Trafficking in Persons

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General AwarenessTraining
INTRODUCTION

    The Defense Security Cooperation Agency
           Office of General Counsel
              sponsored training

                   FY 2013
        Combating Trafficking in Persons
         “General Awareness Training”

    Note, this training module has modified from its original
    version.
INTRODUCTION
    Proclamation from the President

    "Yet even today, the darkness and
    inhumanity of enslavement exists.
    Millions of people worldwide are held in
    compelled service, as well as thousands
    within the United States. We
    acknowledge that forms of slavery still
    exist in the modern era, and we
    recommit ourselves to stopping the
    human traffickers who play this horrific
    trade.”
                -President Barack Obama, 2009
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
             INTRODUCTION
                    SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM

International Scope
It is estimated:
• 12 million people enslaved around the world today
• 600,000-800,000 TIP victims trafficked internationally annually
• 80% of victims are women
• 50% of victims are children
• $32 billion generated from TIP annually
• TIP is one of the fastest growing criminal industries worldwide

                            Source: United Nations, International Organization
              INTRODUCTION
                    SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM

U.S. National Scope
It is estimated:
• 14,500-17,500 TIP victims trafficked into the U.S. annually
• 100,000 American children are victims of prostitution
    annually



 Source: U.S. State Department, National Center for Missing and Exploited Children
   Module 1 - What is Trafficking in Persons?

Objectives:
• Identify common myths about TIP
• Define TIP
• Identify Sex Trafficking
• Identify Labor Trafficking (Forced Labor)
• Identify Child Soldiers
MODULE 1 - What is Trafficking in Persons?

                  Hillary Clinton Statement on
                     Trafficking in Persons
                "It is modern slavery, a crime that spans
                the globe, providing ruthless employers
                with an endless supply of people to
                abuse for financial gain. Human
                trafficking is a crime with many victims:
                not only those who are trafficked, but
                also the families they leave behind, some
                of whom never see their loved ones
                again.”

                  - Hillary Clinton, U.S. Secretary of State
 MODULE 1 - What is Trafficking in Persons?


Myth 1: TIP must involve    Reality: TIP does not require
some form of travel, or     transportation, although it may be
                            involved in the crime. TIP is more
movement across             accurately described as “compelled
international or national   service” where a victim does not
borders.                    have consent or control due to
                            force, fraud or coercion.

                            Reality: TIP is not the same as
                            smuggling, but is a separate
                            criminal offense. Smuggling
                            primarily involves illegally
                            transporting people across borders.
 MODULE 1 - What is Trafficking in Persons?


Myth 2: TIP must             Reality: TIP does not
involve physical             require the use of
restraint, physical force,
bodily harm, or physical     physical force or
bondage.                     restraint. Other forms
                             of control can include
                             coercion (e.g., threats)
                             and psychological
                             manipulation.
MODULE 1 - What is Trafficking in Persons?


Myth 3: TIP only occurs    Reality: TIP is a
in other countries and     serious crime that
victims are only foreign
nationals.                 occurs all TIP victims
                           can be foreign
                           nationals and U.S.
                           citizens.
MODULE 1 - What is Trafficking in Persons?


Myth 4: Prostitution is   Reality: Prostitution is
always voluntary and      not voluntary when
consensual.               force, fraud or coercion is
                          used to compel a victim
                          to provide sex. This is
                          TIP.
                          Reality: Under U.S. law,
                          children identified in the
                          commercial sex trade are
                          automatic victims of TIP.
 MODULE 1 - What is Trafficking in Persons?


Myth 5: If a person is      Reality: Some TIP
paid for their services –   victims may be paid for
whether for sex or          their services, but when
labor, they cannot be       force, fraud or coercion is
TIP victims.                used against them, they
                            are no longer in control.
                            This often results in their
                            inability to leave without
                            violence or threat of
                            violence.
MODULE 1 - What is Trafficking in Persons?
 MODULE 1 - What is Trafficking in Persons?

Sex Trafficking
• Commercial sex compelled by force, fraud or coercion
• Victims found in: brothels, street prostitution, escort services or
  pornography
• Child sex tourism: traveling to countries to have sex with children
• Any minor (18 and under) identified in commercial sex activities is
  an automatic TIP victim
• 43% of identified TIP victims are for sex trafficking
• 98% of identified sex trafficking victims are women and children
• Demand for the sex trade allows sex trafficking to flourish

   Source: United Nations, International Labor Organization, U.S.
   State Department
 MODULE 1 - What is Trafficking in Persons?

Labor Trafficking
• Labor or service compelled by force, fraud or coercion
• Victims found in any location or industry: factories, farms,
  construction, restaurants, mines or personal homes
• Children are also labor trafficking victims
• Debt bondage: using a debt to compel labor from a person
• 32% of identified TIP victims are used for forced labor
• 56% of identified forced labor victims are women and girls

   Source: United Nations, International Labor Organization, U.S.
   State Department
 MODULE 1 - What is Trafficking in Persons?

