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					   International Seminar on Information Technology
     for Development of Small- and Medium-sized
       Exporters in East Asia and Latin America
            ECLAC - Santiago, Chile, 23-24 November 2004




                            Information Technology:
                            Concepts Applied to
                            SMEs’, Trade Facilitation
                            and Exports

Organized by ECLAC with the collaboration of IDE/JETRO, sponsored by UNDP


                           Sidney Rezende
           Division of International Trade and Integration
                                ECLAC
E-COMMERCE and E-BUSINESS
   The Difference
E-commerce, or electronic commerce, is conducting
business communications and transactions via
computers and over networks. It is the buying and selling
of goods and services through digital communication. It
also includes transactions on the WWW and Internet, and
electronic funds transfer, smart cards, and digital cash,
among others.

E-business, or electronic business, derived from 'e-
commerce'. It is conducting business on the Internet, but
not just buying and selling but also servicing customers
and collaborating with business partners. The term
conveys that the business conducts its business entirely
online.
ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANCE - EDI
 What is it?
EDI is “ transfer of structured data, by agreed
message standards, from one computer system
to another by electronic means ”

UN/EDIFACT is the international EDI
Standard developed under the United Nations.
The acronym stands for "United Nations /
Electronic Data Interchange For Administration,
Commerce, and Transport". The work of
maintenance and further development of this
standard is done through UN/CEFACT.
DATA STANDARDS: Too Many!

       agXML                          XAML
                       cXML                                   Togaf
                                                 UNe
                                                 Doc
             IATA               OTA
                                             GCI
                                                          PIDX
                   Rosettanet         xCBL
     CIDX

                                UBL              SMDG         Bolero
             HL7                        EHD
      VICS               GML                               E-
                                                        construct
                                              Open
              SWIFT                           trans
                                HR-
                                XML                     CAT
                                         Acord
       xBRL              BSML                           XML
                                                          xCat




    All have different data elements!
                                       United Nations Centre
UN / CEFACT -                           for Trade Facilitation
                                               and Electronic
 www.unece.org/cefact/                              Business

• Mission: to improve the ability of business,
trade and administrative organizations,
worldwide, to exchange products and relevant
services effectively - and so contribute to the
growth of global commerce.
• It facilitates the development of e-business
standards that can cross all international
boundaries and help lower transaction costs,
simplify data flow and reduce bureaucracy

• Work outputs of UN/CEFACT activities include
the UN/EDIFACT and e-business XML –
ebXML (ISO 15000)
STANDARDIZATION: Benefits to the
entire community




• OASIS and (Organization for the Advancement of
  Structured Information Standards) UN/CEFACT
  joint initiative

  Mission: "... enable a global electronic
  marketplace where enterprises of any size and in
  any geographical location can meet and conduct
  business with each other through the exchange of
  XML based messages".
XML and ebXML: Definition

• XML (eXtensible Markup Language ) is a
  markup language for documents containing
  structured information (for example: vector
  graphics, e-commerce transactions)

• ebXML (electronic business using
  eXtensible Markup Language) is a
  modular suite of specifications that
  enables enterprises of any size and in any
  geographical location to conduct business
  over the Internet.
    Currently more than 800 million
    Internet users are online globally
                                  www.internetworldstats.com




      ADVANTAGES OF
   e-BUSINESS FOR SMEs

Online retail is estimated to increase
from $121 billion in 2004 to nearly
$316 billion by 2010.       www.emarketer.com
                            www.forrester.com
ADVANTAGES OF e-BUSINESS FOR SMEs
To be more efficient in their internal
 processes.
 To select the best suppliers from any part
 of the world.
To develop a closer relationship with their
 local and foreign suppliers.
 To offer better services according to the
 requirements and expectations of their
 clients.
To offer goods and services in the global
 market.
e-TRANSACTIONS: The Diferent Types



               Business            Consumer           Government

             Sale contract,        Provision of      Declarations to
             Transport contract,   Web-based         Customs , e-
 Business
                  B2B
             Payment order            B2C
                                   online services
                                                           B2G
                                                     procurement


