Booklet. No. 212
Animal Husbandry: Goat: GTS - 7
II. Housing Management
V. Care of the Newborn Kid
VI. Feeds and Feeding
X. Hoof Trimming
XII. Goat Identification
XIII. Determining the Age of Goats
XV. Wattle Removal
XVI. Maintaining Herd Health
Goats provide a dependable source of income to 40% rural population below poverty
line in India and to others who do not possess any land. They are used for meat, milk, skin and
hair. Besides, they are also a source of valuable manure. This booklet describes the scientific
management practices for goats.
K. T. Chandy, Agricultural & Environmental Education
Goats are an important source of food for many people throughout the world. Goats are
usually kept by families who live, in places where the soil is poor, rainfall is low, or the size of
farm is small. In these areas the milk and meat which goats provide can be a valuable part of
the farmer's diet.
A. Distribution of goats
The world population of goats is about 500 millions, which is approximately one-third of
the number of cattle or sheep. Goats are a very adaptable animal and that is why they are found
in many climates.
The countries which have large number of goats are: first India, secondly Pakistan and
thirdly Nigeria. In Somalia there are nearly five goats for every person and this is far more than
any other country. Mongolia is second with nearly three goats for every person. The middle east
countries also have large population of goats.
B. Systems of goat production
The systems in which people keep goats differ from country to country. There are three
main systems of production viz. (a) extensive grazing, (b) sedentary family herds, and (c)
intensive commercial production. These systems have been described in the booklet No. 208 on
C. Advantages of goat keeping
The number of goats in a farmer's herd can easily be matched to his resources. Five or
six goats can be kept on the same land, needed for one cow. If a farmer bas only balf of this
area two or three goats can be kept which will provide enough milk for a family. Goats produce
more offspring than cows and they mature at an earlier age. This means that goats are
slaughtered more frequently than cows.
The small size of goats means that they can easily be cared for by women and children.
Feeding, milking and moving goats do not require much equipments or hard work.
D. Disadvantages or goat keeping
Goats do have some disadvantages. Because of their small size, they are easily stolen
or attacked by wild animals. Also, large number of milking goats require a lot of labour. If we
keep 10 goats instead of two cows, we will have to spend more time looking after the goats. In
some countries goats are not encouraged by the Government because it is thought that they do
great damage to grazing lands and forests.
II. Housing Management
Goats are housed in stalls or loose boxes. For efficient production in dairy goats, good
health and comfort to the animals is a must. The house should protect goats from the sun, rain
and cold nights. One need not have expensive house for the goats. Use locally available
material. A mature goat requires 1.5xl.0 metre floor space. To protect the goats from cold air,
especially at night and rainy days a wall of at least 1.5 meter or 4.2 feet high should be built. If
the floor is made of clay or earth, it should be compact ," as far as possible and there should be
a gradual slope towards one corner of the house. If the floor is made of wood, it should be
elevated and slated with just at least 1/2 to 3/4 inch space in between to facilitate easy escape
of manure and urine.
Bucks should be housed far away from the dairy goat shed. This will help to avoid
getting goat's smell to the milk. Kids should be kept with the does upto two weeks age.
Maternity room should be provided with kid.
The stalls may be arranged in two rows, with a passage between them. The
recommended dimensions on each stall should be 0.75 m wide and 1.05m long. The length of
the shed will depend on the number of milch goats kept. There should be portions between
stalls made of brick-work or stone or iron tubing. Sometimes a small milk room is constructed at
one end of the milch goat shed, especially in breeding farms.
The methods of controlling the goats commonly used are herding, tethering and fencing.
Control methods help to prevent the loss of goats by theft, by attacks from wild animals or by
the goats wandering off. Also they limit the amount of feed which goats have access to at any
time and prevent damage to crops.
Breeding is a highly technical job and several factors need to be considered.
A. Breeding characteristics of does
1. Age to breed
A doe should be 7-10 months old or better yet 36-41 kg weight before breeding.
