microscope by ACQtcK82

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									MICROSCOPY
         Ken Leach
  Collins Hill High School
     What do microscopes do?
• The forgotten Technology
• An optical instrument that uses a lens or a
  combination of lenses to produce
  magnified images of small objects,
  especially of objects too small to be seen
  by the unaided eye. http://www.answers.com/microscope
                                                                                                                                            Transmission
                   Compound                                                                               Scanning Electron
                                                Dissection or                    Confocal                                                     Electron
                     Light                                                                                   Microscope
                                                Stereoscope                     Microscope                                                   Microscope
                   Microscope                                                                                  (SEM)
                                                                                                                                               (TEM)


              Compound microscopes are                                                                          SEM use electron
                                                                             This microscope uses a
                 light illuminated. The      A dissection microscope is                                    illumination. The image is
                                                                             laser light. This light is                                         TEM is electron
               image seen with this type        light illuminated. The                                       seen in 3-D. It has high
                                                                               used because of the                                       illuminated. This gives a 2-
                  of microscope is two       image that appears is three                                     magnification and high
                                                                             wavelength. Laser light                                         D view. Thin slices of
                   dimensional. This         dimensional. It is used for                                  resolution. The specimen is
                                                                            scan across the specimen                                     specimen are obtained. The
Description     microscope is the most        dissection to get a better                                      coated in gold and the
                                                                             with the aid of scanning                                         electron beams pass
               commonly used. You can       look at the larger specimen.                                     electrons bounce off to
                                                                           mirrors. Then image is then                                      through this. It has high
              view individual cells, even    You cannot see individual                                    give you and exterior view
                                                                                placed on a digital                                         magnification and high
                living ones. It has high      cells because it has a low                                      of the specimen. The
                                                                               computer screen for                                                 resolution.
              magnification. However, it            magnification.                                          pictures are in black and
                                                                                     analyzing.
                  has a low resolution.                                                                               white.




 Costs           $150 - $10,000                  $100-$1500                 $20,000-100,000               more than $50.000              more than $50,000

Source of
Radiation
                     visible light                  visible light                   laser light                    electrons                      electrons
for Image
Formation


 Medium                   air                            air                            air                         vacuum                         vacuum


                                                                                                                                         Thin films of collodion or
Specimen                                                                     glass slides with dyed          Mounted on aluminum
                      glass slides                     none                                                                              other supporting material
mounting                                                                             samples              stubs and are coated in gold
                                                                                                                                              on copper grids



                                                       http://www.cas.muohio.edu/mbiws/microscopes/types.html
             Microviewers
• Inexpsensive?
• Best characteristics is that they alloow the
  students to see images that they cannot
  see with the school microscope.
• High school microscope magnify up to
  400x
• The micrographs on these filmstrips go up
  to 200,000x
• Viewer = $9.80 15 filmstrips $177.00
What is It?
      • Ant’s head.
What is It?
      • This is the face of the
        Red Wriggler
        earthworm, Eisenia
        foetida. Earthworms
        burrow through the
        soil, eating dead plant
        material. As well as
        breaking down the
        dead plant material
        into soil, their burrows
        also help aerate it.
What is it?
      • Common everyday
        items take on a new
        dimension at high
        magnification. In this
        photo, a staple is
        seen where it ripped
        through the fibers of a
        yellow sticky note
        paper.
What is It?
      • These tiny glass
        capsules contain a
        liquid scent and are
        glued onto paper.
        When the paper is
        scratched, some of
        the capsules are
        ruptured and the
        scent is released.
What is It?




              SNOW
        Parts of the Microscope
a Eye piece
b Body tube
c Coarse adjustment knob
d Fine adjustment knob
e Nose piece
f Objective Lens
g Arm
h Aperture
I Stage
j Diaphragm
k Light
l Base
m On/Off Switch
n Stage Clips
Compound
    Light
Microscope
a.




     b.
    e.




h
                   n.




Scanning = 4X
Low Power = 10X
High Power = 40X



                        f.
k.




 i.
          c.

m.




               d.

     l.
g.




     n
         j.
      Microscope Care & Handling

Importance of care
So why do I need to know how to use the microscope?
• Because microscopes cost several hundred dollars it is
  very important to make them last for a long time.




How long will a microscope last if I take good care of it?
• They can last for at least 10 years if you care for the
  "scope“.
Microscope Care & Handling

 Transporting
 When you pick up the microscope and
 walk with it, grab the arm with one hand
 and place your other hand on the bottom
 of the base.



          DON'T SWING THE MICROSCOPE !
        Handling & Cleaning

• Never touch the lenses with your fingers.
  Your body produces an oil that smudges
  the glass. This oil can even etch the glass
  if left on too long. Use only LENS PAPER
  to clean the glass.

• TOILET PAPER, KLEENEX, AND
  PAPER TOWELS HAVE FIBERS THAT
  CAN SCRATCH THE LENSES.
                 Storage
• When you are finished with your "scope"
  assignment, rotate the nosepiece so that
  it's on the low power objective, roll the
  nosepiece so that it's all the way down to
  the stage, then replace the dust cover.
• DON'T FORGET TO USE PROPER
  TRANSPORTING TECHNIQUES!
                Clean Up:

• Clean all slides, materials, and work area
  when you're done. Please, be careful with
  the slides and cover slips. They are made
  of glass and if broken, you will get cut and
  you will bleed.
POWERS OF MAGNIFICATION




    A
POWERS OF MAGNIFICATION




     B
POWERS OF MAGNIFICATION




   C
POWERS OF MAGNIFICATION




     D
This picture = 7x
Scanning = 45x
Low = 112.5x
High = 225x
IN THE GUT OF TERMITES
WHAT NOT TO DO…
Slides to Make   •   Hydra
                 •   Colored
                     threads
                 •   Letter “e”
                 •   Tomato
                 •   Potato
                 •   Pear
                 •   Feather
                 •   Pond water
                 •   Copepods
                 •   Rotifers
                 •   Daphnia
                 •   Sponge
                 •   Sand

								
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