Mid Term Review

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					                       Mid Term Review
                              on
“Raising Her Voice: Promoting Poor and Marginalized
  Women’s Participation in Governance in Nepal"




                       Submitted to:
                  Oxfam GB Nepal, Lalitpur
                         July 2010




Submitted by:
Neeta Shrestha Thapa
Mohan Mardan Thapa
                              Acronyms



CBO         Community Based Organization
CDC         Community Discussion Class
CFUG        Community Forest User Group
DDC         District Development Committee
DFID        UK Department for International Development
DVAW        Domestic Violence against Women
DWSUG       Drinking Water and Sanitation User Group
FECOFUN     Federation of Community Forestry Users Nepal
FEDWASAUN   Federation of Water & Sanitation User Group
FGD         Focus Group Discussion
HMC         Health-post Management Committee
IEC         Information Education and Communication
LSGA        Local Self Governance Act
MTR         Mid Term Review
NGO         Non Government Organization
PNGO        Partner Non Government Organization
RHV         Raising Her Voice
RS          Radio Sagarmatha
SHMC        Sub/Health Post Management Committee
SMC         School Management Committee
ToR         Terms of Reference
TWUC        Tharu Women Upliftment Centre
VAW         Violence against Women
VDC         Village Development Committee
WAM         Women Association for Marginalized Women
WATSAN      Water and Sanitation
WEAF        Women Empowerment Action Forum
WOSCC       Women Skill Creation Center
WSPG        Women Security Pressure Group
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS



I would like to thank Oxfam GB Nepal for entrusting the Review Team with this
important assignment. I am thankful to Mr. Binay Dhital, Program Coordinator and Ms.
Sandhya Shrestha, Program Officer, Oxfam GB and RHV Project Coordinators of the
district partner NGOs for their support and valuable inputs during the entire review
process. I would like to put on record my sincere gratitude to all the key informants,
executive committee and staff members of partner NGOs and the community based
rights holders (CDC participants), who provided valuable inputs during their interaction
with the Review Team.



Neeta Shrestha Thapa
Development Consultant
Gender and Social Inclusion
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                                   TABLE OF CONENTS

         EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                              1

1.0      INTRODUCTION
1.01     Project context                                                5
1.02     Objective and Scope of the MTR                                 5
1.03     Methodology and Tools                                          6
1.04     Organization of the Report                                     7
1.05     Limitations                                                    7


2.0RESULT AND FINDINGS

2.1      Project Design and Intervention Strategy                       8
2.1.1    Partnership Approach                                           9
2.1.2    Progress – Targets versus Achievement                          10
2.1.3    Monitoring and Reporting                                       10

2.2      Achievement of the Project Objectives                          11
2.2.1    Objective1: Representation and influence in                    11
         decision making
2.2,2    Objective 2: Promotion of increased participation of           17
          women in governance and reduction of violence against women
2.2.3    Objective 3: Enhancement of capacity of project partners       18
         and women activists
2.2.4    Objective 4: Creation of strong popular opinion in favor of    22
         women's rights through media


3.0      COST EFFECTIVENESS OF THE DIFFERENT                            24
         APPROACHES TAKEN

4.0      CHALLENGES AND LEANING                                         25

5.0      RISK ANALYSIS                                                  26

6.0      CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.01     Conclusion                                                     28
6.02     Recommendations                                                29

Annex:
Annex – 1 Terms of Reference                                            33
Annex - 2 List of documents reviewed                                    37
Annex – 3 Sets of questionnaire/checklists                              38
Annex - 4 A. Number of participants in Focus Group Discussions          46
Annex – 4 B. FGD findings                                               47
Annex – 5 List of persons consulted                                     51
Annex – 6 Selected cases recorded from the community                    56
Annex – 7 The overall accomplishment vis-à-vis the logical framework    59


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Executive Summary

To promote gender equality and address systemic discriminations against poor and
marginalized women, Oxfam GB Nepal is implementing the UK Department of International
Development (DFID) supported project: “Raising Her Voice: Promoting Poor and Marginalized
Women’s Participation in Governance in Nepal” through six partner non-government
organizations (PNGO). The project supports the rights and capacity of poor women to engage
effectively in governance, particularly in community level decision-making structures and reduce
gender-based violence through increased voice and influence and more effective institutional
accountability. The three-year project (September 2008 - August 2011) covers 9 Village
Development Committees (VDC) (3 in each district) in Dailekh, Surkhet and Bardiya districts,
and the national level, especially for policy influencing.

Since the project has reached half way through the total project period, an independent Mid-
term Review (MTR) was conducted during May/June 2010 with the objective of:
 providing an independent assessment of the progress and performance of the project to
    date against targets;
 measuring and reporting on achievements and early signs of change and impact;
 indicating adjustments and changes that need to be made to ensure success;
 reviewing the program’s risk analysis;
 assessing achievements of attempts to influence policy and practice at the national level
    with regard to ensuring increased poor and marginalized women's participation in
    governance; and
 analyzing the cost effectiveness of the different approaches taken.

To accomplish the objectives of the MTR, a multi-pronged approach through collection and
analysis of primary as well as secondary data was conducted. Both quantitative as well as
qualitative information were collected through 36 Focus Group Discussions (FGD) involving 779
Community Discussion Classes (CDC) participants, observation of 32 CDCs and interactions
and interviews with VDCs, district and national level stakeholders. Cases where positive
changes had happened, or stories of hope, owing to the project interventions, were also
identified and documented.

The project's outreach structure adopted a rights based approach that primarily relied on
reaching rights holders (poor and marginalized women) and influencing duty bearers and policy
makers through three local PNGOs (one each in three districts of mid-west Nepal) and three
national PNGOs to:
 raise awareness of rights holders on their rights and the importance of participation in
    decision making structures by disseminating information and enhancing their knowledge;
 motivate rights holders to meaningfully participate in decision making structures that
    influence their lives;
 influence policy and change attitudes of service providers in favor of the rights holders to
    enhance women’s meaningful participation in decision making structures and against
    DVAW; and
 create strong popular opinion in favor of increased participation of poor and marginalized
    women in community decision-making structures, and against domestic violence against
    women (DVAW) through policy dialogue, lobby and advocacy.



                                              111
The logical framework of the project was revised on February 2009 to make some indicators
more realistic under the changed political circumstances. However, some of the indicators are
still difficult to measure as their current status have not been recorded by the project PNGOs.
Further, considering the low capacity and human development of the rights holders, three-year
duration of the project period, absence of people representatives in local bodies and
improbability of local elections taking place during the project period, the achievement of many
of the indicators within the project period is overly ambitious and is not likely to happen.

The district based PNGO are primarily responsible to work directly with the targeted rights
holders at the community level, facilitate interface between rights holders and duty bearers and
lobby and advocate policy makers at the district level. The national PNGOs, on the other hand,
have specific roles and responsibilities that support the project goals and some of the project
objectives. This necessitates a high degree of cooperation and coordination among project
partners and an efficient and regular monitoring system to ensure that project initiatives
implemented by all the partners at different levels are aligned, focused and work in tandem with
each other to produce the synergy that is so vital for achieving the project objectives.

The project has established a quantitative as well as qualitative monitoring system. Monitoring is
carried out through periodic progress reports, field visits, and review and reflection meetings. A
baseline survey was conducted on January 2009 to measure the baseline for the indicators
contained in the project log-frame. However, the use of the baseline to assess outcome or
impact is limited because periodic reports have not compared the progress with baseline data.
Field monitoring appeared to be inadequate due to the engagement of project coordinators in
managing and attending district and central level interactions and meetings; planning and
coordinating the implementation of district level activities; and fulfilling reporting requirements.

The accomplishment of planned activities of the RHV project is mostly in line with the annual
plan and the targets vis-à-vis the log frame. The CDCs in all the wards of the three VDCs in the
three project districts (comprising a total of 81 CDCs facilitated by trained facilitators) is the
primary vehicle for empowering rights holders. This has brought in visible changes in the
community women through increased understanding of their rights and has also enhanced their
confidence level as well as motivated them towards equal participation in the governance of
decision making structures at the community level. The common attitude developed by many
CDC participants was more like: "We have to be there to decide for ourselves". Being part of the
decision making team in these structures is no longer felt difficult and out of their reach.

The contribution of the CDCs in enabling women to raise their voice against violence and
discrimination is validated by the fact that cases of DVAW are no longer suppressed and
confined within the four walls of the homes of the perpetrators and the victims. The practice of
mediating in DVAW cases at the community level still persists. However, women's collective
voice in favor of DVAW victims has grown stronger. Though many instances of DVAW cases
still occur at the community level, what is encouraging is that awareness and knowledge
imparted in the CDCs appear to be paying off as 70% of the FGD participants believed that
DVAW has decreased in recent times. Besides combating and trying to stop domestic violence,
CDC women participants have also initiated efforts to put an end to other forms of social
malpractices such as child marriage, gambling and alcohol consumption.

To some extent it can also be deduced that the awareness and sensitizing program has had a
snowballing effect on the community as 6 out of 10 FGD participants reported that they have
received support from family and community people. Less resistance and restriction from the
household to participate in community work, more receptive family members during sharing of
information and knowledge and encouragement to take up community responsibility were some
of the examples cited as support received.

Community level awareness has enhanced women's willingness and ability to participate
in the community level decision-making structures. Women's representation has
increased in most of the community structures, which were formed and/or reformed after
the CDC intervention began. This was supported by the fact that out of the total FGD
participants, 75 percent reported that the participation of women in the targeted
community structures had increased.

A communication strategy, which has also incorporated comprehensive indicators and activities,
was developed in 2009 in alignment with the RHV logical framework. However, due to the
absence of an effective mechanism to ensure coordination, role clarity and assigning
responsibilities among partners in alignment of the communication strategy, the communication
strategy has not been effectively put into practice by the RHV partners.

To support the media and connect it with grassroots issue, 17 listeners' clubs were formed. Of
these, only few are functional and their initiatives are limited to activities (participating in
community functions and performing in cultural programs and dramas) that do not serve the
very essence of their establishment due to the non-inclusion of any specific activities for
listeners' clubs in the project activities plan.

The outreach structure of the project was able to reach rights holders; and, to a certain extent,
influence duty bearers and policy makers through six PNGOs. Though the project period leading
up to the mid-term review was too short to provide tangible outcomes in terms of the overall
project goal of ensuring public policy and decision making reflect the interests of poor and
marginalized women - especially those excluded from political, social, and economic life, it has
made valuable contributions towards the achievement of some project objectives which support
the goal.

Policy advocacy is a long-term process, which needs a multi-sectoral effort. Consolidated efforts
to formulate and/or revise policies on certain specific issues may or may not be realized within
the project period. The continuity of advocacy efforts from different quarters is more important.
Thus, to expect significant gains with limited inputs during the three-year project period in terms
of policy reforms can be overly ambitious. What is to be appreciated is that positive
contributions has been made and can be built upon in the days ahead.

There are some improvements that need to be made in the remaining project period to achieve
the project goals and objectives. These include:
01. Reviewing the output indicators in the logical framework to set realistic targets that are
      achievable in the project period.
02. Retaining the current participants of the CDCs and maintaining their interest with more
      information and new topics.
03. Linking awareness package on VAW to extended support for the victims.
04. Focusing on sensitization of and coordination with the police and the district administration
      to deal with the cases of violence in the project areas.
05. Giving priority to advocacy targeting influential political leaders at the local level.
06. Planning and implementing a series of regular lobby and advocacy initiatives at the
      national level that focus on core issues.
07.   Formulating an annual activities plan for listeners' club with a focus on bringing local issue
      on media and dissemination of news/information to community people, through a
      consultative process between the representatives of listeners' club, RHV project
      coordinators and representative of the local radio station and allocating a budget to
      implement these activities.
08.   Making coordination and activity plan for frequent interaction between media people and
      community women a regular feature of the project's media advocacy and allocating a
      budget to implement these activities.
09.   Streamlining and putting into practice the Communication Strategy through an effective
      mechanism to ensure coordination, role clarity and assigning responsibilities among
      partners in alignment with the communication strategy.
10.   Clarifying the roles, responsibilities and intra- partner reporting through a consultation
      meeting among the six PNGOs and Oxfam.
11.   Focusing on: i) which issues to give priority; and ii) what type and which columns of the
      print or electronic media to focus on to make media advocacy more effective.
12.   Utilizing the baseline indicators for monitoring achievements.
13.   Formulating annual plan and targets for the upcoming period in consultation with the six
      PNGOs taking into consideration the recommendations made in the MTR report.
1.0          INTRODUCTION

1.01         Project context

Gender discrimination, or the denial of women’s basic human rights, is a major cause of
poverty in Nepal. Nepalese women have less recourse than men to legal recognition and
protection, lower access to public knowledge and information and less decision-making power
both within and outside their home. This systemic discrimination has reduced their public
participation, increased their vulnerability to violence, and resulted in women representing a
disproportionate percentage of the poor population.

To promote gender equality and address systemic discriminations against poor and
marginalized women, Oxfam GB Nepal is implementing the UK Department of International
Development (DFID) supported project entitled “Raising Her Voice: Promoting Poor and
Marginalized Women’s Participation in Governance in Nepal” through six partner non
government organizations (PNGO) – three each at the national and local levels. The project
promotes the rights and capacity of poor women to engage effectively in governance,
particularly in community level decision-making structures and reduce gender-based violence
through increased voice and influence and more effective institutional accountability.

Owing to the traditional socio-political structure influenced by entrenched patriarchal values
and norms, numerous barriers that restrict women from participating in and influencing the local
decision making structures exist at the community level in the project districts. These barriers
are mainly responsible for the lack of competence, self-confidence, and freedom of choice
among women. Absence of elected local government and limited reservation allocated for
women in the local government also restrain women's participation in local bodies. Further,
even in places where reservation exists, they are generally “symbolic” and limited to fulfill head
counts as no efforts have been made to capacitate women representatives to enable them to
participate meaningfully.

The overall objective of the project is to ensure that public policy and decision-making practices
reflect the interests of poor and marginalized women, especially those excluded from political,
social and economic life. This is envisaged to be achieved by supporting women’s leadership
and addressing attitudes and beliefs about the role of women in public decision-making using
strategies such as media and communications work to disseminate learning and best practice,
networking, lobbying and advocacy, working with public institutions and decision-making
structures and empowering and building capacity of civil society organizations.

The three-year project (September 2008 - August 2011) covers 9 VDCs (3 in each district) in
Dailekh, Surkhet and Bardiya districts, and the national level, especially for policy influencing.
Since the project has reached half way through the total project period, an independent Mid-
term Review (MTR) was conducted during May/June 2010.

1.02         Objective and Scope of the Mid Term Review (MTR)

The objectives and scope of the MTR, as specified in the terms of reference (ToR), are to:

     provide an independent assessment of the progress and performance of the project to date
      against targets;
     measure and report on achievements and early signs of change and impact;
   indicate adjustments and changes that need to be made to ensure success;
   review the program’s risk analysis;
   assess achievements of attempts to influence policy and practice at the national level with
    regard to ensuring increased poor and marginalized women's participation in governance; and
   analyze the cost effectiveness of the different approaches taken.
    (The ToR is available in Annex – 1)


1.03   Methodology and tools

Methodology
To accomplish the objectives of the MTR, a multi-pronged approach was followed. This involved
collection and analysis of primary as well as secondary data from all relevant sources at the
national, district and Village Development Committee (VDC)/community levels. Both quantitative
as well as qualitative information were collected during the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs).
Some specific questions were incorporated in the FGD checklists to obtain quantitative
information in selected key issues.

The MTR core team of two consultants visited all the three project districts to collect primary
information required for assessment/evaluation of the project outputs. Twelve field researchers
(four in each district) were recruited to assist the MTR core team. The researchers were
provided a half-day orientation on the checklist and questionnaires by the MTR core team.

a)    Review of relevant documents
Review of project documents was conducted to understand various issues pertaining to poor
and marginalized women of the project areas and for the development of checklists and
questionnaires for the FGDs and interviews/interactions. The list of documents reviewed is
available in Annex – 2.

b)    Development of instruments
Different types of questionnaires and checklists were developed for assessing: i) the progress
and performance of the project to date against targets in alignment with the project goal and
objectives; and ii) achievements of efforts to influence policy and practice at the national level
with regard to ensuring increased poor and marginalized women's participation in governance.
Questionnaires and checklists were also designed to ensure key learning and effective
practices from the ground are well captured as well as to seek necessary recommendations to
improve project effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability. The questionnaires and checklists
are available in Annex - 3.

c)    Selection of districts, VDCs and wards
All three districts and nine VDCs covered by the project were visited while purposive sampling
method was adopted for the selection of wards. This was primarily based on the following: i)
covering at least 4 wards (i.e. close to 50% of the total number of wards covered) in each VDC;
and ii) accessibility keeping in mind the limitation of the field visit time frame. However, the
selection was finalized in consultation with the concerned partner organizations.

d)     Focus Group Discussions (FGDs)/Interactions/Interviews
A total of 36 FGDs (12 FGDs in each district covering 4 wards in each VDCs), encompassing
779 people, (674 CDC women participants and 105 men comprising mainly family members of
CDC participants) were conducted. The details and findings of the FGDs conducted in the three
districts are available in Annex - 4 A & B. At the national and district level, discussions and
interviews with various stakeholders, community based user groups and committees, members
of listeners' clubs and executive committee members and staff of the PNGOs were conducted.
Stakeholders interviewed also included relevant Kathmandu, district and VDC based
government organizations, local leaders of political parties, district based media
representatives, selected alliance members, networks of civil society and women rights
defenders and organizations. The list of persons consulted is available in Annex – 5.

e)    Case Studies (People Speak)
Critical cases have been identified and developed from each district reflecting success or
challenges in attaining social inclusion, representation and good governance practices. Cases
where positive changes have happened, or stories of hope, owing to the project interventions,
have also been included. Case studies were recorded and then later transcribed/edited.
Selected cases recorded from the community are available in Annex - 6

g) Observation
A total of 32 ongoing CDCs facilitated by RHV facilitators were visited to observe participatory
discussion processes, issues raised, processes applied to solve common problems and interest
of participants towards the issues.

g) Data analysis
In order to assess the achievement of the project against the program goal and objectives, all
relevant information collected were analyzed as follows:
 analysis of data and comparison of the findings with the project indicators, verification of the
    findings with the periodic progress reports of partners and RHV project officials through
    triangulation;
 identification of challenges, learning, and good practices;
 identification of missed opportunities;
 conclusions based on the project's contribution to meet goal and objectives; and
 recommendations for future use by the project.

