AQA SCIENCE IGCSE CHEMISTRY SOW

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					AQA Level 1/2 Certificate in Chemistry
Scheme of Work




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England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
  Spec Reference   Summary of the             Learning Outcomes                                         Possible teaching and Learning               Resource                      Examination




                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                                 ‘hints and tips’
                                              What most students should
                                              be able to do                                             Homework                                                                   Students should:




1 The fundamental ideas in chemistry
1.1 Solids, liquids and gases
1.1a               Matter can be              Students should be familiar                  1            Discuss: Revise states of matter.            Ice, beakers,
                   classified in terms of     with the states of matter                                 Activity: Students make chart to show        thermometers, stop
                   the three states of        and be able to name each                                  differences in properties and structure      watches, stearic acid in
                   matter, which are inter-   inter-conversion process.                                 of solids, liquids and gases                 boiling tube, heating
                   convertible.               They should be able to                                                                                 equipment, graph paper
                                                                                                        Activity: Melt ice to water, or cool
                                              describe and explain their
                                                                                                        molten stearic acid back to a solid. Plot
                                              inter-conversion in terms of
                                                                                                        a graph of temperature against time.
                                              how the particles are
                                                                                                        [3d: g]
                                              arranged and their
                                              movement.                                                 Discuss: The plateau of the graph in
                                              Students should                                           terms of energy being absorbed and
                                              understand the energy                                     used to break bonds, or energy being
                                              changes that accompany                                    given out by bonds forming.
                                              changes of state.
1.1b               Evidence for the           Students should be familiar                  1            Demo; Show suitable examples of
                   existence of particles     with simple diffusion                                     diffusion experiments or other
                   can be obtained from       experiments such as Br2 /                                 experiments to show that matter is
                   simple experiments.        air, NH3 / HCl, KMnO4 /                                   made from particles. [3d: m]
                                              water.
1.2 Atoms
1.2a               All substances are         Know that substances are                     2            Activity: Use the periodic table to elicit   Periodic table for
                   made of atoms. A           made of atoms. State that                                 answers about:                               chemistry
                   substance that is made     substances made of only
                                                                                                         list of known elements (about 100)         Information about the
                   of only one sort of        one sort of atom are called
                                                                                                         location of non-metals and metals          periodic table can be found
                   atom is called an          elements.
                                                                                                         groups and periods                         on the BBC website at
                   element. There are          Know that elements are


AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by guarantee registered in                                                                                  2
England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
                   Summary of the            Learning Outcomes                                          Possible teaching and Learning           Resource                     Examination
  Spec Reference




                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                            ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                              Students should:




                   about 100 different           found in the periodic                                   idea of atoms.                         www.bbc.co.uk/learningzo
                   elements. Elements            table and that groups                                   use of symbols and rules for their     ne/clips by searching for
                   are shown in the              contain elements with                                    use                                    ‘periodic table’.
                   periodic table. The           similar properties. State                               proton number, mass number.
                                                                                                                                                 VLE/Interactive software
                   groups contain                where metals and non-                                  Task: Students make notes on their       eg periodic table slides.
                   elements with similar         metals appear in the                                   periodic table, and in books.
                   properties.                   periodic table.
1.2b               Atoms of each element     Know that symbols                                                                                                                Be able to use
                   are represented by a      represent atoms of different                                                                                                     symbols
                   chemical symbol, eg O     elements.                                                                                                                        confidently.
                   represents an atom of
                   oxygen, Na represents
                   an atom of sodium.



1.2c               Atoms have a small        Know the structure of an                                   Task: Students view/draw diagrams of     VLE/Interactive software     Be able to
                   central nucleus, which    atom.                                                      basic atomic structure naming sub-       eg The Atom.                 calculate
                   is made up of protons                                                                atomic particles.                                                     numbers of
                   and neutrons, and                                                                                                                                          protons, neutrons,
                   around which there are                                                                                                                                     and electrons in
                   electrons.                                                                                                                                                 an atom, using
                                                                                                                                                                              the periodic table.
1.2d               The relative electrical   Know the charges on sub-                                   Discuss: charges on sub-atomic           View the Atomic structure    Know the
                   charges are as shown:     atomic particles.                                          particles, and produce chart in books.   PowerPoint presentation at   difference
                   Proton – charge of +1                                                                How Science Works: Drawing a table.      www.iteachbio.com/Chemi      between atomic
                   Neutron – no charge                                                                  [3d: g]                                  stry/Chemistry/Atomic%20     number and mass
                   Electron – charge of –                                                                                                                                     number.


AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by guarantee registered in                                                                             3
England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
                   Summary of the            Learning Outcomes                                          Possible teaching and Learning           Resource        Examination
  Spec Reference




                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                               ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                 Students should:




                   1                                                                                                                             Structure.ppt

1.2e               In an atom, the                                                                      Task: Work out number of electrons,
                   number of electrons is                                                               protons and neutrons in first ten
                   equal to the number of                                                               elements of periodic table. Results as
                   protons in the nucleus.                                                              diagrams or chart in books.
                   Atoms have no overall
                   electrical charge.
1.2k               The relative masses of                                                               Discuss: Give the students the mass
                   protons, neutrons and                                                                numbers for elements numbers 1-10.
                   electrons are:                                                                       Ask them to find the pattern between
                   Name of particle
                                                                                                        the mass numbers and sub-atomic
                   Mass
                                                                                                        particles. [3d: k]
                   Proton              1
                   Neutron             1
                   Electron        Very
                   small


1.2l               The relative atomic                                                                  Discuss: Why does chlorine have a Ar
                   mass of an element                                                                   of 35.5? Introduce idea of average
                   (Ar) compares the                                                                    value for mass number, and relate to
                   mass of atoms of the
                                                                                                        12C isotope. [3d: k]
                   element with the 12C
                   isotope. It is an
                   average value for the
                   isotopes of the
                   element.


AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by guarantee registered in                                                                4
England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
                   Summary of the            Learning Outcomes                                          Possible teaching and Learning          Resource   Examination
  Spec Reference




                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                         ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                           Students should:




1.2f               The number of protons     Students will be expected
                   in an atom of an          to calculate the numbers of
                   element is its atomic     each sub-atomic particle in
                   number. The sum of        an atom from its atomic
                   the protons and           number and mass number.
                   neutrons in an atom is
                   its mass number
1.2g               All atoms of a
                   particular element
                   have the same number
                   of protons. Atoms of
                   different elements
                   have different numbers
                   of protons.
1.2h               Atoms of the same                                                                    Task: Students to complete a chart
                   element can have                                                                     showing atoms of same element
                   different numbers of                                                                 having different numbers of neutrons,
                   neutrons; these atoms                                                                to develop idea of isotopes.
                   are called isotopes of
                   that element.
1.2i               Atoms can be                                                                         Introduce representation of different
                   represented as shown                                                                 atoms as:
                   in this example:
                   (Mass number) 23                                                                     40
                                    Na                                                                       K
                   (Atomic number) 11                                                                   19
                                                                                                        Homework: Students draw structures


AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by guarantee registered in                                                          5
England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
                   Summary of the             Learning Outcomes                                         Possible teaching and Learning             Resource                        Examination
  Spec Reference




                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                                 ‘hints and tips’
                                              What most students should
                                              be able to do                                             Homework                                                                   Students should:




                                                                                                        of several named atoms using the
                                                                                                        periodic table.
1.2j               Electrons occupy           Describe electron                            1            Review atomic structure, nucleus and       Electron shell diagram          Note: They do not
                   particular energy          arrangements for elements                                 electron cloud.                            sheet with elements             have full outer
                   levels. Each electron in   up to number 20.                                                                                     placed in same position as      shells, except for
                                                                                                        Explain: Introduce idea of shells within
                   an atom is at a            Students should be able to                                                                           periodic table, elements 1–     He and Ne. From
                                                                                                        the cloud, and filling numbers and
                   particular energy level    represent the electronic                                                                             20.                             Ne onwards they
                                                                                                        order. Use electron shell sheet to
                   (in a particular shell).   structure of the first 20                                                                                                            have eight
                                                                                                        complete them. Teacher completes           VLE/Interactive software
                   The electrons in an        elements of the                                                                                                                      electrons in their
                                                                                                        elements 1,2,3,7 and 11, students          eg periodic table slides.
                   atom occupy the            periodic table in the                                                                                                                outer shell.
                                                                                                        complete others.
                   lowest available           following forms:                                                                                     View the electron shell
                   energy levels                                                                        Recommend follow this lesson with          PowerPoint presentation at
                   (innermost available                                                                 first lesson listed under 4.1 The          http://education.jlab.org/jsa
                   shells).                                                                             periodic table. You may wish to flag up    t/powerpoint/chembond.pp
                                                                                                        the electronic structure of the noble      t
                                                                                                        gases prior to that lesson (continuity
                                                                                                        point).

1.3 Chemical reactions and related calculations
1.3h               No atoms are lost or       Know that all atoms                          1            Tasks: Students carry out and report       Balances, boiling tubes,        Be able to
                                                                                                                                                          3
                   made during a              involved in a reaction must                               precipitation reaction experiments such    25cm measuring                  calculate the
                   chemical reaction so       be accounted for.                                         as lead nitrate and potassium iodide to    cylinders, lead nitrate         mass of a
                                                                                                                                                                     -3
                   the mass of the            Calculate the amount of a                                 observe there is no change in mass on      solution 1mol dm                reactant or
                   products equals the        product or reactant from                                  forming products.                          potassium iodide 1 mol          product from
                                                                                                                                                       –3
                   mass of the reactants.     masses of other products                                  How Science Works: Write                   dm                              information about
                                              and reactants (the use of                                 method/plan of practical. [3d: a]                                          the masses of the
                                              relative atomic masses and                                                                                                           other reactants
                                              relative molecular masses                                 Use word and symbol equations to                                           and products in

AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by guarantee registered in                                                                                  6
England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
                   Summary of the            Learning Outcomes                                          Possible teaching and Learning            Resource                      Examination
  Spec Reference




                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                              ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                                Students should:




                                             is not needed here).                                       describe reactions.                                                     the reaction.
                                                                                                        Homework: Students do calculations
                                                                                                        using mass of reactants and products
                                                                                                        to find mass formed of one product or
                                                                                                        mass needed of one reactant.
1.3b               The relative formula      Students are expected to                      1            Task: Calculating relative formula        Periodic table and list of    Note: Students
                   mass (Mr) of a            use relative atomic masses                                 mass (Mr). Chemists need to be sure       formulae                      can choose to
                   compound is the sum       in the calculations specified                              of the amount of a compound present                                     learn the periodic
                                                                                                                                                  VLE / Interactive software,
                   of the relative atomic    in the subject content.                                    in terms of the number of molecules or                                  table in its
                                                                                                        atoms.                                    eg quantitative chemistry.
                   masses of the atoms in    Students should be able to                                                                                                         entirety; however,
                   the numbers shown in      calculate the relative                                     Explain: Show how to make the                                           the periodic table
                   the formula.              formula mass (Mr) of a                                     calculation for simple, then more                                       is usually given in
                                             compound from its formula.                                 complex formulae. It is a good idea to                                  the exam.
                                                                                                        revise what a formula tells you,
                                                                                                        especially where brackets are
                                                                                                        involved.
                                                                                                        Task: Students do examples of
                                                                                                        calculations with increasing
                                                                                                        complexity.
                                                                                                        Explain: that the figure they have
                                                                                                        calculated for each compound is
                                                                                                        known as 1 mole of that substance,
                                                                                                        and that for elements it is the same as
                                                                                                        the relative atomic mass.
1.3c               The relative formula      Understand that the Mr and                                 Understand that the Mr and Ar in grams
                   mass of a substance,      Ar in grams is known as

AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by guarantee registered in                                                                               7
England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
                   Summary of the            Learning Outcomes                                          Possible teaching and Learning            Resource                       Examination
  Spec Reference




                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                               ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                                 Students should:




                   in grams, is known as     one mole.                                                  is known as one mole.
                   one mole of that          Students are expected to
                                                                                                        Students are expected to use the
                   substance.                use the relative formula
                                                                                                        relative formula mass of a substance
                                             mass of a substance to
                                                                                                        to calculate the number of moles in a
                                             calculate the number of
                                                                                                        given mass of that substance and vice
                                             moles in a given mass of
                                                                                                        versa.
                                             that substance and vice
                                             versa.
1.3d               The percentage by         Be able to calculate                          1            Discuss: how to calculate relative        Exampro Extra Online
                   mass of an element in     percentage mass of a                                       formula mass.                             chemistry activity: moles
                   a compound can be         named element in a                                                                                   dominoes
                                                                                                        Explain: Show how to calculate
                   calculated from the       formula.
                                                                                                        percentage by mass of one element in
                   relative atomic mass of
                                                                                                        the formula. Students provide several
                   the element in the
                                                                                                        examples (they can use the same
                   formula and the
                                                                                                        examples as from the previous
                   relative formula mass
                                                                                                        lesson).
                   of the compound.


1.3e               The empirical formula     Calculate empirical                           2            Activity: Finding the formula of either   Magnesium, crucible and        Be able to work
                   of a compound can be      formulae, either from a                                    magnesium oxide or copper oxide.          lid, balance, crucible         out the formula of
                   calculated from the       graph or from mass data.                                   Students report their experiment.         tongs, spills and matches,     a compound from
                   masses or                                                                                                                      tripod, gauze, and Bunsen      the reacting
                                                                                                        Explain: Teacher led explanation of
                   percentages of the                                                                                                             burner.                        masses provided
                                                                                                        how to make the calculation using
                   elements in a                                                                        either the graph method or from mass      See Exampro Extra Online       in the question.
                   compound.                                                                            readings. Students find the formula       Practical Activity for other
                                                                                                        using chosen method.                      details.


AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by guarantee registered in                                                                                8
England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
                   Summary of the            Learning Outcomes                                          Possible teaching and Learning             Resource                     Examination
  Spec Reference




                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                              ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                                Students should:




                                                                                                        How Science Works: You could use           Graph paper.
                                                                                                        either a graphical method where each
                                                                                                                                                   VLE / Interactive software
                                                                                                        group plots their result on a graph to
                                                                                                        establish best fit line to get answer      eg quantitative chemistry.
                                                                                                        from, or calculate mean for the class to
                                                                                                        process using atomic masses. [3d: i, j,
                                                                                                        o, p]
                                                                                                        You could also use both methods to
                                                                                                        see which gives result closest to the
                                                                                                        true value. [3d: n]Students make
                                                                                                        notes.
                                                                                                        Homework: Give a formula
                                                                                                        calculation from reacting masses for
                                                                                                        another compound. Make sure
                                                                                                        students know the method from the
                                                                                                        experiment.
1.3f               Chemical reactions        Write word and balanced                       1            Task: Students write one word              VLE/Interactive software,
                   can be represented by     symbol equations for                                       equation to show general reaction.         eg chemical reactions.
                   word equations or by      reactions in the
                                                                                                        Introduce symbol equations
                   symbol equations.         specification.
                                                                                                        Explain: Show need for balancing the
                                                                                                        equation linked to idea of conservation
                                                                                                        of mass.
                                                                                                        Task: Students balance several
                                                                                                        equations themselves


AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by guarantee registered in                                                                               9
England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
                   Summary of the             Learning Outcomes                                         Possible teaching and Learning            Resource                      Examination
  Spec Reference




                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                              ‘hints and tips’
                                              What most students should
                                              be able to do                                             Homework                                                                Students should:




1.3g               Information about the      Use the state symbols (g),
                   states of reactants and    (l), (s) and (aq) in equations
                   products can be            where appropriate
                   included in chemical
                   reactions
1.3h               No atoms are lost or       Know that all atoms                          1            Task: Students carry out and report       Balances, boiling tubes, 25   Be able to
                                                                                                                                                     3
                   made during a              involved in a reaction must                               precipitation reaction experiments such   cm measuring cylinders,       calculate the
                   chemical reaction so       be accounted for.                                         as lead nitrate and potassium iodide to   lead nitrate solution 1 mol   mass of a
                                                                                                                                                     –3
                   the mass of the            Calculate the amount of a                                 observe there is no change in mass on     dm , potassium iodide 1       reactant or
                                                                                                                                                          –3
                   products equals the        product or reactant from                                  forming products.                         mol dm .                      product from
                   mass of the reactants      masses of other products                                                                                                          information about
                                                                                                        How Science Works: Make and
                                              and reactants (the use of                                                                                                         the masses of the
                                                                                                        record observations and
                                              relative atomic masses and                                                                                                        other reactants
                                                                                                        measurements [3d: g]
                                              relative molecular masses                                                                                                         and products in
                                              is not needed here).                                      Homework: Students do calculations                                      the reaction.
                                              Understand symbol                                         using mass of reactants and products
                                              equations, balance symbol                                 to find mass formed of one product or
                                              equations.                                                mass needed of one reactant.
1.3j               Even though no atoms       Know that:                                   1            Discuss: Class discussion about           Calculation worksheets.       Be able to
                   are gained or lost in a                                                              result of the experiment from last        VLE/Interactive software,     evaluate and
                                               the reaction may not go
                   chemical reaction, it is                                                             lessons, and why results are not          eg quantitative chemistry.    make judgements
                                                to completion because it
                   not always possible to       is reversible                                           always correct. [3d: i, j, o, p]                                        for the data in the
                   obtain the calculated       some of the product                                                                                                             question.
                                                                                                        Include reference to yield, and
                   amount of a product          may be lost when it is                                  percentage yield. Students make notes
                                                separated from the                                      on yield and percentage yield.
                                                reaction mixture
                                               some of the reactants                                   How Science Works: Could work out

AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by guarantee registered in                                                                              10
England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
                   Summary of the            Learning Outcomes                                          Possible teaching and Learning             Resource   Examination
  Spec Reference




                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                            ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                              Students should:




                                                 may react in ways                                      the source of errors and type of errors
                                                 different from the                                     in the experiment, and make
                                                 expected reaction.                                     notes/definitions of these. [3d: j] A
                                                                                                        table might also be useful:


                                                                                                         error   definition       what to
                                                                                                                                  do about
                                                                                                                                  it.



                                                                                                        Discuss: Class discussion on
                                                                                                        development issues relating to starting
                                                                                                        materials, yield, and energy, ie How
                                                                                                        long will the reactants be available?
                                                                                                        How much of the product do we get,
                                                                                                        and how much does it cost? Gold is an
                                                                                                        example. It can be obtained from sea
                                                                                                        water by electrolysis, but it costs more
                                                                                                        in energy than the value of the gold, In
                                                                                                        the Amazon rainforest it can be
                                                                                                        obtained from ores, using mercury.
                                                                                                        Losses of mercury to the environment
                                                                                                        means that whilst the process is
                                                                                                        economic, the level of pollution is not
                                                                                                        sustainable. Students make brief
                                                                                                        notes.

AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by guarantee registered in                                                           11
England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
                   Summary of the            Learning Outcomes                                          Possible teaching and Learning            Resource                     Examination
  Spec Reference




                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                             ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                               Students should:




1.3k               The amount of a           Calculate the percentage of
                   product obtained is       an element in a compound,
                   known as the yield.       given its formula.
                   When compared with
                                             Calculate percentage yields
                   the maximum
                                             of reactions.
                   theoretical amount as
                   a percentage, it is       Calculate empirical
                   called the percentage     formulae.
                   yield.
1.3i               The masses of             Calculate the masses of                                    Do calculations on masses of
                   reactants and products    individual products from a                                 reactants and products from balanced
                   can be calculated from    given mass of a reactant                                   symbol equations. Students make
                   balanced symbol           and the balanced symbol                                    notes.
                   equations.                equation.
                                                                                                        After several examples could now
                                             Balance symbol equations.                                  calculate their own expected yield for
                                                                                                        the copper oxide/magnesium oxide
                                                                                                        experiment, and hence the percentage
                                                                                                        yield.
1.3l               In some chemical          Explain what is meant by a                    1               Task: Students carry out circus of     Test tube, copper sulfate,
                   reactions, the products   reversible reaction, and its                                    reversible reactions:                spatulas, stand and clamp,
                                                                                                                                                                    3
                   of the reaction can       symbol.                                                                                              pipette and 100cm
                                                                                                            copper sulfate hydration/
                   react to produce the                                                                                                           beaker.
                                             Name a reversible reaction.                                     dehydration
                   original reactants.
                                                                                                            heating ammonium chloride in a       See Exampro Extra Online
                   Such reactions are
                                                                                                             test tube                            Practical Guide for other
                   called reversible
                                                                                                            adding alkali and acid alternately   details.
                   reactions and are
                                                                                                             to bromine water or to

AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by guarantee registered in                                                                            12
England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
                   Summary of the            Learning Outcomes                                          Possible teaching and Learning            Resource                    Examination
  Spec Reference




                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                            ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                              Students should:




                   represented:                                                                              potassium chromate solution          VLE/Interactive software,
                                                                                                            ’blue bottle’ reaction (RSC          eg reversible reactions.
                   A+B            C+D                                                                        Classic Chemistry Experiments
                                                                                                             no. 83)
                                                                                                            oscillating reaction (RSC Classic
                                                                                                             Chemistry Experiments no.140).
                                                                                                        Students make notes on reversible
                                                                                                        reactions and the meaning of the
                                                                                                        double headed arrow.
2 Bonding and structure
2.1 Bonding and 2.2 Structure and how it influences the properties and uses of substances
2.1c               Substances that           Recognise that compounds                      1                                                      Dry samples of NaCl,        Remember
                                                                                                        Task: Students should investigate the
                   consist of simple         with low melting and boiling                                                                         MgSO4, Al2O3, wax and       compounds that
                                                                                                        melting point, conductivity, solubility                   3
                   molecules are gases,      points are likely to be                                                                              ethanol, 100 cm beakers,    are liquid or gas
                                                                                                        and use of hand lens to study crystal
                   liquids or solids that    simple molecules.                                                                                    carbon electrodes, wires,   at room
                                                                                                        structure of both ionic and covalent
                   have relatively low                                                                                                            power packs, test tubes,
                                             Know that compounds can                                    compounds such as NaCl, MgSO4,                                        temperature will
                   melting points and                                                                                                             spills and matches, hand
                                             be classified according to                                 Al2O3, wax and ethanol. Students                                      have low melting
                   boiling points.                                                                                                                lenses, clamps and
                                             their properties.                                          report their experiment.                                              and boiling points.
                                                                                                                                                  stands.
                                                                                                        How Science Works: Develop
                                                                                                        hypothesis to explain known facts, eg
                                                                                                        there are two groups of compounds,
                                                                                                        why are they different? [3d: m]
                                                                                                        Draw out idea that these compounds
                                                                                                        can be put into two groups according
                                                                                                        to their properties:

AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by guarantee registered in                                                                            13
England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
                   Summary of the             Learning Outcomes                                         Possible teaching and Learning           Resource                        Examination
  Spec Reference




                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                               ‘hints and tips’
                                              What most students should
                                              be able to do                                             Homework                                                                 Students should:




                                                                                                         easy to melt and poor electrical
                                                                                                          conductors ( non-metal
                                                                                                          compounds)
                                                                                                         very hard to melt and good
                                                                                                          electrical conductors in solution
                                                                                                          (metal-containing compounds)
                                                                                                        This activity could be undertaken at
                                                                                                        home as Homework.



