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texte de la question                          réponseA
An aircraft departs from position A (04°10' S
178°22'W) and flies northward following the
meridian for 2950 NM. It then flies westward
along the parallel of latitude for 382 NM to
position B.
The coordinates of position B are?            45°00'N 172°38'E

The angle between the true great-circle track
and the true rhumb-line track joining the
following points: A (60° S 165° W) B (60° S
177° E), at the place of departure A, is:         7.8°
Given Waypoint 1 60°S 030°W and
Waypoint 2. 60°S 020°W, which have been
inserted into an INS connected to an
autopilot, what will be the approximate
Latitude shown on the display at longitude
025°W?                                            060°06'S
What is the time required to travel along the
parallel of latitude 60° N between meridians
010° E and 030° W at a groundspeed of 480
kt?                                               2 HR 30 MIN
An aircraft is following the 45°N parallel of
latitude.
The track followed is a:                          rhumb line
Given:
value for the flattening of the Earth is 1/298.

Earth's semi-major axis, as measured at the
equator, equals 6378.4 km.
What is the semi-minor axis (km) of the earth
at the axis of the poles?                         6 357.0
Position A is located on the equator at
longitude 130°00E. 

Position B is located 100 NM from A on a
bearing of 225°(T).

The coordinates of position B are:                01°11'S 128°49'E
In order to fly from position A (10°00'N,
030°00'W) to position B (30°00'N,
050°00'W), maintaining a constant true
course, it is necessary to fly:                   a rhumb line track
The great circle track measured at A (45
00'N 010 00'W) from A to B (45 00'N 019
00'W) is approximately:                           273°

The diameter of the Earth is approximately:       12 700 km

The maximum difference between geocentric
and geodetic latitude occurs at about:            45° North and South
The nominal scale of a Lambert conformal
conic chart is the:                               scale at the standard parallels
The chart that is generally used for
navigation in polar areas is based on a:          Stereographical projection
A Mercator chart has a scale at the equator =
1: 3 704 000.
What is the scale at latitude 60° S?              1: 1 852 000
The distance measured between two points
on a navigation map is 42 mm (millimetres).
The scale of the chart is 1:1 600 000.
The actual distance between these two point
is approximately:                           36.30 NM

The standard parallels of a Lambert's conical
projection are 07°40'N and 38°20' N.

The constant of the cone for this chart is
approximately:                                0.39
                                              is the same as earth
On a Lambert conformal conic chart the        convergency at the parallel of
convergence of the meridians:                 origin
A straight line drawn on a chart measures
4.63 cm and represents 150 NM.
The chart scale is:                           1: 6 000 000
On a Polar Stereographic chart, the initial
great circle course from A 70°N 060°W to B
70°N 060°E is approximately:                  030° (T)
On a Direct Mercator chart, a rhumb line
appears as a:                                 straight line
The great circle distance between position A
(59°34.1'N 008°08.4'E) and B (30°25.9'N
171°51.6'W) is:                               5 400 NM
On a Lambert Conformal Conic chart great      curves concave to the parallel
circles that are not meridians are:           of origin
On a direct Mercator projection, at latitude
45° North, a certain length represents 70
NM.
At latitude 30° North, the same length
represents approximately:                     86 NM
Given:
Position A 45°N, ?°E

Position B 45°N, 45°15'E

Distance A-B = 280 NM
B is to the East of A
Required: longitude of position A?            38°39'E
On a polar stereographic projection chart
showing the South Pole, a straight line joins
position A (70°S 065°E) to position B (70°S
025°W).

The true course on departure from position A
is approximately:                             225°
On a direct Mercator projection, the distance
measured between two meridians spaced 5°
apart at latitude 60°N is 8 cm.

The scale of this chart at latitude 60°N is
approximately:                                1: 3 500 000

Two positions plotted on a polar
stereographic chart, A (80°N 000°) and B
(70°N 102°W) are joined by a straight line
whose highest latitude is reached at 035°W.