1.04   Organization of the report

The Report is organized into six chapters. The first chapter is the introductory chapter that
presents a brief overview and objectives/scope of the MTR, evaluation methodology and tools.
The second chapter presents the result and findings of the MTR covering the intervention
strategy, partnership approach, monitoring and reporting process and achievement against
project objectives. Chapter three presents cost effectiveness of different approach taken while
challenges and learning of the project are discussed in chapter four. Chapter five presents the
risk analysis and the final chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation.

1.05   Limitations

The MTR core team could not visit Baraha VDC in Dailekh district in line with the initial plan to
visit all the VDCs of the project. Similarly consultation time with target groups and stakeholders
remained short in Seri and Goganpani VDCs in Dailekh due to long driving and walking time.
2.0       RESULTS AND FINDINGS
2.01   Project design and implementation

Intervention strategy

1.       The RHV project was designed with the goal: "To ensure that public policy and decision
making reflect the interests of poor and marginalized women - especially those excluded from
political, social, and economic life". This was envisaged to be achieved through the fulfilment of
the following four objectives:
i) increasing the representation of poor and marginalised women [Dalit and ethnic groups] in
     community decision-making structures and enhancing their ability to influence the decisions;
ii) promoting increased participation of women in the governance of selected community
     decision-making structures and ensuring selected public institutions to develop and
     implement laws, policies and strategies to reduce violence against women;
iii) enhancing capacity of project partners and poor and marginalized women activists to
     advocate for poor and marginalized women’s participation in local governance structures
     and to address Domestic Violence Against Women (DVAW); and
iv) creating strong popular opinion in favor of increased participation of poor and marginalized
     women in community decision-making structures, and against DVAW by massively
     disseminating relevant information through electronic and print media.

2.      The objectives are targeted to be achieved by various activity types and outputs that are
segregated into four clusters: (i) networking, lobbying and advocacy with poor and marginalized
women activists; (ii) working with public institutions and decision-making forums, including
traditional structures; (iii) empowering and capacitating civil society organizations to achieve
rights of poor women citizens through campaigns and policy work; and (iv) learning lessons and
disseminating best practice through innovative media and communications work. The logical
framework of the project was revised on February 2009 to make some indicators more realistic
under the changed political circumstances.

The means of verifications and prevalent assumptions are clearly laid out in the logical
framework. Many of the indicators incorporated in the project logical framework are difficult to
measure as their current status have not been recorded by the project PNGOs. Further,
considering the low capacity and human development of the rights holders, three-year duration
of the project period, absence of people representatives in local bodies and improbability of
local elections taking place during the project period, the targets set in many of the indicators
(specifically related to policy changes to ensure 33% representation in local bodies and selected
community decision making structures related to health, education and water and sanitation) is
overly ambitious and is not likely to happen within the project period.

The project's outreach structure adopted a rights based approach that primarily relied on
reaching rights holders (poor and marginalized women) and influencing duty bearers and policy
makers through three local PNGOs (one each in three districts of mid-west Nepal) and three
national PNGOs to:
 raise awareness of rights holders on their rights and the importance of participation in
    decision making structures by disseminating information and enhancing their knowledge;
 motivate rights holders to meaningfully participate in decision making structures that
    influence their lives;
 influence and change attitudes of service providers and the community at large at the local
    level in favor of the rights holders through campaigns and advocacy; and
   influence policy changes in favor of rights holders to enhance their meaningful participation
    in decision-making structures and against DVAW through policy dialogue, lobby and
    advocacy.

The CDC in all the wards of the three VDCs in the three project districts (comprising a total of 81
CDCs facilitated by trained facilitators) is the primary vehicle for empowering rights holders.
Interaction and consultation with targeted stakeholders by project partners and local activists
and joint lobby and advocacy efforts by the media, PNGOs, human rights defenders, networks
and alliances, like minded civil society organizations and local activists are the major
instruments designed to influence policy changes in favor of at least 33% representation of
rights holders in decision making structures and against DVAW.

The project design gives special emphasis to linking the media to local initiatives and issues.
However, this is primarily a voluntary effort that needs to emanate from members of the
listeners' club and the PNGO without the support of specific activities to connect listeners' club
and community initiatives to the print media and to a large extent even to Radio Sagarmatha's
"Saha Astitwa" (coexistence) program. The geographical coverage – 9 VDCs in three different
districts (geographically as well as culturally) as well as national level advocacy interventions
and nationwide media coverage through Radio Sagarmatha – entails a risk that project
resources are spent too thinly on few event based activities.

2.02          Partnership Approach

The Partnership Approach is well described in the project proposal, which states that Oxfam will
work with partners for the successful delivery of the project and that the partners will participate
in the planning and implementation of the project activities at national and local level. The
partnership approach is envisaged to primarily focus on:
 engaging collectively with diverse institutions and a large number of poor and marginalized
    men and women to change attitude and practices and to prevent DVAW;
 building linkages between people’s pressure groups and national level networks to advocate
    for policies to end discrimination and violence;
 using radio networks to engage listeners from the districts to take forward the women’s
    rights agenda;
 working with radio listeners' club to stimulate discussion within the group, encourage
    feedback and mobilize them to take actions on issues of discrimination and violence;
 building alliance with media to advocate for legal and policy framework at national level and
    monitoring policy implementation at local level; and
 building alliance with media groups and individual journalists to highlight issues generated
    from public discussion and feedback from radio listeners’ groups to advocate for legal and
    policy framework at the national level and monitor policy implementation at the local level.

The overall project implementation strategy aimed at formally partnering with three local NGOs
(one each in the three project districts) and three national NGOs.1 The set of activities to be
completed, the budget outlay and heads, the responsibilities of and the reporting requirement
from each partner are defined by separate Project Grant Agreements between Oxfam GB and
the six PNGOs.

1
  The three national partners are: i) Women Security Pressure Group [WSPG] - Kathmandu; ii) Women Skill Creation Centre
[WOSCC] - Hetauda; and Radio Sagarmatha - Kathmandu and the three district level partners include: i) Women Association for
Marginalised Women[WAM] - Surkhet; ii) Women Empowerment Action Forum [WEAF] - Dailekh; and Tharu Women Upliftment
Centre [TWUC] - Bardiya.
The district based PNGOs, which are primarily responsible to oversee project implementation in
their respective districts with similar set of programs and functions, work directly with the
targeted rights holders at the community level, facilitate interface between rights holders and
duty bearers and lobby and advocate policy makers at the district level. The national PNGOs,
on the other hand, have specific roles and responsibilities that support the project goals and
some of the project objectives. The implementation strategy, which links local initiatives to
national level advocacy, requires a multi-pronged coordinated approach amongst diverse actors
comprising: i) local activism and advocacy facilitated by district based PNGOs; ii) media based
(primarily print and audio and to a lesser extent visual) information dissemination and advocacy
at the district and national level implemented by Radio Sagarmatha and its district based local
radio partners; iii) capacity building of local activists and PNGOs by another national partner -
the Women Skill Creation Center (WOSCC) and iv) focused advocacy targeting policy makers
at the national level by the third national partner – Women Security Pressure Group (WSPG).
This necessitates a high degree of cooperation and coordination among project partners and an
efficient and regular monitoring system to ensure that project initiatives implemented by all the
partners at different levels are aligned, focused and work in tandem with each other to produce
the synergy that is so vital for achieving the project objectives.

Local and national Government bodies, district line agencies and national and district based
structures of Federation of Community Forestry Users, Nepal (FECOFUN), Federation of
Drinking Water and Sanitation Users, Nepal (FEDWASUN), Public Health entities and School
Management Committees (SMC) are key stakeholders. They are also targets as they are
among the community level decision-making structures. The cooperation with these entities is
essential. The role of the project partners is in this connection to facilitate public contributions
and access and representation of rights holders to public decision-making structures; and at the
same time to support the duty bearers’ understanding of their obligations and their capacity to
meet those obligations.

2.03       Progress – Targets versus Achievement

The accomplishment of planned activities is mostly in line with the yearly plan and the targets
vis-à-vis the log frame. This is validated by the overall accomplishment of planned activities at
the end of the first phase project period (March 2010). The overall accomplishment, vis-à-vis the
logical framework, is available in Annex - 7.

At the outcome level, it is difficult to assess the extent of achievements as the baseline has not
been used to assess outcomes or impact. As the impact of the project intervention will take
some time to materialize, it will be overly ambitious to expect significant impact within this short
period of time. However, what it appreciable is that some positive outcomes or impacts, owing
to project activities and outputs, are beginning to materialize and was observed by the MTR
team during the field visits. Details are available in Section 4 below.

2.04       Monitoring and Reporting

The project has established a quantitative as well as qualitative monitoring system. Monitoring is
carried out through periodic progress reports, field visits, and review and reflection meetings. A
substantive annual review of the progress has also been conducted. Independent mid-term as
well as final reviews have also been envisaged as a mechanism to assess the impact of the
project.
The project has established the following as its core monitoring and evaluation mechanisms:
 A Monitoring tool has been developed and all the concerned staff of RHV and the PNGOs
   have been provided with orientation training on the monitoring tool.
 Periodic visit of executive members (EC) of the PNGOs and projector coordinators to the
   project VDCs. Although field reports was reported to have been submitted and shared by
   the concerned EC and staff members after their monitoring visits, it is not systematically
   documented as MTR team was not presented with a sample when the project coordinators
   were requested to do so.
 Monitoring visits by program officer of Oxfam GB to project partners and sites to assess the
   project activities and guide them as needed.
 Field monitoring by WOSCC to observe and monitor training curriculum and facilitation skills
   of the PNGOs and to provide the technical and management feedbacks to the concerned
   PNGOs and their staff/facilitators.
 Quarterly reports from the PNGOs in fixed formats.
 Consolidated annual report prepared by the PNGOs in line with a fixed format.
 Participatory review and reflection meeting three times a year with the participation of all the
   PNGOs and stakeholders.
 Conduction of social audits by the PNGO with the participation of community people, and
   local stakeholders to assess their performance. Besides helping the PNGOs to become
   transparent and accountable to their community, social audits have also become an
   effective monitoring tool.

A baseline survey was conducted on January 2009, to measure the baseline for the indicators
contained in the project log-frame. However, the use of the baseline to assess outcome or
impact is limited because periodic reports have not compared the progress with baseline data.
Progress monitoring is presented in quarterly and annual reports, which are submitted to
Oxfam. The reports present work-in-progress and accomplishment at the activities and output
level: such as accomplishment of activities against pre-determined schedule, quantitative and
qualitative outputs of each activity, problems encountered and the lessons learned during the
implementation of the activities. The reports do not have much to offer at the outcome level as
visible impacts of the project intervention to a large extent will take some time to materialize.

The CDC participants, facilitators and even the project partners have reported the level of
monitoring and capturing field level achievements and issues is inadequate. This is mainly due
to the engagement of project coordinators in managing and attending district and central level
interactions and meetings; planning and coordinating the implementation of district level
activities; and fulfilling reporting requirements

2.2     ACHIEVEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES

2.2.1     Representation and influence in decisions making

 Objective1: Poor and marginalized women [Dalit and ethnic groups] are
 represented in community decision-making structures and are able to influence
 the decisions
The CDC is the main input component of the RHV project to raise the awareness of and
disseminate rights based knowledge to 2120 poor and marginalized women2 at the grassroots
level in the three project districts. Dalit, janajati and other castes are well represented in the
CDCs in Dailekh and Surkhet while the CDCs of Bardiya appear to mainly focus on the janajati
(tharu community) group. This is primarily due to the tharu indigenous people comprising over
50% of the population in Bardiya district.

Table -1 Distribution of CDC participants by caste and ethnicity
 Caste/ethnicity          Surkhet in %            Dailekh in %                                        Bardiya in %
 Dalit                    39                      28                                                   6
 Janajati                 30                      20                                                  79
 Others                   31                      52                                                   5
 Total                    100                     100                                                 100

The CDCs, which, at the outset, were facilitated by the social immobilizers and took place on a
fortnightly basis for a period of three months, are now facilitated by selected facilitators, who
received four days of orientation. They now meet on a regular daily basis since the last four
months. The CDCs were observed to have adopted participatory processes of discussion on
contemporary issues and community based problems such as human rights in general
(primarily related to poverty, compulsion of seasonal migration as there are limited livelihood
opportunities at the local level, insecurity, access to safe drinking water, and domination by
influential people) and particularly women rights (primarily related to lack of education, lack of
access to property and income, restriction in mobility, confinement within domestic
responsibility, domestic as well as public violence, child marriage, alcohol sale/consumption,
NGO support to address social problems, and nominal presence of women in community
decision making structures). Posters, fliers, pictorial booklet3 are used by facilitators to impart
knowledge and initiate discussion on these issues while participatory discussions that provide
ample space for the participants to air their views and opinions are used to frame a common
decision or action plan to address the problem.

This process has brought in visible changes in the community women through increased
understanding of their rights and has also enhanced their confidence level as well as motivated
them towards equal participation in the governance of decision making structures at the
community level. This was validated by nearly 60% of the participants in the FGDs conducted
by the MTR Team who expressed that they now felt confident to raise their voice for women's
rights.

As CDCs specifically focus on enhancing women's participation in decision making positions
and committees in four selected community level structures: Community Forest User Group
(CFUG), SMC, Sub/Health Post Management Committee (SHMC), and Drinking Water and
Sanitation User Group (DWSUG), it has helped poor and marginalized women to focus on
specific goals. The common attitude developed by many CDC participants was more like: "We
have to be there to decide for ourselves". Being part of the decision making team in these
structures no longer felt difficult and out of their reach.

Violence against women (VAW), which is a common phenomenon in all the project areas, is
now resisted and fought against by the CDC participants with nearly 4 out of 10 FGD
participants stating that they are engaged in efforts to stop and/or end VAW.

2
    The distribution of women attending CDCs comprised 659 in Bardiya, 798 in Surkhet and 642 in Dailekh districts.
3
    Adhikar ra Netrittwa Abhiyan plublished by WOSCC
     Nandawali, Baraha VDC, Dailekh

 Thirty-four years old Nandawali, who came from a poor family, was married off, at an early, to a man
 from a relatively better off family. Within one month of her marriage, she became subjected to verbal,
 physical and mental violence from her in laws and husband. The domestic violence and severe beatings
 continued unabated even after the birth of five children when she was over the age of thirty.

 Initially when the CDC started in her village, she could not gather the courage to join it due to fear of her
 family. With the encouragement of her friends and neighbors, she finally got the courage to participate in
 the CDC. The CDC made a big impact on Nandawali. "Now I realize that it was not my fault that I
 became a victim of violence; but if I keep on being docile and submissive to violence, then it is entirely
 my doing. With this attitude and back up support of the CDC group, I have been able to finally resist the
 verbal abuse and beating. Now my husband has to face the outcry and warning of the CDC group and
 other community people. Though he accused me of siding with outsiders in the beginning, the verbal
 abuses and the beatings have stopped to a large extent and I believe will end pretty soon. After all even
 people like my husband can be made to realize that a peaceful home environment is always better than
 a violent one. When my husband was warned by the community people, some other husbands have
 also stopped beating their wives. If only someone had opened our eyes earlier, women like me would
 not have to suffer for so long."


 The contribution of the CDCs in enabling these women to raise their voice against violence
and discrimination is validated by the fact that out of the total participants who reported that they
were actively involved in combating VAW, 65 percent credited this change to the support and
empowerment process of the RHV project. As a consequence, cases of domestic violence are
no longer suppressed and confined within the four walls of the homes of the perpetrators and
the victims. They are openly discussed in the CDCs with women participating in the discussion
and contributing their bit to find a common solution. Out of the 32 CDC observed, in 23 CDC
one of the major subjects of discussion was violence against women. Women have started to
come to the forefront to combat VAW and have devised and agreed on ways to tackle and
address cases of VAW locally.

