Blood vessels go into and out of the holes. Nerves also go into and out of bone. Periosteum: a tough, tight-fitting membrane that covers the surface of the bone. Compact Bones: hard, strong layer of bone. They contain blood cells, vessels, and compounds to keep the bone from becoming fragile. Spongy Bones: found at the end of long bones. Marrow: fatty tissue in the spaces of spongy bone in long bones. Produces red and white blood cells. Cartilage: thick, smooth layers of tissue. Does not contain blood vessels. Flexible and found at joints for reducing friction. Joint: any place where two or more bones meet. Ligament: tough band of tissues that holds the bones together at the joints. Immovable joint: allows little or no movement. Found in the joints of the skull and pelvis. Movable joint: allows the body to make a large range of movements. Hinge joint: allows back and forth movement. Found in elbows, knees and fingers. Ball and socket joint: one bone has a rounded end that fits into a cuplike cavity on another bone. Found in hips and shoulders. Gliding Joint: move in back and forth motion. Found in your wrists and ankles. Pivot joint: one bone rotates in a ring of another stationary bone. Found in neck. An organ that that contracts and gets shorter is a muscle. How many muscles do we have in our bodies? 600!! Voluntary muscles: muscles that you are able to control. Biceps, triceps, quads, calf muscles. Involuntary muscles: muscles that you cannot control. Your heart muscles and the muscles throughout your digestive tract. There are three types of muscle tissue. Skeletal: muscles that move the bones. They are attached to the bones by tendons (thick bands of tissue.) Most of our muscles are skeletal. They are voluntary. Smooth: involuntary muscles that move many internal organs. Examples are your blood vessels, intestines and bladder. Cardiac: found only in the heart. Involuntary. It contracts about 70 times per minute. Skeletal muscles work from two different muscles working together. When one muscle contracts, the other one relaxes. Example: When your biceps contracts (flexes), your triceps relax. When your triceps contract, your biceps relax. Muscles pull not push. Whenever you move your muscles, they are using energy. What kind of energy do they use and in what form? Chemical energy in the form of glucose! How are muscles using the energy? Chemical energy changes to mechanical energy when the muscles contracts. This happens when the bonds of the glucose are broken. Skin: Skin is the largest organ in the human body. Skin is made up of two layers. Epidermis: surface layer of the skin. Cells on the top are dead. New cells are constantly produced through mitosis. Melanin: the pigment that gives your skin its color. The more that you have, the darker skin you will have. It increases when you are in the sun. That is why you tan! It is found in the cells of the epidermis. Dermis: layer of tissue under the epidermis. It is thicker. It contains blood vessels and nerves. Also has oil and sweat glands. The skin performs many different jobs!! 1. Protection: prevents physical and chemical injury. Also keeps out diseases. Also prevents too much water loss. 2. Sensory response: have nerves that tell the body about temperature, pressure and pain. 3. Formation of Vitamin D: It is very important for your health. Produces vitamin D when it is exposed to sunlight. It is needed for your body to obsorb calcium. 4. Regulation of body temperature: sweat glands are used to help cool off the body. Sweat is secreted through the pores in the skin. This in turn cools off the skin, which also cools off the blood in the skin, which then cools off the blood in the body! 5. Excretion of wastes: sweat glands also release water, salt and urea (protein product). When you get a cut or you scrap your knee, you are cutting into the epidermis, which is very thin. But…if you injury a large amount of your skin, you could die. Why is this? If a large amount of the epidermis is burned or scraped away, there will not be any cells left to divide and replace the missing cells. Makes the body vulnerable to disease and bacteria. Nutrients: Nutrients: substances in foods that provide energy and materials for cell development, growth and repair. There are six kinds of nutrients that are in food. They are: 1. Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the body. Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Types of carbohydrates: sugar (table sugar, honey and fruits), starch and cellulose (complex carbohydrates). Starch is found in potatoes, pasta and whole grains. Cellulose is found in plant cell walls. 2. Proteins are used for growth. They can come in the form of enzymes, which change the rate of a chemical reaction. They help repair cells. Made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen atoms. Made of amino acids (building blocks of proteins). 3. Essential Amino Acids are the amino acids that your body cannot make on its own. You have to eat them. They are needed for your cells to make specific proteins. You can get them from eggs, milk and cheese. You can also get them from beef, fish and some whole grains. Fats are needed for energy and also to help the body to absorb vitamins. Releases a lot more energy than carbohydrates. Types of fats: Unsaturated: come from plants and are liquid at room temperature. All of your oils (olive oil, corn oil, vegetable oil). Saturated: found in red meat, butter and cheese. Solid at room temperature. 5. Vitamins: essential organic nutrients needed in small quantities to help your body use other nutrients. They promote growth and regulate body function. 6. Minerals: inorganic materials that regulate many chemical reactions in your body. Examples are calcium and phospherous. Water: very important for survival. You could only go a few days without water. Food Groups: foods that contain the same nutrients. Digestion: Humans are considered consumers. This is because we eat our food to get energy. There are four phases in which your body processes food. Ingestion Digestion Absorption Elimination Digestion is the process that breaks down food into small molecules so they can move into the blood. What happens to the food after it is digested? It goes into the cells of the body. What are the major organs of the digestive tract? Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus. What are the three organs that secrete enzymes? Liver, pancreas and gall bladder Enzymes: Proteins that speed up or slow down chemical reactions in the body. Mechanical Digestion: begins in the mouth. Your tongue and teeth break down the food into smaller pieces. Chemical Digestion: This is when chemicals are added to the food to break it down even more. Your saliva starts the process. What happens in your mouth? Your teeth and tongue break down the food mechanically. Your saliva breaks down the food chemically. What happens in your esophagus? The muscles in the esophagus move the food down it through actions called peristalsis. In your stomach? Food is mixed by the muscle walls of the stomach (mechanical digestion). The food is mixed with digestive juices such as hydrochloric acid and enzymes. When it is done churning…the liquid that was once your food is now called chyme. In your small intestine? First off it is 4- 7m in length. Bile is added to the chyme. This breaks down the particles even farther. Food particles are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine. Villa (tiny, fingerlike projections), which help with absorption. In your large intestine? Water absorption happens here. Chyme is still liquidy and the large intestines job is to get all the water out. How do bacteria play a role? Bacteria feed on the cellulose that is left in the chyme (in the large intestines). Respiration: Humans need air to breathe. More specifically they need oxygen to live. You breathe in oxygen and then your blood takes the oxygen from your lungs through the blood to all the cells of the body. The oxygen is used to make energy when combined with glucose. Equation for respiration: 6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O +energy There are many organs that are used to bring in oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide. List these organs: mouth, nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and lungs. What is the pharynx and what is its job? Tube-like path for food and air. You will find the epiglottis here (flat of tissue that covers the trachea when you eat or drink but opens when you breath). What is the Larynx and what is its job? Spot on top of the trachea where the vocal cords are. Sound is produced when air passes through it. The air causes the vocal cords to vibrate. What is the trachea and what is its job? Cartilage reinforced tube that carries air to the bronchi. The cartilage forms c shaped rings all the way down the trachea. Cilia lines it to catch dust, pollen and bacteria. What are bronchi and what are their jobs? Two short branches that carry air to the lungs. Break up into smaller and smaller tubes called bronchioles when they get into the lungs. What are the lungs and what are their jobs? When the air reaches the lungs, at the ends of the bronchioles, there are thin walled sacs called alveoli. They are surrounded by capillaries. This is where the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen takes place. What is a diaphragm? A muscle beneath your lungs that helps to move air in and out of your body. How do you inhale and exhale? The diaphragm contracts and relaxes as your breathe. When you inhale your diaphragm moves down and contracts to open up your lungs for air to enter. When you exhale the diaphragm relaxes and moves up pushing the air out. Excretion: Your body eliminates wastes everyday. You eliminate waste through your excretory system. You eliminate carbon dioxide through your circulatory and respiratory systems. You eliminate salt through your skin (sweat). All of these make up parts of your excretory system. Urinary system: another system in the excretory system. Get rid of wastes out of the blood that results from the metabolism of nutrients. It also controls blood volume by getting rid of excess water that is produced in the cells. There are some important organs in the urinary system. One organ is the kidney: filter blood that has collect wastes. All of your blood goes through your kidneys. They contain nephrons and produce urine. Have nephrons: the filtering unit of the kidneys. It is surrounded by capillaries. Collects water, sugar, salt and wastes from the blood and sends it to a tube where it collects and then moves to the ureter to be eliminated. Produce urine: the waste liquid that is made up of water, sugar, salt and other wastes that the body does not need. Ureters: tubes that move urine from each kidney to the bladder. Bladder: muscular organ that holds urine until it leaves the body through the urethra. Nervous System: The nervous system helps your body adjust to changes inside and out of the body. A stimulus is: any change inside or out of the body that causes a response. What are some things the nervous system helps to control? Breathing rate, heartbeat rate, digestion are checked and regulated all the time with help from the endocrine system. Neuron: the nerve cell which is the working unit of the nervous system. They carry the messages, which are also called impulses. Dendrites: receive the messages and send them on to the cell body. Axon: carries messages away from the cell body. Sensory Neurons: receive information and send impulses to the brain and spinal cord. Interneurons: in the brain or spinal cord, they relay the impulse from the sensory neurons to the motor neurons. There are more interneurons than there are any other neuron. Motor Neurons: take the impulses from the brain or spinal cord and sends the message to the muscles or glands throughout the body. Synapse: the small space in between neurons in which an impulse needs to pass through. Central nervous system: This is the brain and the spinal cord. Controls all the body’s activities. Peripheral nervous system: this is all the nerves throughout the body Cerebrum: largest part of the brain, divided into two hemispheres. Messages from the senses are interpreted here. Memories are store here and it controls voluntary muscle movements. Cerebellum: behind and under the cerebrum. Coordinates voluntary muscles movements. Helps to keep your muscles toned. It helps you to keep your balance. Brain Stem: connects the brain and the spinal cord. Control involuntary muscles (heartbeat, breathing, etc.) Describe the spinal cord: made of bundles of neurons that carry impulses to and from the brain. It’s a big around as an adult thumb. Protected by the skull, the vertebrae of the spine and three membrane layers. There is spinal fluid that also surrounds it. Reflexes: involuntary and automatic response to a stimulus. You cannot control them. Circulatory system: We need a continuous supply of oxygen and nutrients and we need to remove wastes from our body’s cells. The circulatory system does this for us. Cardio means heart and vascular means vessal. Our circulatory system is considered closed meaning that the blood is carried around the body in vessels. It moves oxygen and nurtients to the cells and carbon dioxide and wastes away from the cells. Describe the heart: made of cardiac muscle. It is located between the lungs. It has 2 upper chambers and two lower chambers. The upper chamber are called atria and the bottom two are called ventricles. The atria and the ventricles are separated by valves and then the two atria and two ventricles are separated from each other by a wall. Pulmonary circulation: the flow of blood through the heart, to the lungs and back to the heart. The blood goes into the right atrium then to the right ventricle, then moves through the pulmonary artery to the lungs where it drops off carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen. The blood then moves through the pulmonary vein back to the heart and enters the left atrium Systemic circulation: moves oxygenated blood to all the part of the body except the heart and the lungs, and take carbon dioxide from the body and returns it to the heart. Coronary Circulation: flow of blood to the tissue of the heart. There are two types of blood vessels. They are arteries and veins. Arteries: Take blood AWAY from the heart to all the part of the body. Most of the time they carry oxygenated blood. The only one that does not carry oxygen is the pulmonary artery. This has carbon dioxide in it that it is taking to the lungs. Veins: Carry blood TO the heart. All carry deoxygenated blood from the body to the heart except for the pulmonary vein which takes oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the heart. Capillaries: microscopic vessels that connect arteries to veins. This where nutrients and oxygen pass through to the tissues of the body and where carbon dioxide and wastes pass from the tissues of the body to the blood. What is blood? The liquid of life!! Blood has some important functions: 1.Blood carries oxygen from the lungs to all the part of the body 2.Take waste products from the cells to the kidneys 3.Transports nutrients from the digestive system to the body 4.Have things in it to help fight infection and heal wounds. Plasma: the liquid part of the blood that is mostly made of water. Nutrients and oxygen are dissolved in the plasma. Hemoglobin: chemical that carries oxygen and carbon dioxide. Red Blood cells: disc shaped cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to all the parts of the body and carry carbon dioxide from the parts of the body back to the lungs. They live about 120 days. The bone marrow makes about 2 million in one second. White Blood Cells: there are only about 5000 to 10000 of them in your body. They fight off bacteria, viruses and anything else that does not belong in your body. When you get an infection, the amount of white blood cells go up in your body. Platelets: irregularly shaped cell fragments that help in the clotting of the blood. Their life span is about 5 to nine days. What are disease causing organisms? Pathogens What is the immune system? • Your first and second line of defense to protect your body from pathogens. What is your first line of defense? • External: Skin…we said this in the skin section!! • Internal: Your respiratory, digestive and circulatory system. What are antigens? • Molecules that are foreign to your body. • Example: membrane around bacteria is made of protein and that protein is seen as an antigen. What is an antibody? • Protein made in response to a specific antigen. It attaches to the antigen and makes it not work anymore. What are the different types of antibodies and what do they do? • Killer T: captures and destroys the antigen. • Memory B Cell: Remembers specific antigens so that it can kill them if they reenter the body. What is the difference between active and passive immunity. • Active: your body • Passive: antibodies are makes its own produced in another antibodies to get rid of animal and then are antigens introduced to your body. Active Passive What is a vaccination? • Process of giving a vaccine by injection or by mouth or nose. Reproduction System: This system helps continue life on Earth. Humans and other organisms on Earth, go through sexual reproduction to transfer genetic material from generation to generation to generation. So now we have to talk about the different reproductive systems. Male Reproductive system Testes: male organ that produces sperm and testosterone. Sperm: Sex cell formed in the male reproductive organ (testes) Semen: Mixture of sperm and a fluid that helps sperm move and supplies them with an energy source. Female Reproductive system: Ovaries: Female reproductive organ which produces eggs in the lower part of the body. Ovulation: Monthly process in which an egg is released from the ovary and enters the oviduct, where it can become fertilized by sperm. Uterus: in female humans, hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ where a fertilized egg develops into a baby Menstrual Cycle: Hormone controlled monthly cycle of changes in the female reproductive system that includes the maturation of an egg and preparation of the uterus for possible pregnancy. What is menopause? When a woman stop her monthly cycle, Her ovary stops releasing eggs and she stops her menstration cycle. Growth: Explain fertilization: Sperm travel into the female through the birth canal into the uterus, into the oviducts finds the released egg and fertilizes it. When the egg and sperm meet, it becomes a zygote. An unborn child is called this the first two months of pregnancy…Fetus How does the embryo get nutrients? Through the placenta through the umbilical cord.
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