At point B, the true course is:              203°
                                                   The scale increases with
How does the scale vary in a Direct Mercator       increasing distance from the
chart?                                             Equator.
Given:
Magnetic heading 311°

Drift angle 10° left

Relative bearing of NDB 270°

What is the magnetic bearing of the NDB
measured from the aircraft?                        221°
Given the following:
True track: 192°

Magnetic variation: 7°E

Drift angle: 5° left

What is the magnetic heading required to
maintain the given track?                          190°
Given the following:
Magnetic heading: 060°

Magnetic variation: 8°W

Drift angle: 4° right

What is the true track?                            056°
An aircraft is following a true track of 048° at
a constant TAS of 210 kt.
The wind velocity is 350° / 30 kt. 

The GS and drift angle are:                        192 kt, 7° right
Given:
FL 350,
Mach 0.80,
OAT -55°C. 

Calculate the values for TAS and local speed
of sound (LSS)?                                    461 kt , LSS 576 kt
Given:
Magnetic heading = 255°

VAR = 40°W

GS = 375 kt
W/V = 235°(T) / 120 kt

Calculate the drift angle?                         6° left
Given:
True Heading = 180° 

TAS = 500 kt
W/V 225° / 100 kt

Calculate the GS?                                  435 kt
Given:
True heading = 310° 

TAS = 200 kt
GS = 176 kt
Drift angle 7° right.

Calculate the W/V?                                 270° / 33 kt

If an aeroplane was to circle around the
Earth following parallel 60°N at a ground
speed of 480 kt. In order to circle around the
Earth along the equator in the same amount
of time, it should fly at a ground speed of:   960 kt
Given:
True Heading = 090° 

TAS = 180 kt
GS = 180 kt
Drift 5° right

Calculate the W/V?                                005° / 15 kt
Given:
True Heading = 090°

TAS = 200 kt
W/V = 220° / 30 kt.

Calculate the GS?                                 220 kt
The following information is displayed on an
Inertial Navigation System:
GS 520 kt,
True HDG 090°,

Drift angle 5° right,

TAS 480 kt.
SAT (static air temperature) -51°C.

The W/V being experienced is:                     320° / 60 kt
The reported surface wind from the Control
Tower is 240°/35 kt. Runway 30 (300°). 

What is the cross-wind component?                 30 kt
An aircraft passes position A (60°00'N
120°00'W) on route to position B (60°00'N
140°30'W). 

What is the great circle track on departure
from A?                                           279°
A great circle track joins position A (59°S
141°W) and B (61°S 148°W). 

How does the true track change when flying
from position A to position B?                    It increases by 6°
What is the longitude of a position 6 NM to
the east of 58°42'N 094°00'W?                     093°48.5'W
An aircraft is maintaining a 5.2% gradient is
at 7 NM from the runway, on a flat terrain; its
height is approximately:                          2210 FT
An aircraft is descending down a 6% slope
whilst maintaining a GS of 300 kt.
The rate of descent of the aircraft is
approximately:                                    1800 ft/min
The angle between the plane of the ecliptic
and the plane of equator is approximately:        23.5°
                                                  between sunset and when the
                                                  centre of the sun is 6° below
The duration of civil twilight is the time:       the celestial horizon
On the 27th of February, at 52°S and 040°E,
the sunrise is at 0243 UTC.
On the same day, at 52°S and 035°W, the
sunrise is at:                               0743 UTC
An aeroplane flies from A (59°S 142°W) to B
(61°S 148°W) with a TAS of 480 kt. 

The autopilot is engaged and coupled with an
Inertial Navigation System in which AB track
is active.
On route AB, the true track:                 increases by 5°
The rhumb-line distance between points A
(60°00'N 002°30'E) and B (60°00'N
007°30'W) is:                                  300 NM
An aircraft is over position HO (55°30'N
060°15'W), where YYR VOR (53°30'N
060°15'W) can be received. The magnetic
variation is 31°W at HO and 28°W at YYR.

What is the radial from YYR?                   028°
Given:
TAS = 485 kt,
OAT = ISA +10°C,

FL 410.
Calculate the Mach Number?                     0.825
(For this question use annex 061-1818A)
Assume a North polar stereographic chart
whose grid is
aligned with the Greenwich meridian.
An aircraft flies from the geographic North
pole for a distance
of 480 NM along the 110°E meridian, then
follows a grid track
of 154° for a distance of 300 NM.

