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Right To Food Guidelines

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					  The Voluntary Guidelines on the
Progressive Realization of the Right
to Adequate Food in the Context of
      National Food Security
                      Margret Vidar
                      Legal Officer
                          FAO


        International Workshop on Right to Food Framework Law
                      Brasilia 15-17 December 2004
               Overview
   Right to Food Milestones
   Intergovernmental Working Group on
    Right to Food Guidelines
   Content of Right to Food Guidelines
   Legal Framework
         Freedom from Want
   Four Freedoms Speech:
    • Foundations of UN
   Universal Declaration of Human
    Rights
    • Article 25
    • Adequate Standard of Living
    • Including Food
   Possible Customary International
    Law
    • Links to UN Charter
                Treaties
   Economic, Social & Cultural
   Civil & Political
   Geneva Conventions, ICC Statute
   Genocide Convention
   Refugee Convention
   Women’s Rights - CEDAW
   Rights of the Child
Implementation & Interpretation
   Sub-Commission on Human Rights -
    Asbjorn Eide, (1980s)
   World Food Summit (1996)
   NGO Code of Conduct (1997)
   High Commissioner for Human Rights:
    Expert Consultations (1997, 1998, 2001)
   General Comment 12 of CESCR (1999)
   Special Rapporteur (2000)
   World Food Summit: Five Years Later
    (2002)
          WFS: fyl (June 2002)
   Reaffirmed Right of Everyone to Adequate
    Food and Fundamental Right to be Free
    From Hunger
   Asked FAO to Establish an
    Intergovernmental Working Group to
    Elaborate Voluntary Guidelines on
    Progressive Realization of the Right to
    Adequate Food
                 IGWG Process
•   2 years
•   Participation of Stakeholders
    • Brazilian Special Rapporteur

•   IGWG: Four Sessions
•   One Inter-Session Working Group
•   Bureau: Two Drafting Sessions
•   Friends of Chair: Negotiation Session

•   Voluntary Guidelines Adopted by FAO Council in
    November 2004
•   Brazil:
    • Bureau member for GRULAC
    • Very Active in Negotiations
             FAO Activities
   Providing Negotiation Forum
   Preparation of First Draft
   Information Papers
   Case Studies – Including Brazil
   Support to Country Activities –
    Including Brazil Special Rapporteur
         Right to Food Guidelines
   Voluntary – Not Legally Binding
   Addressed to All States
    • Parties and Non-Parties to ICESCR
    • Role of Stakeholders Acknowledged
   Practical Tool: What to Do
   Consensus by All States on Meaning of Right to
    Food and Ways of Implementation
   Principles:
    •   Universality – Developed & Developing Countries
    •   Non-Discrimination
    •   Interdependence of All Human Rights
    •   Rule of Law
    •   Participation
    •   Protection of Vulnerable Groups & Individuals
Voluntary Guidelines – Contents
   Section I: Preface and Introduction
    • Including What are Food Security, Right to
      Food, Rights Based Approaches
   Section II: Enabling Environment,
    Assistance and Accountability
    • Guidelines 1 - 19

   Section III: International Measures,
    Actions and Commitments
  Section II: Guidelines 1 - 10
1: Democracy, Good Governance, Human Rights
  and the Rule of Law
2: Economic Development Policies
3: Strategies
4: Market Systems
5: Institutions
6: Stakeholders
7: Legal Framework
8: Access to Resources and Assets
9: Food Safety and Consumer Protection
10: Nutrition
         Guidelines 11 - 19
11: Education and Awareness Raising
12: National Financial Resources
13: Support for Vulnerable Groups
14: Safety Nets
15: International Food Aid
16: Natural and Human-Made Disasters
17: Monitoring, Indicators and Benchmarks
18: National Human Rights Institutions
19: International Dimension
     Guideline 18: National Human
          Rights Institutions
   Establish National Human Rights
    Institutions
    • Commissions, Ombudspersons, etc.
   Independence: Paris Principles
   Mandate to Include Right to Food
   Civil Society Participation
             Paris Principles
   Principles Relating to the Status and
    Functioning of National Institutions for
    Protection and Promotion of Human Rights
    • Commission on Human Rights Resolution
      1992/54
    • General Assembly Resolution A/RES/48/134
   Composition and Guarantees of
    Independence and Pluralism
    Guideline 7: Legal Framework
   Domestic Legal and
    Constitutional Provisions
    • Brazil: Constitution
   Direct Incorporation of Right to
    Food
   Adequate, Prompt, Effective
    Remedies
   Public Information on Rights
      Inherent Difficulties w/RtF
   Complex & Cross Cutting
   Ideology
   Hunger
   Agency
   Asymmetry
   Private Goods