 Fed up of bearing the injustice of being subjected to domestic violence by their drunken husbands for a
 long time, the women who have been attending the CDC in Sorahawa VDC, Bardiya District decided to
 impose a fine of five hundred rupees on any man who beats his wife or female members of the
 household even after he has been warned not to do so by the community. Thereafter, such abusers
 have been imposed a fine of Rs. 500/- for a first time offense which will keep on increasing on
 subsequent offences. "Now, our husbands go off quietly to sleep fearing that they have to lose face on
 account of community level insults and also cough up the fine

The practice of mediating in DVAW cases to find an amicable settlement at the community level
still persists. However, women's collective voice in favor of DVAW victims has grown stronger.
In some instances, cases that cannot be settled through community level initiatives are also
reported to the police. However, reporting is rarely followed by formal filing of a case owing to a
lengthy legal process and related expenses that are beyond the means of the poor and
marginalized women. Ironically, the police officers interviewed perceived DVAW as a private
matter between family members that needs to be solved through a mediated settlement with a
warning of dire consequences if repeated again and a commitment from the abuser not to
repeat it again. Though many instances of DVAW cases still occur at the community level,
however, what is encouraging is that awareness and knowledge imparted in the CDCs appear
to be paying off as 70% of the FGD participants believed that DVAW has decreased in recent
times.
Besides combating and trying to stop domestic violence, CDC women participants have also
initiated efforts to put an end to other forms of social mal practices such as child marriage,
gambling and alcohol consumption.

    Jodhani Chaudhary of Sorahawa VDC, Bardiya recalls the days when many boys and men in her
                                                                                   4
    village spent most of their time gambling away their money playing carrom or gathering around a
    carrom board. Even the school going boys missed their classes to join in the fun. With the popularity of
    the game among men and boys increasing every day, the house owners who provided space and
    board for the game were making good money at the rate of Rs 5/- per game. Playing venues were also
    increasing and the males were being unproductive and wasting hard earned money while children's
    studies were being hampered.

    Thus, the CDC women decided to put an end to this game. As Jodhani's house was also a popular
    venue; she decided that she should take up the lead to end this practice. Other CDC participants joined
    in and started a campaign to put an end to this malpractice. They framed a rule through a village level
    meeting that whoever offered carrom games in their premises would be fined Rs. 2,500/-, the gamblers
    had to pay Rs. 2,000/- while anyone watching would be fined Rs. 1,500/-. This measure, with the
    support of the community people and many men of the village, resulted in total abolishment of carrom
    games in the village within a few months. The MTR team did not notice any gaming venue in the village
    during their visit. Jodhani proudly recounted: "We could not have done this without courage and
    confidence acquired from the CDC. Power of awareness and knowledge will ultimately prevail over
    muscle power."

A commendable outcome brought about by the awareness imparted by the RHV is that CBOs
are framing and applying rules and regulations in favor of reducing VAW and promotion of
women's rights. Women groups have increasingly come to the forefront to end and reduce
domestic violence. Though many of them (two out of ten women) are unaware about the
existence of Domestic Violence (Crime and Punishment) Act, four out of ten women reported
that they were actively involved in efforts to reduce domestic violence. Most of them were
involved in activities support by NGO/CBOs, self help groups and networks and participating in
rallies and demonstrations. Though domestic violence is still one of the major issues in the
project areas, seven out of ten participants in the FGDs were of the opinion that it had been
reduced in recent times.

The victims of VAW cases, which are reported, usually require financial and legal support. As
the RHV project does not have additional resources for these types of support, project
coordinators and EC members of the PNGO try their best to link victims to other organizations
that provide extended support to such victims. In this context, project activities limited only to
awareness and interaction becomes inadequate. Thus, the awareness package needs to be
linked to extended support for the victims who generate courage to report VAW cases on
account of the project initiatives.

Community level awareness has enhanced women's willingness and ability to participate
in the community level decision-making structures. Women's representation has
increased in most of the community structures, which were formed and/or reformed after
the CDC intervention began. This was supported by the fact that out of the total FGD


4
  Carrom is a tabletop game which is played on a board of plywood, normally with a 28 inch square playing surface. The object of
the game is to strike or flick with a finger a comparatively heavy disk called a "striker" such that it contacts lighter object disks called
"carrom-men" and propels them into one of four corner pocket
participants, 75 percent reported that the participation of women in the targeted
community structures had increased.

    Out of the 2120 CDC women participants, 258 have assumed decision-making positions
    in community level organizations such as CFUGs, DWSUGs, SMCs and SHPMCs. This
    constitutes 58% of the total women members of the community structures (441), while
    the total women participation in the structures has increased to 43% as against the
    baseline data of 28%. An additional 145 CDC participants (74 in Bardiya, 26 in Surkhet
    and 45 in Dailekh) have also taken leadership roles or membership in several other
    community level committees: such as; Teacher-Parent Associations, Road Construction
    Committees, Cooperative Executive Committees, Alcohol Control Committees, Electricity
    Pilfering Control Committees etc. 5


The success of the RHV project can be gauged from the fact that the participation of CDC
participants in decision-making level of community structures had increased significantly
in recent times. Out of the total FGD participants (779), 165 participants (21%) had
become members of management or executive committees while 54 (7%) of them had
managed to obtain key posts such as Chairperson, Vice-chairperson, treasurer and
secretary. In this regard, the CFUG appeared far ahead of the other structures. The
CFUG was followed by the SMC and the DWSUG with the SHMC occupying the rear
position. This is primarily due to FECOFUN's mandatory provision that necessitates 50
percent women's representation in its committees and the key posts. These findings lend
support and corroborate RHV project's strategic choice of giving priority to advocacy
initiatives that focus on influencing policies to ensure at least 33% women representation
in community decision making structures and local bodies.

Table - 2 Number of FGD Participants in Community Structures
                      SMC              HMC           DWSUG           CFUG
 District      Member Post       Member Post      Member Post     Member Post
                        Bearer            Bearer          Bearer         Bearer
 Bardiya              8       1         4      1       1        -     24      9
 Surkhet             10       2         1       -      4       3      13     11
 Dailekh             29       7       12       3      14       4      45     13
 Total               47      10       17       4      19       7      82     33

The initial impact of the awareness imparted by the CDCs is visible by: i) the scale of increase in
women representation in community decision making structures; ii) development in confidence
and capacity of women to initiate meaningful actions to combat discriminations and malpractices
at the community level; and iii) the increase in their active participation to encourage and
support women candidacy in community level decision making structures. Four out of ten FGD
participants reported that they were engaged in efforts to promote participation of poor and
marginalized women in community level decision making structures while 70 percent of them
believed that their efforts have borne fruits by bringing in changes to increase the participation
of women in the community structures.

    Women are generally involved in following activities to increase women's participation in
    community structures:
    Encouraging family and community members to participate in awareness programs;

5
    RHV Annual Report, 2010
    Participation in rally organized in favor of women;
    Being present in pre elections meeting of the CFUG and SMC to create pressure for the inclusion of
    women candidates;
    Actively campaigning on the behalf of women candidates; and
    Voting en masse for women candidates.

The discussion and follow up meetings with representatives of community decision making
structures helped to draw their attentions towards encouraging adequate and meaningful
participation of women in these structures. Positive change in the attitude and behavior of
representative of community structures and service providers were reported by 70% of FGD
participants. The prominent changes observed by the participants are presented in the table
below.

           Changes in Attitude and Behavior of Service Providers and Community Structures
     More medicines available in the health post
     Customary health post service hours extended from a half-day to 4 P.M.
     Antenatal checkup and delivery services available more regularly
     Women encouraged to give birth in the health post and get incentive money
     More transparent school management and information about children's education made available
     Regularity of classes enhanced
     Significant increase in invitation to participate in meetings and gatherings (especially by the CFUG).
     The catch word often said by males "Mahila haru lai pahila palo dinu parchha" (women should be
      given the first chance)
     Easier to get recommendation for citizenship certificate from VDC secretary
     Senior citizen's allowance delivered to the homes of those unable to walk to the VDC office.


These changes in the attitude and enhanced representation of women in local structures were
partially due to formation of positive policies at the national as well as local level but largely due
to increasing level of awareness, knowledge and organizational strength and group dynamics of
community women many of whom are now able to demand their rights and remind the service
providers of their duties and obligations and also resist discriminatory behavior. Periodic
sensitization, interaction and interface of community women and activists with service providers
by the RHV project have also paved the way for this transformation.6

Though the majority of the FGD participants were of the opinion that positive change in behavior
and attitude have occurred, 3 out of 10 women still reported facing rude and discriminatory
treatment.

    "This behavioral change only applies to those who can speak. For us illiterates who cannot be vocal to
    demand our rights, it is more or less the same situation."

To some extent it can also be deduced that the awareness and sensitizing program has had a
snowballing effect on the community as 6 out of 10 FGD participants reported that they have
received support from family and community people. Less resistance and restriction from the
household to participate in community work, more receptive family members during sharing of
information and knowledge and encouragement to take up community responsibility were some
of the examples cited as the support received. However, still 40 percent of the participants were
of the opinion that women are not getting support from the family and community people to
participate in community decision making structures. They cited that : i) obligation to fulfill all the

6
    Reported by representatives of community structure during interaction with MTR team in the project districts.
household works; ii) restriction on mobility by family members owing to traditional belief that
women space lies within the confinement of the four walls; and iii) labeling women ventures
outside their homes as immoral still persist and limit women's participation in the community
structures. Support from the family and/or the community appeared to be most prominent
motivating factor for women to participate and make meaningful contribution in the community
level structures.

    "Scholarship amount (Rs.500/-per year) provided to dalit students and non dalit girl students were
    generally misused by alcoholic fathers who used to come to school to collect their children's
    scholarship money. To stop this malpractice, upon my initiation, the SMC passed a rule that
    necessitated both the parents or the mother had to be present to receive children's scholarship money.
    Now this amount goes to children's education expenses rather than alcohol consumption. Without the
    support of WEAF and my family, I couldn't have initiated this policy change."
    Krishna Chand of Goganpani VDC Dailekh, who is chairperson of women network and member of SMC
    and CFUG.

However, influencing major decisions in community structure by women members were limited.
Only those women: i) who have had number of exposures and trainings; ii) who were
represented in more than one community structures; and iii) who were fully supported by their
family were able to take the lead role in decision making.7

3.2.2 Promotion of increased participation of women

    Objective 2: Selected community decision-making structures promote increased
    participation of women in governance and selected public institutions develop and
    implement laws, policies and strategies to reduce violence against women [VAW].

In line with the project objectives, the People Centered Advocacy Strategy (2009-2011) has
been developed for taking forward the lobby and advocacy campaign in a coordinated and
effective manner. The strategy, which has taken up two major issues (low representation of
women in decision making process and violence against women), was prepared with the
initiation of WSPG through intensive consultation in a three days workshop with the participation
of all the six PNGOs of the RHV project and Oxfam GB. Major stakeholders, methods of
advocacy and activities are identified in the strategy. This strategy paper, which can provide
guidance for advocacy works on women's right to participation and end VAW, has the potential
of extending its use beyond the project period and partners in many other like minded
professionals, activists and organizations if it is disseminated and distributed to a wide range of
stakeholders.

All the local level community structures follow the guidelines prepared by the parent
organizations at the center. The FECOFUN, which revised its guideline in 2009, has the most
inclusive policy with minimum 50% women's representation in the key posts and the executive
committee. This is being translated to the local level with CFUGs being the most inclusive
structure at the local level. Similarly, the FEDWASUN has provision for minimum 50 percent
representation of women in their user committees and at least one woman in the key posts
while the policies related to the SMC and SHMC appear least inclusive with mandatory
provision for just one woman representative in their committees. Thus, it is not surprising to find
that women representation in the SMC and SHMC is low in comparison to the CFUGs and
DWSUG.

7
    Reported by female members of community structures during FGD conducted by MTR team
Project initiatives focusing on interaction with and sensitization of community structure
representatives as well as interest of women to participate in community structures has ushered
in the practice of inviting women activists and leaders to structures and councils meetings,
which of late was reported by FGD participants to be rising (refer to section 3.2.1). However,
policy reforms in these structures are difficult to achieve through community level interventions
as the tendency to point one's fingers towards the center appeared highly prevalent even
though policies and directives do not prevent district based structures from encouraging and
inducting higher representation of women in their decision making level. This indicates that
inclusion is not easy without mandatory provisions.
    .
Interactions with district level stakeholders have been able to draw the attention of the service
providers towards the need of the community and shortcomings of their relevant organizations.
The opportunity to interact directly with the concerned authorities on their problems has
provided a great sense of confidence and encouragement to poor and marginalized women.
Many of them can now better articulate their issues and try to get it solved more systematically.
Sometimes immediate decisions have been made by the concerned authorities on the demand
of women.

 The Chief of the District Health Office in Surkhet, while interacting with members of a women group,
 was informed that as the names of the medicines available in health posts were displayed in English,
 most of the women could not understand which medicines were available. The Chief made an
 immediate decision to direct all health posts to display the names of the medicines in devnagiri (Nepali)
 script. This decision has now been implemented.

National level policy advocacy has been carried out by the national partner WSPG through
various event-based activities (such as lobby meetings with National Human Rights
Commission, Inspector General of Police, and national assembly for women's rights, and
interaction between community women and high level government officials). Though it is too
early to judge the actual impact of the advocacy efforts, some positive signs have emanated -
such as: change in attitude of stakeholders who are now more positive on account of better
internalization and understanding of the issues. Furthermore, exposure and experience gained
by community women by participating in these events have also provided them practical
opportunities that have developed their capacity.


3.03        Enhancement of capacity of project partners and women activists

 Objective 3: Increased capacity of project partners and poor and marginalized women
 activists to advocate for poor and marginalized women’s participation in local
 governance structures and to address DVAW

One of the major strategies adopted by the RHV project to enhance poor and marginalized
women participation in decision making structures at the community level and address DVAW
was to develop the capacity of project partners and poor and marginalized women activists to
advocate on these issues. Thus, capacity development initiative comprised a major component
of the project inputs. As this component was a specialized function necessitating the service of
an organization equipped with the required experience in imparting capacity development,
designing and producing Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Materials and
training of trainers skills, the WOSCC was selected as a national partner with the mandate to
develop the capacity of district based partners and the project staff as well as well as monitor
the effectiveness of these inputs in line with the project goals and objectives. The major
activities in this regard comprised trainings on: i) facilitation; ii) leadership skill; and iii) advocacy.
The capacity development primarily targeted the project coordinators, EC members and local
activists who were selected to take up the roles of social mobilizers and facilitators

The RHV project's partnership with WOSCC focused on enhancing the knowledge base and
capacity development of selected activist (mostly women and some men) so that they could
become facilitators of CDCs as well as become change agents with a role to encourage and
empower poor and marginalized women to combat gender based discrimination and
malpractices in their community as well as to motivate them to participate in decision making
community structures.

One Social Mobilizer (SM), assigned to each VDC, acts as the intermediary between the
PNGO and CDC facilitators. The SMs initiate the process of social mobilization and
periodically visit each CDC to help poor and marginalized women to get organized, monitor
their activities, and assist facilitators when needed. The SMs also arrange interaction
sessions in the VDC for CDC participants and representatives of community structures.

The facilitation training provided to social mobilizers, project coordinators and some selected
community women from the project areas at the initial stage of the project has brought explicit
result as many women who had participated in CDCs at this stage have become facilitators of
the CDC even though facilitators were recruited through advertisement in local newspapers. In
Surkhet District alone, ten women participants of the CDC have become facilitators. A total of 81
facilitators (comprising 26 males and 55 females) are in direct touch with community women
and men through the CDCs. These facilitators, who are local youths, have earned the respect
and trust of women and men of their community. This coupled with their enthusiasm and zeal to
fulfill their role as change agents has been effective in raising the awareness level of community
based women motivating them to participate and seek representation in community based
decision making structures and combat DVAW in an organized and collective manner.

The effective role played by facilitators was validated by public service providers as well and
members of the community based decision-making structures. The officials of the district police
office and local police posts at the VDC level, officials of the district education office, district
administration office, district health office and district forest office and members of the CFUG,
SMC, SHMC and DSUG all had positive words on the increase in awareness level of women in
the project areas which again reinforces the MTR team findings on the effective role played by
CDC facilitators.


  The interest shown by the chief of the Water and Sanitation Regional Monitoring and Supervision
  Office, Surkhet District to utilize and support RHV facilitators in some of the wards of Chhinchu and
  Maintada VDC to spread the message of behavioral change required for improved sanitation
  practices is a fine example of the good reputation earned by RHV facilitators.
  -Proposed by the chief during the interaction with the MTR team




Despite positive changes brought about by the facilitators in a short period of time, there are
some shortcomings in their aptitude that need to be addressed to make them even more
effective. The facilitators lack essential knowledge/capacities on: i) preparation of a periodic
lesson plan; ii) production and collection of visual aids; iii) the constitution, regulations and
policies of the four community structures that the RHV project has focused on; and iv) basic
understanding of relevant legal and constitutional provisions related to human rights and
violence against women. To a large extent, the facilitators have not been able to answer many
queries of the CDC participants on these issues. This has also resulted in the inadequate
capacity of the CDC participants who have managed to become members of the community
based decision-making structures. These women usually take a long time to understand their
duties and responsibilities and processes and systems of the committees of the community
structures they are represented in.

The leadership and advocacy trainings, which reached over 20 percent of the CDC participants,
have contributed to encourage women to form VDC level networks through which budget
allocated for women development from the VDC is disbursed. There are examples in all the
districts of women groups being able to tap financial resources from the VDCs. Some of them
have been presented below:

      CDC participants in Dailekh have been able to influence the Goganpani and Barah VDC
       councils to allocate NPR 427,500/- for women empowerment programs in the two
       VDCs.
      All three project VDC councils have committed to allocate NPR 50,000/- each for the 3
       VDCs as proposed by the network for women's awareness and income generation
       activities in Surkhet.
      CDC participants of Sorahawa VDC in Bardiya were able to receive NPR 93,000/- from
       the VDC and NPR 17,000/- from a local CFUG for gravelling a rural road.