Its position is now approximately:             80°00'N 080°E
Given:
A polar stereographic chart whose grid is
aligned with the zero meridian.
Grid track 344°, 

Longitude 115°00'W,

Calculate the true course?                     229°

The outer marker of an ILS with a 3° glide
slope is located 4.6 NM from the threshold.
Assuming a glide slope height of 50 FT
above the threshold, the approximate height
of an aircraft passing the outer marker is:      1450 FT
A ground feature appears 30° to the left of
the centre line of the CRT of an airborne
weather radar. If the heading of the aircraft is
355° (M) and the magnetic variation is 15°
East, the true bearing of the aircraft from the
feature is:                                      160°
Which is the highest latitude listed below at
which the sun will rise above the horizon and
set every day?                                   66.5°

(For this question use annex 061-2304A)
The UTC of sunrise on 6 December at
WINNIPEG (Canada) (49°50'N 097°30'W) is: 1413
(For this question use annexes 061-2305A
and 061-2305B)
 When it is 1000 Standard Time in Kuwait,
the Standard Time in Algeria is:          0800

The value of magnetic variation:               has a maximum of 180°
The constant of cone of a Lambert conformal
conic chart is quoted as 0.3955.
 At what latitude on the chart is earth
convergency correctly represented?           23°18'
On a Lambert Conformal chart the distance
between meridians 5° apart along latitude
37° North is 9 cm. The scale of the chart at
that parallel approximates:                  1: 5 000 000

The Great Circle bearing from A (70°S
030°W) to B (70°S 060°E) is approximately:       132°(T)
In a navigation chart a distance of 49 NM is
equal to 7 cm. The scale of the chart is
approximately:                                   1: 1 300 000
At 60° N the scale of a direct Mercator chart
is 1: 3 000 000.
What is the scale at the equator?                1: 6 000 000
What is the chart distance between
longitudes 179°E and 175°W on a direct
Mercator chart with a scale of 1: 5 000 000 at
the equator?                                     133 mm
The total length of the 53°N parallel of
latitude on a direct Mercator chart is 133 cm.
What is the approximate scale of the chart at
latitude 30°S?                                   1: 26 000 000
A Lambert conformal conic projection, with       the scale is only correct along
two standard parallels:                          the standard parallels
What is the constant of the cone for a
Lambert conic projection whose standard
parallels are at 50°N and 70°N?                  0.866
Calculate the constant of the cone on a
Lambert Chart given chart convergency
between 010°E and 030°W as being 30°             0.75

The horizontal component of the earth's          is stronger closer to the
magnetic field:                                  magnetic equator

(For this question use annex 061-2325A)
An aircraft takes off from Guam at 2300
Standard Time on 30 April local date.
After a flight of 11 HR 15 MIN it lands at Los
Angeles (California).
What is the Standard Time and local date of
arrival (assume summer time rules apply)?        1715 on 30 April
(For this question use annex 061-2326A)
When it is 0600 Standard Time in
Queensland (Australia) the Standard Time in
Hawaii (USA) is:                                 1000
The chart distance between meridians 10°
apart at latitude 65° North is 9.5 cm. The
chart scale at this latitude approximates:       1: 5 000 000
On a Lambert conformal conic chart, with two
standard parallels, the quoted scale is          along the two standard
correct:                                         parallels
The constant of the cone, which is also
known as convergence factor, of a Lamber
conformal conic chart, is quoted as 0.78535.

At what latitude on the chart is earth
convergency correctly represented?                51°45'
At 47° North the chart distance between
meridians 10° apart is 12.7 cm. 

The scale of the chart at 47° North
approximates:                                     1: 6 000 000
On a Direct Mercator chart a great circle will
be represented by a:                              curve concave to the equator
On a Lambert Conformal Conic chart earth
convergency is most accurately represented
at the:                                           parallel of origin

265 US-GAL equals? (Specific gravity 0.80)        803 kg
730 FT/MIN equals:                                3.7 m/sec
How long will it take to fly 5 NM at a
groundspeed of 269 Kt ?                           1 MIN 07 SEC
An aircraft travels 2.4 statute miles in 47
seconds.
What is its groundspeed?                          160 kt
An aircraft flies a great circle track from 56°
N 070° W to 62° N 110° E. 