2.1b               Chemical bonding                                                        1
                   involves either
                   transferring or sharing
                   electrons in the highest
                   occupied energy levels
                   (shells) of atoms in
                   order to achieve the
                   electronic structure of
                   a noble gas.
2.1c               When atoms form            Students should know that                                 Ionic bonding                            Periodic table                  Know that the
                   chemical bonds by          metals form positive ions,                                                                                                         charge on an ion
                                                                                                        Activity: draw out ideas of electron     View the bonding
                   transferring electrons,    whereas non-metals form                                                                                                            is related to its
                                                                                                        shells, and noble gas configuration as   PowerPoint presentation at
                   they form ions. Atoms      negative ions.                                                                                                                     group in the
                                                                                                        being unreactive.                        http://education.jlab.org/jsa
                   that lose electrons        Students should be able to                                                                         t/powerpoint/chembond.pp        periodic table.
                   become positively                                                                    Task: Students draw diagrams to
                                              represent the electron                                                                             t                               Use their periodic
                   charged ions. Atoms                                                                  explain how Na donates/transfers
                                              arrangement of ions in the                                                                         VLE/Interactive software        table list to check
                   that gain electrons                                                                  electron to Cl, so both achieve noble
                                              following form:                                                                                    eg bonding part 1.

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
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                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                         ‘hints and tips’
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                                              be able to do                                             Homework                                           Students should:




                   become negatively                                                                    gas electronic structure.                          the charge on
                   charged ions. Ions                                                                                                                      each ion.
                                                                                                        Students attempt another single
                   have the electronic        for sodium ion (Na+)
                                                                                                        electron transfer compound, such as
                   structure of a noble                                                                 potassium fluoride, before trying
                   gas (Group 0).                                                                       magnesium oxide, and calcium
                                                                                                        chloride.
                                                                                                        Homework: Students could try to
                                                                                                        explain in terms of electron transfer
                                                                                                        other simple related ionic compounds.
                                              Students should be able to
                                              relate the charge on simple
                                              ions to the group number of
                                              the element in the periodic
                                              table.
                                              Know that noble gas
                                              structure is unreactive.
2.1d               The elements in Group      Explain the electrical
                   1 of the periodic table,   conductivity of ionic
                   the alkali metals, all     substances.
                   react with non-metal
                   elements to form ionic
                   compounds in which
                   the metal ion has a
                   single positive charge.
2.1e               The elements in Group
                   7 of the periodic table,

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
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                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                             Students should:




                   the halogens, all react
                   with the alkali metals
                   to form ionic
                   compounds in which
                   the halide ions have a
                   single negative charge.
2.2b               When melted or                                                                       Explain: how ionic substances, when
                   dissolved in water,                                                                  dissolved in water, can conduct
                   ionic compounds                                                                      electricity (and why as solids they
                   conduct electricity                                                                  cannot). Students make notes.
                   because the ions are
                   free to move and carry
                   the current.
                                             Use periodic table to write                   1            Explain: Teacher to explain method        Periodic table             Remember the
                                             correct formula for ionic                                  for writing formulae.                                                formula multiplies
                                                                                                                                                  VLE/Interactive software
                                             compounds.                                                                                                                      everything inside
                                                                                                        Task: Students work out formulae for      eg bonding part 1
                                                                                                                                                                             the brackets by
                                                                                                        named compounds using periodic
                                                                                                                                                                             the number
                                                                                                        table for charges. At first concentrate
                                                                                                                                                                             outside, when
                                                                                                        on simple compounds with only two
                                                                                                                                                                             dealing with
                                                                                                        elements in them. Move on to more
                                                                                                                                                                             molecular ions.
                                                                                                        complex ones (acid radicals/molecular
                                                                                                        ions etc) requiring the use of brackets                              Be careful to use
                                                                                                        when Students are confident about                                    only subscript
                                                                                                        simple balancing of charges.                                         numbers to avoid
                                                                                                        Homework: More examples of                                           confusion with the
                                                                                                        formulae.                                                            charge. Never
                                                                                                                                                                             change the

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
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                                               What most students should
                                               be able to do                                            Homework                                                                  Students should:




                                                                                                                                                                                  subscript number,
                                                                                                                                                                                  instead they
                                                                                                                                                                                  should bracket
                                                                                                                                                                                  the polyatomic ion
                                                                                                                                                                                  and put a fresh
                                                                                                                                                                                  subscript outside
                                                                                                                                                                                  the bracket.

2.1f               An ionic compound is                                                    1
                   a giant structure of
                   ions. Ionic compounds
                   are held together by
                   strong electrostatic
                   forces of attraction
                   between oppositely
                   charged ions. These
                   forces act in all
                   directions in the lattice
                   and this is called ionic
                   bonding.

2.2a               Ionic compounds have        Describe NaCl crystal                                    Discuss: Why are ionic compounds          NaCl lattice model.
                   regular structures          lattice and why it doesn’t                               hard to melt? Relate this to regular
                                                                                                                                                  View the bonding
                   (giant ionic lattices) in   conduct electricity and is                               structure of sodium chloride crystal
                                                                                                                                                  PowerPoint presentation at
                   which there are strong      hard to melt.                                            structure, leading to idea of crystal
                                                                                                                                                  http://education.jlab.org/jsa
                   electrostatic forces in                                                              formation form solution in regular way.
                                                                                                                                                  t/powerpoint/chembond.pp
                   all directions between                                                               Task: Students could make their own       t
                   oppositely charged

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
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                                              What most students should
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                   ions. These                                                                          model from marshmallows and
                                                                                                                                                   VLE/Interactive software,
                   compounds have high                                                                  spaghetti (or similar).
                                                                                                                                                   eg bonding part 1.
                   melting points and high                                                              Students draw diagrams to explain          Marshmallows (breakfast
                   boiling points because                                                               properties of sodium chloride.             size) and spaghetti.
                   of the large amounts of
                   energy needed to                                                                     Explain: consequences of how these
                   break the many strong                                                                lattices result in high melting and
                   bonds.                                                                               boiling points, and inability to conduct
                                                                                                        electricity. Students make notes.
2.1b               Chemical bonding                                                        1
                   involves either
                   transferring or sharing
                   electrons in the highest
                   occupied energy levels
                   (shells) of atoms in
                   order to achieve the
                   electronic structure of
                   a noble gas.
2.1g               When atoms share                                                                     Covalent bonding                           View the bonding
                   pairs of electrons, they                                                                                                        PowerPoint presentation at
                   form covalent bonds.                                                                                                            http://education.jlab.org/jsa
                   These bonds between                                                                                                             t/powerpoint/chembond.pp
                   atoms are strong.                                                                                                               t
                   Some covalently
                                                                                                                                                   VLE/Interactive software
                   bonded substances
                                                                                                                                                   eg Bonding part 2.
                   consist of simple
                   molecules such as H2,                                                                                                           Molymods
                   Cl2, O2, HCl, H2O, NH3

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
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                                             What most students should
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                   and CH4.

2.1h               Compounds formed          Students should be able to                                 Discuss: Bonding in non-metal                                      Remember CH4 is
                   from non-metals           represent the covalent                                     compounds. Teacher led discussion                                  made up of two
                   consist of molecules.     bonds in molecules such as                                 into properties of non-metal                                       elements and is
                   In molecules, the         water, ammonia, hydrogen,                                  compounds, relating to the electronic                              not just a single
                   atoms are held            hydrogen chloride,                                         arrangements of non-metals and that
                                                                                                                                                                           element
                   together by covalent      methane and oxygen in the                                  electron shells are nearly full.
                   bonds.                    following forms:
                                                                                                        Task: Students to show/draw
                                                                                                        structures of, H2, Cl2, O2, HCl, H2O,
                                                                                                        NH3 and CH4.
                                                                                                        Students draw diagrams to explain
                                                                                                        covalent bonding. Students should do
                                                                                                        some of these themselves as they
                                                                                                        demonstrate understanding.
                                             Students should be able to
                                             recognise other simple
                                             molecules and giant
                                             structures from diagrams
                                             that show their bonding.
2.2c               Substances that           Explain:                                      1            Explain: Teacher-led explanation that     Exampro Extra Online     Be able to explain
                   consist of simple           why covalent molecules                                  shared pairs of electrons are covalent    Chemistry Activity:      that
                   molecules are gases,          have low melting and                                   bonds; why covalent bonds are poor        Structure and bonding.   intermolecular
                   liquids or solids that        boiling points                                         conductors of electricity; why covalent                            forces are weak
                                                                                                                                                  Exampro Extra Online
                   have relatively low         that there are weak                                     compounds have low melting and
                                                                                                                                                  Chemistry Activity:
                                                                                                                                                                           in comparison
                   melting points and            forces of attraction                                   boiling points, and that there are very                            with covalent
                                                                                                                                                  Bonding snap.
                   boiling points.               between the molecules                                  weak forces between molecules, not                                 bonds.
                                                 that need overcoming at                                strong bonds as in ionic compounds.

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                                              be able to do                                             Homework                                          Students should:




                                                melting and boiling.
                                                                                                        Task: Students make notes, or answer
                                               why covalent molecules
                                                                                                        questions from DART worksheet,
                                                are unable to conduct
                                                                                                        including questions about unknown
                                                electricity
                                                                                                        substances and their structures.
                                              Students need to
                                                                                                        Homework: Past paper question on
                                              understand that
                                                                                                        compound properties and structures.
                                              intermolecular forces are
                                              weak compared with
                                              covalent bonds
                                              Suggest the type of
                                              structure of a substance
                                              given its properties.
2.2d               Substances that
                   consist of simple
                   molecules have only
                   weak forces between
                   the molecules
                   (intermolecular forces).
                   It is these
                   intermolecular forces
                   that are overcome, not
                   the covalent bonds,
                   when the substance
                   melts or boils.
2.2e               Substances that
                   consist of simple


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                   molecules do not
                   conduct electricity
                   because the molecules
                   do not have an overall
                   electric charge.
2.2f               Atoms that share           Recognise diamond and                        1            Task: Use a DART worksheet with          DART worksheet, and        Know that
                   electrons can also         graphite from their                                       some teacher input and access to         models and diagrams of     graphite is similar
                   form giant structures or   structures.                                               models of diamond, graphite and          diamond, graphite and      to metals in that it
                   macromolecules.                                                                      silicon dioxide to allow students to     fullerenes.                has delocalised
                                              Recognise other examples
                   Diamond and graphite                                                                 explore and understand how the                                      electrons.
                                              of giant covalent structures                                                                       VLE/Interactive software
                   (forms of carbon) and                                                                structure of each substance relates to
                                              from diagrams.                                                                                     eg bonding.                Be able to
                   silicon dioxide (silica)                                                             its properties.
                                                                                                                                                                            recognise other
                   are examples of giant      Explain the differences in
                                                                                                        Students annotate diagrams and make                                 giant structures or
                   covalent structures        the properties of diamond
                                                                                                        notes to explain structures and                                     macromolecules
                   (lattices) of atoms. All   and graphite.
                                                                                                        properties.                                                         from diagrams
                   the atoms in these         Know they are examples of                                                                                                     showing their
                                                                                                        Provide students with diagrams for
                   structures are linked to   the same element carbon.                                                                                                      bonding.
                                                                                                        labelling, particularly of fullerenes.
                   other atoms by strong                                                                                                                                    Concentrate on
                                              Relate the properties of
                   covalent bonds and so                                                                                                                                    the use of
                                              substances to their uses.
                   they have very high                                                                                                                                      unknown
                   melting points.                                                                                                                                          substances and
                                                                                                                                                                            relate it to the
                                                                                                                                                                            property using
                                                                                                                                                                            knowledge of
                                                                                                                                                                            similar structures
                                                                                                                                                                            and their


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                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                             Students should:




                                                                                                                                                                             properties.

2.2g               In diamond, each          Know carbon atoms in
                   carbon atom forms         diamond have four covalent
                   four covalent bonds       bonds.
                   with other carbon
                   atoms in a giant
                   covalent structure, so
                   diamond is very hard.
2.2h               In graphite, each         Students should be able to                                 Activity: Investigate the properties of   Graphite, apparatus to
                   carbon atom bonds to      explain the properties of                                  graphite, including leaving marks on      investigate electrical
                   three others, forming     graphite in terms of weak                                  paper, conduction of electricity, high    conductivity, test tubes
                   layers. The layers are    forces between the layers.                                 melting point.                            and Bunsen burner.
                   free to slide over each
                   other because there
                   are no covalent bonds
                   between the layers
                   and so graphite is soft
                   and slippery.
2.2i               In graphite, one          Students should realise that
                   electron from each        graphite is similar to metals
                   carbon atom is            in that it has delocalised
                   delocalised. These        electrons.
                   delocalised electrons
                   allow graphite to
                   conduct heat and
                   electricity.

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                                               be able to do                                            Homework                                                               Students should:




2.2j               Carbon can also form        Research fullerenes,                                     Research fullerenes, models of
                   fullerenes with different   models of fullerenes and                                 fullerenes and their uses.
                   numbers of carbon           their uses.
                   atoms. Fullerenes can
                   be used for drug
                   delivery into the body,
                   in lubricants, as
                   catalysts, and in
                   nanotubes for
                   reinforcing materials,
                   eg in tennis racquets.
2.2k               Nanoscience refers to       Students should know what                   1            Task: Students use internet and other   View the ‘nanoscience          Be able to
                   structures that are 1–      is meant by nanoscience                                  resources to find out about             uses’ PowerPoint               describe why a
                   100 nm in size, of the      and nanoparticles and                                    nanoscience, and nanoparticles, and     presentation at                named and
                   order of a few hundred      should consider some of                                  their current applications.             http://nanosense.sri.com/a     explained
                   atoms. Nanoparticles        the applications of these                                                                        ctivities/sizematters/applic   nanoparticle
                                                                                                        Task: In groups produce mini project/
                   show different              materials, but do not need                                                                       ations/SM_AppSlides.ppt        would be useful in
                                                                                                        poster.
                   properties to the same      to know specific examples                                                                                                       a particular
                   materials in bulk and       or properties.                                           Alternatively groups give class                                        application.
                   have a high surface                                                                  presentation on one use of
                                               Questions may be set on                                                                                                         Note: Students
                   area to volume ratio,                                                                nanoparticles they have researched.
                                               information that is provided                                                                                                    do not need to
                   which may lead to the       about these materials and                                Homework: Student to answer                                            know any specific
                   development of new          their uses.                                              question on development and                                            examples.
                   computers, new                                                                       application of new materials.
                   catalysts, new
                   coatings, highly
                   selective sensors,

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                   stronger and lighter
                   construction materials,
                   and new cosmetics
                   such as suntan creams
                   and deodorants.
3 Air and Water

3.1 Air and oxygen
3.1a               Air is a mixture of       Students should recall the                    1            Demo: on the gases present in the air.   VLE/Interactive software,
                   gases with different      approximate composition of                                 Best one is the classic two syringes     eg Earth and atmosphere.
                   boiling points.           air in terms of percentages                                one using copper, followed by burning
                                                                                                                                                 RSC Alchemy disc has
                                             of oxygen and nitrogen.                                    magnesium in the nitrogen and making
                                                                                                                                                 section on gases from the
                                                                                                        ammonia.
                                                                                                                                                 air. Further information can
                                                                                                        Task: Students draw diagrams and         be found at
                                                                                                        chart of gases in air today              www.rsc.org/Education/Te
                                                                                                                                                 achers/Resources/Alchem
                                                                                                                                                 y/index.htm
                                                                                                                                                 A video on Joseph
                                                                                                                                                 Priestley and the discovery
                                                                                                                                                 of gases can be found on
                                                                                                                                                 the BBC website at
                                                                                                                                                 www.bbc.co.uk/learningzo
                                                                                                                                                 ne/clips by searching for
                                                                                                                                                 clip’2078’
3.1b               Dry air, free from        Knowledge of the boiling                                   View: Watch video on fractional
                   carbon dioxide, can be    points of the different gases                              distillation of air, and make notes as


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                   liquefied and then          is not required.                                         flow diagram of the process.
                   fractionally distilled to
                   obtain oxygen and
                   nitrogen.
3.1c               Elements can burn in        Students should be able to                  1            Activity: Students burn elements (Mg,
                   air to form oxides,         describe the burning of Na,                              Fe, C) in gas jar or boiling tube of air
                   which can be classified     Mg, Fe, C and S. They                                    containing small quantity of water in it.
                   as acidic, basic and        should know that water-                                  After combustion, add two drops of
                   amphoteric.                 soluble oxides of metals                                 universal indicator solution, stopper,
                                               give alkaline solutions and                              and shake. Observe pH of solution
                                               those of non-metals give                                 made.
                                               acidic solutions.
                                                                                                        Demo: Teacher repeats using oxygen
                                                                                                        gas and gas jars. Also uses Na and S.
                                                                                                        Students make notes about oxides of
                                                                                                        elements, and also ideas of oxidation
                                                                                                        and reduction.
                                                                                                        Symbol equations can be used or
                                                                                                        written here.
3.1d               When substances burn        Students should be able to
                   in air they are reacting    describe a test for oxygen.
                   with the oxygen.
3.1e               Oxidation and
                   reduction reactions
                   involve the addition
                   and removal of oxygen
                   respectively.

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3.2 Water
3.2a               Natural waters contain    Students should be aware                      2            Discuss: clean water (PMI).                                          Note: Clean
                   dissolved salts, which    that pure water can be                                                                                                          water is usually
                                                                                                        Task: Either class or demo
                   can be removed to         made by distillation and                                                                            Watch glass, beaker and     referring to tap
                                                                                                        Evaporate some tap water on a watch
                   obtain pure water.        that desalination is an                                                                             heating equipment to        water or water
                                                                                                        glass to dryness to assess how much
                                             important method of                                                                                 evaporate some of the tap   safe to drink. It
                                                                                                        dissolved solids it contains.
                                             obtaining water for                                                                                 water to dryness.           contains other
                                             domestic use in some                                       Discuss: the need for ‘clean’ water,                                 chemicals that
                                             countries.                                                 and what this means. Note: One                                       are not toxic, so
                                                                                                        method of getting pure water is                                      that water can be
                                             Students should know the
                                                                                                        distillation.                                                        safely drunk.
                                             boiling point of pure water
                                                                                                                                                                             Note: Avoid
                                             and a simple chemical test                                 Demo: Demonstrate distillation of salt   Simple distillation         confusion with
                                             to show the presence of                                    water and remind students about how      equipment of salt water.
                                             water.                                                                                                                          pure water, which
                                                                                                        it works. Economics in terms of energy
                                                                                                        requirements and vast volumes                                        contains only
                                                                                                        needed means it is not viable to                                     water molecules.
                                                                                                        produce drinking eater from except in
                                                                                                        extreme circumstances.
                                                                                                        Tests: Demonstrate the tests for a)
                                                                                                        presence of water (cobalt chloride       Boiling tube and
                                                                                                        paper); b) pure water.(b.p. of water)    thermometer, cobalt
                                                                                                        Video: Watch video clip or a video on    chloride paper
                                                                                                        water purification and students          A video on water
                                                                                                        complete a flowchart to explain          purification can be found
                                                                                                        process.                                 on
                                                                                                                                                 www.teachersdomain.org/
                                                                                                                                                 asset/ess05_vid_h2otreat

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
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                                                                                                                                                   ment
                                                                                                                                                   Alternatively, there is a
                                                                                                                                                   video on ‘Chemistry in
                                                                                                                                                   Action’ (you may have a
                                                                                                                                                   copy lurking somewhere).
3.2b               Drinking water should      Students should be aware                                  Emphasise the need to remove some
                   have sufficiently low      that water of the correct                                 dissolved, but not all, substances and
                   levels of dissolved        quality is produced by                                    the need to add chlorine to kill
                   salts and microbes.        passing water from a                                      bacteria, and possibly (controversially)
                                              suitable source through                                   fluoride compounds to improve dental
                                              filter beds to remove solids,                             health.
                                              and then sterilising with
                                              chlorine.
3.2c               Water filters containing   Detailed knowledge of                                     Discuss: How water filters and ion
                   carbon, silver and ion     specific water filters is not                             exchange works.
                   exchange resins can        required. Examination
                   remove some                questions may give
                   dissolved substances       information about water
                   from tap water to          filters so that comparisons
                   improve the taste and      can be made.
                   quality.
                                              Students should
                                              understand the principles of
                                              how ion exchange resins
                                              work, but do not need
                                              detailed knowledge of the
                                              structure or chemical
                                              nature of specific resins.


