1. What is perspective?
2. Why do we need to think about it when
we study history?
3. What is Context?
4. What does it have to do with studying
5. What was “manifest destiny”?
• What would you and your family do if I showed
up at your house and started cooking or laid out
an air mattress so I could take a nap?
• What would you think if I clamed a section of
the air and told you it was mine? (You could
not pass through it or breathe it in.)
• “the principle of establishing private ownership
of land is seen as being no more rational than
the private ownership of the air”
• Most Native American tribes saw themselves as
part of the land, and therefore the land and the
resources on the land were seen as communal-
belonging to everyone…
Surviving on the Land
• Imagine you are living right here in the year 1850.
Write 3-5 sentences to describe to me how you would
live. How would you meet your basic needs? *Be
ready to share out.*
• Some Native American tribes were farmers, but many
relied on hunting game, fishing, and gathering, some
times even to the point of being nomadic
• White European settlers saw things very differently,
they had been living as farmers & craftsmen, in
permanent settlements, for a long time, and expected
to live that way in the newly formed U.S.A. (even in
• European law places high importance on written
documents and contracts
Law, Contracts, and Treaties
• Imagine I told you today that if you turned in every assignment
this trimester, showed up on time every day, and earned a
85% or higher in the class I would give you $500.00
• Would you believe me?
• What if I brought you an official written contract saying the
same thing, and I signed it and had both you and your parents
sign it as well. Would you believe me then?
• European law places high importance on written documents
• Many large parcels of land were “legally” taken from Native
American tribes through the signing of treaties (formal written
agreements between countries).
• Many Native Americans held much more importance on
honoring verbal agreements than whites, and treaties and
contracts were foreign to them.
Law, Contracts, and Treaties
• Many times treaties were only signed by a small handful of
Native Americans from a given tribe, not necessarily the
• Many of the treaties were extremely confusing
• Many treaties came with pre-conditions: IF you become
farmers with up divided, privately owned land we’ll let you
• Many of the treaties were never honored in the first place,
or only honored until the land was deemed more desirable
Perspective & Context: what did you learn?
• Explain in 2-3 sentences how Native Americans
and white settlers differed on the following ideas:
– Land ownership
– How best to use the land (how to live off the land)
– How did the way agreements were made differ?
• 1-paragraph Journal Entry - Imagine you are a
U.S. senator in the state of Georgia. You truly
want the best possible outcome not only for
settlers, but for Indians as well. You have just
found out that gold was discovered on land
belonging to the Creek Indians. Settlers hungry
for profit will soon try to stake claims on the land
and it will be hard to stop them. The Creek won’t
just let them mine and farm the land holding the
ashes of their ancestors and the hunting grounds
Review: Yesterday we discussed a few
examples of ways in which Native
American and white settlers saw their
situations from very different
• Explain at least one way in which this
• How might it have caused conflicts
between the two groups?
The Treaty of Paris, 1783
• While under British control, all land east of the
Appalachian Mountains was off limits to settlement, in
large part to limit conflicts with Native Americans.
Native Americans would be increasingly forced off of
their lands, and conflicts with white settlers would
drastically increase in the period after the signing of
the Treaty of Paris.
Statistics of Expansion
• In 1790 there were 3.9 million
white Americans, the majority of
them lived within 50 miles of the
• In 1830 there were 13 million white
Americans, and 4.5 million of them
lived in the Mississippi and Ohio
River Valleys west of the
• In 1820 150,000 Native Americans
lived east of the Mississippi; by
1844 only 30,000 were left!
• Today we are going to examine why
and how this happened
E.Q.: Could two drastically
different cultures have peacefully
The Tactics of “Removal”
• Simply ignoring Native American tribes’ rights to
their land and putting Native lands up for sale to
• Seizing the land, dividing it up into parcels, and
giving it out by lottery. Telling Native Americans
they can own parcels of land if they wish to settle
and farm, but not otherwise
• Convincing tribes to sign contracts, known as
treaties, to offer them land somewhere else if they
• Waiting for any instance of Native American
aggression towards whites, and then taking swift
Example: The Chickasaw
• Almost every Native American tribe who took
part in the Revolutionary War fought on the
side of the British
• The Chickasaw tribe fought for the
Americans, and in return the American
government signed a treaty guaranteeing the
Chickasaw could stay on their land.
• Wealthy American businessmen bought the
land from the U.S. government and sold
most of it off, forcing the Chickasaw off of
• The Creek are a tribe who traditionally
occupied Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi.
• Many Creek Indians partially assimilated into
white culture. Many had taken up farming and
• The Creek’s land suddenly became very
attractive to settlers when gold was discovered
The Purpose of Government
• What are the three branches of U.S.
government, and what are their jobs?
• Next up… reading: Indian Removal,
John Marshall and Andrew Jackson
Happy Friday! – Journal:
Get out your reading questions so I can stamp
1. What is assimilation?
2. How were the goals of assimilation different
from the goals of removal?
3. In 1832, the Supreme Court found that it
was __________ for the state of Georgia to
forcibly remove the Creek Indians from
* Song of the week!- Poncho and Lefty by Townes Van Zandt!
Creating a Political Flyer
What is the best way to handle the drastically opposing
values and culture of Native Americans and white settlers
in the southeast? Your task is to create a full-page political
flyer for one of the following plans.:
– Enforcing the Supreme Court’s 1832 decision by any
• Your flyer must include:
– A visual (drawing, map, collage, etc- be creative!)
– An explanation of your policy- what does it mean?
– A justification for your policy, why is it the best course of