However, despite these encouraging achievements on account of women initiatives and
advocacy efforts, more than 60 percent of the FGD participants did not know about the timing of
the VDC council meeting and the VDC budget for the current fiscal year. This shows that the
VDC budget and the timing and role of the VDC council have not been discussed in the CDC
further reinforcing the need for periodic lesson plans and a common reference document that
incorporates and explains about relevant issues that need to be imparted in the CDCs.

Table - 3 Participation in Leadership and Advocacy Training by Caste and Ethnicity
 District                 Leadership           Total              Advocacy                Total
                Janajati     Dalit    Others              Janajati Dalit      Others
 Surkhet        33           19       38       90         20         30       29          79
                (37%)        (21%) (42%)       (100%)     (25%)      (38%)    (37%)       (100%)
 Dailekh        15           21       36       72         11         18       31          60
                (21%)        (29%) (50%)       (100%)     (18%)      (30%)    (52%)       (100%)
 Bardiya        72           5        8        85         60         6        9           75
                (85%)        (6%)     (9%)     (100%)     (80%)      (8%)     (12%)       (100%)
 Total          120          45       82       247        91         54       69          214
                (49%)        (18%) (33%)       (100%)     (43%)      (25%)    (32%)       (100%)

As all district level partners are well-established organizations and have earned the trust of and
have good relationship and rapport with district level stakeholders. The stakeholders
appreciated and had positive words towards the project interventions. Though all of them were
also willing to lend necessary support, this was mostly limited to attending project events and
sharing their views. The effect of advocacy efforts in influencing policy changes within the
framework of the currently applicable directives, guideline and regulations has not produced
significant tangible impact in terms of women participation in the decision making structures at
the local level suggesting that partner organizations' strategic approach on advocacy has not
been effective to the desired level.

A similar type of relationship with political parties was also evident, as the advocacy efforts of
partners as well as community based local activists were largely unable to influence political
parties to come out strongly in support of and actually make local structures, which do not have
supportive mandatory provisions to guarantee at least one third representation of women in their
decision making committees, take necessary actions to significantly increase women
representation. In the current context, when the all party political advisory structure has an
important and the most influential role in setting priorities and allocating resource at the DDC
and VDC levels, the capacity to advocate the leaders of political parties is crucial and will come
into play in influencing all community based structures. The focus of advocacy initiatives in this
direction, being inadequate, is not strong enough to enlist meaningful support from political
parties.

The RHV project is implemented by six different partners with specific roles and responsibilities,
who pool in their comparative advantage and organizational strengths to build synergy for
fulfilling the project goals and objectives. As the success of the project invariably depends on
the combined efforts of all the partner organizations, it is imperative that the activities of all the
partners are interlinked and fulfilled in a coordinated manner during the entire project cycle.
Though event based gathering of partners do occur frequently, the review and reflection
meeting (3 times a year) is the major forum for sharing and reviewing experiences and learning
of the project. Coordination is limited to their participation in event based activities function
excluding workshops to formulate the advocacy and communication strategy and the needs
assessment workshop for documentation. Coordination plans among partners to support their
individual action plans are not developed. Some examples of coordination gaps are available
below.

                                        Examples of Coordination Gap
    District partners are hindered by lack of adequate booklets and posters for CDCs
    Samuhik Aawaj and Abhiyan have similar kind of information and message. With a few more
     supplementary pages to encompass some of the different topics covered by the two publications,
     they could have been combined into one single publication. Posters are also printed by two national
     PNGOs (WSPG and WOSCC).
    Listener's clubs based at the community level are not inside the loop of the district partners and do
     not have any formal channel of communication with district and national partners and the local radio
     stations.
    Local issues are not adequately covered by Sagarmatha's radio program "Saha Astitwa" program
     though they are aired locally by district based FM radio stations.
    Public hearings at the district level are credited to the national partner when the organization and the
     management for the same are carried out by the district partner.
    Low level of field based monitoring of capacity development inputs by WOSCC


Taking into consideration the three years duration of the project period and the resources
available at hand, the essence of the advocacy strategy lies in focusing on core issues (such as
making SMC and SHMC more inclusive, regulations to activate the Domestic Violence (Crime
and Punishment) Act, 2009 and policy to establish service centres in all districts that are vital for
the attainment of the project goal to ensure that public policy and decision making reflect the
interests of poor and marginalized women which is envisaged to be achieved primarily through
increased representation of poor and marginalized women in selected community decision-
making structures and enhancing policy decisions in their favor and against VAW. Thus
advocacy at the national level should not stray away towards lobbying for justice in individual
cases unless this will have a major impact on policy formulation in core issues in alignment with
the project objectives. The policy advocacy focus on the Sunatali Dhami's case, though noble,
does not fall within the domain of influencing policy changes on VAW but is rather seeking
justice for an individual victim of VAW.

3.04       Creation of strong popular opinion in favor of women through media

 Objective 4: Create strong popular opinion in favor of increased participation of poor
 and marginalized women in community decision-making structures, and against DVAW
 by massively disseminating relevant information through electronic and print media

In order to create a strong popular opinion in favor of increased participation of poor and
marginalized women in community decision making structures, the RHV project has
implemented a number of activities and media based programs to: i) convey the project's focal
issues to the larger masses; and ii) educate people about and garner their support on the focal
issues. To achieve this purpose, the project envisaged working in partnership and collaborating
with the media and also linking them up with the community based listeners' clubs of local
youths and the PNGOs.

In this regard, the 30-minute weekly radio program entitled “Saha Astitwa (co-existence)”, which
is produced by one of the national partners Radio Sagarmatha and aired from 10 district based
radio stations including the ones in the project districts, is the primary radio program which
draws listeners’ attention to the project’s focal issues - women’s participation in governance and
violence against women. A listeners’ survey conducted in the three project districts prior to the
program production provided input to the radio program. This radio program has been further
supplemented by two attractive and catchy radio jingles interspaced between three to four
popular programs.

The radio jingles were quite effective as many of the women who interacted with the MTR team
remembered hearing them and could remember the messages conveyed. The MTR team came
across many women who had not heard about the Saha Astitwa program. Most of the women
who had heard about and knew that this program was on women rights dealing with issues such
as violence against women and women's participation were not regular listeners. This was due
to number of reasons, which primarily comprised:
 timing of CDC did not match the timing of the radio program as CDC are scheduled in line
    with women seasonal work pattern;
 radios distributed by the project were either non-functional or under personal use;
 in general community men and women were comparatively less interested in listening to
    issues based programs than news and musical program;
 the tharu community in Bardiya district had problems of understanding as this program was
    in Nepali language; and
 the inclusion of local issues was by and large overshadowed by general or national issues.


Besides this radio program and jingles, the project also gave priority to draw the attention of and
engage media persons on the issues advocated by the RHV project through various planned
activities. These included: i) a three-day workshop with media persons from the three project
districts; ii) sensitization training to media person; iii) public hearing; and iv) training on media
mobilizing. However, the projects efforts to engage media representatives at the district level
were mainly limited to invitations to cover event based activities rather than project raised
issues8 as the practice of providing media with community based experiences and cases of
success and issues hindering the advancement of women participation in community and local
governance structures was not institutionalized by the project partners. The media
representatives appeared very interested in making field visits to cover project issues and
highlight project achievements, but the coordination and activity plan in this regard is yet to be a
regular feature of the project's media advocacy. Thus, the practice of taking local media people
for monitoring and reporting of project interventions are largely missing. Only 59 respondents
(comprising 10 in Bardiya, 40 in Surkhet and 9 in Dailekh district) out of the total 779
respondents of FGD reported that they have had opportunity to interact with media persons.

    "If planned ahead and provided with the transportation cost, we will have no problem to spare a few
    days every month to visit some of the project areas close by. To regularize this practice, the project
    needs to take up this initiative."
    Media representatives in Dailekh and Bardiya districts

    "We are called to Kathmandu to participate in the program but not invited to the ward level where CDCs
    are conducted so that we could also see the change brought by the project".
    A local media representative, Dailekh district

In line with the project objectives, a communication strategy was developed for taking forward
the lobby and advocacy campaign in a coordinated and effective manner. This strategy was
developed in 2009 with the initiative of the national partner of the RHV project - Radio
Sagarmatha. Formulated through an intensive consultative and interactive three days workshop
with the participation of all the PNGOs of the project, the communication strategy has
incorporated significant issues and concerns regarding promotion of women's right to
participation and reducing VAW. The role of the media in general and specifically in the RHV
project has been analyzed. The existing problems, their impact and method to address these
problems have also been identified. The strategy, which has been developed in alignment with
the RHV logical framework and has also incorporated comprehensive indicators and activities,
can be a powerful tool for coordination among the RHV partners and generating mass public
opinion to support the people centered advocacy strategy. However, due to the absence of an
effective mechanism to ensure coordination, role clarity and assigning responsibilities among
partners in alignment with the communication strategy, the communication strategy has not
been effectively put into practice by the RHV partners.

To support the media and connect it with grassroots issue, 17 listeners' clubs (5 in Bardiya, 7 in
Dailekh, and 5 in the Surkhet districts) were formed. Of these, only few are functional and their
initiatives are limited to activities (participating in community functions and performing in cultural
programs and dramas) that do not serve the very essence of their establishment. This is
primarily due to the non-inclusion of any specific activities for listeners' clubs in the project
activities plan. Representatives of clubs are occasionally invited to some functions organized by
the district PNGOs. But, no specific activities for the club have been planned by the project and
the linkage of the clubs to the media is totally missing.


Likewise, the training on video documentation to community women has not shown any
significant result up to now and how women's issues are to be disseminated is not clearly

8
    This was reported by the media representatives who interacted with the MTR team in Bardiya and Dailekh districts.
defined. There have been workshop and training to media persons to make the media more
gender sensitive. It is too early to gauge the impact of this training program but media
representatives have reported that of late women issues have gained ascendancy in media
reports. Similarly, media tracking showing the number of women related news, pictures, articles
published or aired have been done by the project partners as this forms an integral reporting
requirement of the project. But as it is not segregated in a chronological order, it is difficult to
track whether this is an increasing trend. The annual reports of the partners do not present a
clear picture about the types of issues covered to help the project to refine its media based
advocacy such as: i) which issues to give priority based on media coverage trend; and ii) what
type and which columns of the print or electronic media to focus on (Example: to focus on
influential articles, news column or editorials for policy advocacy).


3.0      COST EFFECTIVENESS OF THE DIFFERENT APPROACHES TAKEN

In the absence of a set of benchmarks for comparison, it is difficult to assess cost effectiveness.
Thus, it has been assessed: i) by comparing percentage of budget allocation to personal cost,
program components (clusters), monitoring & evaluation and operational support cost to
percentage of actual expenditures on these headings; and ii) completion of targeted outputs
within the budgeted limit. If the percentage of actual expenditure is within the percentage
allotted in the budget and the target outputs are achieved within the budgetary limit, the
initiatives can be considered cost effective. The findings on these bases are as follows:

     As the actual expenditures on program cost and management cost by the six partner NGOs
      for the year 2009/10 is lower than the budgeted amount (91%), the initiatives undertaken by
      the RHV project can be considered as cost effective.

     When the overall expenditure and the activities accomplished by the RHV project and its
      collaborating partners is considered, the project implementation can be considered to be
      cost effective as the achievement of outputs are primarily in line with the annual plan while
      expenditure at the activities level have been in line with budget and sometimes even less
      then the budgeted amount.

     When looked from the return on investment perspective, the CDC initiative can be
      considered as cost effective as the results (return on investment) are high with the initiative
      largely meeting its objectives. However, the cost effectiveness of the issue based radio
      program (saha astitwa), which has incurred a comparatively higher expenditure, can be
      questioned as the general opinion is that it has to a large extent not been able to attract the
      attention of an important target audience - the CDC participants and their family members
      and members of the listeners' club. Further, 98 radios distributed in the project districts have
      not been effective as they have not fulfilled their primary objectives.

4.0      CHALLENGES AND LEARNING

Challenges:
 Restructuring of accepted norms: To achieve equal representation of women in community
   decision-making, traditionally accepted norms and practices have to be dismantled. There
   will always be stiff resistance and hurdles, when this is attempted, by a mindset of people
   who have been enjoying privileges for a long time. Changing this mindset through
   awareness and sensitization campaign is the ultimate challenge to a project of this nature.
      Retention of CDC participants: The number of participants is decreasing in most of the
       CDC9 from the original average of 25 to the current 18.5 participants in each CDC. Some of
       participants are unable to continue due to their own busy schedule and some have lost
       interest. Thus, the project needs to address both these factors by fine-tuning the CDC to
       make necessary adjustments in CDC timing to accommodate women's suitable time and
       also ensure that participants are retained through classes that are more informative and
       interesting.
      Capacity building of women in leadership: Women's representation is increasing in the local
       community structures, but their capacity to meaningful contribution still needs to be
       enhanced. Women representatives can be lost and de-motivated in their new role if they are
       unable to work on equal footing with and earning mutual respect of their male counterparts.
      Fine tuning coordination among district and national PNGOs: All the PNGOs have agreed
       that there is a need to fine tune coordination among them to enhance synergy.
      Enhancing effectiveness of radio program by striking a balance between local and national
       issues: The Saha Astitwa radio program, to a large extent, was unable to attract the interest
       of the targeted audience.
      Ensuring an effective monitoring system is applied to monitor ground level results: The
       project partners, stakeholders and project management team have emphasized on the
       enhancing monitoring ground level activities and processes
      Striking a balance between breadth versus depth: Programs like the RHV that aim to
       reduce gender inequality and empower poor and marginalized women always face the
       difficult challenge of striking a balance between breadth and depth. Deep support
       targeting less number of women groups with intensive inputs can enhance competency
       and sustainability, but is expensive and not likely to serve as an appropriate model for
       wider replication throughout the 81 wards of 3 districts. On the other hand, broad
       coverage targeting too many groups stretches resources thinly. The numbers may look
       good on the surface, but results on the ground may be less impressive.

Learning:

      Linking local communities and PNGOs with national NGOs and networks can be an effective
       way of highlighting grassroots issues and presenting credible cases to the policy makers.
      There is a need to engage and raise the awareness level of both women and men to change
       long standing patriarchal attitudes, beliefs and practices that restrict women’s opportunities,
       participation and influence in formal and informal decision-making structures. Women
       activists who had the support of the male members of the household were far ahead of the
       others as social workers and activists.
      Giving priority to the sensitization of rights holders without commensurate sensitization of
       service providers and other key stakeholders creates a mismatch in the understanding of
       rights and duties between the demand and supply side. Service providers are more positive
       to the legitimate demands of the rights holders when they are also primarily targeted and
       sensitized about the issues and rights of poor and marginalized women
      The practice of conducting social audits at the district level by all project partners in the
       presence of community people, representatives of line agencies/bodies, CBOs, political
       parties and the media helped them to maintain transparency and be accountable to their
       respective communities and stakeholders including the local authorities.
      The mediation and facilitation skill of local leaders and activists are instrumental in
       convincing community people to organize, regularly consult with each other and take

9
    A total of 592 participants were present during observation of 32 CDC in the three project districts
       collective action to combat DVAW and other malpractices at the local level. One time
       workshop and lobby meeting cannot contribute much towards policy changes. Policy
       changes can only be brought about through a series of regular lobby/advocacy initiatives
       that focus on core issues.
      Issue based program on radio can be reached to wider range of listeners if it is mixed with
       entertainment program
      Coordination among partners which is limited to participation in event based activities can
       not being synergy in action plan

5.0            RISK ANALYSIS

From the foregone findings, it can be concluded that the RHV project faces some risks
associated with its implementation. The summary of these risks is presented hereunder:

    Risk Identified                           Likely to        Relatively         Not               Major Risk
                                              occur            Serious            mitigated
                                                                                  over the
                                                                                  project
                                                                                  period
    1) Political instability and unrest and
    agitation by a number of indigenous
    and other groups find expression in       X                X                  X                 X
    strikes, demonstration and
    roadblocks across the country
    severely disrupting mobility
    2) Implementation is more focused
    on activities and fulfilling project
    reporting requirements rather than        X                X                  X                 X
    being taken as an integral
    component of the long term
    institutional strategy
    3) Absence of exit plan to sustain        X                X
    the project benefit
    4) Turnover of project staff              X                X
    5) Long time required for policy
    formulation which can go beyond the       X                X                  X                 X
    project period
    6) Lack of coordination among             X                X
    partners in advocacy effort
    7) Male dominated decision making         X                X                  X                 X
    structures
    8) Lack of commitment of decision
    makers to implement existing policy       X                X
    and regulations

To mitigate the risks carried forward from the summary risk matrix, a risk management plan has
been formulated. The risk management plan is presented hereunder:

    Risks identified                      Project Action                      Indicators

    1) Political instability and unrest   Ensure that all PNGOs,              Do no harm policy is adhered to.
    and agitation by a number of          community groups and
    indigenous and other groups find      networks/alliance are apolitical,   No political affiliation and
expression in strikes,                 transparent and accountable to        interference in project activities.
demonstration and roadblocks           their constituency and build
across the country severely            community ownership                   Systematic financial
disrupting mobility                                                          management systems are in
                                                                             place.