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                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                                   Students should:




3.2d               Chlorine may be           Students should be aware
                   added to drinking         of the arguments for and
                   water to reduce           against the addition of
                   microbes and fluoride     fluoride to drinking water.
                   may be added to
                   improve dental health.
3.3 Rusting
3.3a               Both air and water are    Students should know that                     2            Students’ activity: Devise a method        Small iron nails, test tubes,
                   necessary for iron to     rusting refers to the                                      to find out if air/oxygen, and/or water    vegetable oil, cotton wool,
                   rust.                     corrosion of iron. They                                    are necessary for rusting to take place.   stoppers, calcium chloride
                                             should be able to describe                                 Carry out the experiment and obtain        (dried)
                                             and interpret experiments                                  results next lesson.
                                             to show that both air and
                                                                                                        Write up method with risk assessment
                                             water are necessary for
                                                                                                        [3d: a), c), d), ]
                                             rusting.
                                                                                                        Activity; analyse results to get
                                                                                                        conclusion.
                                                                                                        Discuss: Suggest the need to see if
                                                                                                        results are reproducible or repeatable.
                                                                                                        [3d: n]
3.3b               There are a number of     Students should be able to                                 Activity: Use a DART or similar for
                   ways in which rusting     recall and explain some                                    ideas of rust prevention.
                   can be prevented,         methods of rust prevention,
                   most of which are         eg greasing, painting and
                   based on the exclusion    sacrificial protection.
                   of air and water.
4 The periodic table

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4.1 The periodic table
4.1b               Elements in the same      Know that elements in the                     1            Demo: Li, Na and K with water. Show       Large glass trough,              Note: Students
                   group in the periodic     same group have similar                                    H2 gas produced and alkali solution as    universal indicator, small       are not required
                   table have the same       reactions because they                                     well.                                     pieces ( rice grain) of alkali   to know of trends
                   number of electrons in    have identical numbers of                                  Task: Students describe tests and         metals Li, Na, K, forceps,       within each group
                   their highest energy      outer electrons.                                           write word equations for the reactions.   paper towels, scalpel,           in the periodic
                   level (outer electrons)                                                                                                        safety screen, glass tube        table.
                                             Know that the number of                                    How Science Works: Making a
                   and this gives them                                                                                                            (8mm wide), splints and
                                             outer electrons determines                                 prediction. Ask students what they                                         Be aware of
                   similar chemical                                                                                                               matches.
                                             how an atom reacts. Atoms                                  think reaction of Caesium (Cs) would                                       similarities
                   properties.
                                             with eight electrons in their                              be, show video clip of reaction with                                       between the
                                             outer shell are unreactive,                                water. [3d: f]                                                             elements within a
                                             ie the noble gases.                                        Demo: Burning Li, Na and K in air to                                       group.
                                                                                                        react with oxygen.
4.1c               The elements in Group     Know that noble gases
                   0 of the periodic table   have eight outer electrons,
                   are called the noble      except for helium, which
                   gases. They are           has two.
                   unreactive because
                   their atoms have
                   stable arrangements of
                   electrons.
4.1a               The periodic table is                                                   1            Discuss: What is the periodic table?      Periodic table cards.
                   arranged in order of                                                                 or the five ‘Ws’ (Why, What, Where,       These should be of
                   atomic (proton)                                                                      When and Who). Limit answers to just      elements 1–53, excluding
                   number and so that                                                                   a list of elements in a funny shape.      the noble gases and 32.
                   elements with similar                                                                                                          Group 1 cards should be
                                                                                                        Activity: Periodic table card game
                   properties are in                                                                                                              one colour, Group 2 a
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                   columns, known as                                                                                                                 second colour, Group 5 a
                                                                                                        The object of the game is to see the
                   groups. The table is                                                                                                              third colour, Group 6 a
                                                                                                        problems and solutions found by both
                   called a periodic table                                                                                                           fourth colour and Group 7
                                                                                                        Newlands and Mendeleev using only
                   because similar                                                                                                                   a fifth colour. Each card
                                                                                                        the information they had in 1860s.
                   properties occur at                                                                                                               should only have atomic
                                                                                                        Each group has 47 cards of elements
                   regular intervals.                                                                                                                mass, symbol and name.
                                                                                                        known by Newlands and Mendeleev,
                                                                                                        and each card has information on it          VLE / Interactive software,
                                                                                                        that they knew.                              the periodic table.
                                                                                                        Round 1: Working in pairs and not            Exampro Extra Online
                                                                                                        using the periodic table sort the cards      Chemistry Activity: The
                                                                                                        into a logical order, eg alphabetically or   development of the
                                                                                                        numerically. Place on table. Is it a         periodic table.
                                                                                                        sensible order, does it tell you anything
                                                                                                        about the elements and their
                                                                                                        properties?
                                                                                                        Round 2 (Newlands): Draw attention
                                                                                                        to the cards that are coloured. Remind
                                                                                                        them about Groups, refer back to
                                                                                                        Group 1 reactions. Sort according to
                                                                                                        mass, then place in rows of 8. Note
                                                                                                        that at first, you get a regular pattern,
                                                                                                        After element with mass 40, the
                                                                                                        pattern breaks down. This is where
                                                                                                        Newlands failed to gain recognition.
                                                                                                        Round 3 (Mendeleev): Take
                                                                                                        Newlands’ order and adjust it. Show
                                                                                                        that if H is kept separate, and the third

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                                                                                                        row is elongated, that the pattern re-
                                                                                                        establishes itself, up to Ga. Show
                                                                                                        pattern re-establishes under P.
                                                                                                        Mendeleev decided that ‘he didn’t
                                                                                                        know everything’ and so he left a gap
                                                                                                        for an undiscovered element.
                                                                                                        Complete final row, and show that on
                                                                                                        Mendeleev’s method, I comes before
                                                                                                        TE.
                                                                                                        Task: Students make notes on
                                                                                                        Newland’s method, and why it didn’t
                                                                                                        gain acceptance. Mendeleev’s method,
                                                                                                        including the key ideas of leaving gaps
                                                                                                        for undiscovered elements and also
                                                                                                        small adjustments to fit known
                                                                                                        properties of the elements.
4.1b               Elements in the same
                   group in the periodic
                   table have the same
                   number of electrons in
                   their highest energy
                   level (outer electrons)
                   and this gives them
                   similar chemical
                   properties.


4.1c               The elements in Group     Students should know that

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                   0 of the periodic table   the noble gases have eight
                   are called the noble      electrons in their outer
                   gases. They are           energy level, except for
                   unreactive because        helium, which has only two
                   their atoms have          electrons.
                   stable arrangements of
                   electrons.
4.2 Trends within the periodic table
4.2a               The elements in Group     Describe the reactions of                     2            Review metals in the periodic table.   Demo: large glass trough,
                   1 of the periodic table   Group 1 metals with water,                                                                        universal indicator, small
                                                                                                        Demo: Place sodium in water, to
                   (known as the alkali      air and chlorine.                                                                                 pieces ( rice grain) of alkali
                                                                                                        obtain ideas of density in water,
                   metals):                                                                                                                    metals Li, Na, K, forceps,
                                             Know that Group 1 metals                                   release hydrogen and form hydroxides
                    are metals with low     form 1+ ions.                                              (revision from Unit 1).                paper towels, scalpel,
                     density (the first                                                                                                        safety screen, glass tube
                                             Know that they form                                        Burn sodium in chlorine gas, show      (8mm wide), splints and
                     three elements in
                                             hydroxides that dissolve in                                formation of compound, and charges     matches.
                     the group are less
                                             water to give alkaline                                     on both Group 1 metal and also Group
                     dense than water)
                                             solutions.                                                 7 non-metal.
                    react with non-
                     metals to form ionic                                                               Task: Students draw diagrams of the
                     compounds in                                                                       reaction of Na with Cl.
                     which the metal ion
                     carries a charge of
                     +1. The compounds
                     are white solids that
                     dissolve in water to
                     form colourless
                     solutions


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                     react with water,
                      releasing hydrogen
                     form hydroxides
                      that dissolve in
                      water to give
                      alkaline solutions.
4.2b               In Group 1, the further
                   down the group an
                   element is, the more
                   reactive the element.
4.2c               Compared with the         Know that transition metals                                Look at transition metals and their           Sealed samples of every
                   elements in Group 1,      typically:                                                 compounds.                                    transition metal compound
                   transition elements:                                                                                                               in the chemical store that
                                               form coloured                                           Circus of 15 stages with samples of
                                                                                                                                                      is coloured (avoid zinc
                    have higher melting        compounds                                               compounds in sealed bottles, and
                                                                                                                                                      compounds). Each sample
                     points (except for        are used as catalysts                                   samples of transition metals, with a
                                                                                                                                                      to be labelled and given its
                     mercury) and              are harder and denser                                   beaker of water.
                                                                                                                                                      formula.
                     higher densities           than Group 1 metals.                                    Task: Students record each base on a
                    are stronger and          are less reactive with                                  results chart. For compounds they use
                                                                                                                                                      Samples of five transition
                     harder                     water and oxygen.                                       this chart:                                   metals: Zn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Ag
                    are much less                                                                                                                               3
                     reactive and so do                                                                  name of      formula        description      5 × 250cm beakers of
                     not react as
                                                                                                         compound                                     water.
                     vigorously with                                                                                                                  VLE / Interactive software
                     water or oxygen.                                                                                                                 eg transition metals.
                                                                                                        For metals they use this chart:
                                                                                                         name    can it   can it        description
                                                                                                         of      be       float on
                                                                                                         metal   bent?    water?


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4.2d               Many transition                                                                      Discuss: elicit ideas of coloured
                   elements have ions                                                                   compounds, different properties and
                   with different charges;                                                              use of transition metals as catalysts(
                   form coloured                                                                        they have already met MnO2 as a
                   compounds and are                                                                    catalyst in Unit 2).
                   useful as catalysts.
                                                                                                        Task: Students make notes of
                                                                                                        outcomes of transition metals in
                                                                                                        comparison to Group 1.
                                                                                                        Homework: DART sheet on melting
                                                                                                        points of transition metals and Group
                                                                                                        1, to show differences in property and
                                                                                                        hence uses.
4.2e               The elements in Group
                   7 of the periodic table
                   (known as the
                   halogens) react with
                   metals to form ionic
                   compounds in which
                   the halide ion carries a
                   charge of –1.

4.2f               In Group 7, the further    Know that the further down                   1            Revise Na +Cl2 reaction to get halogen   Samples of chlorine,    Be able to write
                   down the group an          the group:                                                as elements that form 1- charged ions.   bromine and iodine in   and balance
                   element is:                                                                                                                   sealed containers.      symbol equations.
                                               the less reactive the                                   Demo: Students make list of halogens,
                    the less reactive          element is                                              their colours and their state at room    Aqueous solutions of


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                                              be able to do                                             Homework                                                                Students should:




                     the element               the higher its melting                                  temperature. Remind students of            chlorine, and bromine, and
                    the higher its             point and boiling point.                                colour of chlorine (seen with NaCl         iodine solution (iodine in
                     melting point and                                                                  reaction). Show samples of other           potassium iodide).
                     boiling point                                                                      halogens if possible, if not use halogen   Pipettes, test tubes, test
                                                                                                        waters from the class experiment to        tube racks, solutions of
                                                                                                        show their colour when dissolved in        sodium chloride, sodium
                                                                                                        water.                                     iodide, and sodium
                                                                                                                                                   bromide (alternatively
                                                                                                                                                   these could be potassium
                                                                                                                                                   compounds).
4.2g               A more reactive            Know that a more reactive                                 Activity: Displacement reactions –
                   halogen can displace a     halogen can displace a less                               Students add chlorine water to each of
                   less reactive halogen      reactive halogen from an                                  the three compounds and observe
                   from an aqueous            aqueous solution of its salt.                             results. Add bromine water to fresh
                   solution of its salt.                                                                samples of the compounds and
                                                                                                        observe results. Add iodine solution to
                                                                                                        fresh samples of the compounds and
                                                                                                        observe results.
                                                                                                        Discuss: findings from results chart.
                                                                                                        Conclude that halogens higher in the
                                                                                                        Group displace halogens that are
                                                                                                        lower from their compounds.
                                                                                                        Task: Write symbol equations and
                                                                                                        balance for one reaction. All reactions
                                                                                                        standard.
4.2h               The trends in reactivity   Explain the reactivity trends                             Discussion on reactivity in Group 7

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                   within groups in the      within both Group 1 and                                    and Group 1. This should be in terms
                   periodic table can be     Group 7 in terms of the                                    of ease of losing/gaining outer
                   explained because the     distance of the outer                                      electrons.
                   higher the energy level   electron from the central,
                                                                                                        Metals easier to lose from outside as
                   of the outer electrons:   positively charged nucleus,
                                                                                                        less attracted to nucleus further down
                                             and the attraction of the
                    the more easily         nucleus to those outer
                                                                                                        the group.
                     electrons are lost      electrons.                                                 Non-metals easier to gain up the group
                    the less easily                                                                    due to stronger attraction from nucleus
                     electrons are                                                                      as less electron shells.
                     gained.
5. Acids, bases and salts

5.1 Acids, bases and salts
                                                                                                                                                                   -3
5.1a               Metal oxides and          Recall the pH scale.                          1            Revise pH scale from KS3.                   NaOH 1 mol dm , HCl(aq)
                                                                                                                                                              -3       3
                   hydroxides are bases.     Know how alkalis are                                       Discuss: What makes an acid and an          1 mol dm , 100cm
                   Soluble hydroxides are    different from bases.                                      alkali in terms of ions. List and produce   beaker, indicator paper/pH
                   called alkalis.                                                                      formulae for acids and alkalis to get       meter, evaporating basin
                                                                                                                                                                3
                                                                                                        idea that acids have hydrogen (ions),       and 25 cm measuring
                                                                                                        and alkalis have hydroxide (ions).          cylinders.
                                                                                                        Students make notes.                        VLE/Interactive software,
                                                                                                                                                    eg chemical reactions.
5.1b               Acids react with bases    Know that acid + alkali                                    Activity: making a salt by
                   to form salts. These      makes salt + water.                                        neutralisation of an alkali. eg NaCl (pH
                   reactions are called                                                                 sensors could be used here instead of
                   neutralisation                                                                       indicator paper or solution to be able to
                   reactions.                                                                           crystallise the salt without the need for
                                                                                                        boiling with carbon).

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                                               What most students should
                                               be able to do                                            Homework                                                              Students should:




                                                                                                        Homework: Students draw diagrams
                                                                                                        to explain the method.
                                      +
5.1h               Hydrogen ions, H            Students should be familiar                              Use symbol equation with state
                   (aq), make solutions        with the pH scale from 0 to                              symbols to describe reaction (and
                   acidic, and hydroxide       14, and know that pH 7 is a                              should use state symbols hereafter
                             -
                   ions, OH (aq), make         neutral solution.                                        when completing symbol equations).
                   solutions alkaline. The     Students should be able to
                   pH scale is a measure       describe the use of
                   of the acidity or           universal indicator to
                   alkalinity of a solution.   measure the approximate
                                               pH of a solution.
5.1g               In neutralisation           Describe neutralisation in
                   reactions, hydrogen         terms of hydrogen ions
                   ions react with             reacting with hydroxide ions
                   hydroxide ions to           to form water.
                   produce water. This
                   reaction can be
                   represented by the
                   equation:
                    +            -
                   H (aq) + OH (aq)
                          H2O (l)
5.1c               The particular salt         Know which acid makes                       1            Revise all reactions to make salts so     VLE/Interactive software,   Be able to state
                   produced in any             which salt, and which metal                              far, include writing word and symbol      eg chemical reactions.      the substances
                   reaction between an         makes which salt.                                        equation (if not already done) for each                               needed to make
                   acid and a base or                                                                   one, including the state symbols.                                     the salt and name
                                               Students should be able to
                   alkali depends on:                                                                                                                                         the salt, given the
                                               suggest methods to make a                                Task: Students to come up with rules
                                                                                                                                                                              names of the

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                    the acid used           named soluble salt.                                        for making soluble salts, eg nitric acid              metal and acid
                     (hydrochloric acid                                                                 makes nitrates etc. Students make                     used.
                     produces chlorides,                                                                notes.
                     nitric acid produces
                                                                                                        Task: Making a salt. Students to be
                     nitrates, sulfuric
                                                                                                        given list of salts to make, and they
                     acid produces
                                                                                                        should state the chemicals needed and
                     sulfates)
                                                                                                        the method to use to make each salt. A
                    the metal in the                                                                   card game could be produced with
                     base or alkali.                                                                    names of salts, acids, ions, and
                                                                                                        possible ingredients. Students produce
                                                                                                        word equation of the reaction needed
                                                                                                        to make each salt, add the method of
                                                                                                        production, then attempt to write
                                                                                                        balanced symbol equation.
                                                                                                        Homework: Making soluble salts.
                                                                                                        Students complete a worksheet
                                                                                                        naming the reactants needed to make
                                                                                                        a named soluble salt, and given the
                                                                                                        reactants, name the soluble salt
                                                                                                        produced. They also state the method
                                                                                                        needed to obtain a solid sample of the
                                                                                                        salt.
5.1e               A solution of calcium     Students should be familiar
                   hydroxide in water        with using limewater to test
                   (limewater) reacts with   for carbon dioxide gas.
                   carbon dioxide to
                   produce calcium

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                   carbonate. Limewater
                   is used as a test for
                   carbon dioxide.
                   Carbon dioxide turns
                   limewater cloudy.
5.1d               Ammonia dissolves in                                                                 Activity: ammonia as an alkaline
                   water to produce an                                                                  solution in water and how it can
                   alkaline solution. It is                                                             produce salts for fertilisers (and
                   used to produce                                                                      explosives). Students make notes.
                   ammonium salts.
                   Ammonium salts are
                   important as fertilisers.
5.2a               Soluble salts can be                                                    2            Demo: How much is in the solution?           Burettes, burette funnels,    Note: It should be
                   made from acids by                                                                   Teacher-led demonstration, followed          measuring cylinder /          highlighted that
                                                                                                                                                            3
                   reacting them with:                                                                  by class titration practical to establish    25cm pipette, conical         averaging out
                     alkalis – an                                                                      idea that the volumes of acid and alkali     flask, white tile clamp and   results can give
                      indicator can be                                                                  can be measured using a suitable             stand solutions of 0.5mol     more reliable
                                                                                                                                                         -3
                      used to show when                                                                 indicator. Whilst universal indicator will   dm , hydrochloric acid,       results.
                      the acid and alkali                                                               work, better to use phenolphthalein as       sodium hydroxide, 250
                                                                                                                                                         3
                      have completely                                                                   the indicator as it gives a definite end     cm beakers and
                      reacted to produce                                                                point. [3d: h ,i]                            phenolphthalein.
                      a salt solution.
                                                                                                        How Science Works: Titration should
                                                                                                        be carried out three times to allow for
                                                                                                        calculation of a mean.
                                                                                                        Task: Students draw equipment and
                                                                                                        record their results. Calculate the
                                                                                                        mean for the titration and then

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                                                                                                        compare their results.
5.1h               The volumes of acid        Students should be able to
                   and alkali solutions       carry out titrations using
                   that react with each       strong acids and strong
                   other can be measured      alkalis only (sulfuric,
                   by titration using a       hydrochloric and nitric acids
                   suitable indicator.        only).
5.1i               If the concentration of    Students should be able to                   1            Remind students about relative
                   one of the reactants is    calculate the chemical                                    molecular mass (Mr). Remind them
                   known, the results of a    quantities in titrations                                  that the Mr in grams if dissolved in
                   titration can be used to   involving concentrations (in                              water provides a concentration unit
                   find the concentration     moles per dm3) and                                        that we can use to compare different
                   of the other reactant.     masses (in grams per dm 3)                                solutions.
                                                                                                        Task: Students make brief notes on
                                                                                                        molecules and how dissolving different
                                                                                                        proportions of the Mr produces
                                                                                                        solutions of different concentrations.
                                                                                                        Explain: Using last time’s results,
                                                                                                        show how to work out the
                                                                                                        concentration of the sodium hydroxide
                                                                                                                            –3
                                                                                                        assuming 1 mol dm hydrochloric acid
                                                                                                        was used.
                                                                                                        Tell students they need the balanced
                                                                                                        equation to work out reacting amounts
                                                                                                        and to work out the unknown using the
                                                                                                        equation:


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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                             ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                               Students should:




                                                                                                        Conc of acid x volume used
                                                                                                        conc of alkali x volume used