             On-line               e-mail,           Electronic
             Ordering on           Classified        submission of
Consumer
                  C2B
             Electronic               C2C
                                   advertisements         C2G
                                                     Revenue Tax
                                                     Declaration
             catalogue
             Response from         Provision of      Consolidation of
                                   Web-based         statistical,
Government   Customs, e-
                  G2B
             procurement              G2C
                                   online services        G2G
                                                     Vat data,
                                                     Contract and order
B2B and B2C INDICATORS


WORLD               1999     2000     2001      2002      2003      2004     2005
E-Commerce
(US$ bln)            130      282      516       916      1420      2800     4300
B2B (US$ bln)        110      210      365       666       995     1641,42   2380
B2C (US$ bln)        20       72       152       251       425       565      730
LATIN AMERICA
E-Commerce
(US$bln)             0,6      1,5       3,3      6,4      11,0      10,2     15,7
B2B (US$bln)         0,4      0,9       2,9      3,5      4,5       6,0      9,3
B2C (US$bln)         0,2      0,5       1,3      1,5      2,6       4,2      6,4

Source: www.e-consultingcorp.com.br/insider_info/indicadores.htm
e-TRANSACTIONS: Tortas_Peru - PE
                             B2C
e-TRANSACTIONS: Carvajal - CO
                                                                B2B



                                                          250.000
                                                       TRANSACTIONS
                                                         PER MONTH
                                                       AMOUNTING TO
                                                        OVER US$ 100
                                                          MILLION.


It integrates suppliers and merchandisers in retail/mass marketing
communities.
Over 2.000 companies in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela,
mostly SMEs but also big corporations such as Nestlé, Procter &
Gamble and Unilever.
e-TRANSACTIONS: COMPRASNET - BR

                        G2B
Mexico Survey Report Findings (I)
 “Comparative Study on East Asian and Latin-American
 IT Industries”, ECLAC, 15 October 2004.


 Build a strong telecommunications and
  Internet infrastructure
 Create ITC business incubators and ITC
  Industrial Parks
 Provide incentives to telecom companies
  to build networks
 Expand existing infrastructure to promote
  greater broadband bandwidth.
 Invest in human capital and job creation
Mexico Survey Report Findings (II)
“Comparative Study on East Asian and Latin-American
IT Industries”, ECLAC, 15 October 2004.


 Establish basic rules for online commerce
 Maintain an open government
  procurement bidding process
 Build consumer confidence in the
  electronic world
 Eliminate trade barriers
 Provide access to financial capital
 Ensure network and information security
E-TRANSACTIONS: SECURITY
RISKS OF E-COMMERCE :
  Messages can be intercepted and manipulated;
  The validity of documents can be denied;
  Personal data can be illicitly collected;

TASKS OF ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE :
  Verify the origin of the data (Authentication of
 data source);
  Check that data are complete and unchanged
 (Integrity of data)
  Guarantee the confidentiality of data message
 (Message content security)
E-TRANSACTIONS: SECURITY
Encryption
Public-Key Infrastructures (PKI)
                                    of E-Sign text an
  Different Systems transforms (by mean of(encryption)
  is a form of Cryptography which
  Algorithm) a plaintext into an unreadable cyphered
   verify a digital (decryption).
To and vice versa signature, the verifier must have access to the
  Various public-key and have assurance that it corresponds to
Signatory’s Techniques and Systems are currently
   At present, encryption provides the public- and private-key pair
the signatory’s private key. However, amost important tool to keep
  available on the market by which some pair of
has no association with any person: it is simply aor all theEncryption
   electronic communication and documents confidential.
numbers.
   is increasingly being integrated can be performed in an
  functions mentioned above into financial and banking
   messages.
  electronic environment. These are referred to
An additional mechanism is necessary to associate reliably a particular
Digitalentity electronic signatures”: by third
person or Signaturepair. This is usually done
  broadly as “ to the key
   To sign a document with a digital “Certification Service Provider”)
Parties ( “Certification Authority” orsignature the signatory:
   (I) Delimits precisely the borders of or the to be signed.
which associate an identified signatorywhat is signatory’s name
with aEncryption;
   specific public-key.
   (II) Signatory’s software computes a result unique to the information
   to Digital
   a be signed;Signature;
Innumber of countries, such certification authorities are organized
   (III) Software transforms the result into as a “Public-Key
hierarchically into what is often referred to a digital signature using the
Infrastructure” (PKI).
   Personal Identification Numbers (PIN);
   signatory’s private key.
 TRACEABILITY: What is it?

