The Human Body by A29EmHu8


									The Human Body
All the bones in your body make
up the skeletal system.
Five major functions;
     1. Gives shape and support to the
     2. Protect the internal organs
     3. Major muscles are attached to
     4. Blood cells are formed in the red
marrow of the bone
     5. Stores calcium and phosphorous
compounds, which make the bones hard.
Why aren’t bones smooth?
Muscles and ligaments attach to
the bumps and pits of bones.
Blood vessels go into and out of
the holes. Nerves also go into and
out of bone.
Periosteum: a tough, tight-fitting
membrane that covers the surface
of the bone.
Compact Bones: hard, strong layer
of bone. They contain blood cells,
vessels, and compounds to keep
the bone from becoming fragile.
Spongy Bones: found at the end of
long bones.
Marrow: fatty tissue in the spaces
of spongy bone in long bones.
Produces red and white blood
Cartilage: thick, smooth layers of
tissue. Does not contain blood
vessels. Flexible and found at
joints for reducing friction.
Joint: any place where two or
more bones meet.
Ligament: tough band of tissues
that holds the bones together at
the joints.
Immovable joint: allows little or no
movement. Found in the joints of
the skull and pelvis.
Movable joint: allows the body to
make a large range of movements.
Hinge joint: allows back and forth
movement. Found in elbows,
knees and fingers.
Ball and socket joint: one bone has
a rounded end that fits into a
cuplike cavity on another bone.
Found in hips and shoulders.
Gliding Joint: move in back and
forth motion. Found in your wrists
and ankles.
Pivot joint: one bone rotates in a
ring of another stationary bone.
Found in neck.
An organ that that contracts and gets
shorter is a muscle. How many muscles do
we have in our bodies? 600!!
Voluntary muscles: muscles that
you are able to control. Biceps,
triceps, quads, calf muscles.
Involuntary muscles: muscles that
you cannot control. Your heart
muscles and the muscles
throughout your digestive tract.
There are three types of muscle tissue.
Skeletal: muscles that move the bones.
They are attached to the bones by tendons
(thick bands of tissue.) Most of our
muscles are skeletal. They are voluntary.
Smooth: involuntary muscles that
move many internal organs. Examples
are your blood vessels, intestines and
Cardiac: found only in the heart.
Involuntary. It contracts about 70
times per minute.
Skeletal muscles work from two
different muscles working together.
When one muscle contracts, the other
one relaxes.
Example: When your biceps contracts
(flexes), your triceps relax. When your
triceps contract, your biceps relax.
Muscles pull not push. Whenever
you move your muscles, they are
using energy. What kind of energy
do they use and in what form?
Chemical energy in the form of
How are muscles using the
energy? Chemical energy changes
to mechanical energy when the
muscles contracts. This happens
when the bonds of the glucose are
Skin is the largest organ in the human body.
Skin is made up of two layers.
Epidermis: surface layer of the skin. Cells
on the top are dead. New cells are
constantly produced through mitosis.
Melanin: the pigment that gives
your skin its color. The more that
you have, the darker skin you will
have. It increases when you are in
the sun. That is why you tan! It is
found in the cells of the epidermis.
Dermis: layer of tissue under the
epidermis. It is thicker. It contains
blood vessels and nerves. Also has
oil and sweat glands.
The skin performs many different
1. Protection: prevents physical and
chemical injury. Also keeps out
diseases. Also prevents too much
water loss.
2. Sensory response: have nerves that
tell the body about temperature,
pressure and pain.
3. Formation of Vitamin D: It is very
important for your health. Produces
vitamin D when it is exposed to sunlight. It
is needed for your body to obsorb calcium.
4. Regulation of body temperature: sweat
glands are used to help cool off the body.
Sweat is secreted through the pores in the
skin. This in turn cools off the skin, which
also cools off the blood in the skin, which
then cools off the blood in the body!
5. Excretion of wastes: sweat
glands also release water, salt and
urea (protein product).
When you get a cut or you scrap your knee,
you are cutting into the epidermis, which is
very thin. But…if you injury a large amount
of your skin, you could die. Why is this? If
a large amount of the epidermis is burned
or scraped away, there will not be any cells
left to divide and replace the missing cells.