                                                                                                                           =
                                                                                                        no of acid molecules in equation
                                                                                                        no of alkali molecules in equation
                                                                                                        Give students three other examples to
                                                                                                        calculate the answers for. One should
                                                                                                        also involve using grams instead of
                                                                                                        moles.
5.2 Making salts
5.2a               Soluble salts can be      Know how to make a salt                       1            Activity: Making a salt by reacting a      Magnesium ribbon, 100
                                                                                                                                                       3
                   made from acids by        from a metal + acid and                                    metal with hydrochloric acid. Students     cm beaker, dilute
                   reacting them with:       that this releases hydrogen                                crystallise the salt and write symbol      hydrochloric acid,
                     metals – not all       gas.                                                       equation, using state symbols.             evaporating basin, test
                      metals are suitable;                                                              Discuss: suitability of metals for this    tubes, matches and spills
                                             Write a word equation for                                                                                        3
                      some are too                                                                      reaction, in terms of reactivity series.   and 25 cm measuring
                                             the reaction
                      reactive and others                                                               Students make notes.                       cylinders.
                      are not reactive       Students should know that
                                                                                                                                                   VLE/Interactive software,
                      enough                 a lighted spill can be used
                                                                                                                                                   eg chemical reactions.
                                             to test for hydrogen.
                                             Students should be able to
                                             suggest methods to make a
                                             named soluble salt.
                                             Write symbol equation for


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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                                ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                                  Students should:




                                             the reaction.
                                             Interpret a symbol equation
                                             containing state symbols.
5.2a               Soluble salts can be      Describe how to make a                        1            Activity: Making a salt by                CuO, spatula, dilute
                   made from acids by        soluble salt from an                                       neutralisation of an insoluble base       sulfuric acid, stirring rod,
                                                                                                                                                           3                 3
                   reacting them with:       insoluble base.                                            such as copper oxide to make copper       100cm beaker, 100cm
                                                                                                        sulfate. Students crystallise the salt,   conical flask, filter funnel,
                    insoluble bases –                                                                  and write symbol equation, using state    filter paper, evaporating
                     the base is added                                                                  symbols.
                                                                                                                                                                3
                                                                                                                                                  basin, 25cm measuring
                     to the acid until no                                                                                                         cylinders, matches and
                     more will react and                                                                Homework: Students draw diagrams
                                                                                                                                                  spills and heating
                     the excess solid is                                                                to explain the method.
                                                                                                                                                  apparatus.
                     filtered off.
                                                                                                                                                  See Exampro Extra Online
                                                                                                                                                  Practical guide and
                                                                                                                                                  Chemistry Activity.
5.2b               Salt solutions can be
                   crystallised to produce
                   solid salts.
                                                                                                                                                            –3
5.2c               Insoluble salts can be    Explain what precipitation                    1            Task: Students prepare insoluble salt,    1 mol dm lead nitrate, 1        Note: All students
                                                                                                                                                           –3
                   made by mixing            is, and how it can be used                                 eg lead iodide and/or barium sulphate.    mol dm potassium iodide         need to
                                                                                                                                                                 –3
                   appropriate solutions     to make insoluble salts.                                                                             or 0.2 mol dm barium            remember is
                                                                                                        Discuss: How precipitation reactions                            –3
                   of ions so that a                                                                                                              hydroxide, 0.2 mol dm           going to a dance
                                             Know how making insoluble                                  can easily remove unwanted ions from                              3
                   precipitate is formed.                                                                                                         sodium sulphate, 25 cm          and swapping
                                             salts can be useful in the                                 drinking water and effluents. Students
                   Precipitation can be                                                                                                           measuring cylinders, 100        partners to get
                                             water industry as a cheap                                  make notes.                                  3
                   used to remove                                                                                                                 cm beakers, filter paper        the word
                                             and effective way of
                   unwanted ions from                                                                   Homework: Making insoluble salts.         and filter funnels.             equations right.
                                             removing unwanted ions
                   solutions: for example,                                                              Students complete a worksheet

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                            ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                              Students should:




                   in treating water for     from water.                                                naming the reactants needed to make      VLE/Interactive software,
                   drinking or in treating                                                              a named insoluble salt and, given the    eg chemical reactions.
                                             Name the substances
                   effluent.                                                                            reactants, name the insoluble salt
                                             needed to make a named
                                                                                                        produced.
                                             insoluble salt.
5.3 Metal carbonates

5.3a               The carbonates of         Students should be aware                      1            Activity: Test each carbonate with       Mg, Cu, Zn, Ca, Na,
                   magnesium, copper,        that not all carbonates of                                 acid to see that it evolves carbon       carbonates, dilute
                   zinc, calcium and         metals in Group 1 of the                                   dioxide gas, and then dry carbonates     hydrochloric acid, test
                   lithium decompose on      periodic table decompose                                   are heated to decompose.                 tubes, boiling tubes with
                   heating (thermal          at the temperatures                                        Use only Mg, Cu, Zn, Ca, and Na          delivery tubes, clamps and
                   decomposition) in a       reached by a Bunsen                                        carbonates.                              stands, matches and spills
                   similar way.              burner.                                                                                             and limewater.
                                                                                                        Homework: Tell students they have
                                                                                                        five samples of rock ores each
                                                                                                        containing different amounts of copper
                                                                                                        carbonate. They use today’s practical
                                                                                                        to help them plan an investigation to
                                                                                                        determine which ore is most likely to
                                                                                                        contain the most copper carbonate.
                                                                                                        [3d: a]
5.3b               Metal carbonates react
                   with acids to produce
                   carbon dioxide, a salt
                   and water.
5.1e               A solution of calcium


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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                            ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                              Students should:




                   hydroxide in water
                   (limewater) reacts with
                   carbon dioxide to
                   produce calcium
                   carbonate. Limewater
                   is used as a test for
                   carbon dioxide.
                   Carbon dioxide turns
                   limewater cloudy
5.3c               Limestone, containing     Know that limestone is                        1            Discussion: Discuss limestone, its      VLE/Interactive software
                   the compound calcium      calcium carbonate and that                                 chemical name, and its uses.            eg useful Materials from
                   carbonate (CaCO3), is     it is quarried.                                                                                    rocks.
                                                                                                        Activity; Students produce wall chart
                   quarried and can be                                                                  about chemistry and uses of cement,     Exampro Extra Online
                   used as a building                                                                   glass, iron production or soil pH       Practical Guide –
                   material, or powdered                                                                control. They then present their wall   Chemistry of the
                   and used to control                                                                  chart to the group.                     Limestone Cycle.
                   acidity in the soil. It                                                                                                      View the limestone uses
                   can be used in the                                                                   Activity: Class make notes on each
                                                                                                                                                PowerPoint presentation at
                   manufacture of                                                                       use of limestone.
                                                                                                                                                www.worldofteaching.com/
                   cement, glass and iron                                                                                                       powerpoints/chemistry/Lim
                   and to produce                                                                                                               estone.ppt
                   calcium oxide (lime).
6 Metals

6.1 The reactivity series
6.1a               Metals can be             Students should be able to                    1            Demo/Starter 1: Heat some Mg ribbon     For Demo 1: Mg ribbon,
                   arranged in an order of                                                              and then some Cu foil. Ask ‘Why does    copper foil, calcium lumps(
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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                                 ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                                   Students should:




                   their reactivity from     recall and describe the                                    one burn with a bright white light, and    buy new), iron nails, zinc
                   their reactions with      reactions, if any, of                                      the other simply go black?’ Draw out       foil or granules, test tubes,
                   water and dilute acids.   potassium, sodium, lithium,                                ideas of reactivity of metals.             dilute hydrochloric acid
                                             calcium, magnesium, zinc,                                  Activity: Students place small pieces      For Demo 2: Piece of
                                             iron and copper with water                                 of calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and      lithium size of a rice grain,
                                             or dilute acids, where                                     copper in different test tubes one-third   trough
                                             appropriate, to place them                                 full of water. Observe result. Any
                                             in order of reactivity.                                    element that is not reacting vigorously
                                                                                                        (this should be all of them except
                                                                                                        calcium) after three minutes should
                                                                                                        have an equal volume of dilute
                                                                                                        hydrochloric acid added.
                                                                                                        Activity: Students should now be able
                                                                                                        to make a rudimentary reactivity
                                                                                                        series, to which they can add further
                                                                                                        metals. [3d: m]
                                                                                                        Demo 2: Show them the reactions of
                                                                                                        lithium and calcium with water. Ask
                                                                                                        them to add lithium to their reactivity
                                                                                                        series. They can then add in sodium
                                                                                                        and potassium from their notes.
                                                                                                        You should then tell them where to
                                                                                                        position hydrogen and carbon in the
                                                                                                        reactivity series.
6.1c               The non-metals
                   hydrogen and carbon
                   are often included in

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                                ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                                  Students should:




                   the reactivity series
                   based on the reactions
                   of metals with dilute
                   acid, and of metal
                   oxides with carbon.
                                                                                                                                                                   -3
6.1b               Displacement              Students should be able to                    1            Discussion: What use is the reactivity     0.2 mol per dm solutions
                   reactions involving       describe displacement                                      series?                                    of magnesium sulphate,
                   metals and their          reactions in terms of                                                                                 copper sulphate, iron(II)
                                                                                                        Activity: Students carry out a series of
                   compounds in              oxidation and reduction,                                                                              sulfate ( freshly made),
                                                                                                        reactions between sulfate solutions of
                   aqueous solution          and to write the ionic                                                                                zinc sulfate, test tubes or
                                                                                                        metals and the metals.
                   establish positions       equations.                                                                                            dropping tiles, foils of Cu,
                   within the reactivity                                                                Students should report their findings      Zn, and Mg, iron filings.
                                             Students should be aware
                   series.                                                                              and:
                                             that copper can be                                                                                    For the demo . This is a
                                             obtained from solutions of                                  describe the pattern using the           dangerous demo, which
                                             copper salts by                                              reactivity series from last lesson       you should carry out only if
                                             displacement using scrap                                     [3d: m]                                  you are confident and
                                             iron.                                                       write ionic equations for the            competent to do so.
                                                                                                          reactions                                dry iron(III)oxide,
                                                                                                        Demo: If time (and nerves) permit,         magnesium , crucible,
                                                                                                        demonstrate a thermite reaction eg         bucket of sand
                                                                                                        iron oxide with magnesium
6.2 Extracting metals
6.2a               Unreactive metals         Explain how an ore is                         2            Discuss: Teacher discussion on             VLE/Interactive software,
                   such as gold are found    different from a rock.                                     making metals, ores, gold and silver       eg useful materials from
                   in the Earth as the                                                                  etc. Discuss and relate extraction         metal ores.
                                             Know that methods may be
                   metal itself but most                                                                methods to limestone quarrying, and
                                             used to concentrate an ore

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                               ‘hints and tips’
                                              What most students should
                                              be able to do                                             Homework                                                                 Students should:




                   metals are found as        before extraction.                                        talk about metal recycling to reduce
                   compounds that             Know that some metals are                                 impact of quarrying and economic
                   require chemical           so unreactive they can be                                 considerations.
                   reactions to extract the   found as metal in the                                     Demo: Ag, Cu and Au in hydrochloric
                   metal.                     Earth’s surface (crust). The                              acid to show unreactive nature of
                                              layers of atoms in metals                                 these metals.
                                              are able to slide over each
                                              other. This means metals                                  Task: Students make brief notes in
                                              can be bent and shaped.                                   books.
                                                                                                        Activity: Concentrating an ore – heat
                                                                                                                                                   Copper carbonate,
                                                                                                        a small quantity of copper carbonate
                                                                                                                                                   matches and splints,
                                                                                                        until it stops ‘bubbling’ and has turned
                                                                                                        black. Students could weigh the            boiling tubes, boiling tube
                                                                                                        sample before and after heating to         holders( or clamp and
                                                                                                        work out mass loss of carbon dioxide       stand) mineral/glass wool
                                                                                                        (refer back to lesson on heating           plug for boiling tube.
                                                                                                        carbonates and suggested homework
                                                                                                        task).
                                                                                                            1. Students to compare each
                                                                                                               other’s results.
                                                                                                            2. Plot graph of class results of
                                                                                                               mass used against mass lost.
                                                                                                            3. Mention variables are
                                                                                                               continuous.
                                                                                                            4. Identify range of data.
                                                                                                            5. Describe relationship between
                                                                                                               mass used and mass lost.


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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                                  ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                                    Students should:




                                                                                                        Students are to keep their copper
                                                                                                        oxide for next lesson.
                                                                                                        Homework: Explain the benefits a
                                                                                                        company can gain by concentrating a
                                                                                                        metal ore before refining it.
6.2b               Metals that are less      Knowledge and                                 1            How Science Works: The first               Periodic table.                  Details of the
                   reactive than carbon      understanding are limited to                               samples of copper man made were                                             blast furnace are
                                                                                                                                                   VLE /Interactive software,
                   can be extracted from     the reduction of oxides                                    found in camp fires. Thinking about                                         not required, but
                                                                                                                                                   eg useful materials from
                   their oxides by           using carbon.                                              what a camp fire has in it, ask students                                    students should
                                                                                                                                                   metal ores.
                   reduction with carbon:                                                               guess what happened, to make a                                              know the raw
                                             Knowledge of reduction is
                   for example, iron oxide                                                              hypothesis about the guess, how could      Copper oxide, carbon, or         materials used
                                             limited to the removal of
                   is reduced in the blast                                                              they test their hypothesis, and predict    wooden spill, matches and        and explain the
                                             oxygen.
                   furnace to make iron.                                                                what should happen if they test their      spills, boiling tubes, boiling   simple chemistry
                                                                                                        guess.                                     tube holders, or clamp and       involved,
                                                                                                                                                   stand, mineral/glass wool        including the use
                                                                                                        Explain: about wood/charcoal/stones
                                                                                                                                                   plug for boiling tube and        of equations.
                                                                                                        containing copper ores, and heat.                   3
                                                                                                                                                   250 cm beaker of cold
                                                                                                                                                                                    Knowledge of the
                                                                                                        Task: Students then heat their copper      water.
                                                                                                                                                                                    details of the
                                                                                                        oxide from last lesson with
                                                                                                                                                   See resources on                 extraction of other
                                                                                                        carbon/charcoal to see if they can
                                                                                                                                                   Exampro Extra Online for         metals is not
                                                                                                        make copper (tip heated mixture into
                                                                                                                                                   this.                            required.
                                                                                                        cold water to prevent copper re-
                                                                                                        oxidising back to copper oxide).                                            Examination
                                                                                                                                                                                    questions may
                                                                                                        Conclude with idea that the carbon has
                                                                                                                                                                                    provide
                                                                                                        removed the oxygen from the metal
                                                                                                                                                                                    information about
                                                                                                        oxide and that removal of oxygen is
                                                                                                                                                                                    specific
                                                                                                        ‘reduction’. This is how iron oxide is
                                                                                                                                                                                    processes for

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                             ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                               Students should:




                                                                                                        turned in a blast furnace into iron.                                   students to
                                                                                                        Details are not required, although it                                  interpret or
                                                                                                        may make interesting homework.                                         evaluate.
                                                                                                        Demo: Blast furnace using potassium
                                                                                                        permanganate, iron oxide, and carbon
                                                                                                        with a mineral wool plug. Test iron
                                                                                                        made with a magnet.
                                                                                                        Homework: Report the experiment
                                                                                                        students did.
6.2d               Copper can be             Students should know the                      1            Task: Students review/ investigate       RSC Alchemy has section       Details of the
                   extracted from copper-    electrode material and be                                  how copper is mined, extracted and       on Copper refining which      industrial smelting
                   rich ores by heating      able to write the ionic half                               purified by electrolysis.                can be found at               processes are
                   the ores in a furnace     equations for the reactions                                                                         www.rsc.org/Education/Te      not required but
                                                                                                        Students should make brief notes/flow
                   (smelting). The copper    occurring at both                                                                                   achers/Resources/Alchem       students should
                                                                                                        diagram on basics of extraction, by
                   can be purified by        electrodes.                                                                                         y/index.htm                   be aware that
                                                                                                        copper ore heated in furnace, impure
                   electrolysis. The                                                                                                                                           chemical
                                                                                                        copper dissolved in sulfuric acid,       VLE/Interactive software,
                   supply of copper-rich                                                                                                                                       processes are
                                                                                                        followed by electrolysis.                eg useful materials from
                   ores is limited and is                                                                                                                                      involved and that
                                                                                                                                                 metal ores.
                   being depleted.                                                                      Demo: Electrolysis of copper sulfate                                   examination
                                                                                                        solution with copper electrodes (could   Copper sulfate solution 0.5   questions may
                   Traditional mining and                                                                                                                 -3
                                                                                                        be demonstrated whilst watching a        mol dm , copper               provide further
                   extraction have major
                                                                                                        video on refining copper).               electrodes, power pack        information for
                   environmental impacts.                                                                                                                3
                                                                                                                                                 100cm beaker, wires and       them to interpret
                                                                                                                                                 light bulb.                   or evaluate.
                                                                                                                                                 Crucible, carbon
                                                                                                                                                 electrodes, power supply,
                                                                                                                                                 connecting wires, lamp,

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                            ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                              Students should:




                                                                                                                                                  Bunsen burner and fume
                                                                                                                                                  cupboard.
6.2c               Metals that are more      Knowledge of the details of                   1            Demo: Demonstration of electrolysis of    You can find a variety of   Be able to find a
                   reactive than carbon,     industrial methods of                                      molten zinc chloride or lead bromide.     resources including video   metal’s position in
                   such as aluminium, are    electrolysis is not required,                                                                        clips on the RSC website    both the periodic
                                                                                                        Task: Students investigate how
                   extracted by              other than the detail                                                                                at                          table and the
                                                                                                        aluminium is mined, extracted and
                   electrolysis of molten    required for aluminium (see                                                                          www.rsc.org/Education/Te    reactivity series,
                                                                                                        purified by electrolysis.
                   compounds. The use        Section 13(i)).                                                                                      achers/Resources/Alchem     when given a
                   of large amounts of                                                                                                            y/index.htm                 metal to extract in
                   energy in the                                                                                                                  RSC Alchemy a has           an examination
                   extraction of these                                                                                                            section on aluminium at     question, and be
                   metals makes them                                                                                                              www.rsc.org/Education/Te    able to predict the
                   expensive.                                                                                                                     achers/Resources/Alchem     best method of
                                                                                                                                                  y/index2.htm                extraction –
                                                                                                                                                                              carbon or
                                                                                                                                                                              electrolysis.
6.2e               New ways of extracting    Students should know and                      1            Task: Students research the topics of     Further background          Be able to work
                   copper from low-grade     understand that:                                           phytomining and bioleaching, and          information can be found    out what is
                   ores are being                                                                       produce notes on main features of the     at www.copper.org           happening when
                   researched to limit the     phytomining uses plants                                 processes.                                                            given an
                                                to absorb metal                                                                                   See Exampro Extra Online
                   environmental impact                                                                                                                                       unfamiliar method
                                                compounds and that the                                  Or                                        Practical Guide.
                   of traditional mining.                                                                                                                                     of extraction of an
                                                plants are burned to                                                                                                          ore or a metal.
                                                                                                        Activity: With planning, students could
                   Copper can be               produce ash that                                        grow cabbage plants or other types of
                   extracted by                 contains the metal                                                                                                            Follow the metal
                                                                                                        brassica plants to extract metal from
                   phytomining, or by           compounds                                                                                                                     through the
                                                                                                        contaminated soil, and process to
                   bioleaching.                bioleaching uses                                        obtain the metal.                                                     diagram to see
                                                bacteria to produce                                                                                                           where it must be

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                             ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                               Students should:




                                                 leachate solutions that                                                                                                       going in each
                                                 contain metal                                                                                                                 step. Make notes
                                                 compounds.                                                                                                                    on the diagram to
                                                                                                                                                                               help them.
6.2f               Copper can be
                   obtained from
                   solutions of copper
                   salts by electrolysis.

6.2g               Copper can be             Students should be able to
                   obtained from             describe this in terms of
                   solutions of copper       oxidation and reduction,
                   salts by displacement     and to write the ionic
                   using scrap iron.         equation.
6.2h               We should recycle         Students are not required                     1            Task: Working in pairs/groups,            Use RSC Alchemy disc for
                   metals because            to know details of specific                                students research/find out the benefits   individual metals, or
                   extracting them uses      examples of recycling, but                                 of recycling metals such as iron,         internet sites. More
                   limited resources, and    should understand the                                      copper, aluminium, and produce a          information can be found
                   is expensive in terms     benefits of recycling in the                               mini-project on it.                       on the RSC Alchemy
                   of energy and in terms    general terms specified                                                                              website at
                                                                                                        Or
                   of effects on the         here.                                                                                                www.rsc.org/Education/Te
                   environment.                                                                         Give groups of students a metal, and      achers/Resources/Alchem
                                                                                                        some questions. Students prepare an       y/index2.htm
                                                                                                        A4 sheet, poster or word document to
                                                                                                                                                  Free teaching resources
                                                                                                        email to rest of class about their
                                                                                                                                                  on recycling of metals can
                                                                                                        answers.
                                                                                                                                                  be downloaded from the
                                                                                                                                                  British Metals Recycling

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                              ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                                Students should:




                                                                                                                                                Association (BMRA)
                                                                                                        Questions could be:
                                                                                                                                                website:
                                                                                                         How is your metal extracted, and      http://www.recyclemetals.o
                                                                                                          why is this method used?              rg/metals_and_me
                                                                                                         What pollutants are produced in its   Access to internet, paper,
                                                                                                          extraction?                           poster paper, glue scissors
                                                                                                         How much of the metal is re-          and magazines.
                                                                                                          cycled?
                                                                                                         How is it recycled?
                                                                                                         Explain why recycling the metal is
                                                                                                          both good for the environment,
                                                                                                          economically sound (saves money),
                                                                                                          and saves on limited reserves of
                                                                                                          ores.
                                                                                                        Students present five minute briefing
                                                                                                        on their metal.
6.3 Structure and bonding in metals and alloys
6.3a               Metals consist of giant                                                 1            Demo: Show metal lattice structure,     View the bonding                Students should
                   structures of atoms                                                                  demonstrate how atoms can slide over    PowerPoint presentation at      be familiar with
                   arranged in a regular                                                                each other and relate to properties.    http://education.jlab.org/jsa   these specified
                   pattern.                                                                                                                     t/powerpoint/chembond.pp        examples but
                                                                                                                                                t                               examination
                                                                                                                                                Models of metallic              questions may
                                                                                                                                                structure such as layers of     contain
                                                                                                                                                closely packed similar-         information about
                                                                                                                                                sized spheres fixed             alloys other than


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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                              ‘hints and tips’
                                              What most students should
                                              be able to do                                             Homework                                                                Students should:




                                                                                                                                                 together or bubble rafts.      those named in
                                                                                                                                                                                the subject
                                                                                                                                                 Model of metal structure
                                                                                                                                                                                content to enable
                                                                                                                                                 with balls to show effect of
                                                                                                                                                                                students to make
                                                                                                                                                 introducing different atom
                                                                                                                                                                                comparisons.
                                                                                                                                                 size to structure.
6.3d               The layers of atoms in     Use the structure of metals
                   metals are able to slide   to explain their ability to
                   over each other and so     bend and be shaped.
                   metals can be bent
                   and shaped.
6.3e               Alloys are usually         Describe what alloys are,                                 Demo: Insert a different-sized ball to
                   made from two or           why they are more useful                                  show alloy effects make sliding harder
                   more metals. The           than pure metals, and how                                 to achieve.
                   different sizes of atoms   the metal structure is
                                                                                                        Task: Students draw diagrams to
                   in the metals distort      altered by the insertion of
                                                                                                        explain metal and alloy structure and
                   the layers in the          different sized atoms.
                                                                                                        properties.
                   structure, making it                                                                 Demo: Compare samples of pure
                   more difficult for them                                                              metals with alloys, eg copper and
                   to slide over each                                                                   brass, iron and steel.
                   other. This makes
                   alloys harder than pure
                   metals.
6.3f               Most metals in             Know that alloys have
                   everyday use are           improved properties as a
                   alloys. Pure copper,       result of the combination of
                   gold, iron and             metal atoms.