2. Signs of oestrus or heat
In Northern Hemisphere goats on an average are seasonal breeders, coming in heat in
August to March, while in tropical climates, goats breeding cycle is throughout the year. The
heat (oestrus) period lasts from 12-48 hours and ovulation occurs after the onset of the heat
period. The doe should be mated during the last half of the oestrus.
General advice is to mate in the second day because getting pregnant is usually more
successful at this time and repeat after 12 hours if she is still in heat. Heat is indicated by
uneasiness, riding other animals, shaking the tail, frequent urination and bleating (crying of
goat). The vulva may be swollen and red and some mucous may be seen. Good nutrition is also
essential for both the doe and the buck at the time of breeding.
3. Gestation period
This is the period from the day of conception to the day of kidding. This varies from 145-
155 days, but on an average it lasts for 150 days or five months.
4. Number of baby goats born
It is common for a doe to have two kids. On an average 100 does over 18 month of age,
22 does produce one kid, 47 does produce 2 kids, 26 does produce 3 kids and 5 does produce
four kids. This gives 2:1 kid per pregnancy. Does undel.18 months of age average 1.5 kid each.
B. Systems of breeding
There are three systems generally followed for breeding goats. These are pasture or pen
breeding, artificial insemination, and hand mating. These systems have been described in the
booklet No. 211 on 'Goat Breed and Breeding'.
C. Selection of the breeding stock
Selection of breeding stock involves selection of goat, selection of milking doe and
selection of the buck. The important points in selection of goat, doe and buck are separately
1. Selecting a goat
Locating and selecting a worthwhile animal takes patience and planning. One should
consider the following methods to select the doe and buck. Purchasing a young goat is better
than the old dones.
a. Selecting milking doe
1. Head should be of feminine appearance, with a vigorous, strong muzzle, broad forehead,
bright eyes, ears held erect and tail slender.
2. Neck should be long and lean.
3. Rump should be moderately flat, long and wide.
4. Rear udder needs a high, wide strong attachment.
5. Hoof should be well shaped, and set squarely on the ground.
6. Teats should be uniform in size, and of medium length for easy milking.
7. Chest should be wide and with well sprung.
8. Shoulder blending smoothly with rest of the body.
b. Selecting buck
1. Buy a pure bred buck. His chest should be well developed and wide between the legs. His
rump should be long. The legs should be strong and high headed.
2. Choose a buck that is friendly, active, masculine front regions of the head and shoulders and
ready to mate a female that comes in heat.
Parturition, the birth of the kids, occurs after a gestation period of 145 to 155 days. The
average length of pregnancy is 149 or 150 days.
Adequate preparation is essential if the kids are to have a high survival rate. The kidl1ing
does themselves can be lost if you have not managed them properly during the gestation or if
you are not prepared to assist them, should they need it, during delivery.
A. Equipments necessary for kidding
Box or carton with bedding, towels, kidding stall; gloves, (cloth rough texture), heat
lamps, antiseptic soap and warm water.
B. Pre-parturition preparation
1. Prepare the kidding area. This should consist of a draft- free, well-bedded stall at least 6' x 6'
in size. If possible, the doe should be moved into this pen about two weeks before her due date.
2. Chilling is one of the causes of death in newborn kids. As a precaution, install a heat lamp
above the kidding stall. It may keep them alive on a cold night.
3. Assemble the equipment necessary for kidding. This includes towels or sacks for drying off
the new born, a carton or box which contains bedding in which to place the kids, and soap,
warm water, wash basin, and towels to clean the doe and your hands and arms after delivery. If
you must assist at delivery, a pair of rough textured cloth gloves or a set of obstetrical chains
are a big help.
C. Signs of approaching parturition (delivery)
Accurate set of flock records, including breeding dates, is the most accurate indication
that kidding is rapidly approaching.