Labor Trafficking
• Child soldiering: unlawful recruitment of children under 18 by
  government or nongovernment armed forces
• Children are used as combatants, cooks, servants, messengers,
  spies or sex slaves
• Children are often sexually and physically abused
• Children are forced to commit atrocities against others
• 200,000-300,000 children in over 57 armed conflicts worldwide
• Average age: 15-18, but young as 7

  Source: United Nations, International Labor Organization, U.S.
  State Department
 MODULE 1 - What is Trafficking in Persons?

Protocol for Reporting Child Soldiering

The US is party to the Optional Protocol to the United Nations Convention on
the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict.

• “Child” shall mean any person less than eighteen years of age.
• Many children are abducted and forcibly recruited; others are driven into
  armed forces by poverty, hardship and alienation. The Optional Protocol
  outlaws compulsory recruitment of children under the age of 18 by both
  government and non-government armed forces.
• Each military member should notify their immediate chain of command if
  they are under 18 years of age and scheduled for deployment.
• The unit commander under consultation with the chain of command and
  the Service’s personnel center shall determine if the deployment is
  authorized for the minor service-member.
 MODULE 1 - What is Trafficking in Persons?


Protocol for Reporting Child Soldiering (continued)

• Units should conduct training on the applicable sections of
  the AR 190-8 to ensure proper handling of enemy casualties
  and prisoners who may in fact be considered children.
• New U.S. legislation – Child Soldier Prevention Act is a
  foreign assistance restriction on countries that recruit/use or
  support armed groups that recruit/use child solders, as
  defined in the Act. Child Soldier Accountability Act makes
  it a crime to recruit/use anyone under the age of 15 and
  makes such recruitment/use a ground for inadmissibility
  and deportation in the United States.
                 MODULE 1 – QUIZ


1) TIP involves the use of ___________ to compel a
   person in order to exploit them for profit

a.   Force
b.   Fraud
c.   Coercion
d.   Force and Coercion
e.   All the above
        MODULE 1 – QUIZ


a. INCORRECT. Under U.S. law, TIP
involves the use of force, fraud or coercion
to compel a person into commercial sex or
labor. The correct answer is e. All the
above.
           MODULE 1 – QUIZ


b. INCORRECT. Under U.S. law, TIP
involves the use of force, fraud or coercion to
compel a person into commercial sex or labor.
The correct answer is e. All the above.
           MODULE 1 – QUIZ


c. INCORRECT. Under U.S. law, TIP
involves the use of force, fraud or coercion to
compel a person into commercial sex or labor.
The correct answer is e. All the above.
           MODULE 1 – QUIZ


d. INCORRECT. Under U.S. law, TIP
involves the use of force, fraud or coercion to
compel a person into commercial sex or labor.
The correct answer is e. All the above.
MODULE 1 – QUIZ




e. CORRECT!
                  MODULE 1 – QUIZ


2) TIP often involves exploiting people for ____________.

a.   Labor
b.   Commercial sex
c.   Child soldiering
d.   All the above
         MODULE 1 – QUIZ


a. INCORRECT. Under U.S. law, TIP involves
exploiting people for labor, services,
commercial sex, and as child soldiers. The
correct answer is d.
          MODULE 1 – QUIZ


b. INCORRECT. Under U.S. law, TIP involves
exploiting people for labor, services,
commercial sex, and as child soldiers. The
correct answer is d.
           MODULE 1 – QUIZ


c. INCORRECT. Under U.S. law, TIP involves
exploiting people for labor, services,
commercial sex, and as child soldiers. The
correct answer is d.
MODULE 1 – QUIZ




d. CORRECT!
                MODULE 1 – QUIZ


3) TIP must involve some form of travel, transportation,
   or movement across international or national borders.

True
False
           MODULE 1 – QUIZ


True. INCORRECT. Under U.S. law, TIP does
not require transportation. TIP is more
accurately described as compelled service
where a victim does not have consent or control
due to force, fraud, or coercion. The correct
answer is False.
        MODULE 1 – QUIZ




CORRECT! The answer is “False.”
                MODULE 1 – QUIZ


4) _________ is the unlawful recruitment of children by
   government or nongovernment armed forces.

a. Child soldiering
b. Child sex tourism
c. Child bonded labor
d. All the above
MODULE 1 – QUIZ




a. CORRECT!
                MODULE 1 – QUIZ


    b. INCORRECT. Under the U.N. Optional
    Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the
    Child (Children in Armed Conflicts), child
    soldiering is defined as the unlawful
    recruitment of children by government or
    nongovernment armed forces. The correct
    answer is a.
.
            MODULE 1 – QUIZ


c. INCORRECT. Under the U.N. Optional
Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the
Child (Children in Armed Conflicts), child
soldiering is defined as the unlawful
recruitment of children by government or
nongovernment armed forces. The correct
answer is a.
            MODULE 1 – QUIZ


d. INCORRECT. Under the U.N. Optional
Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the
Child (Children in Armed Conflicts), child
soldiering is defined as the unlawful
recruitment of children by government or
nongovernment armed forces. The correct
answer is a.
                MODULE 1 – QUIZ


5) Prostitution is always voluntary and consensual when
   the woman is paid.