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                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                                    Students should:




                   aluminium are too soft
                   for many uses and so
                   are mixed with small
                   amounts of other
                   metals to make them
                   harder for everyday
                   use.
6.3b               The electrons in the      Represent the bonding in                      1                                                        VLE/Interactive software
                   highest occupied          metals in the following                                                                                eg bonding.
                   energy levels (outer      form:
                                                                                                                                                    View the bonding
                   shell) of metal atoms                                                                                                            PowerPoint presentation at
                   are delocalised and so                                                                                                           http://education.jlab.org/jsa
                   free to move through                                                                                                             t/powerpoint/chembond.pp
                   the whole structure.                                                                                                             t
                   This corresponds to a
                   structure of positive
                   ions with electrons
                   between the ions
                   holding them together
                   by strong electrostatic
                   attractions.
6.3c               Metals conduct heat       Explain the flow of an                                     Discuss how atoms in a metal are
                   and electricity because   electric current in terms of                               really ions in a sea of electrons and
                   of the delocalised        delocalised electrons.                                     this allows electrons to flow (electrical
                   electrons in their                                                                   conductivity). Students make notes.
                                             Students should know that
                   structures.               conduction depends on the
                                             ability of electrons to move

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                                             throughout the metal.
6.3g               Shape memory alloys       Know what a memory alloy                                   Demo/Activity: Demonstrate a                Memory alloy wire, beaker,
                   can return to their       is, and give an example.                                   memory alloy if possible. Students          hot water.
                   original shape after                                                                 could try to explain how it happens
                   being deformed. An                                                                   using structure ideas.
                   example is Nitinol,                                                                  Homework: Think of five examples
                   which is used in dental                                                              where memory alloys would be useful.
                   braces.                                                                              Describe how the properties make
                                                                                                        each one useful in each application.

6.4 Properties and uses of metals
6.4a               The elements in the       Know that the central block                   1            Task: Students view metal properties        Circus of metals to show      Knowledge of the
                   central block of the      of the periodic table is                                   circus, this is KS3 revision. Students to   their properties, eg          properties of
                   periodic table are        known as the transition                                    make brief notes on properties of           bendable, and conductivity    specific transition
                   known as transition       metals.                                                    metals.                                     of heat and electricity.      metals other than
                   metals. Like other                                                                                                                                             those named in
                                             Many commonly used                                         Activity: Draw attention to copper,         Metal samples such as
                   metals, they are good                                                                                                                                          this specification
                                             metals are in this block.                                  aluminium and titanium as transition        iron (thin long nails or
                   conductors of heat and                                                                                                                                         is not required.
                                                                                                        metals and their place on the periodic      wire), copper foil,
                   electricity and can be                                                               table as Transition metals. Students        aluminium foil, lead foil,    Concentrate on
                   bent or hammered into                                                                mark transition metals on their periodic    and any others available,     matching property
                   shape. They are useful                                                               table.                                      beakers and access to hot     to use of metals.
                   as structural materials                                                                                                          water, conductivity testing
                                                                                                        Discuss: Teacher-led discussion on                                        Note: Remember
                   and for making things                                                                                                            kit (power pack, wires, and
                                                                                                        properties and uses of copper,                                            that some
                   that must allow heat or                                                                                                          bulb).
                                                                                                        aluminium and titanium.                                                   properties mean
                   electricity to pass
                                                                                                        Task: Students make notes on                                              students shouldn’t
                   through them easily.
                                                                                                        properties and uses of these metals.                                      use it for the

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                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                              Students should:




                                                                                                        Homework: Exam question on using                                      application, eg
                                                                                                        metals as structural materials.                                       sodium is not
                                                                                                                                                                              suitable for
                                                                                                                                                                              applications
                                                                                                                                                                              involving water.
6.4d               Copper has properties     Know and understand that
                   that make it useful for   copper:
                   electrical wiring and
                                               is a good conductor of
                   plumbing.
                                                 electricity and heat
                                               can be bent but is hard
                                                 enough to be used to
                                                 make pipes or tanks
                                               does not react with
                                                 water.
6.4b               Iron from the blast       Know the difference                           1            Task: Students complete a project on       More information on Iron
                   furnace contains about    between iron from the blast                                iron, steel and alloys to explain the      Section, can be found on
                   96% iron. The             furnace and steel in terms                                 differences.                               the RSC Alchemy website
                   impurities make it        of less carbon in steel than                                                                          at
                                                                                                        Research: Research the meaning of
                   brittle and so it has     iron from the blast furnace.                                                                          www.rsc.org/Education/Te
                                                                                                        ‘carat’ in relation to gold, and the
                   limited uses.                                                                                                                   achers/Resources/Alchem
                                                                                                        reasons for the different proportions of
                                                                                                                                                   y/index2.htm
                                                                                                        gold in each type of gold.
                                                                                                        Homework: Past paper question on
                                                                                                        properties of metals and their uses,
                                                                                                        from past CHY1 papers, eg Jan 07
                                                                                                        CHY1F Q3, Jan 08 CHY1F Q6
6.4c               Most iron is converted    Know that the many types                                                                                                         Knowledge and

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                   into steels. Steels are   of steel are really alloys.                                                                            understanding of
                   alloys since they are                                                                                                            the types of steel
                   mixtures of iron with                                                                                                            and their
                   carbon. Some steels                                                                                                              properties are
                   contain other metals.                                                                                                            limited to those
                   Low-carbon steels are                                                                                                            specified in the
                   easily shaped, high-                                                                                                             subject content.
                   carbon steels are hard,                                                                                                          Information about
                   and stainless steels                                                                                                             the composition
                   are resistant to                                                                                                                 of specific types
                                                                                                                                                    of steel may be
                   corrosion.
                                                                                                                                                    given in
                                                                                                                                                    examination
                                                                                                                                                    questions so that
                                                                                                                                                    students can
                                                                                                                                                    evaluate their
                                                                                                                                                    uses.
                                                                                                                                                    Note: there is no
                                                                                                                                                    need for students
                                                                                                                                                    to remember
                                                                                                                                                    different
                                                                                                                                                    combinations of
                                                                                                                                                    alloys.
                                                                                                                                                    Be able to
                                                                                                                                                    interpret
                                                                                                                                                    information
                                                                                                                                                    provided.


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7 Rates of reaction
7a                 The rate of a chemical    Students need to be able to                   1            Activity: React marble chips with           Marble chips, balance,        Knowledge of
                   reaction can be found     interpret graphs showing                                   dilute hydrochloric acid and measure        dilute hydrochloric acid,     specific reactions
                   by measuring the          the amount of product                                      the volume of carbon dioxide evolved        burette/measuring             other than those
                   amount of a reactant      formed (or reactant used                                   against time taken.                         cylinder/gas syringe,         in the subject
                   used or the amount of     up) with time, in terms of                                                                             conical flask with delivery   content is not
                                                                                                        How Science Works: Record results
                   product formed over       the rate of the reaction.                                                                              tube, washing-up              required, but
                                                                                                        in a chart and plot a graph of results of
                   time:                     .Calculate rate of reaction                                                                            bowls/troughs and             students will be
                                                                                                        volume of gas produced against time.
                                             from given data.                                                                                       stopwatches. Graph paper.     expected to have
                                                                                                        Analyse the graph to obtain rate of                                       studied examples
                                                                                                                                                    See also Exampro Extra
                   Rate of reaction =
                                                                                                        reaction at one time. [3d: l]                                             of chemical
                                                                                                                                                    Online Chemistry Activity:
                   amount of reactant used                                                              Explain clearly what the graph shows        Rates of reactions.           reactions and
                                                                                                        at each part:                                                             processes in
                             time                                                                                                                                                 developing their
                                                                                                         Initially rate is fast
                   Rate of reaction =                                                                                                                                             skills during their
                                                                                                         Slows down
                                                                                                                                                                                  study of this
                   amount of product used                                                                Reaction is complete.
                                                                                                                                                                                  section.
                             time                                                                       Students make notes on a graph.
                                                                                                        Homework: Students calculate rate of
                                                                                                        reaction at two more times to show
                                                                                                        change in rate over the experiment.
                                                                                                        Or
                                                                                                        How Science Works: Students plan
                                                                                                        an investigation using the method from
                                                                                                        lesson into how concentration of the
                                                                                                        acid would affect the rate of reaction.

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                                             What most students should
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                                                                                                        [3d: a]
7c                 Increasing the            Know how temperature                          2            Activity: Investigate the effect of         Marble chips, balance,
                   temperature increases     affects rate of reaction.                                  temperature on the same reaction as         dilute hydrochloric acid,
                   the speed of the                                                                     last lesson. Students report their          burette/measuring
                                             Know that for a reaction to
                   reacting particles so                                                                experiment.                                 cylinder/gas syringe,
                   that they collide more    happen particles have to                                                                               conical flask with delivery
                                             collide.                                                   How Science Works: You can get
                   frequently and more                                                                                                              tube, washing up
                                                                                                        different groups to do the experiment
                   energetically. This                                                                                                              bowl/troughs,
                                                                                                        using different instruments to measure
                   increases the rate of                                                                                                            stopwatches,
                                                                                                        gas volume, eg gas syringe, burette,
                   reaction.                                                                                                                        thermometers and hot
                                                                                                        measuring cylinder etc to develop
                                                                                                                                                    water beakers to heat acid
                                                                                                        ideas of precision. Students plot graph
                                                                                                                                                    in.
                                                                                                        of results.
                                                                                                                                                    Graph paper
                                                                                                        How Science Works: Compare
                                                                                                        results between groups.
7b                 Chemical reactions        Use collision theory to                                    How Science Works: Class
                   can only occur when       explain the change in rate                                 discussion on why increasing
                   reacting particles        in terms of particle                                       temperature might make the reaction
                   collide with each other   behaviour.                                                 faster. Develop hypothesis based on
                   and with sufficient                                                                  collision theory. Suggest we need to
                                             Know that a hypothesis has
                   energy.                                                                              test out theory to see if it explains how
                                             to be successfully tested                                  rates of reaction change.
                                             before it becomes accepted
                                             scientific knowledge.                                      Homework: Explain the difference
                                                                                                        between a guess, hypothesis, and
                                                                                                        theory.
7b                 The minimum amount        Know how particle size                        1            Demo: Use decreasing mass method            Large and small marble        Note: Allow
                   of energy particles       affects rate of reaction.                                  to investigate reacting equal masses of     chips, balance, dilute        students to ‘do‘

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                                                                                                                                                                                3
                      must have to react is                                                             large chips and small chips of marble     hydrochloric acid, 250 cm         the experiment
                      called the activation                                                             with dilute hydrochloric acid.            conical flask, cotton wool,       themselves. A
                      energy.                                                                                                                     stopwatch.                        video camera
                                                                                                        Students describe the experiment.
                                                                                                                                                  Graph paper                       showing the
                                                                                                        Students plot graph of results, and use                                     balance, and stop
                                                                                                        the hypothesis of collision theory to     VLE/Interactive software          watch, connected
                                                                                                        explain the results. [3d: l]              eg Rates.                         to a projector
                                                                                                        Discuss: Discussion on why every                                            allows students to
                                                                                                        particle doesn’t react at once to get                                       take
                                                                                                        idea of minimum (activation) energy                                         measurements
                                                                                                        required for a collision to cause a                                         themselves.
                                                                                                        reaction. Students make notes.
7f                    Increasing the surface    Know that for a reaction to
                      area of solid reactants   happen particles have to
                      increases the             collide with sufficient
                      frequency of collisions   energy to react, and that
                      and so increases the      this amount of energy is
                      rate of reaction.         called the activation
                                                energy.
                                                Use collision theory to
                                                explain the change in rate
                                                in terms of particle
                                                behaviour.
7e                    Increasing the            Know how concentration                     1            Activity: Disappearing cross method.      See Exampro Extra Online          Always remember
                      concentration of          affects rate of reaction.                                                                         for other details.                to mention how
                                                                                                        Task: Students investigate sodium
                      reactants in solutions                                                                                                                                        the particle speed
                                                Use collision theory to                                 thiosulfate solution and dilute
                      increases the                                                                                                                                                 and/or numbers

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                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                                   Students should:




                   frequency of collisions   explain the change in rate                                 hydrochloric acid. Can be done with                                        and/or
                   and so increases the      in terms of particle                                       datalogging or by eye.                                                     temperature
                   rate of reaction.         behaviour.                                                                                                                            accounts for the
                                                                                                        How Science Works: Using different
                                             Know that collision theory                                 methods to obtain                                                          observed change,
                                             has now been successfully                                  results/instrumentation. Students                                          when asked why
                                             tested.                                                    explain the results again in terms of                                      a rate changes.
                                                                                                        the hypothesis. Teacher-led
                                                                                                        discussion, should we make this a
                                                                                                        theory rather than hypothesis?
                                                                                                        Homework: Students plot graph of
                                                                                                        results and interpret it. [3d: l]
7d                 Increasing the            Use the collision theory to                   1            Consolidation lesson on collision          VLE/Interactive software
                   pressure of reacting      explain how the change in                                  theory, rates of reaction and activation   eg rates.
                   gases increases the       conditions affects the rate                                energy.
                   frequency of collisions   of any reaction, in terms of
                                                                                                        Task: Students could draw particle
                   and so increases the      particle behaviour.
                                                                                                        diagrams to show how each change in
                   rate of reaction.
                                             Know how gas pressure                                      conditions affects the particle mixture
                                             affects rate of reaction.                                  in the reaction and how this relates to
                                                                                                        the theory.
                                                                                                        How Science Works: Make a
                                                                                                        prediction on the effect of altering the
                                                                                                        pressure on a gas reaction.
7g                 Catalysts change the      Know that catalysts change                    1            Discuss: Why do cars have catalysts        Manganese (IV) oxide            Note: In
                   rate of chemical          the rate of a chemical                                     in their exhaust system? What do they      /liver/potato spatula, 20 vol   questions
                   reactions but are not     reaction. This is important                                do?                                        hydrogen peroxide,              involving industry
                   used up during the        in industry to reduce costs.                                                                          balance, measuring              and catalysts,
                                                                                                        Activity: Investigating effect of
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                                             What most students should
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                   reaction. Different                                                                  catalysts. Use one of these catalysts     cylinder and boiling tube.   students should
                   reactions need                                                                       on hydrogen peroxide: liver, potato,                                   be given
                                                                                                                                                  VLE/Interactive software,
                   different catalysts.                                                                 manganese(IV) oxide. Students report                                   information that
                                                                                                                                                  eg transition metals.
                                                                                                        their experiment. [3d: h]                                              they need to
                                                                                                        Explain: Develop idea of catalysts                                     evaluate eg Why
                                                                                                        helping the reaction to take place. You                                is a catalyst used
                                                                                                        may wish to mention how catalysts                                      that reduces the
                                                                                                        work, active sites, forming                                            reacting
                                                                                                        intermediates etc.                                                     temperature?
                                                                                                                                                                               Because reducing
                                                                                                                                                                               the temperature
                                                                                                                                                                               will save energy
                                                                                                                                                                               and make the
                                                                                                                                                                               process cheaper.
7h                 Catalysts are important   Describe the benefit of                                    Explain: the value to industry of using
                   in increasing the rates   using a catalyst for a given                               catalysts in terms of reducing costs
                   of chemical reactions     process to the industry                                    etc. Students make notes.
                   used in industrial        involved.                                                  Homework: Past paper question on
                   processes to reduce
                                                                                                        rates.
                   costs.

8 Crude oil and fuels

8.1 Crude oil and 8.2 Hydrocarbons
8.1a               Crude oil is a mixture    Know what a mixture is in                     1            Recap what a mixture is, and explain      Fake crude oil
                   of a very large number    terms of elements and                                      that crude oil is a mixture.              (CLEAPSS/Hazcard
                   of compounds.             compounds.                                                                                           recipe), boiling tube with

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                                                                                                                                                               side arm, bung for boiling
                                                                                                                                                                                 O
                                                                                                                                                               tube with 0 - 360 C
                                                                                                                                                               thermometer, side arm,
                                                                                                                                                                                      3
                                                                                                                                                               four test tubes, 250cm
                                                                                                                                                               beaker, four watch
                                                                                                                                                               glasses, heat mat,
                                                                                                                                                               matches and spills and
                                                                                                                                                               fume cupboard.
                                                                                                                                                               Molymods or similar.
8.1b               Most of the
                   compounds in crude oil
                   are hydrocarbons,
                   which are molecules
                   made up of hydrogen
                   and carbon atoms
                   only.
8.1c               The many                  Describe fractional                                        Demo: Experiment of distillation of                    Information and videos of        Students should
                   hydrocarbons in crude     distillation as based on                                   crude oil (CLEAPSS recipe), followed                   fractional distillation can be   know and
                   oil may be separated      each compound having a                                     by analysis and burning of obtained                    found on BBC GCSE                understand the
                   into fractions, each of   different boiling point.                                   fractions.                                             Bitesize at                      main processes in
                   which contains                                                                                                                              www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gc         continuous
                                             Know that each compound                                    Task: Students make diagram of
                   molecules with a                                                                                                                            sebitesize                       fractional
                                             vaporises and condenses                                    experiment and chart the results from
                   similar number of                                                                                                                                                            distillation in a
                                             at different temperatures,                                 the demonstration:                                     RSC Alchemy disc has a
                   carbon atoms, by                                                                                                                                                             fractionating
                                             and so they are separated.                                                                                        section on Oil Refining.
                   evaporating the oil and                                                                                                                                                      column.
                                                                                                         fraction   colour   viscosity   ease of    amount     This can also be found at
                   allowing it to condense                                                                                               ignition   of smoke
                                                                                                                                                               www.rsc.org/Education/Te         Knowledge of the
                   at a number of
                                                                                                                                                               achers/Resources/Alchem          names of specific

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                   different temperatures.                                                                                                         y/index2.htm                 fractions or fuels
                                                                                                        Discuss: Discuss how these
                   This process is called                                                                                                                                       is not required.
                                                                                                        properties affect how we use
                   fractional distillation.
                                                                                                        hydrocarbons as fuels, diesel in winter,
                                                                                                        amount of soot etc. Students make
                                                                                                        notes.
                                                                                                        Discuss: Differences between the
                                                                                                        demo and fractional distillation as
                                                                                                        continuous process. Use video.
8.2c               Some properties of         Describe the relationship
                   hydrocarbons depend        between molecule size and
                   on the size of their       boiling point, viscosity,
                   molecules. These           ease of ignition, and
                   properties influence       flammability.
                   how hydrocarbons are       Knowledge of trends in
                   used as fuels.             properties of hydrocarbons
                                              is limited to:
                                               boiling points
                                               viscosity
                                               flammability.