The total distance travelled is?                  3720 NM
                                                  It is the time set by the legal
What is the meaning of the term "standard         authorities for a country or part
time" ?                                           of a country
What is the local mean time, position
65°25'N 123°45'W at 2200 UTC?                     1345
When is the magnetic compass most                 About midway between the
effective?                                        magnetic poles
What is the ISA temperature value at FL
330?                                              -51°C
Given:
True Track = 095°, 

TAS = 160 kt,
True Heading = 087°, 

GS = 130 kts;
Calculate W/V                                     057°/36 kt
Given:
TAS 487kt,
FL 330,
Temperature ISA + 15.
Calculate the MACH Number?                        0.81
Given:
M 0.80,
OAT -50°C, 

FL 330,
GS 490 kt,
VAR 20°W, 

Magnetic heading 140°, 

Drift is 11° Right. 

Calculate the true W/V?                           020°/95 kt
Given:
Compass Heading 090°, 

Deviation 2°W, 

Variation 12°E, 

TAS 160 kt.
Whilst maintaining a radial 070° from a VOR
station,
the aircraft flies a ground distance of 14 NM
in 6 MIN.
What is the W/V °(T)?                           160°/50 kt
How many NM would an aircraft travel in 1
MIN 45 SEC if GS is 135 kt?                     3.94
Parallels of latitude on a Direct Mercator      parallel straight lines unequally
chart are:                                      spaced
A chart has the scale 1: 1 000 000. From A
to B on the chart measures 3.8 cm, the
distance from A to B in NM is:                  20.5
Contour lines on aeronautical maps and          having the same elevation
charts connect points:                          above sea level
                                                a line on the surface of the
                                                earth cutting all meridians at
A Rhumb line is:                                the same angle
A straight line on a Lambert Conformal
Projection chart for normal flight planning
purposes:                                       is approximately a Great Circle
Fuel flow per HR is 22 US-GAL, total fuel on
board is 83 IMP GAL.
What is the endurance?                          4 HR 32 MIN
What is the ratio between the litre and the
US-GAL ?                                        1 US-GAL equals 3.78 litres
Given:
true track is 348°, 

drift 17° left, 

variation 32° W, 

deviation 4°E. 

What is the compass heading?                    033°
The circumference of the earth is
approximately:                                  21600 NM
The Local Mean Time at longitude 095°20'W,
at 0000 UTC, is:                                1738:40 previous day
5 HR 20 MIN 20 SEC corresponds to a
longitude difference of:                        80°05'
What is the value of the magnetic dip at the
magnetic south pole ?                           90°
The main reason that day and night,
throughout the year, have different duration,   inclination of the ecliptic to the
is due to the:                                  equator

The lines on the earth's surface that join
points of equal magnetic variation are called: isogonals
An aircraft departing A(N40º 00´ E080º 00´)
flies a constant true track of 270º at a ground
speed of 120 kt.
What are the coordinates of the position
reached in 6 HR?                                N40º 00´ E064º 20´
An aircraft travels 100 statute miles in 20
MIN, how long does it take to travel 215 NM?       50 MIN
Given:
TAS = 220 kt;
Magnetic course = 212 º, 

W/V 160 º(M)/ 50kt,

Calculate the GS?                                  186 kt
Given:
FL250,
OAT -15 ºC, 

TAS 250 kt.
Calculate the Mach No.?                            0.40
During a low level flight two parallel roads are
crossed at right angles by an aircraft. What
can the time taken between the road
crossing be used to check?                         groundspeed
Assuming zero wind, what distance will be
covered by an aircraft descending 15000 FT
with a TAS of 320 kt and maintaining a rate
of descent of 3000 FT/MIN?                         26.7 NM
Given:
Magnetic track = 315 º, 

HDG = 301 º(M),

VAR = 5ºW,

TAS = 225 kt,
The aircraft flies 50 NM in 12 MIN.
Calculate the W/V(°T)?                             190 º/63 kt

An island appears 30° to the left of the centre
line on an airborne weather radar display.
What is the true bearing of the aircraft from
the island if at the time of observation the
aircraft was on a magnetic heading of 276°
with the magnetic variation 12°W?               054°
Given:
True track 180°

Drift 8°R

Compass heading 195°

Deviation -2°

Calculate the variation.                        21°W

Compass deviation is defined as the angle          Magnetic North and Compass
between:                                           North
Given:
True Track 300°

Drift 8°R

Variation 10°W

Deviation -4° 


Calculate the compass heading.                     306°
Given:
true track 352°

variation 11° W

deviation is -5°

drift 10°R.

