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1. What is perspective?
2. Why do we need to think about it when
   we study history?
3. What is Context?
4. What does it have to do with studying
5. What was “manifest destiny”?
              Land Ownership
• What would you and your family do if I showed
  up at your house and started cooking or laid out
  an air mattress so I could take a nap?
• What would you think if I clamed a section of
  the air and told you it was mine? (You could
  not pass through it or breathe it in.)
• “the principle of establishing private ownership
  of land is seen as being no more rational than
  the private ownership of the air”
• Most Native American tribes saw themselves as
  part of the land, and therefore the land and the
  resources on the land were seen as communal-
  belonging to everyone…
            Surviving on the Land
• Imagine you are living right here in the year 1850.
  Write 3-5 sentences to describe to me how you would
  live. How would you meet your basic needs? *Be
  ready to share out.*
• Some Native American tribes were farmers, but many
  relied on hunting game, fishing, and gathering, some
  times even to the point of being nomadic
• White European settlers saw things very differently,
  they had been living as farmers & craftsmen, in
  permanent settlements, for a long time, and expected
  to live that way in the newly formed U.S.A. (even in
  the colonies)
• European law places high importance on written
  documents and contracts
       Law, Contracts, and Treaties
• Imagine I told you today that if you turned in every assignment
  this trimester, showed up on time every day, and earned a
  85% or higher in the class I would give you $500.00
• Would you believe me?
• What if I brought you an official written contract saying the
  same thing, and I signed it and had both you and your parents
  sign it as well. Would you believe me then?
• European law places high importance on written documents
  and contracts
• Many large parcels of land were “legally” taken from Native
  American tribes through the signing of treaties (formal written
  agreements between countries).
• Many Native Americans held much more importance on
  honoring verbal agreements than whites, and treaties and
  contracts were foreign to them.
       Law, Contracts, and Treaties

• Many times treaties were only signed by a small handful of
  Native Americans from a given tribe, not necessarily the
• Many of the treaties were extremely confusing
• Many treaties came with pre-conditions: IF you become
  farmers with up divided, privately owned land we’ll let you
• Many of the treaties were never honored in the first place,
  or only honored until the land was deemed more desirable
    Perspective & Context: what did you learn?
• Explain in 2-3 sentences how Native Americans
  and white settlers differed on the following ideas:
   – Land ownership
   – How best to use the land (how to live off the land)
   – How did the way agreements were made differ?
• 1-paragraph Journal Entry - Imagine you are a
  U.S. senator in the state of Georgia. You truly
  want the best possible outcome not only for
  settlers, but for Indians as well. You have just
  found out that gold was discovered on land
  belonging to the Creek Indians. Settlers hungry
  for profit will soon try to stake claims on the land
  and it will be hard to stop them. The Creek won’t
  just let them mine and farm the land holding the
  ashes of their ancestors and the hunting grounds
Review: Yesterday we discussed a few
  examples of ways in which Native
  American and white settlers saw their
  situations from very different
• Explain at least one way in which this
  was true.
• How might it have caused conflicts
  between the two groups?
        The Treaty of Paris, 1783
• While under British control, all land east of the
  Appalachian Mountains was off limits to settlement, in
  large part to limit conflicts with Native Americans.
  Native Americans would be increasingly forced off of
  their lands, and conflicts with white settlers would
  drastically increase in the period after the signing of
  the Treaty of Paris.
              Statistics of Expansion
• In 1790 there were 3.9 million
  white Americans, the majority of
  them lived within 50 miles of the
  Atlantic Ocean
• In 1830 there were 13 million white
  Americans, and 4.5 million of them
  lived in the Mississippi and Ohio
  River Valleys west of the
  Appalachian Mountains
• In 1820 150,000 Native Americans
  lived east of the Mississippi; by
  1844 only 30,000 were left!
• Today we are going to examine why
  and how this happened
    E.Q.: Could two drastically
different cultures have peacefully
        The Tactics of “Removal”
• Simply ignoring Native American tribes’ rights to
  their land and putting Native lands up for sale to
  white settlers
• Seizing the land, dividing it up into parcels, and
  giving it out by lottery. Telling Native Americans
  they can own parcels of land if they wish to settle
  and farm, but not otherwise
• Convincing tribes to sign contracts, known as
  treaties, to offer them land somewhere else if they
  would leave
• Waiting for any instance of Native American
  aggression towards whites, and then taking swift
  military action
        Example: The Chickasaw
• Almost every Native American tribe who took
  part in the Revolutionary War fought on the
  side of the British
• The Chickasaw tribe fought for the
  Americans, and in return the American
  government signed a treaty guaranteeing the
  Chickasaw could stay on their land.
• Wealthy American businessmen bought the
  land from the U.S. government and sold
  most of it off, forcing the Chickasaw off of
  their land.
                 The Creek

• The Creek are a tribe who traditionally
  occupied Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi.
• Many Creek Indians partially assimilated into
  white culture. Many had taken up farming and
  permanent settlement.
• The Creek’s land suddenly became very
  attractive to settlers when gold was discovered
 The Purpose of Government
• What are the three branches of U.S.
  government, and what are their jobs?
• Next up… reading: Indian Removal,
  John Marshall and Andrew Jackson
          Happy Friday! – Journal:
Get out your reading questions so I can stamp
1. What is assimilation?
2. How were the goals of assimilation different
   from the goals of removal?
3. In 1832, the Supreme Court found that it
   was __________ for the state of Georgia to
   forcibly remove the Creek Indians from
   their land.
* Song of the week!- Poncho and Lefty by Townes Van Zandt!
    Creating a Political Flyer
What is the best way to handle the drastically opposing
  values and culture of Native Americans and white settlers
  in the southeast? Your task is to create a full-page political
  flyer for one of the following plans.:
    – Assimilation
    – Removal
    – Enforcing the Supreme Court’s 1832 decision by any
      means necessary
• Your flyer must include:
    – A visual (drawing, map, collage, etc- be creative!)
    – An explanation of your policy- what does it mean?
    – A justification for your policy, why is it the best course of

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