Makes the body vulnerable to disease and
Nutrients: substances in foods that
provide energy and materials for
cell development, growth and
There are six kinds of nutrients that are in
food. They are:
1. Carbohydrates are the main source of
energy for the body. Contain carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
Types of carbohydrates: sugar (table sugar,
honey and fruits), starch and cellulose
(complex carbohydrates). Starch is found
in potatoes, pasta and whole grains.
Cellulose is found in plant cell walls.
2. Proteins are used for growth.
They can come in the form of
enzymes, which change the rate of
a chemical reaction. They help
repair cells. Made of carbon,
hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
atoms. Made of amino acids
(building blocks of proteins).
3. Essential Amino Acids are the
amino acids that your body cannot
make on its own. You have to eat
them. They are needed for your cells
to make specific proteins. You can get
them from eggs, milk and cheese. You
can also get them from beef, fish and
some whole grains.
Fats are needed for energy and
also to help the body to absorb
vitamins. Releases a lot more
energy than carbohydrates.
Types of fats: Unsaturated: come
from plants and are liquid at room
temperature. All of your oils (olive
oil, corn oil, vegetable oil).
Saturated: found in red meat,
butter and cheese. Solid at room
5. Vitamins: essential organic
nutrients needed in small
quantities to help your body use
other nutrients. They promote
growth and regulate body
6. Minerals: inorganic materials
that regulate many chemical
reactions in your body. Examples
are calcium and phospherous.
Water: very important for
survival. You could only go a
few days without water.
Food Groups: foods that contain
the same nutrients.
Humans are considered consumers.
This is because we eat our food to get
energy. There are four phases in
which your body processes food.
Digestion is the process that breaks
down food into small molecules so
they can move into the blood. What
happens to the food after it is
digested? It goes into the cells of the
What are the major organs of the
digestive tract? Mouth, esophagus,
stomach, small intestine, large
intestine, rectum and anus.
What are the three organs that secrete
enzymes? Liver, pancreas and gall
Enzymes: Proteins that speed up or
slow down chemical reactions in the
Mechanical Digestion: begins in
the mouth. Your tongue and teeth
break down the food into smaller
Chemical Digestion: This is when
chemicals are added to the food to
break it down even more. Your saliva
starts the process.
What happens in your mouth?
Your teeth and tongue break down
the food mechanically. Your saliva
breaks down the food chemically.
What happens in your esophagus? The
muscles in the esophagus move the
food down it through actions called
In your stomach? Food is mixed by the
muscle walls of the stomach
(mechanical digestion). The food is
mixed with digestive juices such as
hydrochloric acid and enzymes. When
it is done churning…the liquid that was
once your food is now called chyme.
In your small intestine? First off it is 4-
7m in length. Bile is added to the
chyme. This breaks down the particles
even farther. Food particles are
absorbed through the walls of the
small intestine. Villa (tiny, fingerlike
projections), which help with
In your large intestine? Water
absorption happens here. Chyme is
still liquidy and the large intestines job
is to get all the water out.
How do bacteria play a role? Bacteria
feed on the cellulose that is left in the
chyme (in the large intestines).
Humans need air to breathe. More
specifically they need oxygen to live.
You breathe in oxygen and then your
blood takes the oxygen from your
lungs through the blood to all the cells
of the body. The oxygen is used to
make energy when combined with
Equation for respiration:

6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O +energy
There are many organs that are
used to bring in oxygen and get rid
of carbon dioxide. List these
organs: mouth, nose, pharynx,
larynx, trachea, bronchi,
bronchioles and lungs.
What is the pharynx and what is
its job? Tube-like path for food and
air. You will find the epiglottis
here (flat of tissue that covers the
trachea when you eat or drink but
opens when you breath).
What is the Larynx and what is its
job? Spot on top of the trachea
where the vocal cords are. Sound
is produced when air passes
through it. The air causes the
vocal cords to vibrate.
What is the trachea and what is its
job? Cartilage reinforced tube that
carries air to the bronchi. The
cartilage forms c shaped rings all
the way down the trachea. Cilia
lines it to catch dust, pollen and
What are bronchi and what are
their jobs? Two short branches
that carry air to the lungs. Break
up into smaller and smaller tubes
called bronchioles when they get
into the lungs.