Calculate the compass heading?            358°
Given:
true track 070°

variation 30°W

deviation +1°

drift 10°R

Calculate the compass heading?            089°
The angle between True North and Magnetic
North is called:                          variation

Deviation applied to magnetic heading gives: compass heading
A nautical mile is equivalent to:            1852 m
An aircraft flies the following rhumb line
tracks and distances
from position 04°00'N 030°00'W:

600 NM South,
then 600 NM East,
then 600 NM North,
then 600 NM West.
The final position of the aircraft is:       04°00'N 029°58'W

What is the final position after the following
rhumb line tracks and distances have been
followed from position 60°00'N 030°00'W?

South for 3600 NM,
East for 3600 NM,
North for 3600 NM,
West for 3600 NM.
The final position of the aircraft is:           60°00'N 090°00'W
Given:
TAS = 270 kt,
True HDG = 270°,

Actual wind 205°(T)/30kt,

Calculate the drift angle and GS?                6R - 259kt
Given:
TAS = 270 kt,
True HDG = 145°,

Actual wind = 205°(T)/30kt.

Calculate the drift angle and GS?                6°L - 256 kt
Given:
TAS = 470 kt,
True HDG = 317°

W/V = 045°(T)/45kt

Calculate the drift angle and GS?                5°L - 470 kt
Given:
TAS = 140 kt,
True HDG = 302°,

W/V = 045°(T)/45kt

Calculate the drift angle and GS?                16°L - 156 kt
Given:
TAS = 290 kt,
True HDG = 171°,

W/V = 310°(T)/30kt

Calculate the drift angle and GS?   4°L - 314 kt
Given:
TAS = 485 kt,
True HDG = 226°,

W/V = 110°(T)/95kt.

Calculate the drift angle and GS?   9°R - 533 kt
Given:
TAS = 472 kt,
True HDG = 005°,

W/V = 110°(T)/50kt.

Calculate the drift angle and GS.   6°L/490 kt
Given:
TAS = 190 kt,
True HDG = 085°,

W/V = 110°(T)/50kt.

Calculate the drift angle and GS?   8°L - 146 kt
Given:
TAS = 132 kt,
True HDG = 257°

W/V = 095°(T)/35kt.

Calculate the drift angle and GS?   4°R - 165 kt
Given:
TAS = 370 kt,
True HDG = 181°,

W/V = 095°(T)/35kt.

Calculate the true track and GS?    186 - 370 kt
Given:
TAS = 375 kt,
True HDG = 124°,

W/V = 130°(T)/55kt.

Calculate the true track and GS?    123 - 320 kt
Given:
TAS = 125 kt,
True HDG = 355°,

W/V = 320°(T)/30kt.

Calculate the true track and GS?    005 - 102 kt
Given:
TAS = 198 kt,
HDG (°T) = 180,

W/V = 359/25.
Calculate the Track(°T) and GS?     180 - 223 kt
Given:
TAS = 135 kt,
HDG (°T) = 278,

W/V = 140/20kt
Calculate the Track (°T) and GS?    283 - 150 kt
Given:
TAS = 225 kt,
HDG (°T) = 123°,

W/V = 090/60kt.
Calculate the Track (°T) and GS?    134 - 178 kt
Given:
TAS = 480 kt,
HDG (°T) = 040°,

W/V = 090/60kt.
Calculate the Track (°T) and GS?    034 - 445 kt
Given:
TAS = 155 kt,
HDG (T) = 216°,

W/V = 090/60kt.
Calculate the Track (°T) and GS.    231 - 196 kt
Given:
TAS = 170 kt,
HDG(T) = 100°,

W/V = 350/30kt.
Calculate the Track (°T) and GS?    109 - 182 kt
Given:
TAS = 235 kt,
HDG (T) = 076°

W/V = 040/40kt.
Calculate the drift angle and GS?   7R - 204 kt
Given:
TAS = 440 kt,
HDG (T) = 349°

W/V = 040/40kt.
Calculate the drift and GS?         4L - 415 kt
Given:
TAS = 465 kt,
HDG (T) = 124°,

W/V = 170/80kt.
Calculate the drift and GS?         8L - 415 kt
Given:
TAS = 95 kt,
HDG (T) = 075°,

