Phonecians & Jews

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					            To Review…
1. What four kingdoms of Mesopotamia have we
   discussed thus far?
2. What was the name of the first king who
   developed a strict code of law?
3. What was the first epic literary tale called?
4. What was the name of the religious temples
   that the ancient Mesopotamians built?
5. King Nebuchadnezzar built what ancient
   wonder of the world?
6. What was the name of the script that we
   studied and wrote in class?
   Chapter 2,
   Section 4
Later Mediterranean
   Civilizations
               Objectives
• After today…
  – I will know who the Phoenicians were.
  – I will know what major contributions the
    Phoenicians made to modern culture
  – I will be able to explain how our modern
    alphabet evolved.
  – I will be able to recount a brief history of
    the Israelites and Judaism.
        The Phoenicians
• Located in present day Lebanon
  – The western most part of Mesopotamia
• Thrived between 1550 and 300 BC
• Largest cities located at Tyre, Sidon,
  and Byblos
• Also known as Canaanites
Phoenicia
• Lifestyle: The Phoenicians established a
  trade empire, and colonies, throughout
                                              Murex snail
  the Mediterranean.
   • The first “traveling salesmen”

• Economy: They traded goods including
  glass, slaves, wine and lumber

• Goods: Their most important product
  was Tyrian purple, a dye made from
  boiling the Murex snail.
   • This purple dye was very difficult and
      expensive to produce. It was very
      valuable to the rich.
What do you notice about the
 Phoenician trade routes?
Murex Snails
Tyrian Purple Dye
              Other Trade Goods



                                     Cretan Hound
Portuguese Podengo



                     Pharaoh Hound


    Basenji                          Ibizan Hound
Inventions:
 Bireme
• Two rows of oars
• It typically was about 80 feet long
• Phoenician ships did not have rudders.
  Instead they were steered by large oars.
  Phoenician sailors usually sailed within sight
  of the coast.
• Because their ships were vulnerable to
  storms the Phoenicians normally sailed
  between March and October.
Bireme
     Domination of the Seas
• How were the Phoenicians able to
  dominate the seas?
  – They spread the fable that the seas were
    teeming with sea monsters
  – Adorned their ships' front portion with
    huge shapes of sea monsters and other
    fearsome looking mythical creatures
Inventions: Phoenician Alphabet
• The Phoenicians spread their alphabet
  throughout the Mediterranean
    • Consisted of 22 letters, it did not have
       vowels.
• Unlike many early alphabets which were made
  of pictograms, the Phoenician alphabet was
  phonic.
• The Greeks eventually adopted this alphabet,
  which influenced the Latin alphabet which we
  use today.
                Review…
• What were the Phoenicians know for
  throughout the Mediterranean?
• What were the primary goods traded by
  the Phoenicians?
• Identify two of the inventions of the
  Phoenicians we discussed yesterday.
• Explain the structure of the Phoenician
  alphabet.
  – What was it first used for?
  – What major civilization adopted it?
Phoenician Alphabet
Phoenician Artifacts
               Objectives
• After today…
  – I will be able to recount a brief history of
    the Israelites.
  – I will be able to explain the role Abraham
    played in the rise of Judaism
  – I will be able to analyze the significance of
    the Exodus in Judaism
  – I will understand the role King Solomon
    played in the history of the Israelites.
  – I will know the various religious holidays
    associated with Judaism
• Israelites : Semitic-speaking people who
  lived south of the Phoenicians in the
  Levant.
  • Compared to other groups in the region, they
    were a small group.
• Judaism, continues as a world religion and
  influenced the development of Christianity
  and Islam.
• Monotheist
  • Judaism was the first religion to
    worship only One God.
  • Yahweh: The Jewish name for God.
  • The Jews viewed Yahweh as being
    • All-knowing (Omniscient)
    • All-powerful (Omnipotent)

                     “He Brings Into Existence Whatever
                                   Exists"
    History of the Hebrews
• Abraham is seen as the Patriarch, or father,
  of Judaism.
• According to Jewish tradition Abraham was
  brought by God from his home in the ancient
  city of Ur into a new land, Canaan (the holy
  land), where he enters into a covenant
  (agreement) with God:
   • In exchange for sole recognition of Yahweh
     as supreme universal authority, Abraham will
     be the father of a great nation…the Jews.
 Abraham’s Departure from
           Ur