True
False
            MODULE 1 – QUIZ


True. INCORRECT. If the a person is being
compelled into prostitution by force, fraud, or
coercion—even if they are paid—they are not
acting voluntarily nor are they consenting. The
person is a victim of TIP. The correct answer is
False.
        MODULE 1 – QUIZ




CORRECT! The answer is “False.”
 Module 2 - Who is Involved in Trafficking in Persons?

Objectives:
• Identify Victims
• Identify Vulnerable Populations
• Identify Traffickers
MODULE 2 - Who is Involved in Trafficking in Persons?


 TIP is about exploiting people’s VULNERABILITY in their current
 circumstances—whether it is a man desperate for a job to take care
 of his family or a young girl with low-self esteem getting caught up
 with a pimp.

                       Victims can be:
                       • Any gender, age, race, nationality, social
                          status or economic status
                       • Men or women, adults or children, foreign
                          nationals or U.S. citizens
                       • TIP victims can be anyone
     MODULE 2 - Who is Involved in Trafficking in Persons?


                                                       Vulnerable Populations may include:
                                                       • Undocumented migrants
                                                       • Runaway and homeless youth
                                                       • Women and children with limited
                                                         resources
                                                       • Oppressed social cultural groups
                                                       • People displaced by natural disasters
                                                         or civil conflicts
                                                       • Victims of prior sexual or physical
                                                         abuse
Photo by: Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department
MODULE 2 - Who is Involved in Trafficking in Persons?


                      Traffickers can be:
                      • International organized crime
                      • National or local gangs
                      • Corrupt government and police
                      • Business owners
                      • Pimps
                      • Diplomats
                      • Ordinary citizens
                      • U.S. military or civilian personnel
                      • U.S. contractors
                  MODULE 2 – QUIZ


1) Traffickers can be ___________.

a.   Corrupt governments
b.   Organized crime
c.   U.S. military and civilian personnel
d.   Anyone willing to exploit for profit, including all the
     above
             MODULE 2 – QUIZ


a. INCORRECT. While answers a-c are
correct, they are not the exclusive traffickers.
Anyone willing to exploit another person for
profit of personal benefit can become a
trafficker. The correct answer is d.
             MODULE 2 – QUIZ


b. INCORRECT. While answers a-c are
correct, they are not the exclusive traffickers.
Anyone willing to exploit another person for
profit of personal benefit can become a
trafficker. The correct answer is d.
           MODULE 2 – QUIZ


c. INCORRECT. While answers a-c are correct,
they are not the exclusive traffickers. Anyone
willing to exploit another person for profit of
personal benefit can become a trafficker. The
correct answer is d.
MODULE 2 – QUIZ




d. CORRECT!
                 MODULE 2 – QUIZ


2) TIP is about exploiting a person’s vulnerability in order
   to lure or force them into situations of TIP.

True
False
        MODULE 2 – QUIZ




CORRECT! The answer is “True.”
            MODULE 2 – QUIZ


False. INCORRECT. Traffickers target people
with different vulnerabilities as it makes it
easier for them to manipulate and exploit them.
The correct answer is true.
                     MODULE 2 – QUIZ


3) Victims can be _____________.

a.   Men
b.   Children
c.   U.S. citizens
d.   All the above
            MODULE 2 – QUIZ


a. INCORRECT. While answers a-c are
correct, they are not the exclusive victims.
Anyone can be a victim when their
vulnerabilities are exploited by others for
personal gain. The correct answer is d.
            MODULE 2 – QUIZ


b. INCORRECT. While answers a-c are
correct, they are not the exclusive victims.
Anyone can be a victim when their
vulnerabilities are exploited by others for
personal gain. The correct answer is d.
           MODULE 2 – QUIZ


c. INCORRECT. While answers a-c are correct,
they are not the exclusive victims. Anyone can
be a victim when their vulnerabilities are
exploited by others for personal gain. The
correct answer is d.
MODULE 2 – QUIZ




d. CORRECT!
                 MODULE 2 – QUIZ


4) Some of the most vulnerable populations likely to be
   targeted by traffickers include ____________.

a.   Homeless and runaway youth
b.   Oppressed or marginalized social groups
c.   Undocumented migrants
d.   Women with prior sex or physical abuse
e.   All the above
           MODULE 2 – QUIZ


a. INCORRECT. While answers a-d are
correct, they are not the exclusive vulnerable
populations. Anyone can be a victim when their
vulnerabilities are exploited by others for
personal gain. The correct answer is e.
           MODULE 2 – QUIZ


b. INCORRECT. While answers a-d are
correct, they are not the exclusive vulnerable
populations. Anyone can be a victim when their
vulnerabilities are exploited by others for
personal gain. The correct answer is e.
           MODULE 2 – QUIZ


c. INCORRECT. While answers a-d are
correct, they are not the exclusive vulnerable
populations. Anyone can be a victim when their
vulnerabilities are exploited by others for
personal gain. The correct answer is e.
           MODULE 2 – QUIZ


d. INCORRECT. While answers a-d are
correct, they are not the exclusive vulnerable
populations. Anyone can be a victim when their
vulnerabilities are exploited by others for
personal gain. The correct answer is e.
MODULE 2 – QUIZ




e. CORRECT!
  Module 3 - Why Does Trafficking in Persons Occur?