W/V = 310/20kt.
Calculate the drift and GS?         9R - 108 kt
Given:
TAS = 140 kt,
HDG (T) = 005°,

W/V = 265/25kt.
Calculate the drift and GS?         10R - 146 kt
Given:
TAS = 190 kt,
HDG (T) = 355°,

W/V = 165/25kt.
Calculate the drift and GS?         1L - 215 kt
Given:
TAS = 230 kt,
HDG (T) = 250°,

W/V = 205/10kt.
Calculate the drift and GS?         2R - 223 kt
Given:
TAS = 205 kt,
HDG (T) = 180°,

W/V = 240/25kt.
Calculate the drift and GS?         6L - 194 kt
Given:
TAS = 250 kt,
HDG (T) = 029°,

W/V = 035/45kt.
Calculate the drift and GS?        1L - 205 kt
Given:
TAS = 132 kt,
HDG (T) = 053°,

W/V = 205/15kt.
Calculate the Track (°T) and GS?   050 - 145 kt
Given:
TAS = 90 kt,
HDG (T) = 355°,

W/V = 120/20kt.
Calculate the Track (°T) and GS?   346 - 102 kt
Given:
TAS = 485 kt,
HDG (T) = 168°,

W/V = 130/75kt.
Calculate the Track (°T) and GS?   174 - 428 kt
Given:
TAS = 155 kt,
Track (T) = 305°,

W/V = 160/18kt.
Calculate the HDG (°T) and GS?     301 - 169 kt
Given:
TAS = 130 kt,
Track (T) = 003°,

W/V = 190/40kt.
Calculate the HDG (°T) and GS?     001 - 170 kt
Given:
TAS = 227 kt,
Track (T) = 316°, 

W/V = 205/15kt.
Calculate the HDG (°T) and GS?     312 - 232 kt
Given:
TAS = 465 kt,
Track (T) = 007°,

W/V = 300/80kt.
Calculate the HDG (°T) and GS?     358 - 428 kt
Given:
TAS = 200 kt,
Track (T) = 073°,

W/V = 210/20kt.
Calculate the HDG (°T) and GS?     077 - 214 kt
Given:
TAS = 200 kt,
Track (T) = 110°,

W/V = 015/40kt.
Calculate the HDG (°T) and GS?     099 - 199 kt
Given:
TAS = 270 kt,
Track (T) = 260°,

W/V = 275/30kt.
Calculate the HDG (°T) and GS?     262 - 241 kt
Given:
True HDG = 307°,

TAS = 230 kt,
Track (T) = 313°,

GS = 210 kt.
Calculate the W/V?   260/30kt
Given:
True HDG = 233°,

TAS = 480 kt,
Track (T) = 240°,

GS = 523 kt.
Calculate the W/V?   110/75kt
Given:
True HDG = 133°,

TAS = 225 kt,
Track (T) = 144°,

GS = 206 kt.
Calculate the W/V?   075/45kt
Given:
True HDG = 074°,

TAS = 230 kt,
Track (T) = 066°,

GS = 242 kt.
Calculate the W/V?   180/35kt
Given:
True HDG = 206°,

TAS = 140 kt,
Track (T) = 207°,

GS = 135 kt.
Calculate the W/V?   180/05kt
Given:
True HDG = 054°,

TAS = 450 kt,
Track (T) = 059°,

GS = 416 kt.
Calculate the W/V?   010/50kt
Given:
True HDG = 145°,

TAS = 240 kt,
Track (T) = 150°,

GS = 210 kt.
Calculate the W/V?   115/35kt
Given:
True HDG = 002°,

TAS = 130 kt,
Track (T) = 353°,

GS = 132 kt.
Calculate the W/V?   092/20 kt
Given:
True HDG = 035°,

TAS = 245 kt,
Track (T) = 046°,

GS = 220 kt.
Calculate the W/V?   340/50kt
Given:
course required = 085° (T),

Forecast W/V 030/100kt,
TAS = 470 kt,
Distance = 265 NM.
Calculate the true HDG and flight time?       075°, 39 MIN
Given:
True course from A to B = 090°,

TAS = 460 kt,
W/V = 360/100 kt,
Average variation = 10°E,

Deviation = -2°.