8.2a               Most of the                Students should know that                    1            Demo /Activity: Name each formula          VLE/Interactive software
                   hydrocarbons in crude      in saturated hydrocarbons                                 and draw methane, ethane and               eg ‘organic chemistry ‘and
                   oil are saturated          all the carbon–carbon                                     propane as examples of alkanes in          ‘useful organic’.
                   hydrocarbons called        bonds are single covalent                                 both forms. Show as models.
                                                                                                                                                   Molymods or similar.
                   alkanes. The general       bonds.                                                    Elicit general formula for alkanes.
                   formula for the
                                                                                                        Discuss: the use of a line as

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                             ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                               Students should:




                   homologous series of                                                                 representing a single covalent bond.
                   alkanes is CnH2n+2.
8.2b               Alkane molecules can      Describe what the                                          Task: Students draw molecular
                   be represented in the     structural formula shows.                                  diagrams adding in notes to the
                   following forms:                                                                     diagrams of methane, ethane, and
                                             Know the general formula
                                                                                                        propane as alkanes.
                   C2H6                      for alkanes.
                   or                        Students should know that
                                             in displayed structures a —
                                             represents a covalent bond.
                                             Students should be able to
                                             recognise alkanes from
                                             their formulae in any of the
                                             forms, but do not need to
                                             know the names of specific
                                             alkanes other than
                                             methane, ethane and
                                             propane.
8.3 Fuels
8.3a               Most fuels, including     Students should be able to                    1            Demo: Burning a candle, and passing      Equipment as in diagram.      Know that
                   coal, contain carbon      relate products of                                         exhaust gases through anhydrous                                        products of
                                                                                                                                                 See AQA website Practical
                   and/or hydrogen and       combustion to the elements                                 copper sulfate/cooling U tube and                                      combustion
                                                                                                                                                 Guide
                   may also contain some     present in compounds in                                    cobalt chloride paper, then limewater.                                 depend on the
                   sulfur. The gases         the fuel and to the extent of                                                                       VLE/Interactive software      elements present
                   released into the         combustion (whether                                                                                 eg, ‘useful air’ and ‘Earth   in the fuel (check
                   atmosphere when a         complete or partial).                                                                               and atmosphere’.              the formula) and
                                                                                                                                                                               how much oxygen

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                                              What most students should
                                              be able to do                                             Homework                                                    Students should:




                   fuel burns may include     No details of how the                                                                                                 is present.
                                                                                                                                              Access to internet.
                   carbon dioxide, water      oxides of nitrogen are                                                                                                Carbon monoxide
                   (vapour), carbon           formed are required, other                                                                                            is made if there is
                   monoxide, sulfur           than the fact that they are                                                                                           not enough
                                                                                                           candle here
                   dioxide and oxides of      formed at high                                                                                                        oxygen present
                   nitrogen. Solid            temperatures.                                                                                                         for complete
                   particles (particulates)                                                                                                                         combustion, but
                                              Solid particles may contain
                   may also be released.                                                                                                                            really serious
                                              soot (carbon) and unburnt                                 How Science Works: Draw attention
                                                                                                                                                                    shortage of
                                              fuels.                                                    to need for control experiment to
                                                                                                                                                                    oxygen makes
                                                                                                        compare the results. Students label
                                                                                                                                                                    soot (carbon).
                                                                                                        diagram and make results chart.
                                                                                                        Note: Soot formation by incomplete
                                                                                                        combustion.
8.3b               The combustion of
                   hydrocarbon fuels
                   releases energy.
                   During combustion, the
                   carbon and hydrogen
                   in the fuels are
                   oxidised.




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                                              What most students should
                                              be able to do                                             Homework                                                                Students should:




8.3c               Sulfur dioxide and         Students should know at                                   Discuss: candle wax is purified
                   oxides of nitrogen         least one effect of, but are                              hydrocarbon, and many fuels contain
                   cause acid rain, an        not required to know                                      sulfur compounds which cause acid
                   increase in carbon         details of any other causes                               rain. Carbon dioxide causes global
                   dioxide results in         of, acid rain or climate                                  warming and soot particles cause
                   climate change, and        change.                                                   dimming.
                   solid particles cause                                                                Task: Students make notes on
                   global dimming.                                                                      experiment.
8.3d               Sulfur can be removed                                                                Discuss: Class discussion on                                            Note: Detailed
                   from fuels before they                                                               reducing harmful effects of sulfur in                                   knowledge of the
                   are burned, eg in                                                                    fuels.                                                                  processes is not
                   vehicles. Sulfur dioxide                                                                                                                                     required.
                                                                                                        Research: the methods used,
                   can be removed from                                                                  including removing the sulfur from the                                  Be able to explain
                   the waste gases after                                                                fuel before burning, eg low-sulfur fuels,                               why removing
                   combustion, eg in                                                                    or for removal of sulfur dioxide from                                   sulfur from fuels
                   power stations                                                                       the waste gases after combustion.                                       is good for the
                                                                                                        Students make notes.                                                    environment.
                                                                                                                                                                                Knowledge of the
                                                                                                        Homework: Past paper question on
                                                                                                                                                                                methods of
                                                                                                        the uses of fuels.
                                                                                                                                                                                removing sulfur is
                                                                                                                                                                                not required
8.3e               Biofuels, including        Students should know and                  1/2             Activity: Making ethanol with yeast.        Sugar, yeast, limewater,
                                                                                                                                                            3
                   biodiesel and ethanol,     understand the benefits                                   (you could start the culture and in the     250 cm conical flask and
                   are produced from          and disadvantages of                                      second lesson distil the ethanol ).         bung with delivery tube.
                   plant material, and are    biofuels in terms of:                                                                                 test tube, distillation
                                                                                                        Students make notes on fermentation
                   possible alternatives to                                                                                                         apparatus
                                               use of renewable                                        and distillation.
                   hydrocarbon fuels.           resources                                                                                           VLE/Interactive software,

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                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                       Students should:




                                               their impacts on land                                                                          eg organic chemistry.
                                                use
                                               their carbon footprint.

9.1f               Ethanol can be            Students should know that                                  Discuss: Evaluate the advantages
                   produced by reacting      ethanol for use as a biofuel                               and disadvantages of making ethanol
                   ethene with steam in      is produced from a dilute                                  from renewable and non-renewable
                   the presence of a         solution of ethanol obtained                               sources.
                   catalyst.                 by the fermentation of plant
                                                                                                        Homework: Past paper questions/
                                             materials at a temperature
                                                                                                        worksheet on advantages and
                                             between 20°C and 35 °C.
                                                                                                        disadvantages of making ethanol from
                                             Detailed knowledge of the                                  renewable and non-renewable
                                             methods used to produce                                    sources.
                                             other biofuels is not
                                             required.
8.3f               Hydrogen can be           Students should be able to                                 Discuss: Class discussion about fuel
                   burned as a fuel in       compare the advantages                                     cells and burning hydrogen as fuels.
                   combustion engines or     and disadvantages of the
                                                                                                        Task: Students produce chart
                   can be used in fuel       combustion of hydrogen
                                                                                                        comparing the advantages and
                   cells that produce        with the use of hydrogen
                                                                                                        disadvantages of using a fuel cell
                   electricity to power      fuel cells from information
                                                                                                        instead of burning hydrogen.
                   vehicles.                 that is provided.
                                             Students should know and
                                             understand the benefits
                                             and disadvantages of
                                             hydrogen fuel in terms of:
                                               storage and use

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                                               products of combustion.
                                             Knowledge of the details of
                                             the reactions in fuel cells is
                                             not required.
9 Other useful substances from crude oil

9.1 Obtaining useful substances from crude oil
9.1a               Hydrocarbons can be       Recall that heating large                     1            Task: List five products from crude oil,   VLE/Interactive software
                   broken down (cracked)     alkanes with a catalyst or                                 and ask how we get enough of each of       eg organic chemistry.
                   to produce smaller,       steam and hot temperature                                  them. It is interesting to tell students
                                                                                                                                                   You can find a variety of
                   more useful molecules.    decomposes to make the                                     that 100 years ago petrol was a waste
                                                                                                                                                   resources including video
                   This process involves     hydrocarbon smaller                                        product, but now we can’t get enough
                                                                                                                                                   clips on the RSC website
                   heating the               molecules.                                                 of it!
                                                                                                                                                   at
                   hydrocarbons to           Know that some of these                                    Demo: Demonstrate cracking or use          www.rsc.org/Education/Te
                   vaporise them. The        smaller molecules are                                      video to show process of cracking.         achers/Resources/Alchem
                   vapours are either        called alkenes.                                            Students make notes.                       y/index.htm
                   passed over a hot
                   catalyst or mixed with                                                               Explain: That cracking makes larger        See Exampro Extra Online
                                                                                                        molecules into smaller, more useful        Practical Guide: Cracking
                   steam and heated to a
                                                                                                        ones, including a group of compounds       liquid paraffin.
                   very high temperature
                                                                                                        called alkenes.                            See Exampro Extra Online
                   so that thermal
                                                                                                        Task: Students draw diagrams to            Chemistry Activity: Crude
                   decomposition
                                                                                                        explain cracking.                          oil word puzzles.
                   reactions then occur.
9.1b               The products of           Students should know that                                                                                                         Be able to
                   cracking include          in unsaturated                                                                                                                    recognise ‘n’
                   alkanes and               hydrocarbons some of the                                                                                                          alkene by the

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
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                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                               Students should:




                   unsaturated               carbon–carbon bonds are                                                                                                           double bond in its
                   hydrocarbons called       double covalent bonds.                                                                                                            structure, or that
                   alkenes.                                                                                                                                                    the name ends in
                                                                                                                                                                               –‘ene’
9.1b               The general formula                                                     1                                                      VLE/Interactive software,
                   for the homologous                                                                                                             eg organic chemistry.
                   series of alkenes is
                   CnH2n.
9.1c               Unsaturated               Recognise alkenes from                                     Discuss: Introduce idea of double         Molymods                     Remember that
                   hydrocarbon               their formulae in any of the                               bond using structural formula of ethane                                ‘=’ means a
                   molecules can be          forms.                                                     and propene.                                                           double covalent
                   represented in the                                                                                                                                          bond, and that ‘–‘
                                             Know that ‘=’ represents a
                   following forms:                                                                                                                                            means a single
                                             double bond in the
                   C3H6 or                   structure.                                                                                                                        covalent bond. A
                                                                                                                                                                               double bond
                                                                                                                                                                               means that the
                                                                                                                                                                               compound is
                                                                                                                                                                               unsaturated. A
                                                                                                                                                                               single bond
                                                                                                                                                                               means that the
                                                                                                                                                                               compound is
                                                                                                                                                                               saturated.
9.1d               Alkenes react with        Know that the presence of                                  Activity: Class practical testing for     Bromine water, test tubes,
                   bromine water, turning    double bonds in a molecule                                 double bonds using bromine water.         test tube racks, liquid
                   it from orange to         can be tested for by the                                   Students should test a range of named     alkanes, eg pentane,
                   colourless.               decolourisation of bromine                                 alkenes and alkanes. Students make        hexane, liquid alkenes, eg


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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
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                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                              Students should:




                                             water.                                                     notes.                                   hexene, cyclohexene.
                                                                                                        Homework: Students predict reactions
                                                                                                        of a variety of molecules displaying
                                                                                                        single and double bonds with bromine
                                                                                                        water.
9.1e               Some of the products      Know that cracking                                         Explain: Show with models how
                   of cracking are useful    produces more useful                                       breaking large molecules produces not
                   as fuels.                 molecules including                                        only alkenes, but also more fuels like
                                             alkenes and fuels.                                         petrol (octane) and diesel
                                                                                                        (dodecanes).
                                                                                                        Task: Students draw diagrams to
                                                                                                        explain the above.
9.2 Polymers
9.2a               Alkenes can be used       Represent polymerisation                      1            Demo: Making Perspex.                    Exampro Extra Online         Note: Although
                   to make polymers such     of ethene like this                                                                                 Practical Guide: see AQA     students will
                                                                                                        Use molecular models to demonstrate
                   as poly(ethene) and                                                                                                           help notes.                  probably know
                                                                                                        how polymers form. Class make own
                   poly(propene). In                                                                                                                                          the names of
                                                                                                        polymer chain by:                        Molymods
                   polymerisation                                                                                                                                             some common
                                                                                                          each student making a monomer
                   reactions, many small                                                                                                         Paper chain pieces (use      polymers, these
                                                                                                           either with model or drawn onto
                   molecules (monomers)                                                                                                          waste paper) and marker      are not required
                                                                                                           front of paper chain piece.
                   join together to form     Students should be able to                                                                          pens.                        knowledge,
                                                                                                          two students joining their monomer
                   very large molecules      recognise the molecules                                                                                                          unless they are
                                                                                                           together and drawing on back          VLE/Interactive software,
                   (polymers).               involved in these reactions                                                                                                      included in the
                                                                                                           structure at the joining.             eg organic chemistry.
                                             in the forms shown in the                                                                                                        subject content
                                                                                                          groups joining together to make       RSC Alchemy disc has
                                             subject content. They                                                                                                            for this section.
                                                                                                           long chain with monomer structure     section on poly(ethene).
                                             should be able to represent                                   on front of each piece of paper and   Further information can be   Students only
                                             the formation of a polymer

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
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                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                                ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                                  Students should:




                                             from a given alkene                                           polymer structure on rear of chain.      found at                      need to learn the
                                             monomer.                                                   Students draw diagrams to explain           www.rsc.org/Education/Te      basic
                                                                                                        ethene polymerisation.                      achers/Resources/Alchem       polymerisation of
                                             Further details of
                                                                                                        Homework: Students to draw                  y/index2.htm                  ethene, as the
                                             polymerisation are not
                                                                                                        diagrams showing propene                                                  propene simply
                                             required.
                                                                                                        polymerisation.                                                           changes one H
                                                                                                                                                                                  atom for a CH3
                                                                                                                                                                                  group.
9.2b               The properties of         Know that:                                    1            Review ideas of polymers . Show             Selection of polymers with    Be able to explain
                   polymers depend on                                                                   examples of polymers or use circus on       different properties          why the structure
                                               LD polythene and HD
                   what they are made                                                                   properties such as transparency,            including LD and HD           gives the property
                                                poly(ethene) are made
                   from and the                                                                         flexibility, stretching etc. Including LD   poly(ethene).                 or vice versa.
                                                using different catalysts
                   conditions under which                                                               and HD poly(ethene). Ask what causes
                                                and conditions                                                                                      See Exampro Extra Online
                   they are made. For                                                                   these differences.
                                               the differences in                                                                                  Practical Guide: Making
                   example, low density         polymers’ properties                                    Activity: Identifying LD and HD             slime.
                   (LD) and high density        depend on the monomer                                   poly(ethene) using 50 parts ethanol
                   (HD) poly(ethene) are        used and also the                                       and 50 parts water mix.
                   produced using               conditions under which
                   different catalysts and                                                              Discuss: a variety of possible
                                                they are made, as these
                                                                                                        monomers, and refer to the differences
                   reaction conditions.         influence the type of
                                                                                                        as being due to the structure achieved
                                                structure produced.
                                                                                                        when the different monomers
                                                                                                        polymerise. Students make notes.
9.2c               Thermosoftening           Students should be able to                    1            Demo: Show that there are two types         A video on the properties
                   polymers consist of       explain thermosoftening                                    of polymers, thermosetting and              of plastics can be found on
                   individual, tangled       polymers in terms of                                       thermosoftening polymers. Students          the BBC website at
                   polymer chains.           intermolecular forces.                                     can see which of a number of common         www.bbc.co.uk/learningzo
                                                                                                                                                    ne/clips by searching for

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
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                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                             Students should:




                   Thermosetting                                                                        polymers belong to each group.           clip ‘903’.
                   polymers consist of
                                                                                                        Task: Students report their              More information on
                   polymer chains with                                                                  experiment. Students suggest possible    poly(ethene) can be found
                   cross-links between                                                                  uses for polymers based on their         on the RSC Alchemy
                   them so that they do                                                                 properties.                              website
                   not melt when they are                                                                                                        www.rsc.org/Education/Te
                   heated.                                                                              Explain: Develop explanation of the
                                                                                                                                                 achers/Resources/Alchem
                                                                                                        difference in the polymers’ behaviour
                                                                                                                                                 y/index2.htm
                                                                                                        in terms of structure. Students make
                                                                                                        notes.
9.2d               Polymers have many        Students should consider                   1/2             Activity: Choose from                    See Exampro Extra Online
                   useful applications and   the ways in which new                                                                               Practical Guide.
                                                                                                         making a polymer from cornstarch
                   new uses are being        materials are being
                                                                                                         testing a polymer’s strength eg
                   developed, for            developed and used, but
                                                                                                          plastic carrier bag testing strength
                   example: new              will not need to recall the
                                                                                                          to breaking point (not a Hooke’s’
                   packaging materials,      names of specific
                                                                                                          Law investigation)
                   waterproof coatings for   examples.
                                                                                                         testing waterproofing of different
                   fabrics, dental           Know that we use a wide                                      polymer fabrics
                   polymers, wound           range of polymers                                           investigating the amount of water
                   dressings, hydrogels,     developed for specific                                       absorbed by hydrogels.
                   smart materials           purposes.
                                                                                                        How Science Works: Students plan
                   (including shape
                                             Identify from properties                                   and report their investigation.
                   memory polymers)
                                             relevant uses for a polymer.
9.2g               Many polymers are not     Realise that polymers are                                  Discuss polymer developments, and
                   biodegradable: so they    often hard to dispose of,                                  waste disposal issues.
                   are not broken down       and that biodegradable
                                                                                                        Activity: Make notes on need for
                   by microbes and this      ones offer some solutions
                                                                                                        disposal of plastics via recycling and

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                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                            Students should:




                   can lead to problems      to these problems.                                         biodegradability rather than landfill.
                   with waste disposal.                                                                 Could be and advantages and
                                                                                                        disadvantages of each disposal
                                                                                                        method.
9.2f               Plastic bags are being    Knowledge of specific                                      Homework: Recycling plastics – give
                   made from polymers        named examples is not                                      two advantages and two
                   and cornstarch so that    required, but students                                     disadvantages of recycling plastics.
                   they break down more      should be aware of the
                   easily. Biodegradable     problems that are caused in
                   plastics made from        landfill sites and in litter.
                   cornstarch have been
                   developed.
10 Alcohols, carboxylic acids and esters
10.1a              Alcohols contain the      Students should be able to                    1            Activity: Name these compounds:          Molymods
                   functional group –OH.     recognise alcohols from
                                                                                                        Diagrams of CH4, C2H6, C3H8.
                                             their names or formulae,
                   Methanol, ethanol and
                                             but do not need to know                                    Produce a blank chart (like the one
                   propanol are the first
                                             the names of individual                                    below) only showing the headings for
                   three members of a
                                             alcohols other than                                        each column (shown in bold).
                   homologous series of
                                             methanol, ethanol and                                      Complete the first three columns with
                   alcohols.
                                             propanol                                                   students. Leave the ‘alcohol name’
                   Alcohols can be                                                                      column until the task listed below.
                   represented in the
                   following forms:                                                                      number of   start   alkane   alcohol
                                                                                                         carbon      to      name     name
                                                                                                         atoms in    name
                   CH3CH2OH                                                                              molecule



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                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                             Students should:




                   or                                                                                    1           meth    methane   methanol
                                                                                                         2           eth     ethane    ethanol
                                                                                                         3           prop    propane   propanol

                                                                                                        Use molymods to make structures of
                                                                                                        each alkane.
                                                                                                        Task: Students to draw structural
                                                                                                        formulae of methane, ethane and
                                                                                                        propane in the left hand side of their
                                                                                                        books. Students name the alcohols
                                                                                                        (remember they have already used
                                                                                                        them, in unit 1 and unit 2) and
                                                                                                        complete the rest of the chart.
                                                                                                        Explain: Show students molymods of
                                                                                                        both methane and methanol. Students
                                                                                                        should spot the differences and then
                                                                                                        draw methanol structure alongside
                                                                                                        methane, and write formula.
                                                                                                        Task: Students should draw what they
                                                                                                        think ethanol and propanol will look
                                                                                                        like, and write their formulae, again
                                                                                                        alongside the alkane.
                                                                                                        Review using Molymods to check
                                                                                                        answers.
                                                                                                        Task: Draw out idea of homologous


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                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                                 Students should:




                                                                                                        series, by using models of all three
                                                                                                        alcohols to show that the formulae only
                                                                                                        changes by the addition of CH2 to each
                                                                                                        successive molecule.
                                                                                                        Homework: Predict formulae and
                                                                                                        draw structures for alcohols with 5, 6, 7
                                                                                                        and 8 carbon atoms (only show
                                                                                                        straight chain molecules).
10.1b              Methanol, ethanol and     Describe key reactions of                     1            Discuss: Why are alcohols useful to         Exampro Extra Online         Note: Students
                   propanol:                 alcohols, and why alcohols                                 us?                                         Practical Guide: Alcohols,   do not need to
                                             are useful.                                                                                            carboxylic acids and         write balanced
                    dissolve in water to                                                               Activity: to show:
                     form a neutral                                                                                                                 esters.                      chemical
                                                                                                         reactions of alcohols with water,                                      equations for the
                     solution
                                                                                                          sodium or magnesium produce                                            reactions of
                    react with sodium
                                                                                                          hydrogen gas                                                           alcohols other
                     to produce
                                                                                                         that they burn in air                                                  than combustion
                     hydrogen
                                                                                                         solvent effect, eg on grass stains.
                    burn in air                                                                                                                                                 reactions.
                    are used as fuels                                                                  Demo: Of 50:50 ethanol/water
                     and solvents and                                                                   mixtures burning without damaging
                     ethanol is the main                                                                paper. Soak old book/notepad in 50:50
                     alcohol in alcoholic                                                               ethanol water, place in enamel tray,
                     drinks.                                                                            and set it alight. Let it burn for two
                                                                                                        minutes so the flames can be seen,
                                                                                                        then put heat proof mat over the top to
                                                                                                        extinguish fire. Retrieve book/notepad
                                                                                                        and show it is damp, but undamaged.
                                                                                                        Students report the experiment and
                                                                                                        write symbol equation for combustion

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                              ‘hints and tips’
                                              What most students should
                                              be able to do                                             Homework                                                                Students should:




                                                                                                        of ethanol with air. Mention use of
                                                                                                        ethanol as a drink. Mention it is mildly
                                                                                                        poisonous and this is why it is
                                                                                                        intoxicating, whilst others are highly
                                                                                                        poisonous.
                                                                                                        Prepare some ethanoic acid for next
                                                                                                        lesson.
                                                                                                        Homework: Write and balance
                                                                                                        equations for the burning of methanol
                                                                                                        and propanol in air.