                                                                             Transparent and timely financial
                                                                             and social audits are
                                                                             accomplished

2) Implementation is more              Support PNGOs to develop and          Long-term strategic plan are in
focused on activities and fulfilling   revise long term institutional        place.
project reporting requirements         strategic plans.
rather than being taken as an
integral component of the long         Support PNGO with capacity            Staff and EC members
term institutional strategy            development inputs to implement       internalize long term strategic
                                       plan                                  plan and have the capacity to
                                                                             apply it.

3) Absence of phase out/exit           Preparation of phase out plan by      Phase out plan/exit plan
plan to sustain the project benefit    the end of project period in          prepared and applied
                                       consultation with PNGOs, key
                                       stakeholders and rights holders


4) Turnover of project staff           Provide capacity development          Refresher training provided
                                       inputs

                                       Increase financial incentive          Financial incentive improved

                                       Revise individual contract to         Staff members express
                                       encourage stay for the rest of the    commitment to stay on till the
                                       project period                        end of project period.

5) Long time required for policy       Focused advocacy and lobby            Action plan is formulated and
formulation which can go beyond        efforts on policy formulation at      applied.
the project period                     the central and local on the
                                       targeted structures                   Revision and/or amendment of
                                                                             policies, acts and regulations are
                                                                             initiated in targeted community
                                                                             structures that do not guarantee
                                                                             one third women representation
                                                                             in their decision making
                                                                             structure.

                                                                             Regulation on DVAW is
                                                                             approved and applied
6) Lack of coordination among          Prepare an action plan in             Action plan is prepared, followed
partners in advocacy effort            consultation with all the project     and monitored.
                                       partners to improve coordination
                                       with clear-cut roles of each
                                       partner in terms of their inputs in
                                       the advocacy efforts to be
                                       accomplished by the project.

7) Male dominated decision             Focus on regular sensitization        Number of sensitization and
 making structures                 and consultation programs           consultation program
                                   targeting men at the community      accomplished
                                   level as well as belonging to the
                                   targeted decision making            Positive change in the attitude of
                                   structures                          men
 8) Lack of commitment of          Sensitization and ongoing           Commitment and initiations
 decision makers to implement      consultation programs targeting     taken to implement existing
 existing policy and regulations   policy makers                       policies and regulations


6.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION

6.01    Conclusion

The overall intervention strategy of the RHV project is coherent and relevant as the project
inputs support the Interim Constitution's provision for ensuring at least 33% representation of
women in all State structures as well as the recently enacted Domestic Violence (Crime and
Punishment) Act, 2009. Since the constitutional provision for women representation and the Act
on domestic violence are yet to be implemented by the Government due to the absence of
supportive laws and regulations, an intervention of this nature reinforces Government efforts to
usher in a more inclusive and equitable society.

The outreach structure of the project was able to reach rights holders; and, to a certain extent,
influence duty bearers and policy makers through six PNGOs. Though the project period leading
up to the mid-term review was too short to provide tangible outcomes in terms of the overall
project goal of ensuring public policy and decision making reflect the interests of poor and
marginalized women - especially those excluded from political, social, and economic life, it has
made valuable contributions towards the achievement of some project objectives which support
the goal.

Rights holders have been aware, primarily through CDCs, on their rights and the importance of
participation in decision-making structures by enhancing their knowledge base and developing
their advocacy and leadership quality. This is validated by significant increase in poor and
marginalized women (especially dalits and janajatis) representation in community based
decision-making structures in the project areas. Interactive events with service providers,
besides sensitizing them on relevant issues, have also been effective to get their commitment
for necessary support. But this is mainly hampered by the oft-repeated excuse of pointing
towards the center and stating that necessary policy changes, Acts and regulations and
supportive directives need to come from the center.

Despite delays in review and formulation of laws and regulations and their implementation along
with the culture of shifting responsibilities, the attitude of the service providers towards the rights
holders have changed positively as the majority of them respond in a more courteous way and
appear receptive to collaboration with the PNGOs to deal with issues related to poor and
marginalized. In this regard, the trust and acceptance gained by the PNGOs from the rights
holders and key stakeholders (Government as well as the civil society) is appreciable.

Another major achievement of the project is the development of a pool of community based
leaders and activists (facilitators and community based leaders) who have been at the forefront
of community led initiatives against domestic violence and motivating women to access services
and decision making structures. A commendable outcome brought about by the initiatives of the
activists and the awareness imparted by the RHV is that CBOs are framing and applying rules
and regulations in favor of reducing VAW and promotion of women's rights. However, the
perception of DVAW as a private matter by the police and the administration and their
preference to settle it within family and community is an obstacle to project intervention to end
gender based violence.

Women, who were supported by the family, were able to take a lead role in the community
decision-making process. Support from the family and/or the community is one of the most
prominent motivating factors for women to participate and make meaningful contribution in the
community level structures. While the project has been successful to include marginalized caste
and ethnic group in the CDCs, a more balanced representation of poor and marginalized
women is missing in Bardiya district

The sustainability of the project intervention lies at three levels of result: i) empowerment of
poor and marginalized women; ii) positive change in attitude of community structures
towards issue of gender equality and iii) policy reforms in favor of poor and marginalized
women. The key intervention for women empowerment at the community level is through
CDCs. Consolidated progress clearly shows increased awareness among CDC participants
with a notable number of CDC participants saying that they have confidence to claim their
rights. Here an important question arises: "Are they equipped with the required capacity
such as: i) knowledge of the pertinent issue; ii) leadership skill; iii) logical presentation skill;
and most importantly; iv) the belief in themselves. CDC participants do not have to remain
together as a formal group, but their ability to mobilize a group for collective action, as and
when necessary, will lead towards sustainability of the project initiatives. With this capability,
there will always be debate, sensitization and pressure on community structures for
transformation of attitude and behavior in favor of poor and marginalized women.

Policy advocacy is a long-term process, which needs a multi sectoral effort. Consolidated
efforts to formulate and/or revise policies on certain specific issues may or may not be
realized within the project period. The continuity of advocacy efforts from different quarters
is more important. Thus, to expect significant gains with limited inputs during the three-year
project period in terms of policy reforms can be overly ambitious. What is to be appreciated is
that positive contributions has been made and can be built upon in the days ahead.

Recommendations
01. As some of the indicators set (such as 33% representation of poor and marginalized
    women in local bodies) were unrealistic even during the project design phase with less
    chance of local elections taking place during the project period, it is recommended that the
    output indicators in the logical framework be reviewed to set realistic targets that are
    achievable in the project period.
02. Taking into consideration the widespread demand for CDC from other localities at the ward
    level and the difficulty to retain the current participants and maintain their interest without
    more information and new topics, it is recommended to:
     the CDC needs to specifically focus on reaching and sensitizing the most backward
        and illiterate women in the community;
     reduce the number of CDC to two times a week in the current locality and focus on
        providing more advanced inputs with additional information;
     conduct four days a week CDC in a new locality selected on the basis of density of
        poor and marginalized households;
         select and utilize some activists (two from each group) from the current CDCs as
          associate facilitators for the new CDCs;
         conduct a weekly interface between males and the women participants of the CDC to
          review and reflect on the issues raised in the CDC and to formulate action plan to
          address the issues through a participatory consultative process;
         invite local government officials and representatives of the targeted community based
          decision making structures as resource persons in the CDC;
         provide a hand book with detail information on the targeted community structures to
          facilitators and participants - such as: i) the process, term and rules regarding
          formation of executive committee; ii) the responsibilities of the members of executive
          committee members and the office bearers; and iii) the process of the VDC budget
          allocation and the timing and role of the VDC council;
         provide refresher training to the current facilitators; and
         ensure that facilitators make weekly lessons plan for the CDC.

03. Activities limited only to awareness and interaction to reduce VAW can become inadequate
    as of victims of VAW cases, which are reported, require financial and legal support. Thus,
    the awareness package on VAW needs to be linked to extended support for the victims
    who have generated courage to report VAW cases on account of the project initiative. This
    calls for:
       i) an additional budget and a trained staff and/or
       ii) linkage with organization/donors.

04.   District administration officials and police personnel are key stakeholders that the project
      should work together and coordinate with to combat violence against women. Thus,
      project should focus on sensitization of and coordination with the police and the district
      administration to deal with the cases of violence in the project areas.

05.   In the current context, more interface and advocacy efforts with representatives of political
      parties who currently are the decisive force in community structures including the
      DDC/VDC gains prime significance. Though the project partners, at the district level, have
      played their part in inviting representatives of political parties to events and activities, they
      appear to have missed out on focusing advocacy efforts that primarily target
      representatives of political parties. Thus, advocacy targeting influential political leaders at
      the local should be given priority.

06. Advocacy at the national level should not stray away towards lobbying for justice in
    individual cases unless this will have a major impact on policy formulation in core issues in
    alignment with the project objectives. WSPG, who has taken the responsibility of national
    level policy advocacy need to plan a series of regular lobby and advocacy initiatives that
    focus on core issues.

07.   There is a need to activate the listeners' club and link them up with local radio stations
      which air the project supported programs as well as bring them into the loop of the
      PNGOs. In this regard, it is recommended that an annual activities plan for listeners' club
      be formulated with a focus to connect local issue with the media and disseminate
      news/information to community people, through a consultative process between the
      representatives of listeners' club, RHV project coordinators and representative of the local
      radio station and a budget be allocated to implement these activities. The budget
      disbursement to and monitoring of the listeners' club activities should be done through
      district based PNGOs.

08.   As the media representatives appeared interested in making field visits to cover project
      issues and highlight project achievements, it is recommended that coordination and
      activity plan, for frequent interaction of media people and community women, be made a
      regular feature of the project's media advocacy and a budget be allocated to implement
      these activities.

09.   The Communication Strategy, which has been developed in alignment with the RHV
      logical framework and has also incorporated comprehensive indicators and activities, can
      be a powerful tool for coordination among the RHV partners and generating mass public
      opinion to support the people centered advocacy strategy. This needs to be streamlined
      and put into practice through an effective mechanism to ensure coordination, role clarity
      and assigning responsibilities among partners in alignment of the communication strategy.

10.   As a high degree of cooperation and coordination among project partners and an efficient
      and regular monitoring system to ensure that project initiatives implemented by all the
      partners at different levels are aligned, focused and work in tandem with each other to
      produce the required synergy, it is recommended that the roles, responsibilities and intra
      partner reporting be clarified and set through a consultation meeting among the six
      PNGOs and Oxfam.

11.   It is recommended that the PNGOs should focus on: i) which issues to give priority based
      on media coverage trend; and ii) what type and which columns of the print or electronic
      media to focus on (Example: to focus on influential articles, news column or editorials) to
      make their media advocacy more effective.

12. There is a need to utilize the baseline indicators for monitoring the achievements and it is
     recommended to undertake an end line study as an input to the final evaluation of RHV
     project at the end of the project period.

13. It is recommended that annual plan and targets for the upcoming period should be
      formulated in consultation with the six PNGOs taking into consideration the
      recommendations made in the MTR report.
Annexure
Annex – 1 Terms of Reference
Terms of reference

Mid Term Review
Raising Her Voice Project
Brief description of RHV Project

DFID funded Raising Her Voice (RHV) project is a global programme implemented by
Oxfam in 17 countries around the world including Nepal to promote the rights and
capacity of poor women to engage effectively in governance, particularly in community
level decision making structures/mechanisms through increased voice and influence
and more effective institutional accountability.

Oxfam GB Nepal is implementing the DFID-supported project entitled “Raising Her
Voice: Promoting Poor and Marginalised Women’s Participation in Governance in
Nepal” through six NGO partners--3 national and 3 local. The three-year project
(September 2008 - August 2011) covers Dailekh, Surkhet & Bardiya districts, and the
national level, especially for policy influencing. Since the project has reached half a way
through the total project period a Midterm Review has been planned for April/May 2010.
Hence this ToR.

The overall objective of the Nepal project is to ensure that public policy, decision-
making, practices reflect the interests of poor and marginalized women, especially those
excluded from political, social and economic life. It will be achieved by supporting
women’s leadership and addressing attitudes and beliefs about the role of women in
public decision-making using strategies such as media and communications work to
disseminate learning and best practice, networking, lobbying and advocacy, working
with public institutions and decision-making forums and empowering and building
capacity of civil society organisations.

2. Scope and Scale

The specific purposes of the mid-term review is to:

   Provide an independent assessment of the progress and performance of the project
    to date against targets.
   Measure and report on achievements and early signs of change and impact.
   Indicate adjustments and changes that need to be made to ensure success.
   Analyse the cost effectiveness of the different approaches taken.
   Review the programme’s risk analysis

The mid-term review evaluation will also assess achievements of attempts to influence
policy and practice at the national level with regard to ensuring increased poor and
marginalised women's participation in governance.
Programme Goal: To ensure that public policy and decision making reflect the interests
of poor and marginalised women, especially those excluded from political, social, and
economic life

   3.     Objective1: Poor and marginalised women [Dalit and ethnic groups] are represented
          in community decision-making structures and are able to influence the decisions
   4.
   5.     Indicators:
1.1 Representation of poor and marginalised women increased to a minimum of 33 percent
    in community decision making structures
1.2 Positive changes in attitude and practice of community people in participation of
    women in community decision-making structures
1.3 Poor and marginalised women report that they are capable of enforcing change in
    community decision-making structures

Objective 2: Selected community decision-making structures promote increased
participation of women in governance and selected public institutions develop and
implement laws, policies and strategies to reduce violence against women [VAW].

Indicators:
2.1 Advocacy strategy on women in governance and DVAW (including problem and
    stakeholder analysis, targets and achievable plan of action) developed and
    implemented by project partners
2.2 Selected community decision-making structures (Community Forest Users’ Groups,
    Drinking Water Users’ Groups, School Management Committee and Sub/Health
    Post Management Committee) develop clear strategies for increased representation
    of poor and marginalised women in decision making level
2.3 Public institutions such as Constituent Assembly/ Legislature-Parliament take
    concrete steps by enacting policies and laws and/or regulations to promote
    participation of women in governance

Objective 3: Increase capacity of project partners and poor and marginalised women
activists to advocate for poor and marginalised women’s participation in local
governance structures and to address DVAW

Indicators:
   3.1 Percent of project partners and poor and marginalised women activists advocate
   for poor and marginalised women’s participation in local governance structures
3.2 Number of project partners and poor and marginalised women activists who report they
    have skills and confidence to advocate for poor and marginalised women’s participation in
    local governance structures and to address DVAW

Objective 4: Create strong popular opinion in favour of increased participation of poor
and marginalised women in community decision-making structures, and against DVAW
by massively disseminating relevant information through electronic and print media
Indicators:
4.1 Media brings to public the issues regarding poor and marginalised women’s participation in
    community and national level governance structures and DVAW
4.2 Percent increase in media coverage on women involvement in decision making structures
    and cases related to violence against women

3. Methodology

Interested individuals/institutes are requested to submit a short outline methodology of
how they would conduct this MTR, both on a theoretical and practical basis. The MTR
process include:

   Review of proposal and other programme documents
   Interviews with key internal stakeholders
   Interviews with key external stakeholders including allies and targets
   Field visit to project districts covering at least 4 wards of each VDC
   Collation of evidence and stories useful for both MTR and communication work

The selected consultant will work in close collaboration with Oxfam to refine the
methodology and develop a detailed MTR plan.

4. Outputs

Outputs expected include:
 An MTR plan.
 A presentation of initial MTR findings/first draft for face-to-face discussion with the
   RHV partners and Oxfam team.
 Full MTR report, approx 20 pages, of publishable quality.
 Executive Summary, stand alone, ‘communicable’, 2 pages.
 Oxfam may also wish to communicate the MTR findings in different forms for
   different audiences. This will be discussed at a meeting between Oxfam team and
   the consultant immediately after her/his selection.

5. Skills and Competencies

    6.     Oxfam is looking for consultants with a strong record in conducting evaluations,
           including of advocacy work. The organisation/team leader will need respect and
           credibility within the field, excellent knowledge of monitoring and evaluation in theory
           and practice, and a good understanding of policy work. The consultants should have
           the following skills and competencies:


   Demonstrable experience of producing high-quality, credible evaluations (examples
    required).
   Familiarity with different methodologies for evaluation, and the additional factors
    involved in advocacy evaluation.
   Demonstrable experience of working with/evaluating NGO work.
   Demonstrable experience with participatory methodologies.
   Familiarity with policy advocacy work and demonstrable political sensitivity.
   Familiarity with gender and governance work.
   Experience of working in, or assessing, coalitions.
   Experience in managing evaluation teams, and the capability to handle necessary
    logistics and any sub-contracts.
   Ability to write concise, readable and analytical reports and understanding of public
    communications.
   Excellent writing and verbal communication skills in English.