1. About two weeks before kidding, the doe will. show softening and relaxing of the muscles and
ligaments on both sides of her tail. The udder will gradually begin to enlarge and fill from this
2. The last 1 or 2 days will be marked by the doe's being nervous, restless, and lying down a
great deal. She will discharge a thin mucous from the vulva that will gradually thicken as
3. The last 12 hours will be the most trying for the doe. She may carry her tail straight out or
slightly elevated. The ftrst several vertebrae of the spine, just in front of the tail head, will seem
to be standing higher and taller than usual. The doe will repeatedly lie down and get up, look
back at her flank, and perhaps even kick up at it.
D. Stages of parturition (kidding)
While most animal managers, consider birth of the young to be one big process, it is in
reality broken into three stages. The first stage is the positioning of the foetus and dilation of the
cervix. The last 12 hours covered above take care of this stage. Stage 2 is the actual delivery. It
is the presentation of the new born kid. Stage 3 of parturition involves the expulsion of the after-
birth and the beginning of the involution, return to normal size, of the doe's uterus.
The following are the steps in a normal delivery.
I. After the water has burst and thereby lubricated the birth canal, the actual delivery of the kid
should be complete in 30 minutes or so. The pressure from the unborn kid's feet and head
causes the water bag to break.
2. The normal position of the kid in the uterus just before parturition is right-side up, with the
front feet first and the head lying on or between the fetlocks and knees.
The normal presentation as the kid is being delivered should be the two front feet with the pads
turned downwards, with the muzzle of the kid lying at about its knees. If any variation of this
presentation occurs, the delivery is going to be abnormal and will most likely require your
3. As the doe attempts to deliver the kid, there are several points at which she must strain in
earilest. The head presents the first enlargement that must be passed through the birth canal,
then the shoulders are encountered and the cervix must be restricted. This can take several
minutes, especially if the kid is large.
4. After the kid is born, immediately clean the mucous from the nostrils and mouth, making sure
that kid starts to breathe. If the kid does not breathe, stimulate the process by pressing gently
on the ribs by moving the forelegs vigorously, swinging the kid while holding it in this position
may also aid in establishing normal breathing.
5. When the umbilical cord has been separated from the kid, pick him up and dry him thoroughly
and briskly. Use the toweling. After the kid has been dried, place him in the holding box.
6. Observe the doe for at least 20 to 30 minutes for a second kid or multiple births and assist if
necessary. If in doubt, wash your hand and arm with a disinfectant soap and examine the doe
for additional kids by inserting your hand into the uterus
and probing gently.
7. Remove the placental membranes from the kidding pen after they are expelled by the doe. If
the placenta is still attached after 12 to 18 hours, take the help from the veterinarian or from an
V. Care of the Newborn Kid
Generally goat dairymen who are interested in producing milk for sale remove the kids
from the does at birth. After wiping the kids with a dry cloth, promptly place them out of sight
and sound of their mothers into a basket or box containing a soft cloth or clean bedding. If the
weather is cool a gunny bag or cloth may be placed over the top of the box or basket to keep
the kids comfortable. After two to four hours the kids will gain strength and begin to show signs
of hunger and should be fed colostrum.
This acts as a laxative, is high in protein and vitamin and the mother transmits antibodies
to the kids through colostrum which help to protect the kids against infections.
When the delivery is over, give your doe a handful of jaggery dissolved in some water.
This will supply immediate energy to regain the strength. If the doe wants to eat give her 2 to 3
handfuls of concentrate feed daily as she needs it.
VI. Feeds and Feeding
Feed represents the highest item of expenses in raising goats, hence it is very
necessary to understand the principles of feeding in order to feed goats economically. A nutrient
is a substance that aids in support of life. Goats require nutrients for growth, body maintenance,
pregnancy or reproduction and milk production. Nutrient required in the goat's feed are energy,
protein, minerals, vitamins and water.