Calculate the compass heading and GS.         070° - 450 kt
For a landing on runway 23 (227° magnetic)
surface
W/V reported by the ATIS is 180/30kt.
VAR is 13°E. 

Calculate the cross wind component?           22 kt
Given:
Maximum allowable tailwind component for
landing 10 kt.
Planned runway 05 (047° magnetic). 

The direction of the surface wind reported by
ATIS 210°. 

Variation is 17°E. 

Calculate the maximum allowable wind
speed that can
be accepted without exceeding the tailwind
limit?
                                              10 kt
Given:
Maximum allowable crosswind component is
20 kt.
Runway 06, RWY QDM 063°(M). 

Wind direction 100°(M)

Calculate the maximum allowable wind
speed?                                        33 kt
Given:
True course A to B = 250°

Distance A to B = 315 NM
TAS = 450 kt.
W/V = 200°/60kt.

ETD A = 0650 UTC.
What is the ETA at B?                         0736 UTC
Given: GS = 510 kt.
Distance A to B = 43 NM
What is the time (MIN) from A to B?           5
Given: GS = 122 kt.
Distance from A to B = 985 NM.
What is the time from A to B?                 8 HR 04 MIN
Given: GS = 236 kt.
Distance from A to B = 354 NM
What is the time from A to B?                 1 HR 30 MIN
Given: GS = 435 kt.
Distance from A to B = 1920 NM.
What is the time from A to B?                 4 HR 25 MIN
Given: GS = 345 kt.
Distance from A to B = 3560 NM.
What is the time from A to B?                     10 HR 19 MIN
Given: GS = 480 kt.
Distance from A to B = 5360 NM.
What is the time from A to B?                     11 HR 10 MIN
Given: GS = 95 kt.
Distance from A to B = 480 NM.
What is the time from A to B?                     5 HR 03 MIN
Given: GS = 105 kt.
Distance from A to B = 103 NM.
What is the time from A to B?                     00 HR 59 MIN
Given: GS = 120 kt.
Distance from A to B = 84 NM.
What is the time from A to B?                     00 HR 42 MIN
Given: GS = 135 kt.
Distance from A to B = 433 NM.
What is the time from A to B?                     3 HR 12 MIN

A straight line is drawn on a Lamberts
conformal conic chart between two positions
of different longitude. The angular difference
between the initial true track and the final
true track of the line is equal to:               chart convergency
An aircraft at FL370 is required to commence
descent at 120 NM from a VOR and to cross
the facility at FL130. If the mean GS for the
descent is 288 kt, the minimum rate of
descent required is:                              960 FT/MIN
An aircraft at FL310, M0.83, temperature -
30°C, is required to reduce speed in order to
cross a reporting point five minutes later than
planned.
Assuming that a zero wind component
remains unchanged, when 360 NM from the
reporting point Mach Number should be
reduced to:                                       M0.74
An aircraft at FL350 is required to descend to
cross a DME facility at FL80.
Maximum rate of descent is 1800 FT/MIN
and mean GS for descent is 276 kt.
The minimum range from the DME at which
descent should start is:                          69 NM
An aircraft at FL120, IAS 200kt, OAT -5° and
wind component +30kt, is required to reduce
speed in order to cross a reporting point 5
MIN later than planned.
Assuming flight conditions do not change,
when 100 NM from the reporting point IAS
should be reduced to:                             159 kt
Given:
Runway direction 083°(M),

Surface W/V 035/35kt.
Calculate the effective headwind
component?                                        24 kt
Approximately how many nautical miles
correspond to 12 cm on a map with a scale
of 1: 2 000 000?                                 130
An aircraft at FL350 is required to cross a
VOR/DME facility at
FL110 and to commence descent when 100
NM from the facility.
If the mean GS for the descent is 335 kt, the
minimum rate of
descent required is:                             1340 FT/MIN
An aircraft at FL370, M0.86, OAT -44°C,
headwind component 110 kt, is required to
reduce speed in order to cross a reporting
point 5 MIN later than planned.
If the speed reduction were to be made 420
NM from the reporting point, what Mach
Number is required?                              M0.81
Given:
For take-off an aircraft requires a headwind
component
of at least 10 kt and has a cross-wind
limitation of 35 kt.
The angle between the wind direction and
the runway is 60°, 

Calculate the minimum and maximum
allowable wind speeds?                           20 kt and 40 kt
An aircraft at FL390 is required to descend to
cross a DME facility at FL70. Maximum rate
of descent is 2500 FT/MIN, mean GS during
descent is 248 kt. What is the minimum
range from the DME at which descent should
commence?                                        53 NM
Given:
Runway direction 230°(T), 

Surface W/V 280°(T)/40 kt. 