Objectives:
• Identify Victim Push and Pull Factors
• Identify Trafficker’s Motivations
• Identify the Demand for TIP
MODULE 3 - Why Does Trafficking in Persons Occur?


                      PUSH & PULL FACTORS

 Push Factors:                                    Pull Factors:
   Conditions that influence                       Conditions that influence
   or encourage people to                          people to go to a new
   leave a bad or unsafe                           location with better
   situation.                                      opportunities.
    • Violence                                      • Chance of a better life
    • Civil conflicts                               • Freedom and liberty
    • No job opportunities                          • Job opportunities
    • No civil rights
    • Poverty               Note: These factors alone do not cause TIP, but a combination of
                            factors coupled with violence/threats increases the risk of
    • Corruption            exploitation.
MODULE 3 - Why Does Trafficking in Persons Occur?



 Traffickers see the trafficking of people as a high profit
 and low risk—meaning minimal punishment due to
 corruption, lack of a strong criminal justice system, or
 where TIP is not seen as a serious crime.


                 Compared to drug trafficking and arms trafficking,
                 TIP is one of the fastest growing criminal
                 enterprises in the world—generating over $32
                 billion each year from exploiting victims
MODULE 3 - Why Does Trafficking in Persons Occur?



TIP Supply and Demand

• Basic economic principle: Where there is a demand for a product,
  someone will supply it.
• TIP: Where there is a demand for sex or labor, someone will
  provide it.
• When demand increases, supply increases, profits increases and
  number of exploited victims increases.
MODULE 3 - Why Does Trafficking in Persons Occur?



Incentives for Traffickers to Engage in TIP
• $32 billion generated from TIP every year
• $15 billion generated from TIP in the U.S. and Western
  Europe
• Unlike drugs, TIP victims can be used over and over
  again to make traffickers money
• End Goal: Money Source: International Labor
  Organization
                      MODULE 3 – QUIZ


1) Push factors that influence people to leave a bad
   situation include ____________.

a.   Civil conflict
b.   Poverty
c.   Corruption
d.   All the above
            MODULE 3 – QUIZ


a. INCORRECT. While answers a-c are
correct, they are not the exclusive push factors.
Push factors are diverse and different people
have different push factors depending on their
circumstances. The correct answer is d.
            MODULE 3 – QUIZ


b. INCORRECT. While answers a-c are
correct, they are not the exclusive push factors.
Push factors are diverse and different people
have different push factors depending on their
circumstances. The correct answer is d.
           MODULE 3 – QUIZ


c. INCORRECT. While answers a-c are correct,
they are not the exclusive push factors. Push
factors are diverse and different people have
different push factors depending on their
circumstances. The correct answer is d.
MODULE 3 – QUIZ




d. CORRECT!
                  MODULE 3 – QUIZ


2) Traffickers are involved in TIP because it is ______ risk
   and ______ profit.

a.   High; low
b.   Low; low
c.   Low; high
d.   High; high
            MODULE 3 – QUIZ


a. INCORRECT. Traffickers are involved in
TIP because it is low risk and high profit due to
corruption, lack of a strong criminal justice
system, or where TIP is not seen as a serious
crime. The correct answer is c.
            MODULE 3 – QUIZ


b. INCORRECT. Traffickers are involved in
TIP because it is low risk and high profit due to
corruption, lack of a strong criminal justice
system, or where TIP is not seen as a serious
crime. The correct answer is c.
MODULE 3 – QUIZ




c. CORRECT!
            MODULE 3 – QUIZ


d. INCORRECT. Traffickers are involved in
TIP because it is low risk and high profit due to
corruption, lack of a strong criminal justice
system, or where TIP is not seen as a serious
crime. The correct answer is c.
                  MODULE 3 – QUIZ


3) "Demand" for commercial sex and forced labor can
   include __________.

a.   Women or men
b.   U.S. military personnel
c.   U.S. contractors
d.   All the above
           MODULE 3 – QUIZ


a. INCORRECT. While answers a-c are
correct, they are not the exclusive demand or
“customers.” The demand is diverse—whether
for commercial sex or cheap labor. The demand
contributes to TIP where traffickers seek to
supply the demand. The correct answer is d.
           MODULE 3 – QUIZ


b. INCORRECT. While answers a-c are
correct, they are not the exclusive demand or
“customers.” The demand is diverse—whether
for commercial sex or cheap labor. The demand
contributes to TIP where traffickers seek to
supply the demand. The correct answer is d.
           MODULE 3 – QUIZ


c. INCORRECT. While answers a-c are correct,
they are not the exclusive demand or
“customers.” The demand is diverse—whether
for commercial sex or cheap labor. The demand
contributes to TIP where traffickers seek to
supply the demand. The correct answer is d.
MODULE 3 – QUIZ




d. CORRECT!
                MODULE 3 – QUIZ


4) Purchasing sex, even in countries where prostitution is
   legal, contributes to TIP where more people become
   victims of forced commercial sex.