 Traceability is the ability to trace the
history, application or location of an entity
by means of recorded identification.
Tracking is the capability to follow the path of a
specified unit of a product and/or batch through
the supply chain as it moves between
organisations towards the final point-of-sale or
point-of-service
Tracing is the capability to identify the origin of a
particular unit and/or batch of product located
within the supply chain by reference to records
held upstream.
TRACEABILITY: Flow of Information

T R AC K IN G :


         GR OW ER                           P AC KH O US E                  B AT C H             S UP PL IE R          R E TA IL E R


                                                   B atc h tr acea b il it y:    T ra d e u n it la b el:
                                                   AI ( 01) an d A I (10 )       A I (01 ) and AI ( 10).
                  H um an re ad ab le                                            O ptiona l: AI (11) or (13 ),
                  fi e ld b in la b el                                           A I (41 2), A I (30 ), AI (3 10x)




                                                                                                                     SU PPL IE R

                                                                H o m o ge n o u s lo g istic
                                                                u n it la b el:
                                                                A I (00 ), AI (0 1) or (02 ) &
                                                                (37) , and AI (10) .
                                                                O ptiona l: AI (11) or (13 ),
                                                                A I (41 2), A I (31 0x)

                                                                M ixed l og ist ic unit lab el:
T R AC ING :                                                    A I (00 ). Opt ion a l: AI (1 1)
                                                                o r (1 3), A I (41 2), A I (31 0x)

G RO WE R                                B AT CH                  P AC K HO US E                     S UP PL IE R       R E TA IL E R
E-FINANCE Loans, Investments and
                                               Payments

e-Finance is about web-enabling
everything that a financial institutions
does – giving loans, offering
investments (stocks, funds, bonds),
executing transactions etc. – all
available using web technology
In Latin America, on-line financial market activity is
limited, with some exceptions in Brazil and Mexico,
where on-line brokerage services seem well-
developed.
   E-FINANCE: Offline Payments
Payment method                       Key characteristics
Bank-to-bank        • Efficient, often used in B2B –
transfers (by       •Sellers (buyers) bear the risks if post-payments, pre-
                    payments are made
cable wire or
                    • Solvency / reputation inquiries about parties, in order to
teleg.transfer)
                    reduce payment risks
Cash on Delivery • Risks shared between parties
(COD)            • Possible only with few neighbouring countries
                    • Relatively expansive and inefficient
Letters of Credit • The preferred way for large B2B transactions
(L/C)             •Expensive and administratively heavy but offers good
                    security for buyers and sellers
Transfers by        • Dense worldwide network
Western Union       •Very fast but very expensive (from US to Peru US$150
                    costs US$20 to be transferred)
Checks & Money • Inefficient and rather expensive
Orders         •Good B2C acceptance: risk: checks without funds, but
                    limited for money orders
   E-FINANCE: Online Payments
Payment method                     Key characteristics