 Father Abraham
ad many sons…Many
sons had faaaather
    Abraham…
              Exodus…
• For over 200 years, the Jews
  had been slaves to the ancient
  Egyptians.
• Moses was the leader of the
  Hebrew Exodus.
• The story goes that the Hebrew
  God had to curse Egypt with 10
  plagues in order for the Pharaoh
  (Ramses II) to free the
  Israelites from bondage.
                Review…
• Where were the Israelites located
• What was unique about Judaism in
  relationship to other Mesopotamian
  religions?
  – What is the Jewish name for God?
  – Who is the “father” of Judaism?
• What was the “Exodus”?
  – Who were the Jews slaves to?
  – What significance did the 10 plagues have
    on the “Exodus”?
  – What pharaoh let them go?
               Objectives
• After today…
  – I will be able to analyze the significance of
    the Exodus in Judaism
  – I will understand the role King Solomon
    played in the history of the Israelites.
  – I will know the various religious holidays
    associated with Judaism
          The 10 Plagues
1. The Nile turned to   6. Shkhin (boils)
   blood                7. Storm (Hail)
2. Frogs                8. Locusts
3. Fleas and Lice       9. Darkness
4. Flies                10.Death of the
5. Epidemic disease        first born son
   which exterminated
   the Egyptian
   livestock.
             Passover
• Comes directly from the 10th Plague
• God commanded Moses to inform all the
  Israelites to mark lamb’s blood on the
  doorposts of every door in which case
  the Lord will pass over them and not
  "suffer the destroyer to come into your
  houses and smite you”
  – Pharaoh then releases the Hebrews from
    slavery
Moses Parting the Red Sea
Ta-Da!
Passover Seder: Slavery &Freedom
1. – 2. Maror and Chazeret: Two types of bitter herbs, symbolizing
     the bitterness and harshness of the slavery which the Jews endured
     in Ancient Egypt.
3.     Charoset: A sweet, brown, pebbly paste of fruits and nuts,
     representing the mortar used by the Jewish slaves to build the
     storehouses of Egypt.
4.     Karpas: A vegetable other than bitter herbs, usually parsley but
     sometimes something such as celery or cooked potato, which is dipped
     into salt water or vinegar is to symbolize the salty tears that the
     Jews shed in their slavery in Egypt.
5.     Zeroa: A roasted lamb bone, symbolizing the sacrifice offered in
     the Temple in Jerusalem and was then roasted and eaten as part of
     the meal on Seder night.
6.     Beitzah: A hard boiled egg, symbolizing the another type of
     sacrifice that was offered in the Temple in Jerusalem and was then
     eaten as part of the meal on Seder night.
          Chazeret          Zeroa
Beitzah



                  Yum!




Karpasa
          Maror          Charoset
           Passover Seder:
          Slavery &Freedom
Also eaten/drunk:
• The 4 Cups: All participants must drink 4 cups
  of wine. Each symbolizes the following
  expressions of deliverance:"I will bring out," "I
  will deliver," "I will redeem," and "I will take.“
• Matzo: participants recall the slavery that
  reigned during the first half of the night by
  eating the "poor person's bread“ (matzo)
4 Cups & Matzo
    40 Years in the Wilderness