True
False
        MODULE 3 – QUIZ




CORRECT! The answer is “True.”
            MODULE 3 – QUIZ


a. INCORRECT. Purchasing sex contributes to
TIP because traffickers are often seeking to
supply a demand for commercial sex. Even in
countries where prostitution is legal, DoD
personnel and contractors are not permitted to
purchase sex as it is illegal under U.S. law. The
correct answer is true.
                   MODULE 3 – QUIZ


5) TIP generates over __________ worldwide each year
   and is one of the fasted growing criminal enterprises in
   the world.

a.   $32 million
b.   $32 billion
c.   $15 billion
d.   $15 million
           MODULE 3 – QUIZ


a. INCORRECT. According to the
International Labor Organization, TIP generates
over $32 billion every year. The correct answer
is b.
MODULE 3 – QUIZ




b. CORRECT!
           MODULE 3 – QUIZ


c. INCORRECT. According to the
International Labor Organization, TIP generates
over $32 billion every year. The correct answer
is b.
           MODULE 3 – QUIZ


d. INCORRECT. According to the
International Labor Organization, TIP
generates over $32 billion every year. The
correct answer is b.
  Module 4 - How People Become TIP Victims.

Objectives:
• Identify How People become TIP Victims
• Identify Means of Control over Victims
• Understand Victims’ Mindset
                    Module 4 - How People Become TIP Victims.


       Luring Victims into TIP
                                                          Victims are often lured, tricked or
                                                          entrapped in TIP situations by:
                                                                • Fake job offers
                                                                • Promises of love and marriage
                                                                • Promises of better education and
                                                                  life for their family
                                                                • Debt bondage
                                                                • Kidnapping/Abduction
                                                                • Blackmail/Extortions
Photo by: Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department.
                                                                • Smuggling turned into TIP via
       Note: This is not an exhaustive list of means of           force, fraud or coercion for
       luring victims into TIP, but a select list of examples
       seen around the world—including in the U.S.                exploitation
       Module 4 - How People Become TIP Victims.


Once entrapped, traffickers maintain control over victims by:

 Physical Violence        Threats          Psychological
 Beatings                 Harming          Manipulation
 Rape                     family           Brainwashing
 Isolation                Deportation      Traumatic
 Starvation               Shaming          bonding
 Restraint                Detention
                                                                  Module 4 - How People Become TIP Victims.


                                                        Victim Mindset: Unable to Leave
                                                                                                              Victims are unable to leave a TIP
                                                                                                              situation because they may be:
                                                                                                                    •   Fearful of traffickers
Photo by: Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department.




                                                                                                                    •   Dependent on traffickers (e.g. child
                                                                                                                        victims)
                                                                                                                    •   Distrustful of law enforcement and
                                                                                                                        fearful of deportation
                                                                                                                    •   Thinking that no one cares
                                                                                                                    •   Unaware they are victims of a crime
                                                                                                                    •   Unfamiliar with language and culture
                                                                                                                    •    Addicted to drugs or alcohol
                                                          Note: This is not an exhaustive list, but a select list   •   Without personal identification
                                                          of examples seen around the world—including in
                                                          the U.S.
                                                                                                                    •   Unaware that they have basic rights
          Module 4 - How People Become TIP Victims.


Physical & Mental Health Issues
Victims often face physical and mental health issues related to their TIP situations.
PHYSICAL HEATH PROBLEMS
•STDs, HIV or AIDs
•Malnutrition
•Immune or Respiratory problems
•Lame limbs or broken bones
•Head trauma
•Botched abortion complications

MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS
•Depression or suicidal behavior
•PTSD or chronic stress
•Substance abuse (alcohol or drugs)
•Nightmares, tremors or insomnia
                  MODULE 4 – QUIZ


1) Victims are often lured into TIP situations by

a.   Fake job offers
b.   Extortion
c.   Promises of love and marriage
d.   All the above
            MODULE 4 – QUIZ


a. INCORRECT. While answers a-c are
correct, they are not exclusive means of luring
victims. There are diverse means of luring
victims into TIP situations. The correct answer
is d.
            MODULE 4 – QUIZ


b. INCORRECT. While answers a-c are
correct, they are not exclusive means of luring
victims. There are diverse means of luring
victims into TIP situations. The correct answer
is d.
           MODULE 4 – QUIZ


c. INCORRECT. While answers a-c are correct,
they are not exclusive means of luring victims.
There are diverse means of luring victims into
TIP situations. The correct answer is d.
MODULE 4 – QUIZ




d. CORRECT!
                 MODULE 4 – QUIZ


2) Traffickers only use physical violence to control their
   victims after luring them into a situation.