   Legislative Framework Can Address
             Framework Law
   Explicit Obligation in ICESCR Art. 2:
    Legislative Measures
   General Comment 12
    Recommendation
    • Goals
    • Timeframe
    • Civil Society Participation
    • Monitoring
    • Recourse
          Advantages of Clear
           Legal Framework
   Transparency & Accountability
   Define Rights
   Set Principles for Policies
   Spell Out Obligations
   Define Violations
   Assign Responsibility
   Strengthen Coordination
    • Vertical: Federal, State, Regional, Community
    • Horizontal: Between Sectors of Government
       What Else Can Law Do?
   Ensure Participation
   Entitlements
   Benchmarks
   Recourse
   Monitoring
   Role of Human Rights Institutions
   Priority
             Content of Law
   Everyone’s Right to Food
   Obligations to Respect, Protect, Fulfil
   Institutional Responsibilities
   Entitlements
   Recourse & Remedies
   Monitoring & Benchmarks
   Set Agenda for Further Legislative Review
   Revoke Contrary Laws
      Right to Food Obligations
   Obligations of All to Respect the
    Right to Food of Individuals
   Obligation of All Organs of State to
    Protect the Right to Food
    (Legislature, Judiciary, Executive)
   Obligation of Specific Organs to
    Facilitate & Provide the Right to Food
   Justiciability of Obligations
     Institutional Responsibilities
   Role of Different Ministries
   Responsibility & Authority of
    Coordination Bodies
    • CONSEA, etc.
   Responsibility of Local Government
    • Financing
   Accountability Mechanism
        Benchmarks & Targets
   Not Appropriate for Law to Establish
    Specific Benchmarks or Targets
   Law Could Stipulate
    • Who Sets the Benchmarks
    • Participatory Process for Establishing
      Targets
    • Periodicity of Updating Benchmarks &
      Targets
    • What Happens if Targets Not Met?
      Right to Food Monitoring
   Role of Human Rights Commissions
   Role of Special Rapporteur
   Responsibilities of Information
    Providers and Collectors
   Public Participation
          Sectoral Legislation
   Various Areas Impact Right to Food
   Cannot All Be Covered in One Law
   Legislative Review Assessment
   Identification of Laws Needing
    Revision
   Legislative Reform Agenda
    Areas of Legal Assessment
• Food Safety & Control; Consumer Protection
• Food Fortification & Nutritional Quality
• Drinking Water & Sanitation
• Access to Land and Natural Resources
• Social Safety Nets
        Emergency Food Assistance, School Feeding, Nutrition
         Supplements, Food for Work/Training
•   Public Education in Nutrition
•   Special Protection of Vulnerable Groups
•   Trade, Taxes, Tariffs, Subsidies
•   Market & Price Monitoring
•   Food Stocks
•   Etc.
        Minas Gerais Draft Law
       Covered                     Missing
   Right to Food             Role of Ministries
   Principles of Policy      Monitoring
   CONSEA-MG                 Remedies
   Links to Local            Ensuring
    Government                 Compliance
   Civil Society             More Clarity
    Participation
              Conclusion
   Right to Food: Long Recognized -
    Now Meaningful Implementation?
   Right to Food Guidelines: New Tool
    in Fighting Hunger
   Legislative Framework Should be
    Developed
   FAO Looks Forward to Learning from
    Brazil’s Legislative Experience
      More Information

 www.fao.org
 www.fao.org/righttofood

 www.fao.org/legal/
Thank You

				
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