Goat is a ruminant but its feeding is quite dissimilar from that of sheep and cows. For its
size, a goat can consume substantially more feed than cow or sheep can ego 6.5 to 11 % of her
body weight in dry matter compared to 2.5 to 3.0 % in case of cattle and sheep. This means that
goats can satisfy their maintenance and production requirement on good fodder and pasture
A. Classification of common feed
Common feed ingredients supply nutrients. These ingredients are concentrates,
roughages, feed additives, mineral supplements and vitamin supplements.
These are low in crude fibre and high in digestible nutrients. Concentrates low in protein
are maize, rice, sorghum, bran and molasses, etc., while protein rich concentrates are
groundnut cake, cotton seed cake, soyabean meal, etc.
These are high in crude fibre but low in digestible nutrients, such as sorghum fodder,
bajra fodder, rice and wheat straw, grasses like paragrass and young pasture grasses, silage,
3. Feed additives
There are chemicals that are added to feed for growth promotion or for disease
prevention, for example antibiotics, aureomycin and terramycin.
Salt, oyster shell, lime stone, bone meal, wood ash, etc. supply minerals to goat body.
Dietary requirements of goats is simple because feeds that they consume mostly supply
their necessary requirement.
6. Local ingredients used in goat feed
These high energy ingredients are rich in fat and proteins. Maize, sorghum, wheat bran,
rice bran, groundnut cake, cotton seed cake, by-products of legumes, molasses, etc. are
important goat feed.
B. Feeding the goat
Goats are fed differently depending on whether they are dry, pregnant, lactating,
breeding buck or baby goat. These are explained briefly here.
1. Feeding the dry doe
Feed well during the pregnancy as the unborn babies gain more weight during the last
week of pregnancy. The pregnant doe should be in good flesh and weight before giving birth.
Nutritious grasses and legumes will be sufficient to support the doe. If the pregnant doe looks
thin then give about 1/2 to 1 kilo of concentrate mixture.
2. Feeding the doe about to kid
Three to five days before giving birth give pregnant doe about 250 to 500 grams of
concentrate. Then 1 to 2 days before kidding, replace this concentrate ration with just maize,
bran, wheat bran or ricebran. The bran are known for their laxative property and will help to
clean the stomach. Clean stomach will assist the doe in easy kidding.
3. Feeding the milking doe
Milk does should be given as much quality grasses and legumes that they can consume.
Give concentrate grams for every litre of milk and fresh water and mineral lick-brick should be
provided to the does frequently.
4. Feeding the bucks
Bucks used for breeding should be fed properly. When not used for breeding, feed one
buck at least 500 grams of concentrate mixture plus green grass and legume like lucern. See
that the does not become fat, aggressive and even sterile. During breeding period increase his
ration from 500 grams to I kilo.
5. Feeding young kids
The object should be not to fatten them but rather provide them enough nutrients for
growth and maintenance. Sufficient space for exercise plus abundant quality grass and legumes
are important for yearlings. Feed 500 grams of concentrate every day.
6. Feeding the baby goats
Keep the kids with the mother for the first 2 to 3 days. This will ensure sufficient intake of
colostrum needed for its good health. From the 3rd or 4th day, allow the kid to be with the
mother during the day only. Continue this up to 4 to 5 months i.e. till they are weaned. You can
feed the kid with the help of the bottle also. For this you must separate the kid from doe after the
3rd or 4th day of their birth. Take care to keep the milk warm about 103 to 105°F. Keep the
nipple and bottle clean after each feeding.
Goats should be milked twice a day preferably at an interval of 12 hours. Production of
milk in the does udder takes place throughout the day and nigbt but it is slowed up by the
accumulation of milk in the udder as the end of the 12 hour period approaches. Therefore,
milking at even intervals gives the best results. During the height of lactation, heavy milkers
could be milked three times a day at eight -hour intervals to relieve the pressure in the udder.
This should yield more milk.