True
False
            MODULE 4 – QUIZ


True. INCORRECT. Traffickers use both
physical violence and psychological coercion or
manipulation as means to control victims. The
correct answer is “False.”
          MODULE 4 – QUIZ




CORRECT! The correct answer is “False.”
                  MODULE 4 – QUIZ


3) Smuggling can turn into TIP when ___________ is used
   to compel a person against their will.

a.   Force
b.   Coercion
c.   Fraud
d.   Force and coercion
e.   All the above
             MODULE 4 – QUIZ


a. INCORRECT. Smuggling is a separate
crime than TIP, but when force, fraud, or
coercion is used to compel a person against
their will, it because a TIP situation. The correct
answer is e.
             MODULE 4 – QUIZ


b. INCORRECT. Smuggling is a separate
crime than TIP, but when force, fraud, or
coercion is used to compel a person against
their will, it because a TIP situation. The correct
answer is e.
            MODULE 4 – QUIZ


c. INCORRECT. Smuggling is a separate crime
than TIP, but when force, fraud, or coercion is
used to compel a person against their will, it
because a TIP situation. The correct answer is e.
           MODULE 4 – QUIZ


d. INCORRECT. Smuggling is a separate
crime than TIP, but when force, fraud, or
coercion is used to compel a person against
their will, it because a TIP situation. The
correct answer is e.
MODULE 4 – QUIZ




e. CORRECT!
                 MODULE 4 – QUIZ


4) Victims are unable to leave their TIP situations because
   they distrust law enforcement, fearful of traffickers,
   ashamed, and are often unaware they have basic rights.

True
False
          MODULE 4 – QUIZ




CORRECT! The correct answer is “True.”
            MODULE 4 – QUIZ


False. INCORRECT. Victims are unable to
leave traffickers because of various reasons that
include distrust of law enforcement, fearful of
traffickers, etc. Victims do not have to be
locked up as the only means for them not being
able to leave their TIP situation. The correct
answer is “True.”
                  MODULE 4 – QUIZ


5) Some of the physical health problems experienced by
   TIP victims include __________.

a.   Lame limbs or broken bones
b.   STDs/HIV/AIDs
c.   Depression or suicidal behavior
d.   A and B
e.   All the Above
            MODULE 4 – QUIZ


a. INCORRECT. Responses a and b are
physical health issues whereas response c is a
mental health issue. The correct answer is d.
            MODULE 4 – QUIZ


b. INCORRECT. Responses a and b are
physical health issues whereas response c is a
mental health issue. The correct answer is d.
           MODULE 4 – QUIZ


c. INCORRECT. Response c is a mental health
issue whereas responses a and b are physical
health issues. The correct answer is d.
MODULE 4 – QUIZ




d. CORRECT!
             MODULE 4 – QUIZ


e. INCORRECT. Responses a and b are
physical health issues whereas response c is a
mental health issue, so it’s not all of the above.
The correct answer is d.
              Module 5 - Combating TIP

Objectives:
• Identify Where Victims Are Found
• Identify Victim Indicators
• Take Appropriate Action against TIP
                         Module 5 - Combating TIP


Locations Victims May be Found
Some locations that military personnel, civilian personnel, and contractors
may likely come across victims while serving abroad or in the U.S. can
include:
 Sex Trafficking:
 •Dance clubs, strip clubs or bars
 •Massage parlors or spas
 •Street-based prostitution
 •Escort services

 Labor Trafficking:
 •Food services
 •Domestic services
 •Construction
 •Factories
 •Hotels                             Photo by: Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department.
                        Module 5 - Combating TIP


                     Victim Identification Indicators

                             Physical/Environmental
                             Signs of abuse
                             No identification
                             Unable to speak local
                             language
                             Lives and confined at worksite
                             Escorted or monitored
                             Indebted to employer
Note: This is not an exhaustive list of indicators, but a select list of examples seen around the
world—including in the U.S.
                Module 5 - Combating TIP


Reporting TIP
               Module 5 - Combating TIP

Warning: If you detect a TIP situation, do not get directly involved. Your
actions may worsen the situation for the victim(s).

                                        Appropriate Actions:
                                        •Do not purchase sex
                                        •Do not complicit or turn a blind eye to
                                        TIP if peers are involved
                                        •Education peers about TIP
                                        •Take and promote DoD TIP Awareness
                                        Training
                                        •Avoid establishments that show
                                        indicators of TIP
                                        •Report suspected establishments
                                        involved in TIP to your command
                                        •Report TIP situations to your chain of
                                        command
                  MODULE 5 – QUIZ


1) Locations where DoD personnel may come across TIP
   victims include _________.