What are the lungs and what are
their jobs? When the air reaches
the lungs, at the ends of the
bronchioles, there are thin walled
sacs called alveoli. They are
surrounded by capillaries. This is
where the exchange of carbon
dioxide and oxygen takes place.
What is a diaphragm? A muscle
beneath your lungs that helps to
move air in and out of your body.
How do you inhale and exhale?
The diaphragm contracts and
relaxes as your breathe. When
you inhale your diaphragm moves
down and contracts to open up
your lungs for air to enter. When
you exhale the diaphragm relaxes
and moves up pushing the air out.
Your body eliminates wastes everyday. You
eliminate waste through your excretory
system. You eliminate carbon dioxide
through your circulatory and respiratory
systems. You eliminate salt through your
skin (sweat). All of these make up parts of
your excretory system.
Urinary system: another system in
the excretory system. Get rid of
wastes out of the blood that
results from the metabolism of
nutrients. It also controls blood
volume by getting rid of excess
water that is produced in the cells.
There are some important organs
in the urinary system. One organ
is the kidney: filter blood that has
collect wastes. All of your blood
goes through your kidneys. They
contain nephrons and produce
Have nephrons: the filtering unit
of the kidneys. It is surrounded by
capillaries. Collects water, sugar,
salt and wastes from the blood
and sends it to a tube where it
collects and then moves to the
ureter to be eliminated.
Produce urine: the waste liquid
that is made up of water, sugar,
salt and other wastes that the
body does not need.
Ureters: tubes that move urine
from each kidney to the bladder.
Bladder: muscular organ that
holds urine until it leaves the body
through the urethra.
Nervous System:
The nervous system helps your
body adjust to changes inside and
out of the body. A stimulus is: any
change inside or out of the body
that causes a response.
What are some things the nervous
system helps to control?
Breathing rate, heartbeat rate,
digestion are checked and
regulated all the time with help
from the endocrine system.
Neuron: the nerve cell which is the
working unit of the nervous
system. They carry the messages,
which are also called impulses.
Dendrites: receive the messages
and send them on to the cell body.
Axon: carries messages away from
the cell body.
Sensory Neurons: receive
information and send impulses to
the brain and spinal cord.
Interneurons: in the brain or spinal
cord, they relay the impulse from the
sensory neurons to the motor
neurons. There are more interneurons
than there are any other neuron.
Motor Neurons: take the impulses
from the brain or spinal cord and
sends the message to the muscles
or glands throughout the body.
Synapse: the small space in
between neurons in which an
impulse needs to pass through.
Central nervous system: This is
the brain and the spinal cord.
Controls all the body’s activities.
Peripheral nervous system: this is
all the nerves throughout the body
Cerebrum: largest part of the
brain, divided into two
hemispheres. Messages from the
senses are interpreted here.
Memories are store here and it
controls voluntary muscle
Cerebellum: behind and under the
cerebrum. Coordinates voluntary
muscles movements. Helps to
keep your muscles toned. It helps
you to keep your balance.
Brain Stem: connects the brain and
the spinal cord. Control
involuntary muscles (heartbeat,
breathing, etc.)
Describe the spinal cord: made of
bundles of neurons that carry
impulses to and from the brain.
It’s a big around as an adult
thumb. Protected by the skull, the
vertebrae of the spine and three
membrane layers. There is spinal
fluid that also surrounds it.
Reflexes: involuntary and
automatic response to a stimulus.
You cannot control them.
Circulatory system:
We need a continuous supply of oxygen and
nutrients and we need to remove wastes from our
body’s cells. The circulatory system does this for
us. Cardio means heart and vascular means
vessal. Our circulatory system is considered
closed meaning that the blood is carried around
the body in vessels. It moves oxygen and
nurtients to the cells and carbon dioxide and
wastes away from the cells.
Describe the heart: made of cardiac muscle. It
 is located between the lungs. It has 2 upper
   chambers and two lower chambers. The
upper chamber are called atria and the bottom
 two are called ventricles. The atria and the
ventricles are separated by valves and then the
  two atria and two ventricles are separated
           from each other by a wall.
Pulmonary circulation: the flow of blood through
the heart, to the lungs and back to the heart. The
blood goes into the right atrium then to the right
  ventricle, then moves through the pulmonary
   artery to the lungs where it drops off carbon
  dioxide and picks up oxygen. The blood then
 moves through the pulmonary vein back to the
          heart and enters the left atrium
Systemic circulation: moves oxygenated blood
to all the part of the body except the heart and
 the lungs, and take carbon dioxide from the
         body and returns it to the heart.