8. Proposal submission

Oxfam invites proposals from organisations, or individuals, with the experience and
skills described above. Proposal should include:

1. A cover letter introducing the evaluators/organisation and how the skills and
   competencies described above are met, with concrete examples.
2. A 2-page outline of the proposed evaluation process including:
   a. Proposed outline methodology
   b. Proposed a moderate team of about 6 persons led by lead consultant)
   c. Management arrangements
3. A 1-page budget covering all major costs
4. A 1-page CV for each evaluator
5. One example of a previous evaluation
6. Copy of VAT renewal certificate

9. Timetable

 Action                                           By When              Who
 Refine methodology, develop overall              23 - 28 April 2010   Consultant/Oxfam
 evaluation plan and agree contractual details
 Review of proposal and other programme           2 -7 May 2010        Consultant
 documents
 Evaluation undertaken                            9 - 28 May 2010      Consultant
 Presentation and discussion of initial           4 June 2010          Consultant/Oxfam
 findings/first draft with wider Oxfam team and
 partners
 Meeting to review nearly final draft in detail   8 June 2010          Consultant/Oxfam
 Final evaluation submitted                       11 June 2010         Consultant

Proposals should be emailed to Sandhya Shrestha, Programme Officer
(sshrestha@oxfam.org.uk) at Oxfam by Thursday 20 April 2010.
Annex – 2 List of Documents Reviewed

    1. A Baseline Report -“Raising Her Voice: Promoting Poor and Marginalized
       Women’s Participation in Governance in Nepal”
    2. Raising Her Voice – Country Inception Report Format – Final Version - 20 January 2009
    3. REVISED LOGICAL FRAMEWORK _ Nepal Project
    4. Summary of RHV project document
    5. Project Proposal-Raising Her Voice: Promoting Poor and Marginalized
        Women’s Participation in Governance, Radio Sagarmatha 102.4 MHz
    6. Annual Report, Raising Her Voice: Promoting Poor and Marginalized Women’s
        Participation in Governance, Radio Sagarmatha 102.4 MHz 2009 January to
        March 2010
    7. Listener Survey Report in Bardiya, Surkhet and Dailekh Districts, Sagarmatha
        102.4 MHz 2009, May 2009
    8. Media strategy for women in decision making and issues against gender based
        violence 2009-2011
    9. Advocacy strategy for women in decision making and issues against gender
        based violence 2009-2011
    10. Project Proposal-Raising Her Voice: Promoting Poor and Marginalized
        Women’s Participation in Governance, Women Association for Marginalized
        Women [WAM]
    11. Annual Report , Raising Her Voice: Promoting Poor and Marginalized Women’s
        Participation in Governance, Women Association for Marginalized Women
        [WAM] 2009 January to March 2010
    12. Annual Report, Women Association for Marginalized Women [WAM], 2065/66
    13. Project Proposal-Raising Her Voice: Promoting Poor and Marginalized
        Women’s Participation in Governance, Women Security Pressure Group Nepal
        (WSPG)
    14. Annual Report , Raising Her Voice: Promoting Poor and Marginalized Women’s
        Participation in Governance, Women Security Pressure Group Nepal (WSPG)
        2009 April to March 2010
    15. Advocacy strategy for women in decision making and issues against gender
        based violence 2009-2011
    16. Samuhik Aawaj, issue-15, Women Security Pressure Group Nepal 2066
    17. Annual Report, Raising Her Voice: Promoting Poor and Marginalized Women’s
        Participation in Governance, WEAF, WSPG, and WAM (2009 January to March
        2010)
    18. Annual Report , Raising Her Voice: Promoting Poor and Marginalized Women’s
        Participation in Governance, Tharu Women Upliftment Center, 2009 January to
        March 2010
    19. Project Proposal-Raising Her Voice: Promoting Poor and Marginalized
        Women’s Participation in Governance, Women Skill Creation Centre
    20. Annual Report of Raising Her Voice: Promoting Poor and Marginalized
        Women's Participation in Governance 2008 to 2010, Women Skill Creation
        Centre
Annex – 3 Sets of questionnaire/checklists

Checklist for district level PNGOs

General Information on partner organizations:
   Date of establishment of organization:
   Total number of general members (disaggregated data by sex, ethnicity and
     caste)
   Total number of EC members (disaggregated data by sex, ethnicity and caste)
   Total number of staff (disaggregated data by sex, ethnicity and caste)
   Total number of project staff (disaggregated data by sex, ethnicity and caste)
   Frequency of and attendance in EC meeting
   Frequency of joint meeting of EC and staff
   Do the staff members get ample opportunities to air their views?
   The planning process: is it bottom up and participatory?
   Are financial and administrative by-laws framed and long-term strategic plan
     formulated and practiced?
   Are periodical review and reflection sessions involving rights holders, EC
     members, staff members and key stakeholders practiced at the district and local
     level?
   Monitoring system; process and progress

Project Achievements vis-a-vis Annual Implementation Plan (year wise plan
versus achievements)
    Total number of CDC classes?
    Total number of women in CDC classes (disaggregated data ethnicity and caste)
    Total number of leadership and skill development training?
    Total number of women participants in leadership and skill development training?
      Selection criteria of trainees
    What are the major changes brought by leadership and/or skill training?

Activists' development
    Activities to develop activism capacity.
    Number of poor and marginalized women activists developed.
    Movements, campaigns and advocacy work of the activists.
    Which activities have been more effective and why?

Creating strong popular opinion in favor of increased participation of poor and
marginalized women in community decision making structures
    Project efforts and activities to obtain media support.
    Which efforts have been effective and why?
    Baseline data on participation of poor and marginalized women in community
      decision making structures.
    Break down of participation of poor and marginalized women in community
      decision making structures (segregated by dalits, janajatis and others)
       Number of media coverage of issues related to of participation of poor and
        marginalized women in community decision- making structures in the baseline
        year.
       Year wise break down of media coverage of participation of poor and
        marginalized women in community decision-making structures.
       Baseline data of annual cases of VAW reported by media.
       What are the difficulties in obtaining media support and what must be done?

Monitoring and evaluation system
   Process (system used, difficulties and improvement)
   Progress (system used, difficulties and improvement)
   Impact assessment (system used, difficulties and improvement)
   Reporting system (clear cut format, periods, does it capture activities, output and
      outcome)


   7.      Coordination among partner organizations and key stakeholders
       The process/system applied for coordination among partner organizations. What is liked
        and why? What area needs improvement and how can it be improved?
       The process/system applied for coordination with key stakeholders. What is liked and
        why? What area needs improvement and how can it be improved?


Cost effectiveness
   Activities wise budgeted and actual expenditure (2008, 2009, April 2010) and
      compare with achievement of planned output.
   Is the expenditure on project activities cost effective? What are the bases for
      your opinion?


Checklist for Interaction with Stakeholders (DDC/VDC and line agency
representatives, networks, political parties)
    Status of marginalized women in the district.
    Impression of discussion/interaction/advocacy program you have participated.
    Changes in policies as a result of the advocacy and orientation initiatives?
    What are the combined efforts RHV and your organization can put to enhance
      women's participation in decision-making structures and reduce VAW?
    Do you have any suggestions for the RHV?


Checklist for Interaction with Listener's club

       Why are you interested to become a member of listener's club?
       What do you think is the motive of this club?
       Are you using the radio set provided by the RHV?
        What are the activities of club?
        Have you collected any incident/news/issues related to women empowerment
         and VAW to send it to news channel?
        Have you interacted with any media person?
        What is your plan for the future?

Checklist for Interaction with facilitators

        What are the major skills you learned in facilitating training?
        In average, how many participants do you have in your CDC?
        What are the preparations made by you to conduct the CDC?
        What is your observation on the progress made by participants?
        What are the major issues raised by the participants?
        Do you know about the process and policies of CFUG, SMC, HMC and WATSAN
         user group?
        What are the general problems encountered by you while facilitating the CDC?
        What have you done to overcome these problems?
        Do you have any suggestions for the project?


Checklist for Focused Group Discussion


 Target Group: Participants in Community Discussion Classes (CDC) & Elected Women

 District:      …………………………..
 VDC:           ………………………….                               Ward: ……………
 Tole:          ……………………………....
 Presence:      Females: …………………                          Males: ……………
 Name of Researcher: ……………………………………… Date: …………..




1.     What are the major discriminatory issues (problems) faced by women in your
 communities?
i)     Influence in decision-making at household and community level (Example: (for women)
Are you asked to give your opinion while taking any decision at those levels? (for men) Do you
ask women members' suggestion while taking decisions?)
ii)    Representation of women in community decision making structures (school
management committee (SMC), sub/health post management committee (SHMC), drinking
water & sanitation user groups (DWSUG) and community forest user groups (CFUG);
iii)   Violence against Women;
iv)     Access to public services (eg: from VDCs, sub/health posts, ward committee etc);
v)      Information about the roles and responsibilities of local decision-making structures and
mobilization/management of resources;
vi)     Women's traditionally assigned roles (eg: cooking, fetching water, working in field, taking
care of cattle, child bearing/rearing etc) and men's (non)cooperation;
vii)    Access to education and training and health services.


2.  Are these issues discussed in the CDC and your community? If yes, what have been
done to address these issues?

3.     In recent times (past two years), what were the major changes brought about by
the project initiatives (discussion in CDC, leadership training, advocacy etc.)
i)     Has the representation of poor and marginalized women in community decision-making
structures increased?
Note the number of FGD participants saying yes or no
 Yes …….               No ……..

If yes, what are the reasons for this?
If no, what are the reasons for this?

Note the number of FGD participants who are member/post bearers of:
        a) SMC: Members ………            Post bearers ………...
        b) SHMC: Members ………           Post bearers ………...
        c) DWSUG: Members ………          Post bearers ………...
        d) CFUG: Members ………           Post bearers ………...


ii)         Have there been any changes in the attitude and practice of service providers?

       (Note the number of FGD participants who says yes or no)

       ii) Yes …….                                       No ……..

       a) If yes:
             What are the types of changes you have felt/observed? Give some examples.

              What do you think are the primary reasons for this change?

  b)        If no: What do you think are the reasons for their attitude not changing

       iii)       Do community people support initiatives to increase women's participation and
                representation in community decision-making structures?

       (Note the number of FGD participants who says yes or no)

              Yes………….                                   No…………….

       a)      If yes:
              How do you think they are supporting? Give some examples.
              Why do you think they are supporting?
        b) If no:
           Why do you think they are not supporting?
       iv)     Do those women elected to decision-making structures feel respected by
                community men and women, and other members of the structures?

       (Note the number of FGD participants who says yes or no)

        Yes …….                                      No ……..
       If yes:
      How do you feel you are respected (Do they listen to your opinions or seek your opinions,
       do they give importance to your ideas/views etc)? Give some examples.
      Why do you think you receive the respect?

        c) If no:
          Why do you think they do not respect you?

04.    In recent times (within the last 2 years), are you aware about community level
       decision making structures making changes in their strategies/policies for
       increased representation of poor and marginalized women in their decision making
       structure?
       (Note number of participants who say yes or no)

Yes ………………….                  No … ……………..
    If there are participants saying yes, which community level decision-making structures and
    what specific changes were made?

       If there are participants saying no, what do you think are the reasons for this?

       What are your plans to influence changes?

05.    Do you think you have the confidence and the capability to influence community
       level decision-making structures to act on your behalf and to increase your
       representation in their decision-making structures?

      (Note number of participants who say yes or no)

       Yes …………………                            No …………………….
       If yes, what do you think are the reasons for this confidence?

       If no, what are the reasons?
       What inputs are required to build your confidence?

06.    How many of you are actively involved in efforts to promote participation of poor
       and marginalized women in community level decision making structures?

       Note No of women actively involved: ………………….
       What did you do to get elected/participate/promote the participation of poor and
       marginalized women in the community level decision making structures?
       Note no of participants in the following efforts:
            supported efforts by socially mobilized community groups and networks.
             ……………
            interacted with media representatives                                ……………
            supported efforts by CBOs and NGOs                                  ……………
            interacted with community based committees and user groups           ……………
            interacted with representatives of political parties.                ……………
            mass campaigns organized by community groups                        ……………
            others (Note the no. of participants in each method other than above …….)

      Have your efforts brought in any changes in the policies of community level decision
      making structures to increase the participation of women in their decision-making
      structures?
      (Note number of participants who say yes or no)
      Yes …….                            No ……..

      If yes: which efforts have been effective and why?

      If no: why have they not been effective?

07.   Are you aware of the Domestic Violence Act 2066?

(Note number of participants who say yes or no)

Yes ……….. No ………….
From where did you come to know about this?
What are the legal recourses (remedies) related to VAW?
Have there been any incidences of women seeking legal recourse after VAW incidents?
How did you help the survivors?
How have they been settled?

08.   How many of you are actively involved in efforts to check/stop/end violence against
      women (VAW)?
      Note No of women actively involved: ………………….
      What did you do to get elected/participate/promote the participation of poor and
      marginalized women in the community level decision making structures?
      Note no of participants
          supported efforts by socially mobilized community groups and networks.
             ……………
          interacted with media representatives                                ……………
          supported efforts by CBOs and NGOs                                  ……………
          interacted with community based committees and user groups           ……………
          interacted with representatives of political parties.                ……………
          mass campaigns organized by community groups                        ……………
          others (Note the no. of participants in each method other than above …….

      Have your efforts brought in any changes in reducing violence against women??
      (Note number of participants who say yes or no)
      Yes …….                               No ……..

      If yes: which efforts have been effective and why?
       If no: why have they not been effective?

      09. In your opinion have the project initiatives/activities you are doing (eg CDC,
          meeting, training etc) been able to raise awareness against VAW your
          communities?
          Yes …………………….                          No ………………………….

       If Yes: What has been its effect?

10.    Do you know about this year’s VDC budget and how much have been allocated for
       the well-being of poor and marginalized women (janajati, dalits)?
       (Note number of participants who say yes or no)
       Yes …….                No ……..

11.    In recent times have you been able to influence the VDC/DDC council to allocate
       financial support for the promotion of poor and marginalized women’s interests?
       Yes …….                                No ……..
       If yes: how much financial support did you receive and for what purpose?


12.    Have you interacted with the media representatives to highlight your/poor and
       marginalized women’s issues?

(Note number of participants who say yes or no
Yes …….                No ……..
If yes, which issues were discussed and which media highlighted it?
How often do media representatives come to interact with community groups?
Do you think, your/poor and marginalized women’s issues have been effectively taken up by
the media? If yes, give example.

13. Any suggestions for the mid-term review team to:
 i) Improve the facilitation efforts in the CDC.
ii) Coordination between the NGO and CDC participants/community people to improve
     advocacy and campaign efforts
iii) Adjustments in project inputs to make it more effective
iv) Sustain the efforts of the CDC participants (women activists) even after RHV is over
v) Others, if any.




Checklist for observation of and interaction in CDC classes


 District:                                           Name of Researcher:
 VDC:
 Ward No. :
 Place:
 Time of class:                                    Date:
Observation

Number of participants: ----------

Participants by age group (ask a few old and young looking participants their age)

Below 25 years ------------
Above 50 years-------------

Topics discussed in the class:
i)
ii)
iii)

How many participants spoke during discussion? ---------------

What were they speaking about?
Sharing own experience-----------
Enquiring about experiences of others ----------------
Making suggestions ---------------
(Note some of the suggestions provided ….)
Others………….

Who was facilitating?
Is it participatory? Does it provide participants equal opportunities to express their view?
How are similarities and differences in opinions dealt with?
Are solutions (decisions or commitments) found for common problems?
If yes, what were they?
i)
ii)
iii)

Interaction in CDC class (ask the group)
Why were participants interested to join the class?
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

What is the reason for selecting this particular place for the class?
What is the reason for selecting particular time for the class?
Do they have any suggestion to make it more convenient and effective?
     Annex - 4 A Number of Participants in Focus Group Discussions

District      VDC /Ward/ Tole                   Participants          Total
                                                Female         Male
SURKHET       Gumi VDC
              Ward no. 1, Bhamka                30             7      37
              Ward no. 6 Bhaleni                19             -      19
              Ward no. 3 Koiral Ghari           19             -      19
              Ward no. 4 Krishna Nagar          22             2      24
              Chhinchu VDC
              Ward no. 2 Tolakhola              22             -      22
              Ward no. 7 Thakuri Tole           17             -      17
              Ward no. 9 Jhilmile               16             -      16
              Ward no. 8 Madane Chaur           15             -      15
              Maintada VDC
              Ward no. 5 Katheghari             18             2      20
              Ward no.9 Chaukhe                 15             -      15
              Ward no. 8 Salyani Tole           13             1      14
              Ward no. 4 Jhinni                 13             -      13
              Sub total                         219            12     231
DAILEKH       Goganpani VDC
              Ward no. 6 Takuri                 21             5      26
              Ward no. 7 Pingdada               18             5      23
              Ward no. 8 Sanakada               20             4      24
              Ward no. 9 Bhairi                 25             5      30
              Seri VDC
              Ward no. 8 Sakindhara             20             5      25
              Ward no. 2 Naya Pakhar            18             -      18
              Ward no. 7 Gaibanna               11             5      16
              Ward no. 6 Petari                 15             10     25
              Baraha VDC
              Ward no. 9 Seriwari Deuti Sthal   26             8      34
              Ward no. 8 Seribada               24             7      31
              Ward no. 7 Chharchi               18             12     30
              Ward no. 6 Seriwada               35             12     47
              Sub total                         251            78     329
BARDIYA       Maina Pokhar VDC
              Ward no. 8 Maina pokhar           12             -      12
              Ward no. 1 Lokharpur              15             -      15
              Ward no. 5 Rajapur                16             -      16
              Ward no.2 Bharatpur               12             -      12
              Deudhakala VDC
              Ward no. 5 Bhaisasur              20             2      22
              Ward no. 6 Badka Deudha           20             -      20
              Ward no. 2 Kurnethi               23             -      23
              Ward no. 7 Laxmana                15             2      17
              Sorahawa VDC
              Ward no. 1 Ilakari                14             3      17
              Ward no. 3 Khaireni               14             4      18
              Ward no. 4 Daxina Bharwari        25             -      25
              Ward no. 9 Sorahawa               18             4      22
              Sub total                         204            15     219
              Grand Total                       674            105    779
Annex – 4 B FGD Findings