a.   Hotels
b.   Street-based prostitution
c.   Dance clubs
d.   Construction sites
e.   All the above
            MODULE 5 – QUIZ


a. INCORRECT. While answers a is correct, it
is not an exclusive location where TIP victims
will be found. Victims can be found in any
location or industry where someone is willing
to exploit them for a profit. The correct answer
is e.
            MODULE 5 – QUIZ


b. INCORRECT. While answers b is correct, it
is not an exclusive location where TIP victims
will be found. Victims can be found in any
location or industry where someone is willing
to exploit them for a profit. The correct answer
is e.
            MODULE 5 – QUIZ


c. INCORRECT. While answers c is correct, it
is not an exclusive location where TIP victims
will be found. Victims can be found in any
location or industry where someone is willing
to exploit them for a profit. The correct answer
is e.
            MODULE 5 – QUIZ


d. INCORRECT. While answers d is correct, it
is not an exclusive location where TIP victims
will be found. Victims can be found in any
location or industry where someone is willing
to exploit them for a profit. The correct answer
is e.
MODULE 5 – QUIZ




e. CORRECT!
                  MODULE 5 – QUIZ


2) Physical/Environmental victim indicators include
   ___________.

a.   No ID
b.   Submissive
c.   Does not speak the local language
d.   A and C
e.   All the above
             MODULE 5 – QUIZ


a. INCORRECT. While answer a is an
indicator, it is not the only indicator listed. The
correct answer is d.
           MODULE 5 – QUIZ


b. INCORRECT. While answer b is an
indicator, it is more of a
psychological/behavior indicator. The correct
answer is d.
            MODULE 5 – QUIZ


c. INCORRECT. While answer c is an
indicator, it is not the only
physical/environmental victim indicator listed.
The correct answer is d.
MODULE 5 – QUIZ




d. CORRECT!
           MODULE 5 – QUIZ


e. INCORRECT. While answers a-d are types
of indicators, a and c are
physical/environmental indicators. The correct
answer is d.
                MODULE 5 – QUIZ


3) Taking appropriate action includes _____________.

a. Only buying sex in countries where prostitution is
   legal
b. Educate peers about TIP
c. Report suspected establishments involved in TIP to
   your command
d. B and C
e. All the above
           MODULE 5 – QUIZ


a. INCORRECT. Under U.S. law, purchasing
sex is illegal and a criminal act—even in
countries where prostitution is legal. DoD
personnel will be held accountable if caught.
The correct answer is d.
           MODULE 5 – QUIZ


b. INCORRECT. Under U.S. law, purchasing
sex is illegal and a criminal act—even in
countries where prostitution is legal. DoD
personnel will be held accountable if caught.
The correct answer is d.
           MODULE 5 – QUIZ


c. INCORRECT. Under U.S. law, purchasing
sex is illegal and a criminal act—even in
countries where prostitution is legal. DoD
personnel will be held accountable if caught.
The correct answer is d.
MODULE 5 – QUIZ




d. CORRECT!
           MODULE 5 – QUIZ


e. INCORRECT. Under U.S. law, purchasing
sex is illegal and a criminal act—even in
countries where prostitution is legal. DoD
personnel will be held accountable if caught.
The correct answer is d.
                MODULE 5 – QUIZ


4) If you come across a TIP situation, you should
   immediately intervene and then call the authorities.

True
False
            MODULE 5 – QUIZ


True. INCORRECT. If you detect a TIP
situation, do not get directly involved. Your
actions may worsen the situation for victims.
Call the proper authorities immediately and
report any identified indicators, locations, and
people descriptions, and number of possible
victims. The correct answer is false.
          MODULE 5 – QUIZ




CORRECT! The correct answer is “False.”
           Module 6 - TIP Policy & Legal

Objectives:
• Review the TVPA
• Review the PROTECT Act
• Accountability for TIP
              Module 6 - TIP Policy & Legal


TIP Zero Tolerance Policy
                Module 6 - TIP Policy & Legal


Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA)
 The U.S. enacted the TVPA to
 comprehensively combat TIP by:
 •Prevention: public awareness
 •Protection: victim assistance
 •Prosecution: new criminal laws


The U.S. recognizes:
•TIP occurs within and across borders
•Victims can be foreign nationals or U.S.
citizens
               Module 6 - TIP Policy & Legal


Prosecuting Remedies and Tools Against the Exploitation of
Children Today Act of 2003 (PROTECT)
The PROTECT Act strengthens
the ability to prevent, investigate,
prosecute and punish violent
crimes committed against
children. The Act established the
AMBER Alert Program to help
recover abducted children. The
Act targets child sexual
exploitation such as child sex
tourism.                               Photo by: Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department.
                     Module 6 - TIP Policy & Legal


Punishment: Military Personnel Involved in TIP
  All military personnel serving overseas or in the U.S. are subject to punishment if they
 engaged in TIP—whether as a trafficker or as a customer who exploits victims. Although
           prostitution may be legal in a host country, it is illegal under U.S. law.
Military personnel will be held accountable under:

Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) 
Military personnel are subject to UCMJ
jurisdiction 24-hours a day, 7-days a week, while on or off duty, while on or off a
military installation, and worldwide.

