THINK AND SOLVE
(MATHEMATICAL APPLICATION) 1 . There are what percentage of air is this?
1000 liters in 1 cubic meter and 1000 grams
in 1 kilogram. How many grams of air are there in 1 liter
of air? (Assume a density of 1.18 kg/m3.)
2. Assume air has an average molar mass of
28.8 grams/mole, and determine how many moles of air
molecules there are in 1 liter of air. (See Section 9.3 for a
review of this calculation.)
D. Argon, Ar
E. Water, H20
4 0 . List the four primary uses of fresh water, from most
THINK AND COMPARE
(ANALYSIS) to least.
3 8 . List the order of formation of the primary constituents A. Thermolectric power
of smog, starting at dawn in an urban environment. B. Industrial
A. Nitrogen dioxide, N0 2 C. Irrigation
B. Nitrogen monoxide, NO D. Residential/commercial (public supply)
C. Ozone, O3
3 9 . List the following constituents of the Earth's atmos-
phere, from highest to lowest percentage.
A. Oxygen, 0 2
B. Nitrogen, N 2
C. Neon, Ne
laundry detergents because they soften water. Why has
their use been restricted?
THINK AND EXPLAIN 4 9 . How might an air pump be used in the treatment of
(SYNTHESIS) a small pond affected by eutrophication? What should be
4 1 . Look at a map of any part of the world, and you'll done to the pond before the pump is used?
see that older cities are either next to rivers or next to 5 0 . How might the water from Southern Asia's wet
where rivers used to be. Why? monsoon season best be captured for use during the
4 2 . The oceans are saltwater, yet evaporation over the dry season?
ocean surface produces clouds that precipitate fresh 5 1 . Why is water more effectively stored within the
water. Please explain. ground than within a large dam reservoir?
4 3 . Removal of groundwater can cause subsidence. If 5 2 . Gas fills all the space available to it. Why then doesn't
the water removal is stopped, will the land likely rise to the atmosphere go off into space?
its original level? Defend your answer.
5 3 . How does the density of air in Death Valley, which is
4 4 . Which consumes more water: people turning on 86 meters below sea level, compare with the density of air
their faucets or people turning on their electricity? at sea level? Explain.
4 5 . Why is pollution of groundwater a greater environ- 5 4 . Why do your ears pop as you ride in an airplane that
mental hazard than pollution of surface water? is climbing to higher altitudes?
4 6 . Are polar or nonpolar chemical compounds more 5 5 . Before boarding an airplane, you buy an airtight
often found in a leachate? Explain. foil package of peanuts to eat during your journey.
4 7 . Why is flushing a toilet with clean water from a While in flight you notice that the package is puffed up.
municipal supply about as wasteful as flushing it with Please explain.
bottled water? Make a rough sketch of a home plumbing
system that uses water from an upstairs bathtub to flush
a downstairs toilet.
4 8 . Phosphates were once a common component of
3 . There are about 25 trillion (25,000,000,000,000
= 2.5 X 1013) chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) molecules in
every liter of air you breathe. How many moles of CFC
molecules are there in every liter of air you breathe, and