Table – 1 Distribution of respondents reporting increment of poor and marginalized women in community
decision making structures

 District/Response   Yes           no               Number of            No response           Total number
                                                    participants                               of participants
                                                    responding the
                                                    question
 Bardiya             169           46               215                  4                     219
 Surkhet             145           86               231                  -                     231
 Dailekh             273           25               298                  31                    329
 Total               587           157              744                  35                    779

Table – 2 Number of FGD participants who are represented in the community structure management
committee

                      SMC                      HMC                   DWSUG                CFUG
 District             member     Post          member    Post        member Post          member       Post
                                 bearer                  bearer             bearer                     bearer
 Bardiya              8          1             4         1           1      -             24           9
 Surkhet              10         2             1         -           4      3             13           11
 Dailekh              29         7             12        3           14     4             45           13
 Total                47         10            17        4           19     7             82           33



Table – 3 Distribution of respondents reporting change in attitude and practice of service providers

 District/Response      Yes              No             Number of              No          Total
                                                        participants           response
                                                        responding the
                                                        question
 Bardiya                154              61             215                     4          219
 Surkhet                133              81             214                    17          231
 Dailekh                248              50             298                    31          329
 Total                  535              192            727                    52          779


Table – 4 Distribution of respondents reporting increase in community/family support to women's
representation in community decision making structures

 District/Response     Yes           No              Number of            No Response          Total
                                                     participants
                                                     responding the
                                                     question
 Bardiya               160           55              215                  4                    219
 Surkhet               115           99              214                  17                   231
 Dailekh               212           84              296                  33                   329
 Total                 487           238             725                  54                   779

Table – 5 Distribution of respondents reporting women elected to decision-making structures feel
respected by community
 District/Response    Yes           No               Number of        No Response         Total
                                                     participants
                                                     responding
                                                     the question
 Bardiya              172            42              214               5                  219
 Surkhet              106            66              172              59                  231
 Dailekh              202           124              326               3                  329
 Total                480           232              712              67                  779

Table – 6 Distribution of respondents who are aware about community level decision making structures
making changes in their strategies/policies for increased representation of poor and marginalized women
 District/Response Yes               No                Number of        No Response        Total
                                                       participants
                                                       responding
                                                       the question
 Bardiya               122            93               215                4                219
 Surkhet                48           166               214              17                 231
 Dailekh                55           223               278              51                 329
 Total                 225           482               707              72                 779

Table – 7 Distribution of respondents reporting having confidence to influence community level
decision making structures to increase representation in decision making structures
 District/Response Yes               No               Number of        No Response    Total
                                                      participants
                                                      responding
                                                      the question
 Bardiya               126             50             176              43             219
 Surkhet               109           105              214              17             231
 Dailekh               207           101              308              21             329
 Total                 442           256              698              81             779

Number of respondent actively involved in efforts to promote participation of poor and
marginalized women in community level structures?
       Bardiya                      150
       Surkhet                65
       Dailekh               82
       Total                 297

Table – 8 Number of respondents involved in getting elected/participating /promoting the participation of
poor and marginalized women in the community level decision making structures by type of activities


 Activities                                                Bardiya   Surkhet      Dailekh   Total
 Supported efforts by CBOS and networks                    193       77           43        213

 Interacted with media representatives                     27        11                     38
 supported efforts by NGOs                                 162       75           66        303
 Interacted with community based committees and user       47        51           57        155
 groups
 Interacted with representatives of political parties                23           14        37
 Mass campaigns organized by community groups              50        79           26        155
 During collecting water and fuel wood                               17                     17
 other (mothers group                                                             48        48
Table – 9 Distribution of respondents reporting being successful to bring changes in the policies of
community level structures through their efforts
 District/Response       Yes         No                Number of        No Response        Total
                                                       participants
                                                       responding
                                                       the question
 Bardiya                 169           49              218              1                  219
 Surkhet                   59        143               202              29                 231
 Dailekh                 221           58              279              50                 329
 Total                   449         250               699              80                 779

Table – 10 Distribution of respondents who were aware of the Domestic Violence Act 2066?

 District/Response      Yes          No               Number of         No Response         Total
                                                      participants
                                                      responding
                                                      the question
 Bardiya                49           169              218                1                  219
 Surkhet                77           142              219               12                  231
 Dailekh                41           262              303               26                  329
 Total                  167          573              740               39                  779

Number of respondent actively involved in efforts to check/stop/end violence against women
(VAW)
Bardiya = 130
Surkhet= 65
Dailekh=108
Total    303

Table – 11 Number of respondents involved to check/stop/end violence against women (VAW) by
type of activities

 Activities                                                  Bardiya    Surkhet       Dailekh       Total
 Supported efforts by socially mobilized community           117        67            61            245
 groups and networks

 Interacted with media representatives                       5          11                          16
 Supported efforts by CBOs and NGOs                          176        75            49            260
 Interacted with community based committees and user         25         51            43            119
 groups
 Interacted with representatives of political parties        2                        20            22
 Mass campaigns organized by community groups                73         79            38            190

Table – 12 Distribution of respondents who reported being successful in reducing violence against
women through their efforts
 District/Response Yes                No             Number of        No Response       Total
                                                     participants
                                                     responding
                                                     the question
 Bardiya              175             40             215               4                219
 Surkhet              101             84             185              46                231
 Dailekh              269             34             303              26                329
 Total                545             158            703              76                779
Table – 13 Distribution of respondents reporting that the project initiatives/activities have been
able to raise awareness against VAW in their communities?

 District/Response   Yes            No              Number of       No Response       Total
                                                    participants
                                                    responding
                                                    the question
 Bardiya             175            30              205             14                219
 Surkhet             197            20              217             14                231
 Dailekh             308            -               308             21                329
 Total               680            50              730             49                779

Table – 14 Distribution of respondents who are aware about the current year’s VDC budget

 District/Response    Yes          No              Number of        No Response       Total
                                                   participants
                                                   responding
                                                   the question
 Bardiya              115          100             215              4                 219
 Surkhet               41          176             217              14                231
 Dailekh               72          212             284              45                329
 Total                228          488             716              63                779

Table – 15 Distribution of respondents reporting that they were able to influence the VDC/DDC
     council to allocate financial support for the promotion of poor and marginalized women’s
     interests

 District/Response    Yes          No              Number of        No Response       Total
                                                   participants
                                                   responding
                                                   the question
 Bardiya               22          193             215              4                 219
 Surkhet               24          195             219              12                231
 Dailekh              101          192             293              36                329
 Total                147          580             727              52                779

Table – 16 Distribution of respondents who reported that they interacted with the media
representatives to highlight poor and marginalized women’s issues
 District/Response    Yes          No             Number of       No Response       Total
                                                  participants
                                                  responding
                                                  the question
 Bardiya              10           188            198             21                219
 Surkhet              40           179            219             12                231
 Dailekh               9           286            295             34                329
 Total                59           653            712             67                779
Annex – 5 List of persons consulted
Name                                   Position/Organization

SURKHET DISTRICT

Women Association for Marginalized Women – WAM
Ms. Madhurani Dhakal                Chairperso
Ms. Laxmi Shris                     Vice Chairperson
Ms. Sumitra Thapa                   Secretary
Ms. Yamuna Nepali                   General Secretary
Ms. Dila Bhattarai                  Treasurer
Ms. Yam Kumari Lamichhane           Member
Ms. Tika Dhakal                     Member
Ms. Chandra Sharma                  Member
Ms. Amrita Adhikari                 Coordinator , RHV
Mr. Ganesh Nepali                   Account Officer, RHV
Ms. Chameli G C                     Program Coordinator
Ms. Uma Bhattarai                   Program Coordinator
Ms. Mohan Maya Dhakal               Program Coordinator
Ms. Kunti Regmi                     Account Officer YPR/Heifer
District Stakeholders
Mr. Khambaraj Thani                 Deputy Chief District Officer, District Administration Office
Mr.Abadhi Kishor Mishra             Chief, Water and Sanitation Regional Monitoring and
                                    Supervision Office
Mr. Mukunda Raj Gautam              Chief, District Public Health Office
Mr. Bhakta Bahadur Dhakal           Chief, District Education Office
Mr. Ganesh B Thapa                  Superintendent of Police, District Police Office
Ms. Bimala Adhikari                 Assistant Sub Inspector, women's cell, District Police Office
Mr. Bishnu Bhandari                 District Forest Officer
Ms. Shova Dhakal                    Member, Health Rights and Tobacco Control Network
Mr. Ashuram Somayee                 National Network of Community School
Gumi VDC
Mr. Lal Bahadur Gurung             Technician, VDC
Ms. Ishwari Ghale                  Ward No. 5, Facilitator , RHV
Ms. Laxmi Gharti                   Ward No. 9 Facilitator , RHV
Ms. Durga Gurung                   Ward No. 2 Facilitator , RHV
Ms. Ubikala Neupane                Ward No. 4 Facilitator , RHV
Ms. Pushpa Phadi                   Ward No. 1 Facilitator , RHV
Mr. Tek Bahadur Siris              Ward No. 3 Facilitator , RHV
Ms. Bishnumaya Siris               Chairperson, Lampokhari FUG, ward level
Ms. Rupmaya Nepali                 Member Water User Group , Ward No. 4
Mr. Ram B. Baral                   Secretary, Kalpana FUG, Bhamka &( family member of CDC)
Ms. Chitra Raut                    Member, Lampokhari FUG, Ward no. 3
Ms. Amrita Ghale                   Member, SMC, Janakalyan School
Ms. Laxmi Gurung                   Chairperson, Water User Group, Ward No. 2
Maintada VDC
Mr. Dhana Bahadur Sunwar           Office Assistant, VDC
Mr. Khim Bahadur B.K               Ward No. 8, Facilitator , RHV
Mr. Kumar Oli                      Ward No. 4 Facilitator , RHV
Mr. Jaya Bahadur Khadga            Ward No. 1 Facilitator , RHV
Mr. Narayan Khatri                 Ward No. 3 Facilitator , RHV
Ms. Happy Akura                  Ward No. 2 Facilitator , RHV & Member, Listener's Club
Ms. Bishnu Rokaya                Ward No. 5 Facilitator , RHV
Ms. Santoshi B. K                Ward No. 9 Facilitator , RHV & Member, Listener's Club
Ms. Golma Basnet                 Ward No. 7 Facilitator , RHV
Ms. Purna Rai                    Social Mobilizer, RHV
Ms. Hima B K                     Member, Listener's Club
Mr. Tilak Sharma                 Secretary, Community forest user group, Ward no. 7
Mr. Tika Sunar                   Chairperson, CFUG, Ward no. 7 &( family member of CDC)
Ms. Savitra B C                  Member, School Management Committee, Nera Primary School
Ms. Kimsara Khadga               Vice –Chair, Forest User Group Ward no. 5
Ms. Rita Dangi                   CDC participants ward – 9
Ms. Devi Kumari Sunwar           Chairperson, SMC, Deuki a primary School
Ms. Disarray B K                 CDC participants ward -9
Ms. Man gala B K                 Member, SMC, Shreve Himalaya Primary School
Chhinchu VDC
Ms. Devil Podia                  Social Mobilize, RHV
Mr. Purina K.C                   Ward No. 1, Facilitator , RHV
Ms. Hiram Garth                  Ward No. 9 Facilitator , RHV
Ms. Krishna Nepali               Ward No. 6 Facilitator , RHV
Ms. Vishnu Pun                   Ward No. 5 Facilitator , RHV
Ms. Lame Khaddar                 Ward No. 4, Facilitator , RHV
Ms. Susitna Pun                  Ward No. 3 Facilitator , RHV
Ms. Pushpin B K                  Ward No. 2 Facilitator , RHV
Ms. Amrita Shah                  Member, Water User Group, Ward- 7 &( family member of
                                 CDC)
Ms. Parfait Kari                 Member, Nava Durra CFUG
Ms.Kishori Oli                   Secretary, Itihasi Sagar CFUG
Ms. Chapmakala Oli               Member, SMC, Nera Lower Secondary School Ward-2
Ms. Khagiral Nepali              Member, Ujjwal CFUG, Ward -2
Ms. Narmada Oli                  Member, Health Management Committee, Chhinchu
Ms. Bhumisara                    Member, Irrigation and Water User Group Ward-1
Mr. Ganga BC                     Vice-Chair, Ramjanaki CFUG
Mr. Lok Singh Nepali             Chairperson, Dalit organization &( family member of CDC)

DAILEKH DISRRICT

Women Empowerment Action Forum
Ms. Dil Kumari Chand             Member/Former Chair, WAEF
Ms.Radhika Ramtel                Vice Chair , WEAF
Ms. Ganga Magarathi              Finance Officer, WEAF
Ms.Chitra B K                    Coordinator, RHV
Ms. Poonam Malla                 Account Officer, RHV
District Stakeholders
Mr.Narayan Kumar Shrestha        Deputy, Chief district Officer, District Administration Office
Mr.Dil Bahadur Shahi             Local Development Officer, District Development Committee
Mr Harihar Singh Rathaud         Managing Director, Panchakoshi FM
Mr.Yagya Raj Thapa               Media reporter, Nepal Samachar Patra/Radio Nepal
Mr. Rabindra Subedi              Station manager, Panchakoshi FM
Mr.Narayan B. Shrestha           Chair, FEDWATSAN User's District Committee
Ms. Surya Kumari shrestha        Member, FEDWATSAN User's Central Committee
Ms. Manmaya Pyakuryal            Member FEDWATSAN User's District Committee
Ms. Saraswati Mahara             District Secretary, CPN- Maoist
Mr. Yam Bahadur Adhikari,        Secretary, Seri VDC
Mr. Ganesh Regmi                 Member/Former Chair,FECOFUN District Chapter/family of
                                  CDC
Seri VDC
Ms. Samjhana B.K                  Social Mobilizer, RHV
Mr. Khadga B. Saru                Ward- 7, Facilitator RHV
Ms. Amita Kumari B. K             Ward- 4, Facilitator RHV
Mr. Karna Rasaili                 Ward- 8, Facilitator RHV
Mr. Kul Bahadur Saru              Head teacher, Shree Buddha Primary School
Mr. Nara Bahadur Balsi            Secretary, Majdur Taja Tarkaari Samuha
Mr. Tilak B K                     Chairperson, SMC, Navajyoti Primary School
Mr. Ram Bahadur B K               Member, Dalit Samaj Sudhar
Mr. Bhakta Bahadur Banshi Magar   Advisor, Sangharshil Simantakrit Mahila Samuha
Mr. Jaya Bahadur Rasaili          Husband of CDC participants
Mr. Karna Bahadur Thapa           Assistant Sub Inspector, Police Post, Seri VDC-9
Goganpani VDC
Ms. Krishna Chand                 Chairperson, Women Network/Member, SMC & CFUG
Mr. Prem Bahadur K C              Secretary, Village Agriculture Group
Ms. Kamala Chand                  Social Mobilizer, RHV
Ms. Rupa B.K                      Ward No. 9. Facilitator RHV
Mr. Dambar B. Chand               Ward No. 7, Facilitator RHV
Mr. Min Bahadur Bhandari          Member, Listener's Club
Ms. Sangita Gharti                Member, Listener's Club
Ms. Bishnu Rizal                  CDC Participants