• According to
  the Torah, the
    Israelites
  disobeyed God
  and wandered
  the desert for
 40 years before
   reaching the
     holy land.
    The Ten Commandments
• According to Judaic texts, Moses was
  given the 10 Commandments by God on
  Mount Sinai and inscribed on two stone
  tablets.
     What if God Texted the 10
         Commandments
• 1. no1 b4 me. srsly.     • 7. :-X only w/ m8
• 2. dnt wrshp pix/idols   • 8. dnt steal
• 3. no omg’s              • 9. dnt lie re: bf
• 4. no wrk on w/end       • 10. dnt ogle ur bf’s m8. or
  (sat 4 now; sun l8r)       ox. or dnkey. myob.
• 5. pos ok – ur m&d r     • M, pls rite on tabs & giv 2
  cool                       ppl.
• 6. dnt kill ppl          • ttyl, JHWH.
                           • ps. wwjd?
       The Kingdom of Israel
• King Solomon (the son of David) was
  considered the wise king
  –   Ruled from 970 – 930 BC
  –   United the 12 tribes of Israel
  –   Established Jerusalem as the capital
  –   Built the great temple, which was
      destroyed, but today is known as the
      Western or Wailing Wall
That’s right…I was a
 stud. I, had 700
      wives.
12 Tribes of
   Israel
          After Solomon
• The Kingdom of Israel divided into 2
  kingdoms: Israel & Judah
  – The Assyrians destroy Israel
  – Judah is defeated by King Nebuchadnezzar
    and the Jews are taken into Babylonian
    captivity
    • They also destroy the Temple
• This is the first Diaspora: the
  scattering of the Jewish people.
   After Babylonian Captivity
• When Persia defeats Babylon, the Jews
  are freed and return to Jerusalem and
  rebuild their city & temple.
• The Jews stayed in Israel until the
  Romans destroyed the Temple again in
  70 CE beginning the second Diaspora.
• Then: Jews were scattered throughout
  Europe.
  – European anti-Semitism in the Middle Ages
  – Holocaust of WWII
  – After WWII: the United Nations formed the
    state of Israel in 1948
The Western or Wailing Wall
• Located in Jerusalem
• The most important of all Jewish
  monuments.
• It is the remnants of the Second
  Temple, after its destruction by the
  Romans in 70 A.D.
The Wailing Wall
                  Review
•   What was the Exodus?
•   What happened after the Jews left Egypt?
•   What does Passover commemorate?
•   Identify two things that King Solomon is
    remembered for.
•   What civilization defeated the Israelites
    causing the first Diaspora?
•   What Babylonian king destroyed the temple?
•   What civilization caused the second Diaspora?
•   What is the holiest site in Jerusalem for the
    Jews?
                Objectives
• After today, you will be able to analyze and
  explain the significance of the following
  Jewish traditions and objects:
  –   The Torah, and Talmud
  –   A Bris
  –   A Bar Mitzvah and Bat Mitzvah
  –   Shiv’ah
  –   A Rabbi
  –   Shabbat
  –   Yom Kippur
  –   Hanukkah
• The Torah is the holy book of
  Judaism, the laws of the Jewish
  people.
• It is the first five books of the
  Christian Bible
• The Torah is also known as the Five
  Books of Moses or the Pentateuch




• Books written to explain and interpret Jewish law
•   Bris ceremony within
    Judaism that welcomes
    infant (8 days old) Jewish
    boys into a covenant between
    God and the Children of
    Israel through ritual
    circumcision performed by a
    mohel ("circumcisor") in the
    presence of family and
    friends.
Bar Mitzvah & Bat Mitzvah

• In Jewish law, when Jewish children
  reach the age of maturity (12 years for
  girls, 13 years for boys) they become
  responsible for their actions.
  • A boy has a Bar Mitzvah
  • A girl has a Bat Mitzvah
• Before this age, all the child's
  responsibility to follow Jewish law and
  tradition lies with the parents.
Shiv’ah                     Rabbi
• Judaism's week-long       • A Rabbi is a teacher of
  period of grief and         the Torah.
  mourning for the seven
  first-degree relatives:
  father, mother, son,
  daughter, brother,
  sister, or spouse;
  (grandparents and
  grandchildren are not
  included).
              Shabbat is the weekly day of
              rest in Judaism. It is observed,
              from before sundown on Friday
              until after nightfall on Saturday.
              During this time no work is
              supposed to be done.
Yom Kippur
A Jewish Day of Atonement
(Asking for forgiveness). It is 25
hours of prayer and fasting.
Although the fast is required of all
healthy adults, fasting is
specifically forbidden for anyone
who might be harmed by it.
               Hanukkah
• Jewish Holiday often called
  the Festival of lights. It
  celebrates the rededication
  of the 2nd Temple of
  Jerusalem.
• The Jews had only enough
  lamp oil to burn for one day,
  but it lasted 8 days, which
  was enough time to make and
  bless more lamp oil.
                     Exam
• Your exam will take place on Monday,
  September 24th.
  – Multiple choice, matching, fill-ins, & short answer
  – One larger essay
  – The exam will be worth approximately 50 points
• To help you study you should complete the
  study guide I have provided.
  – The questions on the study guide ARE NOT the
    questions that will be on the test, but it will help
    you prepare!

				
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