Credit Card      • When SSL is used, surfers can notice a closed lock icon
using Secure     at the bottom of their browser
                 • Used for small amounts
Sockets Layer
                 •Comission 2-5% to be borne by sellers
(SSL)
                 • Difficult for SMEs from developing countries (contract -
                 Merchant account).
Credit Card      • No much used
without SSL      • Worldwide
                 •Wrongly perceived by buyers as unsafe
                 • Risks of fraud are fully borne by sellers
SET – Secure     • System developed and supported by Visa, MC, Amex,
Electronic       IBM, Microsoft and Verisign.
                 • It is SAFE - Worldwide
Transaction
                 • High Commission 2-5%
PayPal           • Online payment solution with 35 million account.
                 Members in 38 countries. Originally developed for auction
                 sites such as eBay.
TRADE FACILITATION: Transportation, Port-
  System and Logistics, Trade Finance, Security
TRADE PROMOTION: IT and Non-IT Sectors



 CREATING AN EFFICIENT AND SECURE
      TRADE INFRASTRUCTURE


TRADE PROCEDURES and MEASURES:
  e-Customs, e-Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary
  Certificates, e-Certificate of Origin, and
  Single Window System
   INSURANCE               CERTIFICATE                LETTER          BILL
   CERTIFICATE                 OF                       OF             OF
                             ORIGIN                   CREDIT         LADING



 PHITOSANITARY             DECLARATIONS               MANIFEST      WAYBILL
  CERTIFICATES



     CUSTOM                     DEBIT                 REMITANCE     PAYMENT
    CLEARANCE                   ADVICE                  ADVICE       ORDER



                                                                    STOWAGE
    PURCHASE                                          FORWARDING    PLAN-BAY
                               INVOICE
     ORDER                                            INSTRUCTION     PLAN


BTW 20 and 40 PAPER DOCUMENTS                                       ARRIVAL
REQUIRED FOR INTERNATIONAL TRADE                                    NOTICE
Costs: up to 10 per cent of the value of the goods.
Every year, US$550 Billion Worldwide.
 CUSTOMS INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Latin America and the Caribbean
SINGLE WINDOW: The Most Common Models
Simplifying International Trade




       The new approach - a simple, one-
       stop solution offering official control
       with trade facilitation.


UN CEFACT Recommendation 33
12TH APEC ECONOMIC LEADERS' MEETING

   12TH APEC ECONOMIC LEADERS' MEETING
          SANTIAGO DECLARATION
       "ONE COMMUNITY, OUR FUTURE"
              Santiago de Chile
            20-21 November 2004


  (...)
  Trade Facilitation: We will continue our work to
  reduce business transaction costs by cutting red tape,
  embracing automation, harmonizing standards and
  eliminating unnecessary barriers to trade. We will also
  work together to advance the trade facilitation
  negotiations in the WTO, promote secure trade, and
  build on the APEC Best Practices for RTAs/FTAs in the
  area of trade facilitation;
  (...)
KNOWLEDGE AND TOOLS
     FOR SMEs
GLOBAL TRADEPOINT NETWORK

www.wtpfed.org/newsite/index1.php

• A trade facilitation centre, where participants in foreign
trade transactions are grouped together under a single             G
physical or virtual roof to provide all the necessary services
for trade transactions. Participants: chambers of
                                                                   T
commerce, customs, foreign trade institutes, banks, freight        P
forwarders, transport agencies and insurance companies.

• A source of trade-related information, providing actual and      N
potential traders with data about business and market
opportunities, potential clients and suppliers, as well as trade
                                                                   E
regulations and requirements.                                      T

• A gateway to global networking, in order to increase the
participation of traders, particularly SMEs, in the emerging
electronic commerce economy.
   WORLD TRADE POINT FEDERATION




www.wtpfed.org/newsite/index1.php


                                Sidney Rezende, CEPAL, Agosto 1997
INTERNATIONAL TRADE CENTER
         (UNCTAD / WTO)




  www.intracen.org/ec/welcome.htm
STUDIES AND PUBLICATIONS - ECLAC

                        71 PUBLICATIONS
                          on Information
                           Technology

                         6 PUBLICATIONS
                         on e-BUSINESS,
                           e-COMMERCE

                        WWW.ECLAC.ORG
   www.eclac.org/comercio



Thank you for your Attention!


      Sidney Rezende
     SRezende@eclac.cl

				
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