Coronary Circulation: flow of blood to the tissue of
                    the heart.
There are two types of blood vessels. They are
arteries and veins.
Arteries: Take blood AWAY from the heart to all the
part of the body. Most of the time they carry
oxygenated blood. The only one that does not carry
oxygen is the pulmonary artery. This has carbon
dioxide in it that it is taking to the lungs.
      Veins: Carry blood TO the heart. All carry
deoxygenated blood from the body to the heart except
for the pulmonary vein which takes oxygenated blood
           from the lungs back to the heart.
 Capillaries: microscopic vessels that connect arteries
    to veins. This where nutrients and oxygen pass
  through to the tissues of the body and where carbon
dioxide and wastes pass from the tissues of the body to
                        the blood.
What is blood? The liquid of life!!
Blood has some important functions:
1.Blood carries oxygen from the lungs to all the part of
the body
2.Take waste products from the cells to the kidneys
3.Transports nutrients from the digestive system to the
4.Have things in it to help fight infection and heal
 Plasma: the liquid part of the blood that is mostly
made of water. Nutrients and oxygen are dissolved in
                    the plasma.
Hemoglobin: chemical that carries oxygen and carbon
Red Blood cells: disc shaped cells that carry oxygen
 from the lungs to all the parts of the body and carry
carbon dioxide from the parts of the body back to the
lungs. They live about 120 days. The bone marrow
        makes about 2 million in one second.
White Blood Cells: there are only about 5000 to 10000
of them in your body. They fight off bacteria, viruses
 and anything else that does not belong in your body.
When you get an infection, the amount of white blood
              cells go up in your body.
Platelets: irregularly shaped cell fragments that help in
 the clotting of the blood. Their life span is about 5 to
                        nine days.
What are disease causing organisms?
    What is the immune system?
• Your first and second
  line of defense to
  protect your body from
 What is your first line of defense?
• External: Skin…we said
  this in the skin section!!
• Internal: Your
  respiratory, digestive
  and circulatory system.
           What are antigens?
• Molecules that are
  foreign to your body.
• Example: membrane
  around bacteria is made
  of protein and that
  protein is seen as an
           What is an antibody?
• Protein made in
  response to a specific
  antigen. It attaches to
  the antigen and makes
  it not work anymore.
   What are the different types of
  antibodies and what do they do?
• Killer T: captures and
  destroys the antigen.
• Memory B Cell:
  Remembers specific
  antigens so that it can
  kill them if they reenter
  the body.
   What is the difference between
    active and passive immunity.
• Active: your body          • Passive: antibodies are
  makes its own                produced in another
  antibodies to get rid of     animal and then are
  antigens                     introduced to your
          What is a vaccination?
• Process of giving a
  vaccine by injection or
  by mouth or nose.
Reproduction System:
This system helps continue life on Earth.
Humans and other organisms on Earth, go
through sexual reproduction to transfer genetic
material from generation to generation to
generation. So now we have to talk about the
different reproductive systems.
Male Reproductive system
Testes: male organ that produces sperm and
Sperm: Sex cell formed in the male reproductive
organ (testes)
Semen: Mixture of sperm and a fluid that helps
sperm move and supplies them with an energy
Female Reproductive system:
Ovaries: Female reproductive organ which produces eggs in
the lower part of the body.
Ovulation: Monthly process in which an egg is released from
the ovary and enters the oviduct, where it can become
fertilized by sperm.
Uterus: in female humans, hollow, muscular, pear-shaped
organ where a fertilized egg develops into a baby
Menstrual Cycle: Hormone controlled monthly cycle of
changes in the female reproductive system that includes the
maturation of an egg and preparation of the uterus for possible
What is menopause? When a woman stop her monthly cycle,
Her ovary stops releasing eggs and she stops her menstration
Explain fertilization: Sperm travel into the female
through the birth canal into the uterus, into the
oviducts finds the released egg and fertilizes it. When
the egg and sperm meet, it becomes a zygote.
An unborn child is called this the first two months of
How does the embryo get nutrients? Through the
placenta through the umbilical cord.

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