Milking equipment used should be a strip cup, seamless milking pail and a milk strainer
with a disposable filter that is thrown away after each milking. Goats should be milked in an
environment free of dust and odours. The first stream or two of milk should be milked through a
fine mesh wire, such as a tea strainer into a separate cup. So that the presence of flaky milk,
which is an indication of mastitis may be detected. To get a clean milk it is necessary to have
clean equipment, clean environment, clean healthy goats and clean milkers. The milkers should
always have clean hands and wear clean clothes.
A. Milking procedure
The correct procedure for milking is given here.
I. Hands should be washed thoroughly with soap and water and dried before milking.
2. Udder should be washed with warm, chlorinated water and dried. This also stimulates the
flow of milk.
3. Close your thumb and first finger securely around the base of the teat to keep the milk from
running back into the udder.
4. Close the second finger around the teat and squeeze it gently. The milk should start to squirt
5. Close the third finger around the teat. Apply steady pressure, do not jerk down.
6. Close the little finger, squeeze the teat with the whole hand.
7. Release the teat. It will fill up again with milk immediately. Repeat the process by alternate
right and left hands.
8. When the stream of milk stops, nudge the udder gently so that the doe will let down all milk.
9. To strip the last of the milk, take the teat between the thumb and fIrst finger.
10. Slide the thumb and fore-finger straight down the teat. Prolonged stripping is not necessary.
It is very important that dairy animals be milked dry at each milking. When you think you
have milked the goat thoroughly, nudge the udder gently a few times and run your fore-finger
and thumb down the teats until you collect the last drop of milk. This is called stripping.
B. Care of milk
As soon as the milk has been collected from the doe, pour it through a strainer. Cool it
promptly to insure good flavour in the milk, this retards the development of bacteria. Rapid
cooling is very important. Cooling by immersing the closed milk container into cold water is a
good method. After cooling the milk it should be taken promptly to the consumer, placed in a
refrigerator or other cool place. All milking equipments should be rinsed in cold water
immediately after use and then washed in warm soapy water to which chlorine solution or some
detergent is added. Finally the utensil should be rinsed in clean water (preferably boiling water)
and kept in a dust free place to dry.
Because the fat particles are very small and do not separate readily from the milk, it is
sometimes thought that goats milk is 'thin and weak'. Because of this goat milk is recommended
by the specialists for infants and sick persons.
Disbudding is the practice of removing the horn buds from the very young kids. Homed
goats are a danger and nuisance to other goats and to the goat keeper also. Remove the horns
when kids are about one week old. Removal of the horns of the adult goats is a major operation
and should be carried out in winter as the flies nusiance is less. Horn buds can be removed
either by using caustic chemicals or by burning.
A. Chemical method
Disbudding kids with caustic potash (sodium hydroxide) or potassium hydroxide should
be done when they are five days old. This chemical can be obtained from chemist shop. The
procedure is to clip the hair from around the horn button with a pair of scissors and apply a thick
coating of vaseline around the outside edges of the clipped area. While using a caustic potash
stick, be sure that it is covered with a paper to protect the fingers.
Next moisten one end of the stick With water and rub it on the horn bud until the area
becomes pink. Confine the treated kid for at least 30 minutes to prevent it from rubbing its head
against its body or against other kids. Wetting the caustic potash stick too much as liquid may
run down into the eyes or on the face causing skin damage. Cotton placed above the eyes is a
good safety precaution.
B. Hot iron method
Disbudding with a red hot iron (heated electrically or over a fire) applied on the horn
bottoms until the area becomes brownish black in colour. This will take 10-20 seconds. This
method can effectively be used when the kids are about one fortnight old.
Castration or the removal of the testes of the male goat is one of the important practices.
Male goats not needed for breeding or reproduction should be castrated as early as possible.
Best time to castrate is when male kid is about one week old. The testicles can be "inactivated"
either by removing them or by destroying them where they die. This involves either the removal
of the testes with 'the aid of a sharp knife, or they are prevented from growing either by using a
special rubber ring or by crushing the testes with an instrument called burning forceps. The
benefits of castration are that it prevents a male goat from making a doe pregnant. and it
improves his growth.