U.S. Federal & State Criminal Codes 
Military personnel can be prosecuted for TIP
offenses under federal or state criminal codes addressing TIP or related offenses. In most
states, TIP is a felony offense. At the federal level, TIP sentences can be as high as life in
prison. Under the TVPA and PROTECT Acts, the U.S. government has jurisdiction over
TIP offenses committed overseas by U.S. citizens, including military personnel.
                          Module 6 - TIP Policy & Legal


Punishment: Civilians & Contractors
     All civilian personnel and contractors serving overseas or in the U.S. are subject to
  punishment if they engage in TIP—whether as a trafficker or as a customer who exploits
  victims. Although prostitution may be legal in a host country, it is illegal under U.S. law.
Civilian personnel and contractors engaging in TIP will be held accountable under:

Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act (MEJA) 
MEJA allows for serious crimes committed overseas be
punishable in the U.S. The Act ensures that DoD civilians and civilian contractors are governed by U.S. law even
when operating in other regions of the world.

Uniformed Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) 
Civilians and contractors are subject to UCMJ jurisdiction in a
time of declared war or during a contingency operation when they are serving with or accompanying an armed
force in the field.

U.S. Federal & State Criminal Codes
Civilian personnel and contractors are liable for prosecution of TIP offenses under federal or state criminal codes if
the crimes were committed in the U.S. In most states, TIP is a felony offense. At the federal level, TIP sentences
can be as high as life in prison. Under the TVPA and PROTECT Acts, the U.S. government has jurisdiction over
TIP offenses committed overseas by U.S. citizen.
               MODULE 6 – QUIZ


1) The U.S. government, including the DoD, has a zero
   tolerance policy on TIP.

True
False
          MODULE 6 – QUIZ




CORRECT! The correct answer is “True.”
            MODULE 6 – QUIZ


False. INCORRECT. The U.S. government has
a zero tolerance policy on TIP. National
Presidential Security Directive 22 establishes
DoD’s zero tolerance policy on TIP. The correct
answer is true.
                  MODULE 6 – QUIZ


2) The U.S. takes a comprehensive approach to combating
    TIP by focusing on ____________.

a.   Protection and Prevention
b.   Prosecution and Prevention
c.   Prevention, Protection, Prosecution
d.   Prevention, Protection, Prosecution, Deportation
            MODULE 6 – QUIZ


a. INCORRECT. The U.S. takes a
comprehensive and victim-centered approach
by focusing on prevention, protection and
prosecution. The U.S. does not seek to deport
victims of TIP, but rather seeks to assist them.
The correct answer is c.
            MODULE 6 – QUIZ


b. INCORRECT. The U.S. takes a
comprehensive and victim-centered approach
by focusing on prevention, protection and
prosecution. The U.S. does not seek to deport
victims of TIP, but rather seeks to assist them.
The correct answer is c.
MODULE 6 – QUIZ




c. CORRECT!
            MODULE 6 – QUIZ


d. INCORRECT. The U.S. takes a
comprehensive and victim-centered approach
by focusing on prevention, protection and
prosecution. The U.S. does not seek to deport
victims of TIP, but rather seeks to assist them.
The correct answer is c.
                 MODULE 6 – QUIZ


3) The PROTECT Act strengthens the ability to
   ___________ violent crimes committed against children.

a.   Prevent
b.   Investigate
c.   Prosecute and punish
d.   All the above
            MODULE 6 – QUIZ


a. INCORRECT. While answers a-c are
correct, they are not exclusive means of
addressing violent crimes against children. The
correct answer is d.
            MODULE 6 – QUIZ


b. INCORRECT. While answers a-c are
correct, they are not exclusive means of
addressing violent crimes against children. The
correct answer is d.
           MODULE 6 – QUIZ


c. INCORRECT. While answers a-c are correct,
they are not exclusive means of addressing
violent crimes against children. The correct
answer is d.
MODULE 6 – QUIZ




d. CORRECT!
                 MODULE 6 – QUIZ


4) Military, civilians, or contractors who purchase sex in a
   country where prostitution is legal will not face
   punishment.

True
False
            MODULE 6 – QUIZ


True. INCORRECT. The U.S. government can
prosecute individuals who purchase
commercial sex in countries where prostitution
is legal. Prostitution is illegal under U.S. law.
The correct answer is false.
          MODULE 6 – QUIZ




CORRECT! The correct answer is “False.”
                  MODULE 6 – QUIZ


5) Military, civilians, and contractors can be prosecuted
   for engaging in TIP overseas under _________.

a.   UCMJ
b.   U.S. federal and state criminal codes
c.   U.S. government does not have jurisdiction overseas
d.   A and B
           MODULE 6 – QUIZ


a. INCORRECT. While answer a is correct, it
is not an exclusive means of prosecuting
individuals engaging in TIP. The correct
answer is d.
           MODULE 6 – QUIZ


b. INCORRECT. While answer b is correct, it
is not an exclusive means of prosecuting
individuals engaging in TIP. The correct answer
is d.
           MODULE 6 – QUIZ


c. INCORRECT. The U.S. has jurisdiction over
TIP offenses even if committed overseas. The
correct answer is d.
MODULE 6 – QUIZ




d. CORRECT!
          CONGRATULATIONS!


You have completed the FY 2013 CTIP
           Training Module!

To ensure you receive credit for meeting this
annual requirement, click the link below to
complete the automated email notification as well
as obtain a copy of your certificate for your records.


              (CLICK HERE)

				
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