10.1c              Ethanol can be             Students should be able to                   1            Activity: Ask students to safely smell     Test tubes, ethanoic acid,   Note: Students
                   oxidised to ethanoic       recognise alcohols from                                   some ethanol, and then the flask with      pipettes, sodium             do not need to
                   acid, either by            their names or formulae,                                  ethanoic acid in from last lesson. Ask     hydrogencarbonate,           write balanced
                   chemical oxidising         but do not need to know                                   students what has happened, and to         spatula, indicator paper     chemical
                   agents or by microbial     the names of individual                                   tell you what has been made.               and limewater.               equations for the
                   action. Ethanoic acid is   alcohols other than                                                                                                               reactions of
                                                                                                        Discuss: the oxidation of ethanol to
                   the main acid in           methanol, ethanol and                                                                                                             carboxylic acids.
                                                                                                        ethanoic acid, and use molymods to
                   vinegar.                   propanol.
                                                                                                        show what has happened to the
                                              Students should be aware                                  molecule of ethanol as it has been
                                              that vinegar is an aqueous                                oxidised.
                                              solution that contains
                                              ethanoic acid.
10.2a              Ethanoic acid is a         Students should be able to                                Task: Students can now draw the
                   member of the              recognise carboxylic acids                                structure and formula of ethanoic acid.
                   carboxylic acids, which    from their names or                                       Students name carbon-based

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                                ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                                  Students should:




                   have the functional       formulae, but do not need                                  compounds, and then draw or make
                   group –COOH               to know the names of                                       methanoic acid and propanoic acid.
                                             individual carboxylic acids
                   The structures of                                                                    Students should explain why brewing
                                             other than methanoic acid,
                   carboxylic acids can                                                                 wine and beer need to ferment without
                                             ethanoic acid and
                   be represented in the                                                                oxygen present.
                                             propanoic acid.
                   following forms:
                   CH3COOH


                   or




10.2b              Carboxylic acids:         Students are expected to                      1            Demo: To show:                             Test tubes, dilute ethanoic
                                             write balanced chemical                                                                               acid, pH indicator (solution
                    dissolve in water to                                                                carboxylic acids dissolve in water to
                                             equations for the reactions                                                                           or paper), sodium
                     produce acidic                                                                       form acidic solutions
                                             of carboxylic acids.                                                                                  carbonate crystals,
                     solutions                                                                           sodium carbonate produces CO2
                    react with                                                                           gas.                                     forceps, limewater, beaker.
                     carbonates to
                                                                                                        Discuss: Carboxylic acids react like
                     produce carbon
                                                                                                        acids, but have a higher pH, and so
                     dioxide do not
                                                                                                        are weaker acids. This is why it is safe
                     ionise completely
                                                                                                        to use vinegar in cooking but not
                     when dissolved in
                                                                                                        hydrochloric acid.
                     water and so are

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                               ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                                 Students should:




                     weak acids
                                                                                                        Students make notes on these
                    aqueous solutions
                                                                                                        reactions, and use equations.
                     of weak acids have
                     a higher pH value
                     than aqueous
                     solutions of strong
                     acids with the same
                     concentration.
10.2b              Carboxylic acids:                                                       1            Demo: Mix equal quantities of ethanol       Test tubes, ethanoic acid,
                                                                                                        and ethanoic acid in test tubes. Add        ethanol, concentrated
                    react with alcohols
                                                                                                        three drops of concentrated                 H2SO4, pipettes, sodium
                     in the presence of
                                                                                                        H2SO4(aq). Leave to stand for 10            hydrogencarbonate,
                     an acid catalyst to
                                                                                                        minutes, add spatula of sodium              spatula and indicator
                     produce esters
                                                                                                        hydrogencarbonate to neutralise the         paper.
                                                                                                        acid, then ask students to safely smell
                                                                                                        it. Pour mixture into a beaker of water
                                                                                                        and ask students to smell it again, to
                                                                                                        show water helps carry the scent.
                                                                                                        Whilst waiting, produce molymods of
                                                                                                        ethanoic acid and ethanol. Tell
                                                                                                        students that the two react together to
                                                                                                        make one molecule of a compound we
                                                                                                        call an ester, and a molecule of water.
                                                                                                        After smelling the mixture, students
                                                                                                        make notes on uses of esters for
                                                                                                        perfumes and flavourings. Explain to
                                                                                                        students that milk goes slightly ‘fruity’

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
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                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                           Students should:




                                                                                                        before it goes off because esters are
                                                                                                        produced in the milk by bacteria.
                                                                                                        Explain properties of esters:
                                                                                                         They are not fully ionised so only
                                                                                                          make weak acids in water. You
                                                                                                          may want to show them how the
                                                                                                          molecule dissociates here to
                                                                                                          produce H+ ions.
                                                                                                        Their pH is higher (less acidic) than
                                                                                                        other acids students may be familiar
                                                                                                        with.
10.3a              Ethyl ethanoate is the    Students will not be
                   ester produced from       expected to give the names
                   ethanol and ethanoic      of esters other than ethyl
                   acid. Esters have the     ethanoate, but should be
                   functional group –        able to recognise a
                   COO–.                     compound as an ester from
                                             its name or its structural
                   The structures of
                                             formula.
                   esters can be
                   represented in the
                   following forms:

                   CH3COOCH2CH3         or




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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
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                                              What most students should
                                              be able to do                                             Homework                                                             Students should:




10.3b              Esters are volatile
                   compounds with
                   distinctive smells and
                   are used as
                   flavourings and
                   perfumes.

11 Energy changes in chemical reactions

11.1 Exothermic and endothermic reactions
                                                                                                                                                               -3
11.1a              When chemical              Describe the differences                     1            Activity: Circus of reactions.          NaOH 1 mol dm , HCl(aq)      Note: In
                                                                                                                                                          -3      3
                   reactions occur,           between exothermic and                                                                            1 mol dm , 100 cm            questions
                                                                                                        Students discover what happens to the
                   energy is transferred to   endothermic reactions.                                                                            beaker, thermometers,        involving energy
                                                                                                        temperature in each reaction:                         3
                   or from the                                                                                                                  balance, 25 cm measuring     amounts, there is
                   surroundings.                                                                         sodium hydroxide solution and         cylinders, NaHCO3. citric    no need to give
                                                                                                          hydrochloric acid                     acid powder,                 exothermic
                                                                                                         mixture of equal masses of sodium                                  reactions
                                                                                                                                                NH4NO3, zinc granules,
                                                                                                          hydrogencarbonate, citric acid and                             -   negative numbers
                                                                                                                                                CuSO4 solution (1 mol dm
                                                                                                          ammonium nitrate dissolved in         3
                                                                                                                                                                             and endothermic
                                                                                                                                                 )
                                                                                                          water                                                              reactions positive
                                                                                                         zinc in copper sulfate solution.                                   numbers.
                                                                                                        Students keep record of results as

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                          ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                            Students should:




                                                                                                        equations and changes in temperature.
                                                                                                        Discuss: results leading to two types
                                                                                                        of reaction exothermic and
                                                                                                        endothermic, and energy transfer
                                                                                                        ideas. Students make notes.

11.1b              An exothermic reaction    Name several exothermic
                   is one that transfers     reactions.
                   energy to the
                   surroundings.

11.1c              An endothermic            Knowledge of delta H (ΔH)
                   reaction is one that      conventions and enthalpy
                   takes in energy from      changes, including the use
                   the surroundings.         of positive values for
                                             endothermic reactions and
                                             negative values for
                                             exothermic reactions, is
                                             required.

11.1b              Examples of               Know several exothermic                       1            Demo: Uses of heat changes in           Exampro Extra Online
                   exothermic reactions      and endothermic reaction                                   chemical reactions.                     Practical guide:
                   include combustion,       uses.                                                                                              Exothermic and
                                                                                                        Exothermic:
                   many oxidation                                                                                                               endothermic reactions.
                                             Explain self-heating cans /
                   reactions and                                                                         burning fuel ( Bunsen burner)
                                             hand warmers, and sports                                                                           VLE/Interactive software
                   neutralisation.                                                                       concentrated sulfuric acid and
                                             injury packs in simple                                                                             eg energy transfer.
                                                                                                          sugar
                   Everyday uses of          terms. (no need to recall
                                                                                                         a thermite reaction                   VLE/Interactive software,
                   exothermic reactions      chemicals or equations for
                                                                                                         hand warmer ( if available)           eg reversible reactions.

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
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                                              What most students should
                                              be able to do                                             Homework                                                            Students should:




                   include self-heating       processes).
                                                                                                        Endothermic:
                   cans (eg for coffee)
                   and hand warmers.                                                                     ammonium nitrate and barium
                                                                                                          hydroxide
                                                                                                        Sports injury pack
                                                                                                        Students make brief notes on self-
                                                                                                        heating warmers and injury packs.


11.1c              Endothermic reactions      Evaluate everyday uses of
                   include thermal            exothermic and
                   decompositions. Some       endothermic reactions.
                   sports injury packs are
                   based upon
                   endothermic reactions.


11.1d              If a reversible reaction   Realise that in a reversible                 1            Activity: Students should investigate   Copper sulfate, spatula,
                   is exothermic in one       reaction the same energy                                  the temperature changes for the         test tubes, pipettes, and
                                                                                                                                                        3
                   direction, it is           change takes place in                                     reversible reaction:                    100 cm beaker.
                   endothermic in the         either direction.
                   opposite direction. The
                   same amount of
                   energy is transferred in
                   each case.
                                                                                                        Homework: Students report their
                                                                                                        experiment.


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                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                                  Students should:




11.2 Calculating and explaining energy changes
                                                                                                                                                                              3
11.2a              The relative amounts      Students should be able to                    2            Remind students that burning fuels (as      Alcohol burners, 250 cm       Note: For
                   of energy released        calculate and compare the                                  in distillation last lesson) releases       beakers, measuring            comparison
                   when substances burn      amount of energy released                                  energy, how can we calculate the            cylinders, thermometers,      purposes, energy
                   can be measured by        by different fuels given the                               energy released?                            balances and samples of       values could be
                   simple calorimetry, eg    equation:                                                                                              alcohols for the burners,     given in kJ or
                                                                                                        How Science Works: What do we
                   by heating water in a                                                                                                            eg methanol, propanol,        calories for a
                                                                                                        need to know? Students list likely
                   glass or metal                                                                                                                   ethanol and butanol.          given mass or
                                             Q = mc ∆T                                                  variables that will have impact
                   container. This method                                                                                                                                         amount of
                                                                                                        including:
                   can be used to                                                                                                                                                 substance, eg
                                                                                                                                                    Exampro Extra Online
                   compare the amount of                                                                 mass/ volume of water                                                   calories per gram,
                                                                                                                                                    Practical guide:
                   energy produced by                                                                    temperature rise                                                        kJ per mole or kJ
                   fuels and foods.                                                                      how much energy it takes to heat          Calculating energy from
                                                                                                                        0                           burning fuels.                per gram. If
                                                                                                          the water by 1 C
                                                                                                                                                                                  students are
                                                                                                        Discuss how these link into the                                           required to
                                                                                                        equation:                                                                 convert from
                                                                                                        Q=mc ∆T                                                                   calories to joules,
                                                                                                                                                                                  the conversion
                                                                                                        Activity: Find the amount of energy                                       factor should be
                                                                                                        produced by different alcohols when                                       given in
                                                                                                        burned. Suggest alcohol is burnt for                                      questions.
                                                                                                        five minutes, as a control. Two
                                                                                                        practical groups could do each alcohol,
                                                                                                        so they can compare their results for
                                                                                                        reliability, and analyse errors. Students
                                                                                                        describe their method and results.
                                                                                                        Students should then use their results
                                                                                                        to do the calculation and then compare

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                              ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                                Students should:




                                                                                                        their results with the other group using
                                                                                                        the same alcohol. Students should
                                                                                                        discuss causes of error in their
                                                                                                        method, and understand the
                                                                                                        importance of control variables. They
                                                                                                        should jointly produce a list saying how
                                                                                                        they could improve their control of the
                                                                                                        variables they identify.
11.2b              Energy is normally                                                                                                                                           If students are
                   measured in joules (J).                                                                                                                                      required to
                   For comparison                                                                                                                                               convert from
                   purposes, energy                                                                                                                                             calories to joules,
                   values could be given                                                                                                                                        the conversion
                   in kJ or calories for a                                                                                                                                      factor will be
                   given mass or amount                                                                                                                                         given in the
                   of substance, eg                                                                                                                                             question
                   calories per gram, kJ
                   per mole or kJ per
                   gram.

11.2c              The amount of energy                                                    1            Activity: Measuring energy changes in      Expanded polystyrene         Be able to
                   produced by a                                                                        other reactions.                           cup, glass rod, measuring    understand
                   chemical reaction in                                                                                                            cylinders, dilute acid and   simple energy
                                                                                                        Students do neutralisation reaction in
                   solution can be                                                                                                                 alkali and a thermometer.    level diagrams
                                                                                                        expanded polystyrene cup. Measure
                   calculated from the                                                                                                                                          showing the
                                                                                                        temperature rise and calculate using:      Exampro Extra Online
                   measured temperature                                                                                                                                         relative energies
                                                                                                                                                   Chemistry Activity: Energy
                   change of the solution                                                               Q = mc ∆T                                                               of reactants and
                                                                                                                                                   level diagrams.
                   when the reagents are                                                                                                                                        products, the
                                                                                                        Remind students that energy change is

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                          ‘hints and tips’
                                              What most students should
                                              be able to do                                             Homework                                            Students should:




                   mixed in an insulated                                                                measured in joules.                                 activation energy
                   container. This method                                                                                                                   and the overall
                                                                                                        Discuss: Class discussion on how to
                   can be used for                                                                                                                          energy change,
                                                                                                        represent the result in the class
                   reactions of solids with                                                                                                                 with an arrow to
                                                                                                        experiment graphically.
                   water or for                                                                                                                             show the energy
                   neutralisation                                                                                                                           as the reaction
                   reactions.                                                                                                                               proceeds.
                                                                                                                                                            Be able to
                                                                                                                                                            calculate the
                                                                                                                                                            energy
                                                                                                                                                            transferred in
                                                                                                                                                            reactions, using
                                                                                                                                                            simple energy
                                                                                                                                                            level diagrams.
                                                                                                                                                            Remember to put
                                                                                                                                                            the units in
                                                                                                                                                            calculations
                                                                                                                                                            where possible.
11.2d              Simple energy level        Students will be expected                                 Task: Draw energy level diagram for                 Be able to
                   diagrams can be used       to understand simple                                      combustion.                                         calculate the
                   to show the relative       energy level diagrams                                                                                         energy change
                                                                                                        Task: Students draw their own energy
                   energies of reactants      showing the relative                                                                                          from an energy
                                                                                                        level diagram for their neutralisation
                   and products, the          energies of reactants and                                                                                     level diagram.
                                                                                                        reaction.
                   activation energy and      products, the activation
                                                                                                                                                            Tip: Subtract the
                   the overall energy         energy and the overall                                    Homework: Students are given five
                                                                                                                                                            value for the
                   change of a reaction.      energy change, with a                                     energy level diagrams, and they
                                                                                                                                                            reactant line from
                                              curved arrow to show the                                  calculate from the y-axis the energy
                                                                                                                                                            the value for the
                                              energy as the reaction                                    change. At least one should be an

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                           ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                             Students should:




                                             proceeds. Students should                                  endothermic reaction.                                                product line. If the
                                             be able to relate these to                                                                                                      value is negative,
                                             exothermic and                                                                                                                  then the reaction
                                             endothermic reactions.                                                                                                          is exothermic,
                                                                                                                                                                             positive and it is
                                                                                                                                                                             endothermic.

11.2h              Catalysts provide a       Students should be able to                    1            Activity: What happens when we use        Test tubes, measuring      Understand that
                   different pathway for a   represent the effect of a                                  a catalyst? Using a catalyst, eg MnO2     cylinders, MnO2 powder,    lowering the
                   chemical reaction that    catalyst on an energy level                                with H2O2, simply in terms of rate of     spatula and 20 vol H2O2    activation energy
                   has a lower activation    diagram.                                                   reaction.                                                            reduces costs in
                                                                                                                                                  Or
                   energy.                                                                                                                                                   industrial
                                                                                                        You could instead demonstrate adding
                                                                                                                                                  CuSO4 powder, conical      processes.
                                                                                                        copper sulfate to already reacting zinc
                                                                                                                                                  flask, zinc granules and
                                                                                                        granules and hydrochloric acid to see
                                                                                                                                                  dilute HCl(aq).
                                                                                                        rate increase.
                                                                                                        Discuss: the idea of activation energy
                                                                                                        as a hurdle of energy that the reacting
                                                                                                        particles have to overcome before
                                                                                                        collisions become reactions (collision
                                                                                                        theory link here).
                                                                                                        Activity: Represent the reaction as an
                                                                                                        energy level diagram, showing the
                                                                                                        uncatalysed reaction with high
                                                                                                        activation energy (hurdle), and the
                                                                                                        catalysed reaction having a lower
                                                                                                        activation energy (hurdle) to pass.


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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
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                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                              Students should:




11.2e              During a chemical         Students should be able to                                 Why do chemical reactions have             Molymods                   Remember to
                                                                                           1
                   reaction:                 calculate the energy                                       energy changes? Use zinc reacting                                     count every bond
                                                                                                                                                   CuSO4 powder, conical
                                             transferred in reactions and                               with hydrochloric acid as example.                                    as the first step in
                    energy must be                                                                                                                flask, zinc granules and
                                             interpret simple energy                                    Make molymods to represent the                                        the calculation.
                     supplied to break                                                                                                             dilute HCl(aq)
                                             level diagrams in terms of                                 atoms and molecules in the balanced                                   Students should
                     bonds
                                             bond breaking and bond                                     equation (useful to get students to give                              also remember
                    energy is released
                                             formation (including the                                   you the equation first).                                              the need to
                     when bonds are
                                             idea of activation energy                                                                                                        multiply bond
                     formed.                                                                            Discuss: the need for energy to break
                                             and the effect on this of                                                                                                        energies by the
                                                                                                        the bonds in hydrochloric acid. Draw
                                             catalysts).                                                                                                                      number of each
                                                                                                        energy level diagram showing the
                                                                                                        atoms separated, then ask if energy is                                type of bond to
                                                                                                        needed to break bonds and what is                                     get the right
                                                                                                        produced when bonds form? Add                                         answer.
                                                                                                        products to the energy level diagram to
                                                                                                        show the reaction is exothermic.
                                                                                                        Task: Students construct molymods to
                                                                                                        show breaking bonds and re-forming
                                                                                                        them, then draw energy level diagram.
11.2f              In an exothermic
                   reaction, the energy
                   released from forming
                   new bonds is greater
                   than the energy
                   needed to break
                   existing bonds.

11.2g              In an endothermic         Students should be able to                                 Task: Students explain how they think
                   reaction, the energy      calculate the energy                                       an endothermic reaction happens, and

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                           ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                             Students should:




                   needed to break           transferred in reactions                                   make notes, and draw energy level
                   existing bonds is         using bond dissociation                                    diagram.
                   greater than the          energies supplied.
                                                                                                        Explain: that chemists know how
                   energy released from
                                                                                                        much energy is needed to break a
                   forming new bonds.
                                                                                                        bond between two atoms. Represent
                                                                                                        how to use these to work out the
                                                                                                        energy transferred in one reaction, eg:
                                                                                                        2 H2 + O 2        2H2O
                                                                                                        Homework: For four examples or
                                                                                                        more, students use bond energies to
                                                                                                        calculate energy transfer, and if a
                                                                                                        reaction is endothermic or exothermic
                                                                                                        (give them the balanced equation).
12 The production of ammonia
12a                The raw materials for     Evaluate the conditions                       1            Activity: Draw chemical bonding of        Further resources and a    Tip: As a quick
                   the Haber process are     used in industrial processes                               ammonia on the board, write the           video on ammonia can be    revision draw a
                   nitrogen and              in terms of energy                                         formula as well. Students should use      found on the RSC           flow chart of each
                   hydrogen. Nitrogen is     requirements.                                              the five Ws technique for the             Alchemy website at         starting material,
                   obtained from the air,                                                               compound.                                 www.rsc.org/Education/Te   where it comes
                   and hydrogen may be                                                                                                            achers/Resources/Alchem    from and what it
                                                                                                        Discuss: ammonia as an important
                   obtained from natural                                                                                                          y/index.htm                becomes.
                                                                                                        chemical in terms of production of
                   gas or other sources.
                                                                                                        fertilisers and explosives. How is it
                                                                                                        made? You could go for a historical
                                                                                                        perspective as well. Did you know:
                                                                                                         the Navy has the legal right to enter

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
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                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                             Students should:




                                                                                                          your bathroom (to collect nitrates
                                                                                                          from urine)
                                                                                                         explosives and fertilisers were
                                                                                                          made from bird droppings from the
                                                                                                          Pacific.
                                                                                                        Explain: Use resources from Royal
                                                                                                        Society of Chemistry (RSC) Alchemy
                                                                                                        to explain and provide activities for
                                                                                                        students to understand the basics of
                                                                                                        the Haber process. Watch video clip.
                                                                                                        Task: Students complete flow charts
                                                                                                        from RSC Alchemy ammonia to show
                                                                                                        process.