X. Hoof Trimming
A most important job that should be done once a month is the trimming of hooves. If the
hoof is left unattended it could lead to foot troubles. The extra growth of the hoof should be
trimmed and the sole should also be trimmed level with the hoof. Care must be taken while
trimming the hoof so that it is not cut too deep. If bleeding results from a cut that is too deep it
would be well to put tincture of iodine on the area. A sharp pocket knife and a small pair of
pruning shears may be used for the trimming process. If the hoof is too hard to trim. soften by
allowing the goat to stand in water or mud for about 20 minutes. Hoof trimming should be
regular practice; do it every 2 to 3 months.
The hair. as well as the feet. should be kept trimmed. The udder should be clipped.
eliminating the chances of hair and dirt falling into the milk. Goats enjoy brushing. so groom the
XIL Goat Identification
Marking the goats is essential for at least three reasons.
1. To identify ownership.
2. To know the respective number of each animal from the herd.
3. To facilitate easy picking and of the individual animal from the herd particularly when you
want to cull, sell, medicate or segregate.
A. Marking goats
There are three systems of marking of goats. These are described here.
1. Ear tattooing
Making a tattoo is simple, use ordinary needles or tattoo instruments. Use numbers and
letters or their combinations. First clean the inside of the ear particularly where there are no
veins and ridges print your tattoo code by piercing between the lateral
veins. Then rub the tattoo black or green into the tattoo holes.
2. Ear tagging
Tags are made up of plastic or light metal like aluminum. One can buy or make them.
Select proper size for the goats. Place the applicator with tags inserted between the major blood
veins in the ear. To prevent infection, rub tincture of iodine on the wound.
3. Ear notching
Notches are cut on the ears to identify the kid. Use sharp pair of scissors or a knife. Ear
notches 3/8" to 3/4" in size with adjustable depth guide should be used. If the notchers are
sharp the cut piece of ear will part quickly and cleanly with minimum stress to the animal. It
should be carried out within one week after kidding.
XIII. Determining the Age of Goats
By just looking at the lower jaw of the goat, it will be easy to determine the age of the
goats. Goat is a ruminant and does not have any incisors teeth in the upper jaw but possess
hard pad on the top while the lower jaw has eight incisors front teeth. The goats have towards
the back of mouth large teeth called molars which help the goat in chewing the grass.
First year of the kid : The front teeth are small and sharp in goats i with less than one year
Second year: The centre pair of teeth fallout and are replaced by two permanent teeth.
Third year: A little larger front teeth appear on the side of the central pair.
Fourth year: Six permanent teeth appear.
Fifth year: At this age eight permanent teeth appear in the front of the lower jaw.
After this age, there is wear and tear of the teeth.
Dehorning goats involves the removal of the horn tissue after the horn has erupted
through the skin and protrudes in a recognizable form. This may involve a horn of I to 3 inches
in an immature animal or a rack of 10 to 12 inch horns in a mature buck. This is a difficult task
that does cause the animal to suffer some pain. A veterinarian can use a local or general
anesthetic and perfonn the operation painlessly and efficiently.
XV. Wattle Removal
Wattles are globules or 2-inch pendants of skin that are frequently found hanging from
the sides of the necks of goats. They are non-functional and are thought to be remnants of gill
slits that all mammals shared somewhere back down the evolution process. They should be
removed whenever they are large enough to avoid infection and irritation.
Restrain the animal in the appropriate manner. Thoroughly disinfect the skin area surrounding
the site at which the wattle is attached. Remove the wattle by using the scissors or blades and
disinfect the removal site with an antiseptic. Treat with a wound- safe fly repellent only if flies are
a serious problem.
XVI. Maintaining Herd Health
Goats by their very nature are healthy and hardy animals. For maintaining a healthy herd
some steps such as observing diseases, taking temperature, pulse and respiration, routine
injection, drenching, dosing, worming, controlling bloat, and treating mastitis are necessary.