BARDIYA DISTRICT

Tharu Mahila Utthan
Ms. Prizma Singh Tharu            Chairperson
Ms. Neha Ansari                   EC Member
Ms. Leelawati Tharu               EC member
Ms. Ful Kumari Chaudhari          Coordinator RHV
Ms.Ratna Singh                    Accountant
Mr. Lakhan Chaudhari              Program Coordinator
Mr. Bagram Chaudhari              Program Coordinator
District Stakeholders
Mr.Ram Bahadur Thapa (Magar)      Officiating LDO, District Technical Office, DDC
Ms. Bharati Shah                  Women Development Officer
Mr. Mahendra Giri                 Chairperson, SMC District Network
Mr. Surya Prasad Upadhya          Superintendent of Police, district Police Office
Ms. Tika Adhikari                 Mahila Sangharshashil Samiti
Ms. Mangala Devi Shrestha         Mahila Sangharshashil Samiti
Ms. Dinmaya Aryal                 Mahila Sangharshashil Samiti
Ms. Tika Shamsheli                Member,FEDWASUN/Chair, Akhil Nepal Mahila Sangh
Mr. Deepak Sharma                 Chief, Fulbari FM
Mr. Hurmat Mijar                  Station Manager, Fulbari FM
Mr. Puna Ram Tharu                Chairperson, FECOFUN District Chapter
Ms. Sabita Gautam                 Member, FECOFUN District Chapter
Mr. Bishnu Timilsina              Member, Environment Conservation Society/Tobacco Control
                                  Network
Dehudakala VDC
Ms. Indira Chaudhari              Social Mobilizer, RHV
Ms. Shushma Chaudhari             Ward no. 1, Facilitator , RHV
Mr. Tej Ram Tharu                 Ward no.6, Facilitator , RHV
Mr. Hemant chaydhar               Ward no. 9 Facilitator RHV
Ms. Nirmala Tharu                 Ward no. 2 Facilitator RHV
Mr. Dilram Chaudhari            Ward. Facilitator, RHV
Mr. Lahan Tharu                 Member, Bardiya CFUG
Ms. Kalpana Tharu               Member, Shree Bhrikuti Higher Secondary School
Mr. Sahabdin Tharu              Treasurer, Shiva Mandir/Member BanBardiya CFUG
Mr. Hemanta Kumar Tharu         Secretary, Bardiya CFUG/ Advisor Listener's club
Mr. Mahadev Tharu               Former Ward Chair/Chair Bardiya CFUG
Ms. Roshani Chaudhari           Chairprson, Chaudharia CFUG
Mr. Fatte Singh Rai             Member, SMC, Ram Janaki Bidhalaya
Mr. Man Bahadur Oli             Chair. SMC, Ram janaki Bidhalaya/ Treasurer, Fulbari CFUG
Mr. Raj Kumar Chaudhari         Member, Listener's club
Mr. Shris Kumar tharu           Member, Listener's club
Sarahawa VDC
Ms. Jodhani Chaudhari           Member, Manjhundi CFUG/Advisor, Primary Health Care
                                Center
Ms. Namoli Tharu                Member, SMC, Shree Bhawani Secondary School
Ms. Renuka Chaudhary            Member, Listener's club
Ms. Radha Chaudhary             Ward No. 9 Facilitator, RHV,/Chair, Listener Club
Mr. Dinesh Kumar Chaudhari      Ward no. 1 Facilitator, RHV
Mr. Narendra Pahadi             Secretary, Listener Club
Mr. Chandra Prasad Shah         Member, Listener's club
Mr. Santosh Kumar Chaudhari     Vice-Chair, Listener's club
Mr. Rup Lal Chaudhari           Member, SMC Jjana Jagrit Primary School/Family member
                                CDC
Ms. Riddi Chaudhari             Social Mobilizer
Maina Pokhar VDC
Ms. Sanju Kumari Tharu          Ward no. 5 Facilitator, RHV
Ms. Sarita Chaudhari            Ward no. 2 Facilitator, RHV
Ms. Sundari Chaudhari           Ward no. 1 Facilitator, RHV
Ms. Ambika Poudyal              Ward no. 4 Facilitator, RHV
Ms. Maya Tharu                  Ward no. 6 Facilitator, RHV
Ms. Basmati Tharu               Ward no. 9 Facilitator, RHV
Ms. Bhagwati Chaudhari          Ward no. 8 Facilitator, RHV
Ms. Bhogandaya Chaudhari        Member, Health Post Management Committee &VDC
Ms. Kalpi Tharu                 CDC Participants
Mr. Govinda Ram Tharu           Member, SMC, Sharada Higher Secondary School/family of
                                CDC participants
Mr. Narayan Prasad Chaudhari    Chairperson Bhakdailafata CFUG
Mr. Krishna Sapkota             Secretary, VDC

KATHMANDU

Mr. RatnaKaji Bajracharya       Joint Secretary, MOWCSW
Ms. Binu Bajracharya            Gender Focal Person, Ministry of Physical Planning
Oxfam GB
Mr. Binay Dhital                Program Coordinator
Ms. Sandhya Shrestha            Program Officer
Women Security Pressure Group
Ms.Shana Pradhan                Chairperson
Sharada Pokharel                Vice Chairperson
Sabitri Thapa                   General Secretary
Kalpana Rijal                   Secretary
Kalyani Shah                    Treasure
Tula Rana                       Member
Sushila Shrestha                Member
Hari priya Pandey             Member
Sabita Shrestha               Program Officer WE Can
Ganesh Adhikari               Administration Officer RHV
Buddikala Khanal              Program Officer, RHV
Laxmi Shrestha                Program Coordinator RHV
Sagarmatha FM
Ms.Kamalesh                   Program Coordinator, RHV
Mr. Ram Kumar Shrestha        Account Officer, RHV
Mr. Ghamraj Luitel            Station Manager, Sagarmatha FM
Mr. Matsya Gurung             Program Producer, RHV
Women Skill Creation Center
Ms. Uma Subedi                Chairperson WOSCC
Ms. Bishnu Ojha               Executive Director, WOSCC
Ms. Basanti Karki             Program Officer, RHV
Ms. Lata Tamrakar             Account Officer, RHV
     Annex – 6 selected cases recorded form the community
1. Devi Sunar, Surkhet, Maintada VDC, Ward No. 9

Devi, a mother of three children, was married at the age of 13 years when she was
studying in Class 5. Having entirely lost her childhood after marriage, she became busy
taking care of her family and children, doing household and farm work and trying to
make two ends meet with the little earning of her husband who was working as a wage
labor in India. Recently, she also started to work as a health volunteer which paid her
1000/- rupees a month. Now at the age of 30, after she started to attend the CDC, she
realized how her life was wasted without knowledge and education. A regular participant
of the CDC, she is always curious to hear and learn more about social happenings.

"Now I realize how important education is. Though I had to suffer a lot because I did not
opportunity to study, I'll do anything for the continuity of my children's education." She
says. Having realized that early marriage and pregnancy to be the major hurdle in a
women's life, she always takes a lead to stop child marriage in her village. "I always
thought it was my fate that I had to suffer from an early age. Only when I started to
attend the CDC, I realized that there are many women like me who had to go through
this ordeal without any fault of ours. This was not fate but just a manmade social
imposition severely limiting women's liberty and her rights." This is now the attitude of
Devi who now strongly advocates for girls education and putting an end to child
marriage.

2. Nanda Kala Khatri, Maintada, Ward no. 8, Surkhet

Nanda Kala had to go through all the problems that a village woman normally faces.
She and her family were trying to survive on a small earning from agriculture and daily
wage labor. She did not have any formal education. A couple of years back she was
asked to be member of Bumkot Community Forest User Group because they needed a
woman's presence in the committee. Though she has become a member, she was least
interested in her new role. Her husband used to attend the CFUG meeting instead of
her. Life was surrounded by her own problems and she did not have time and courage
to see beyond it.

 When she started to attend the CDC, she became aware about how women had to
suffer from the denial of their rights and why women lagged far behind men? This
brought a big change in her outlook and attitude. "Just to be able to see your problems
more clearly gives you strength to address it. My appearance and socio-economic
condition is the same, but something inside me has changed." says Nanda thoughtfully.
She has started to take interest in the CFUG affairs. She tries to attend every meeting
and enquires about the fund. Due to her interest, it took her very little time to understand
the policy, regulations and process of the committee. Now male members of the
committee also pay attention to her. They seek her opinion and encourage her to be
represented in the School Management Committee also.
3. Sita B. K. Goganpani VDC, ward no. 7, Dailekkh

When 14 years Sita had gone to her sister's house in Seriwada VDC, her sister's family
pressurized her to get married with one of the sons of their family. Feeling scared, Sita
ran away to her parent's home. Later on, they also started to convince her parents by
giving him alcohol and other presents. Sita was shocked when her own parents asked
her to get married.

When she realized that there would be no support from her family, Sita, who had
observed a few CDCs in her free time, went for help to the CDC women group. Her
parents were called to a community meeting organized by the women's network, but
they refused to go there. So the women's network member with some other senior
members of the community went to Sita's home and talked with her parents. They were
able to convince her father that what she really needed then was education not
marriage. They also warned that child marriage at the age of 14 was a crime under the
country's law. Now everything is fine in Sita's home and she is happily going to school.

4. Prakritik Community forest , Sorahawa VDC Ward 4 & 5, Bardiya

This community forest, which is spread over two wards, was registered a few years
back but the user committee was defunct. Without a proper management committee,
the community forest was in a hopeless state. After the initiation of Jutela (the local
terminology used for the CDC), the 23 member Jutela Women Group of the CDC took
the initiation to revive it again and a women only committee was formed. They took
support from the district forest office to collect seedling for plantation. Impressed with
the women's effort to save the community forest, the whole community started to
support them. Family members also supported the women and whoever had problems
from their family members to attend the CDC were encouraged to go there as family
members began realizing the benefit from the community forest. PrakritiK Community
Forest is now well managed with increased resources. The Forest Management
Committee has made plans to spend the earnings for community development work.

Encouraged by this success, the Jutela women group was also able to bring in rupees
135,000/- from the VDC budget for construction of a village road. This is how the Jutela
women group expresses their gratitude to the project: "Our unity is our strength. For
showing us where our strength lies, we would like to thank RHV"

5. Chan Kumari Chaudhari & Meena Chaudhari, Deudhakala VDC Ward No. 7
   Laxmana, Bardiya

People have to cross a small part of a jungle to reach Laxmana. While Chankumari and
her sister Meena were coming back from the Tharu Mahila Utthan Kendra, they met
Karna B.K in middle of the jungle. Being from the same village, he was not a stranger to
the Chaudhari sisters. So they were least suspicious of him when he acted friendly and
walked along with them. But Karna had bad intentions. His ill intention became clear
when he started to use vulgar words and even tried to sexually abuse by groping and
grabbing them. Both the sisters had to struggle to run away from there.

As both of them were members of the Jutela (CDC), they shared their anger, fear and
frustration in the CDC. All the members took this incident very seriously and called a
community level meeting to deal with the perpetrator. When Karna B K was called to the
community meeting, he was very ashamed of his action. He asked forgiveness and also
paid rupees 1,900/- for the anklet lost by the one of the sisters during their escape. This
incident had not only taught Karna a lesson but also issued a big warning to other
youths who sometimes used to misbehave with the village girls. "Though the RHV
project does not provide us with food, clothes or money, still we have become rich with
our solidarity, confidence and awareness. Our girls no more feel ashamed of
themselves for somebody else's behavior. They have learned to fight against violence
and abuses with dignity and pride."


6. Maintada VDC, Surkhet

In the year 2064/65, the VDC budget allocated for marginalized women was used for
providing income generating training to women. One woman from each ward was
selected through the woman's network. They were provided with snacks making training
with the assumption they would be able to be self-employed after this training. However
none of the trainees could use the training as an income generating activity because,
they did not have the courage and confidence to collect raw material and sell the
product in the market.

"Our approach was wrong" expressed the staff of Maintada VDC. "Only skill based
training is not enough to translate it into action, awareness and confidence is also
necessary. Our budget allocated for women was wasted as no one could make use of
the skill training provided by us. What the RHV is doing is a better approach. If women
are aware and are capable they can even tap resources from DDC for their benefit."
    Annex – 7 The overall accomplishment, vis-à-vis the logical framework
Output                   Indicator               Status                              Remarks
Cluster 1: Networking, lobbying and advocacy with poor women activists
Output 1.1: Poor and     1.1.1                                                       Mostly Achieved
marginalised women       A minimum of 33 %       In Dailekh, out of 1050
are recognised and       poor and marginalised   members of the targeted 4
accepted as having       women are elected to    community structures, 472
equal rights to          the community decision (45%) were women among
participate in and       making structures       which 278 were from
influence decisions in                           marginalized women
community level
decision-making                                  Out of the total 451 members in
structures (CFUG,                                the 49 structures, Surkhet ,
SMC, SHMPC and                                   176 (39%) were women
DWUG
                                                 In the 24 SMCs of Bardiya
                                                 district, average women
                                                 representation is 14 percent
                          1.1.2                  Only few women who are              Not enough
                          Percent of community   represented in more than one        evidence to
                          structures’ decisions  structure/network and had more      judge
                          influenced by poor and exposure and training have          quantitatively
                          marginalised women     been able to influence the
                          representatives        community decision.

Output 1.2: Poor and      1.2.1                    Periodic reports show that        Mostly achieved
marginalised women        Percent of poor and      issue of women's participation    as similar
activists able to         marginalised women       have been raised in the           situation were
represent the issues of   representatives report   community structure               reported by
marginalised women in     the issues of poor and                                     other
community decision-       marginalised women in                                      stakeholders
making structures         community decision                                         during
                          making structures                                          interaction with
                                                                                     MTR team
                          1.2.2                    "In 43 local structures of 3      No such data is
                                                   project VDCs in Surkhet, Out of   available in
                          Number of times issues
                                                   the total 326 agendas             annual report of
                          raised, and which were
                                                   discussed 34% (112) were          Dailekh and
                          documented, by the
                                                   related to women and 32%          Bardiya
                          poor and marginalised
                                                   (104) decisions were made in
                          women representatives
                                                   favor of women"
                          in community decision
                          making structures
                          1.2.3                                                      No such data is
                          Number of decisions                                        available in
                          made by local decision                                     annual reports of
                          makers that reflect                                        Dailekh and
                          women’s issues [eg                                         Bardiya districts
                          women’s
                          participation in
                          decisions, violence
                          against women, etc
Cluster 2: Working with public institutions and decision-making forums,
including traditional structures
Output 2.1: Project       2.1.1                    Interaction with CA members       Will take time to
partners develop and      Advocacy strategy        and National Assembly             see impact
implement clear           implemented by project   conducted
advocacy strategies for   partners seeking
increased                 amendment to Local
representation and        Self-Governance Act
participation of poor     (LSGA) with a
and marginalised          guarantee of 33
women in local            percent seat for women
decision-making           in local government
structures                (DDCs and VDCs) and
                          community decision
                          making structures

Output 2.2: Project       2.2.1                    DVAW bill has been enacted        Achieved
partners develop and      Advocacy strategies
implement clear           developed and
advocacy strategies for   implemented by project
public institutions to    partners targeting
pass the DVAW Bill and    enactment of the
develop and implement     DVAW Bill by the CA .
policies and guidelines
for its implementation
                          2.2.2                    MOWCSW developed                  Will take time to
                          Ministry of Women,       regulations for implementation    see impact
                          Children and Social      of DVAW Act and has
                          Welfare (MOWCSW)         forwarded to Ministry of Law
                          develops policy and      and Justice for Approval
                          clear protocols for
                          implementing agencies
                          for the implementation
                          of DVAW Act
                          2.2.3                    70% percent of FGDs               Number of cases
                          Percent of increase in   participants reported that        registered by
                          number of DVAW           DVAW cases are going down,        service provider
                          cases registered by                                        are not available
                          service providers (e.g.
                          VDC, police, district
                          courts) in the project
                          area
Cluster 3: Empowering and capacitating civil society organizations to achieve
rights of poor women citizens through campaigns and policy work
Output 3.1 Project        3.1.1                    A total number of 214             Advocacy skill
partners and poor and     Number of project        (comprising project staff of 3    training provided
marginalised women        partners and poor and    PNGO and poor and                 as per annual
activists are able to and marginalised women       marginalized women form           target
confident of advocating   activists who receive    community) have received
for poor and              advocacy skills training advocacy skill training
marginalised women’s
participation in local
governing structures
and address DVAW
                          3.1.2                    297 out of the 779 participants   Achieved
                          Number of partners,      of FGD reported that they are
                          their staff,             actively involved in effort to
                          and community level      increase women's' participation
                         poor and marginalised     in community structure
                         women leaders who
                         report that they have
                         advocacy skills
                         Number of                All district and national level      Achieved
                         discussions/interactions partners have conducted
                         on women’s human         discussion/interaction as per
                         rights and governance, the annual plan
                         and VAW held between
                         project partners, poor
                         and marginalised
                         community women and
                         advocacy targets
Cluster 4: Learning lessons and disseminating best practice through
innovative media and communications work
Output 4.1:              4.1.1                    Two Video documentation are          Video
Documentation of         Video documentation      produced by WOSS and Radio           documentation
lessons learned and      produced by poor and     Sagarmatha capturing Oxfam's         has not been
best practices on        marginalised women       program in general and RHV           produced by
project implementation   and shown in project     intervention in particular           women form
disseminated between     communities                                                   marginalized
project communities                                                                    community.
and with the                                                                           However
international                                                                          preparation for
stakeholders                                                                           production has
                                                                                       been started.
                         4.1.2                     Annual reports and publications     Achieved
                          Number of case           contains case studies
                         studies on learning and
                         best practices of the
                         project shared with
                         national and
                         international
                         stakeholders
                         4.1.3                     50 weekly radio magazine            Number of radio
                         Number of radio           (saha astithwa) aired               magazine is less
                         programmes on                                                 than number of
                          participation and                                            weeks of project
                          representation of poor                                       period (due to
                          and marginalised                                             delay in project
                          women in decisions                                           agreement
                          produced and                                                 process)
                          broadcast in project
                          communities including
                          Kathmandu
                         4.1.4                     17 listener's clubs have been       Quantitative
                         Number of listeners’      formed and 6 are still functional   achievement but
                         clubs formed and                                              qualitatively not
                         mobilised                                                     successful
Output 4.2: Design and   4.2.1 A                   Strategy has been developed         Quantitative
implementation of        common                    but has not been fully              achievement but
communication strategy   communication strategy    implemented                         qualitatively not
to raise awareness of    developed and                                                 successful
poor and marginalised    implemented by all
women in governance      partners
and VAW
          4.2.2                      One radio magazine of half an   Quantitative
          Number of radio and        hour every week                 achievement but
          TV programmes that         two radio jingles 2/3times a    qualitatively
          positively support poor    day                             result still need
          and marginalised           aired by Radio Sagarmatha and   to be measured
          women in governance        9 local FM stations
          and VAW
                                     Two video jingles once a week
                                     by two TV station (Nepal
                                     television and AV News)
          4.2.3 Number of            In the 4 national daily         Record of local
          articles in newspapers     newspaper,                      newspaper
          and magazines that         Editorial – 56                  tracking is not
          support participation of   News – 2211                     consolidated
          poor and marginalised      Article – 233
          women in local decision    Were published from January
          making structure and       2009 to March 2010
          VAW published

				
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