12b                The purified gases are    Evaluate the conditions                                    Discuss: Brief discussion on the need                Understand why
                   passed over a catalyst    necessary in an industrial                                 to minimise energy requirements and                  the temperature
                   of iron at a high         process to maximise yield                                  release of pollutants, students to make              and pressure
                   temperature (about        and minimise                                               notes.                                               used are the best
                   450°C) and a high         environmental impact.                                                                                           compromise.
                   pressure (about 200
                   atmospheres). Some
                   of the hydrogen and
                   nitrogen reacts to form
                   ammonia. The reaction
                   is reversible, so
                   ammonia breaks down
                   again into nitrogen and

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
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                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                               ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                                 Students should:




                   hydrogen:
                   nitrogen + hydrogen
                         ammonia
                   On cooling, the
                   ammonia liquefies and
                   is removed. The
                   remaining hydrogen
                   and nitrogen are
                   recycled.
12c                When a reversible                                                       1            Demo: show effect of adding acid,           Exampro Extra Online
                   reaction occurs in a                                                                 then alkali,, to bromine water to           Practical guide:
                   closed system,                                                                       demonstrate what we mean by an              demonstrating an
                   equilibrium is reached                                                               equilibrium. Candidates to make notes       equilibrium reaction.
                   when the reactions                                                                   on equilibrium and the use of the
                                                                                                                                                    VLE / Interactive software
                   occur at exactly the                                                                 symbol to represent reversible
                                                                                                                                                    reversible reaction
                   same rate in each                                                                    reactions.
                   direction.
                                                                                                        Discuss: how equilibrium is only
                                                                                                        reached when the products are being
                                                                                                        made as quickly as the reactants
12d                The relative amounts      Describe and evaluate the                                  Demo: model dynamic equilibrium             Exampro Extra Online         Note: Dynamic
                                                                                                                        3
                   of all the reacting       effect of changing the                                     with two 25 cm measuring cylinders,         Chemistry Activity:          equilibrium is just
                   substances at             conditions of temperature                                  each with an open ended glass tube          conditions for equilibrium   like the latest ride
                                                                                                                                                3
                   equilibrium depend on     and pressure on a given                                    but with different diameters. put 25 cm     reactions.                   at a theme park.
                   the conditions of the     reaction or process.                                       of water into one cylinder. Transfer                                     There’s always
                   reaction.                                                                            water from one cylinder to the other                                     the same number
                                                                                                        using a finger over the end of each                                      on the ride; it is

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                          ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                            Students should:




                                                                                                        tube in turn (keep the tubes in the                 just that at the
                                                                                                        same cylinder) until the level in each              end of each trip,
                                                                                                        cylinder does not change any more.                  the people on
                                                                                                        This is true only under the same                    board change.
                                                                                                        conditions of temperature and gas
                                                                                                        pressure.
12e                If the temperature is                                                                Use slides from a PowerPoint
                   raised,                                                                              presentation and/or the RSC Alchemy
                                                                                                        website to show how changing each
                    the yield from the
                                                                                                        condition affects the equilibrium.
                     endothermic
                     reaction increases
                    the yield from the
                     exothermic reaction
                     decreases.


12f                If the temperature is                                                                Task: candidates make notes on effect
                   lowered,                                                                             of changing temperature for
                                                                                                        exothermic and endothermic reactions.
                    the yield from the
                     endothermic
                     reaction decreases
                    the yield from the
                     exothermic reaction
                     increases.


12g                In gaseous reactions,                                                                Task: candidates make notes on the


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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                             ‘hints and tips’
                                              What most students should
                                              be able to do                                             Homework                                                               Students should:




                   an increase in                                                                       effect of changing pressure for gas
                   pressure will favour the                                                             reactions to show how gas production
                   reaction that produces                                                               is favoured or inhibited.
                   the least number of
                   molecules as shown
                   by the symbol equation
                   for that reaction.

12h                These factors, together    Evaluate the conditions                                   Discuss: how we can make the most           RSC Alchemy worksheet
                   with reaction rates, are   used in industrial processes                              ammonia, as cheaply as possible, and        can be found at
                   important when             in terms of energy                                        as environmentally friendly as              www.rsc.org/Education/Te
                   determining the            requirements                                              possible>                                   achers/Resources/Alchem
                   optimum conditions in                                                                                                            y/am/question.doc
                                                                                                        Video: Show RSC ammonia video
                   industrial processes,
                                                                                                        again to refresh and revise process.
                   including the Haber
                   process.                                                                             Homework: Candidates complete
                                                                                                        worksheet from RSC Alchemy about
                                                                                                        impact of conditions on proportions
                                                                                                        made.




13 Electrolysis
13b                Passing an electric        Know that compounds can                      2            Discuss: what happens when we pass          Carbon electrodes, power
                   current through ionic      be broken down into their                                 an electric current through a solution of   pack and wires, 1 mol
                                                                                                                                                       –3
                   substances that are        elements by using                                         a salt?                                     dm CuSO4 solution,
                                                                                                                                                          3
                   molten, eg lead            electricity.                                                                                          100cm beaker.
                                                                                                        Activity: Electrolysis of copper
                   bromide, or in solution

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
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                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                          ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                            Students should:




                   breaks them down into     Know that this process is                                  chloride solution, using carbon         You can find a variety of
                   elements. This process    called electrolysis.                                       electrodes to obtain copper on the      resources including video
                   is called electrolysis.                                                              cathode and chlorine at the anode.      clips on the RSC website
                                                                                                        Students draw diagrams to explain.      at
                                                                                                                                                www.rsc.org/education/tea
                                                                                                        Demo: Electrolysis of molten lead
                                                                                                                                                chers/resources/alchemy/i
                                                                                                        bromide.
                                                                                                                                                ndex.htm
                                                                                                        Students draw diagrams to explain.
                                                                                                                                                Exampro Extra Online
                                                                                                                                                Chemistry Activity:
                                                                                                                                                Electrolysis – human
                                                                                                                                                model.
                                                                                                                                                VLE/Interactive software,
                                                                                                                                                eg useful materials from
                                                                                                                                                rocks.
13a                When an ionic             Know that in solutions and
                   substance is melted or    when molten, ionic
                   dissolved in water, the   compounds have ions that
                   ions are free to move     are free to move carrying
                   about within the liquid   the electric charge with
                   or solution.              them.

13c                During electrolysis,      Know positively charged                                    Discuss: Relating to ions, movement
                   positively charged ions   ions move to the negatively                                and attraction to the positive and
                                             electrode, and negative                                    negative electrodes. Students draw
                   move to the negative
                                             ions to the positive                                       diagrams to explain.
                   electrode, and
                                             electrode.
                   negatively charged                                                                   Demo: If there is time, demonstrate
                   ions move to the          Predict the products of                                    movement of ions, eg the electrolysis

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
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                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                              ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                                Students should:




                   positive electrode.       electrolysing solutions of                                 of a crystal of KMnO4 on filter paper
                                             ions.                                                      dampened with sodium chloride
                                                                                                        solution.

13h                Electrolysis is used to   Know what electroplating is                   1            Activity: electroplating copper foil with   Copper electrode, nickel
                   electroplate objects.     and how it works.                                          nickel (using nickel sulfate solution).     electrode, power pack and
                                                                                                                                                                   -3
                   This may be for                                                                      Students report their experiment.           wires, 1 mol dm NiSO4
                                                                                                                                                                        3
                   reasons such as                                                                                                                  solution and 100 cm
                                                                                                        Discuss: Uses of electroplating
                   appearance, durability                                                                                                           beaker.
                                                                                                        including silver and copper. Explore
                   and prevention of
                                                                                                        what is happening in terms of electrons
                   corrosion. It includes
                                                                                                        at both electrodes. Students draw
                   copper plating and
                                                                                                        diagrams to explain.
                   silver plating.


13d                Oxidation and
                   reduction can be
                   defined as the loss
                   and gain of electrons
                   respectively.


13e                At the cathode,           Explain in terms of
                   positively charged ions   oxidation and reduction the
                   gain electrons and at     changes to ions when
                   the anode, negatively     touching the electrodes.
                   charged ions lose
                   electrons.



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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
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                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                               ‘hints and tips’
                                              What most students should
                                              be able to do                                             Homework                                                                 Students should:




13f                Reactions at               Interpret and/or complete                                 Use half equations to show electron                                      Note: Students
                   electrodes can be          half equations.                                           transfers.                                                               are not expected
                   represented by half                                                                                                                                           to write half
                   equations, for                                                                                                                                                equations in the
                   example:                                                                                                                                                      exam, but should
                   2Cl
                        -
                            Cl2 + 2e
                                    -                                                                                                                                            be able to
                                                                                                                                                                                 complete and
                   or                                                                                                                                                            balance them.
                        -   -
                   2Cl - 2e → Cl2


13i                Aluminium is               Know the ore of aluminium.                   1            Task: Explore the extraction of              VLE/Interactive software,   Remember that
                   manufactured by the                                                                  aluminium, as either video or                eg Useful materials from    the only reason
                                              Describe how aluminium is
                   electrolysis of a molten                                                             worksheet, or use RSC Alchemy, or            metal ores.                 that cryolite is
                                              extracted by electrolysis.
                   mixture of aluminium                                                                 mini-project.                                                            needed for the
                                                                                                                                                     Visit the RSC Alchemy for
                   oxide and cryolite.        Know that cryolite is added                                                                                                        process is to
                                                                                                        Do students know that in the 1850s           more information on
                   Aluminium forms at the     to make the aluminium                                                                                                              reduce the
                                                                                                        aluminium was the most expensive             Aluminium at
                   negative electrode and     oxide melt at a lower                                                                                                              melting point of
                                                                                                        metal in the world (it was extracted         www.rsc.org/Education/Te
                   oxygen at the positive     temperature and reduce                                                                                                             aluminium oxide
                                                                                                        from its ore by a thermite reaction          achers/Resources/Alchem
                   electrode. The positive    energy costs.                                                                                                                      to less than 1000
                                                                                                        using sodium metal)? Now, with               y/index.htm
                   electrode is made of                                                                                                                                          °C and save
                                              Students should be aware                                  electrolysis, it is cheap enough to
                   carbon, which reacts
                                              that large amounts of                                     make cans from.                                                          money/reduce
                   with the oxygen to
                                              energy are needed in the                                                                                                           energy costs.
                   produce carbon
                                              extraction process.
                   dioxide.


13j                The electrolysis of        Know that salt is an                         2            Activity: Electrolysis of NaCl solution      Petri dish, carbon
                   sodium chloride                                                                      in Petri dish with universal indicator. To   electrodes, power pack

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
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                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                              ‘hints and tips’
                                              What most students should
                                              be able to do                                             Homework                                                                Students should:




                                                                                                                                                                           –3
                   solution produces          important raw material.                                   establish split into chlorine (bleaches   and wires and 1 mol dm
                   hydrogen and chlorine.                                                               indicator), an alkali ( turns indicator   NaCl solution.
                                              Know that we get sodium,
                   Sodium hydroxide                                                                     blue/purple) and an unknown gas.
                                              hydrogen, chlorine, and                                                                             Hoffman voltameter, test
                   solution is also                                                                     Students draw diagrams to show the                         –3
                                              sodium hydroxide from it.                                                                           tubes, 1 mol dm NaCl
                   produced. These are                                                                  experiment and the results.
                                                                                                                                                  solution, litmus solution,
                   important reagents for     Give one industrial use for
                                                                                                        Demo: of Hoffman voltameter to show       test tubes, litmus paper
                   the chemical industry,     each of the products.
                                                                                                        products clearly and also to enable       and power pack and wires.
                   eg sodium hydroxide
                                                                                                        hydrogen gas to be collected and
                   for the production of                                                                                                          VLE/Interactive software,
                                                                                                        tested (use acidified NaCl and litmus
                   soap and chlorine for                                                                                                          eg useful materials from
                                                                                                        solution to make demo spectacular
                   the production of                                                                                                              rocks.
                                                                                                        and easier to understand the electrode
                   bleach and plastics.
                                                                                                        processes).                               RSC Alchemy video on
                                                                                                                                                  Chemicals from Salt can
                                                                                                        Task: Students draw diagrams to
                                                                                                                                                  be found at
                                                                                                        show the experiment and the results.
                                                                                                                                                  www.rsc.org/Education/Te
                                                                                                        Discuss: why hydrogen is formed.          achers/Resources/Alchem
                                                                                                        Relate to reactivity series position of   y/index.htm
                                                                                                        sodium, and industrial uses of sodium
                                                                                                        chloride. Students make notes.
13g                If there is a mixture of   Know that in a mixture of
                   ions:                      ions, the lowest member of
                                              the reactivity series is the
                    at the cathode, the
                                              element formed at the
                     products formed
                                              negative electrode.
                     depend on the
                     reactivity of the
                     elements involved
                    at the anode, the

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                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                               Students should:




                      products formed
                      also depend on the
                      relative
                      concentrations of
                      the ions present.
14 Analysis

14.1 Analysing substances
14.1a              Flame tests can be        Recognise the presence of                     1            Discuss: Teacher-led discussion          Splints or wires, solid       Flame colours of
                   used to identify metal    these ions by this test.                                   about forensic crime and the need for    samples of compounds:         other metal ions
                   ions. Lithium, sodium,                                                               analytical chemistry to determine what                                 are not required
                                                                                                                                                 LiCl
                   potassium, calcium                                                                   chemicals are present in a variety of                                  knowledge.
                   and barium                                                                           situations.                              NaCl
                   compounds produce
                                                                                                        Activity: Students carry out flame       KCl
                   distinctive colours in
                                                                                                        tests on named metal ions to find out
                   flame tests:                                                                                                                  CaCl2
                                                                                                        the flame colouration. They then use
                    lithium compounds                                                                  the technique to identify two unknown    BaCl2
                     result in a crimson                                                                compounds.
                     flame                                                                              Task: Prepare results chart and          HCl(aq) (to clean wires in)
                    sodium compounds                                                                   complete it.                             and matches and splints.
                     result in a yellow
                     flame
                    potassium
                     compounds result
                     in a lilac flame
                    calcium compounds
                     result in a red flame

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
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                                              What most students should
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                    barium compounds
                     result in a green
                     flame.


14.1b              Aluminium, calcium         Students should be able to                   1            Discuss: Teacher-led discussion         Test tubes, NaOH (aq),
                   and magnesium ions         recognise the presence of                                 about another method of identifying     pipettes, solutions of:
                   form white precipitates    these ions in water by this                               metal ions, this time using sodium
                                                                                                                                                CuSO4
                   with sodium hydroxide      test.                                                     hydroxide.
                   solution but only the                                                                                                        AlCl3
                                                                                                        Activity: Adding sodium hydroxide
                   aluminium hydroxide
                                                                                                        solution to solutions of metal ions.    FeSO4
                   precipitate dissolves in
                                                                                                        Students should add small amounts of
                   excess sodium                                                                                                                FeCl3
                                                                                                        sodium hydroxide and observe what
                   hydroxide solution.
                                                                                                        happens after each addition. Students   NB FeSO4 must be freshly
                                                                                                        should be warned that adding more to    produced.
                                                                                                        one solution will produce a further
                                                                                                        change.
                                                                                                        Task: Students prepare and complete
                                                                                                        results chart. Remind them that each
                                                                                                        solid that appears is a precipitate.


14.1c              Copper(II), iron(II) and
                   iron(III) ions form
                   coloured precipitates
                   with sodium hydroxide
                   solution. Copper forms
                   a blue precipitate,

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                                                                                     timing (lessons)
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                                               What most students should
                                               be able to do                                            Homework                                                                      Students should:




                   iron(II) a green
                   precipitate and iron(III)
                   a brown precipitate.


14.1d              Carbonates react with       Recognise the presence of                   1            Demo: Teacher-led demonstration of
                   dilute acids to form        these ions in water by this                              effect on acid on carbonates, and
                   carbon dioxide.             test.                                                    limewater test as a revision and
                   Carbon dioxide                                                                       introduction to testing halide and
                   produces a white                                                                     sulfate ions.
                   precipitate with
                   limewater. This turns
                   limewater cloudy.


14.1e              Halide ions in solution                                                              Activity: Test halide ions, and then          Test tubes and racks,
                   produce precipitates                                                                 sulfate ions.                                 silver nitrate solution,
                   with silver nitrate                                                                                                                dilute nitric acid, dilute
                                                                                                        Task: Students prepare a results chart
                   solution in the                                                                                                                    hydrochloric acid, barium
                                                                                                        and complete it:
                   presence of dilute nitric                                                                                                          chloride, solution, solutions
                   acid. Silver chloride is                                                                                                           of sodium, sulfate, sodium
                   white, silver bromide is                                                                                                           chloride, sodium bromide
                   cream and silver iodide                                                               name of    effect of adding                  and sodium iodide.
                   is yellow.                                                                            compound
                                                                                                                    silver nitrate     barium
                                                                                                                    and nitric         chloride and
                                                                                                                    acid.              hydrochloric
                                                                                                                                       acid




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                                              What most students should
                                              be able to do                                             Homework                                              Students should:




                                                                                                        Establish reliable tests for each halide
                                                                                                        ion and sulfates, using the results of
                                                                                                        the experiment. Students make notes
                                                                                                        in their books.
                                                                                                        Homework: Write word, then symbol
                                                                                                        equations for each reaction.


14.1f              Sulfate ions in solution
                   produce a white
                   precipitate with barium
                   chloride solution in the
                   presence of dilute
                   hydrochloric acid.




14.2 Analysis of mixtures
14.2a              A mixture consists of                                                   1            Discussion: Reminder about
                   two or more elements                                                                 mixtures, elements and compounds.
                   or compounds not                                                                     Students write definitions out.
                   chemically combined
                   together. The chemical

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                   properties of each
                   substance in the
                   mixture are
                   unchanged. It is
                   possible to separate
                   the substances in a
                   mixture by physical
                   methods, including
                   distillation, filtration
                   and crystallisation.
14.2b              Paper chromatography       Students should be able to                                Activity: using paper chromatography.    Food dyes or inks, filter
                   can be used to             describe how to carry out                                 The Rf value for each of the dyes used   paper/chromatography
                   analyse substances         paper chromatography                                      should be calculated. This leads on to   paper, pipettes and 250
                                                                                                        the next lesson and the study of gas       3
                   present in a solution,     separations and how the                                                                            cm beaker.
                                                                                                        chromatography, which relies on
                   eg food colourings and     components of a mixture
                                                                                                        numerical information to determine the
                   inks/dyes.                 can be identified using Rf
                                                                                                        substance.
                                              values. They have to be
                                              aware that solvents other
                                              than water can be used and
                                              that the separation
                                              depends on the relative
                                              solubilities of the
                                              components.
14.2c              Elements and                                                            1
                   compounds can be
                   detected and identified
                   using instrumental

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England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
                   Summary of the            Learning Outcomes                                          Possible teaching and Learning           Resource                       Examination
  Spec Reference




                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                                              ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                                                Students should:




                   methods. Instrumental
                   methods are accurate,
                   sensitive and rapid and
                   are particularly useful
                   when the amount of a
                   sample is very small.


14.2d              Gas chromatography        Students need only a basic                                 Task: Students prepare flow chart of     Big magnet, ball bearings      Key points are
                   linked to mass            understanding of how GC-                                   how gas chromatography and mass          of different sizes.            that it provides a
                   spectroscopy (GC-MS)      MS works, limited to:                                      spectroscopy can help substances to                                     quick and easy to
                                                                                                                                                 View the gas
                   is an example of an                                                                  be identified quickly and easily, even
                                               Different substances,                                                                            chromatography                 use tool for small
                   instrumental method:                                                                 with small samples.
                                                carried by a gas, travel                                                                         PowerPoint presentation at     samples needing
                    Gas                        through a column                                        You may wish to describe briefly a       http://alpha.chem.umb.edu      analysis.
                     chromatography             packed with a solid                                     mass spectrometer, so that students      /chemistry/ch361/GC%20a
                     allows the                 material at different                                   will understand an explanation that it   nd%20GC-MS.ppt
                     separation of a            speeds, so that they                                    can measure the mass of a molecular
                                                                                                                                                 VLE/Interactive software,
                     mixture of                 become separated.                                       ion can be given and understood.
                                                                                                                                                 eg the atom - for details of
                     compounds.                The number of peaks on
                                                                                                        Demo: Demonstration of mass              mass spectrometer.
                    The time taken for         the output of a gas
                                                                                                        spectrometer. Use ball bearings of
                     a substance to             chromatograph shows
                                                                                                        different sizes rolling down a slope
                     travel through the         the number of
                                                                                                        past a powerful magnet. Show
                     column can be              compounds present.
                                                                                                        deflection according to mass size of
                     used to help              The position of the
                                                                                                        ball bearing. Ball bearings represent
                     identify the               peaks on the output
                                                                                                        molecular ions.
                     substance.                 indicates the retention
                    The output from the        time.
                     gas                       A mass spectrometer

AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by guarantee registered in                                                                            103
England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
                   Summary of the            Learning Outcomes                                          Possible teaching and Learning   Resource   Examination
  Spec Reference




                                                                                     timing (lessons)
                                                                                     Suggested
                   Specification Content                                                                Activities                                  ‘hints and tips’
                                             What most students should
                                             be able to do                                              Homework                                    Students should:




                      chromatography            can identify substances
                      column can be             very quickly and
                      linked to a mass          accurately and can
                      spectrometer,             detect very small
                      which can be used         quantities
                      to identify the          the molecular mass is
                      substances leaving        given by the molecular
                      the end of the            ion peak.
                      column.                Knowledge of
                   The mass                  fragmentation patterns is
                   spectrometer can also     not required.
                   give the relative
                   molecular mass of
                   each of the substances
                   separated in the
                   column.




AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by guarantee registered in                                                104
England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.

				
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