A. Taking temperature, pulse and respiration
Temperature, pulse and respiration rates are indicative of the health situation of the
goats. How these are taken is explained here.
I. The goat's temperature is taken by placing a well- lubricated thermometer into its rectum. Use
petroleum jelly or mineral oil as the lubricant. Insert the thermometer until only one inch of it
remains visible outside the rectum. Remove the thermometer with a twisting and pulling motion.
After three to four minutes, wipe it clean, read and record the temperature, shake it down to
below 96°F, and clean it witl1 alcohol for the next use. The normal body temperature of a
mature goat is 102.5 to 103.o"F.
2. The pulse of the goat can be felt by placing the index and middle fingers of one hand upon a
major artery wherever it crosses a bone or large muscle.
In the goat, this is most easily done by using the artery just below and slightly to the
inside of the edge of the jaw, about two-thirds of the way rearward from the muzzle. There are
palpable arteries also under the goat's tail and behind the knees.
Pulse rate is recorded in beats per minute using your watch's sweep-second hand, count
the beats for thirty seconds and multiply by two. If it is too difficult to maintain a constant finger
contact for 30 seconds hold for only 15 seconds and multiply by four. The normal pulse rate of a
mature goat is 70 to 80 beats per minute. Do not measure the pulse of the goat immediately
after chasing him or casting him to the ground. The excitement could cause a greater elevation
than any suspected disease.
3. The rate of respiration (breathing) can best be measured by watching the movement 01 the
goats' flank. Observe the flank from either side of the goat. Consider each rise (inspiration) and
fall (exhalation) of the flank as one complete respiratory movement. The respiration rate is
recorded in breaths or respirations per minute. Count for 30 seconds and multiply by two, or for
15 seconds and multiply by four. The normal respiration rate is 21 to 27 breaths per minute for a
B. Drenching and dosing
Drenching and dosing are two methods of administering moderate amounts of liquids or
medicines to the goat. For dosages up to 8 or even 10 ounces, it is quicker, easier for you, and
less uncomfortable for the goat than using the stomach tube. Mineral oil, kaolin-pectin
combinations, anthelmintics, and antacid preparations can be given in this manner.
I. Back tile goat into a corner and around its left side against a wall. Encircle its upper neck with
your left arm.
2. Insert the thumb of your left hand into the goat’s mouth and with a combination of prying and
pushing, open its mouth wide enough to allow you to insert the neck of the drench (soda) bottle.
3. Insert the neck of the drenching bottle into the comer of the goat's mouth. It is only necessary
to place I and 1/2" to 2" of the bottle into the mouth. At the same time when you are inserting the
bottle, lift or tilt the goat's head so that it is positioned as if the goat were looking upward at a
4. Pour the liquid slowly into the rear of the tongue and allow the goat to swallow it.
Sometimes referred to as "balling", this technique involves using a bolus gun or balling
gun to place a tablet or bolus on the rear of the goat's tongue. Several popular anthelmintics are
dispensed in bolus form.
Goats should be dewormed on a routine schedule. There are several good antllelmintics
available in the market. They should be used as per the instruction given on the level of the
product. and the parasites becoming
E. Routine injections
The following injectable products can be used as aids in managing the health of goats.
I. Clostridium perfringens, lypes C & D, toxoid used as an aid in, preventing enterotoxeamia
(cover eating disease).
2. Vitamin supplement, includes vitamins A, D & E.
3. Selenium -vitamin E supplement, used as an aid in preventing neonatal losses of kids.
4. Vaccines, bacterins and toxoids. These are specific to given diseases. Some of them are
standard and available in any part of the country; others are developed as an aid in combating
local combinations of micro-organisms.
5. Antibiotics should be used only as warranted by the severity of the situation. Indiscriminate
use of them can result in a build up of drug resistance.
You must come to realize that the use of these injectables is no guarantee of success.
Indeed, they can be misused and cause a large measure of harm. Only your experience and
consultation with a professional can tell you when their use is warranted.