Calculate the effective cross-wind
component?                                       31 kt
An aircraft at FL370 is required to commence
descent when
100 NM from a DME facility and to cross the
station at FL120.
If the mean GS during the descent is 396 kt,
the minimum
rate of descent required is approximately:       1650 FT/MIN

An aircraft at FL140, IAS 210 kt, OAT -5°C
and wind component minus 35 kt, is required
to reduce speed in order to cross a reporting
point 5 MIN later than planned.
Assuming that flight conditions do not
change, when 150 NM from the reporting
point the IAS should be reduced by:           20 kt
A Lambert conformal conic chart has a
constant of the cone of 0.75.
The initial course of a straight line track
drawn on this chart from A (40°N 050°W) to
B is 043°(T) at A; course at B is 055°(T). 

What is the longitude of B?                    34°W
Given:
Runway direction 210°(M),

Surface W/V 230°(M)/30kt. 

Calculate the cross-wind component?            10 kt
At 0422 an aircraft at FL370, GS 320kt,
is on the direct track to VOR 'X' 185 NM
distant.
The aircraft is required to cross VOR 'X' at
FL80.
For a mean rate of descent of 1800 FT/MIN
at a mean GS of 232 kt,
the latest time at which to commence
descent is:                                    0445

An aircraft at FL330 is required to commence
descent
when 65 NM from a VOR and to cross the
VOR at FL100.
The mean GS during the descent is 330 kt.
What is the minimum rate of descent
required?                                    1950 FT/MIN

An aircraft obtains a relative bearing of 315°
from an NDB at 0830. At 0840 the relative
bearing from the same NDB is 270°. 

Assuming no drift and a GS of 240 kt, what is
the approximate range from the NDB at
0840?                                          40 NM

The equivalent of 70 m/sec is approximately:   136 kt
An aircraft at FL290 is required to commence
descent
when 50 NM from a VOR and to cross that
VOR at FL80.
Mean GS during descent is 271kt.
What is the minimum rate of descent
required?                                      1900 FT/MIN
A Lambert conformal conic chart has a
constant of the cone of 0.80.
A straight line course drawn on this chart
from A (53°N 004°W) to B is 080° at A;
course at B is 092°(T). 

What is the longitude of B?                    011°E
Given:
Runway direction 305°(M),

Surface W/V 260°(M)/30 kt. 

Calculate the cross-wind component?            21 kt
An aircraft at FL350 is required to commence
descent
when 85 NM from a VOR and to cross the
VOR at FL80.
The mean GS for the descent is 340 kt.
What is the minimum rate of descent
required?                                     1800 FT/MIN
An island is observed by weather radar to be
15° to the left. 

The aircraft heading is 120°(M) and the
magnetic variation 17°W. 

What is the true bearing of the aircraft from
the island?                                   268°

The distance between positions A and B is
180 NM. An aircraft departs position A and
after having travelled 60 NM, its position is
pinpointed 4 NM left of the intended track.
Assuming no change in wind velocity, what
alteration of heading must be made in order
to arrive at position B?                         6° Right
Complete the following statement regarding       magnetic pole movement
magnetic variation.                              causing numerical values at all
The charted values of magnetic variation on      locations to increase or
earth normally change annually due to:           decrease

On a Direct Mercator chart at latitude 15°S, a
certain length represents a distance of 120
NM on the earth.
The same length on the chart will represent
on the earth, at latitude 10°N, a distance of:   122.3 NM
On a Direct Mercator chart at latitude 45°N, a
certain chart length along 45°N represents a
distance of 90 NM on the surface of the
earth. The same length on a chart along
latitude 30°N will represent a distance on the
earth of:                                        110 NM
In which two months of the year is the
difference between the transit of the
Apparent Sun and Mean Sun across the
Greenwich Meridian the greatest?                 February and November
What is the highest latitude listed below at
which the sun will reach an altitude of 90°
above the horizon at some time during the
year?                                            23.5°
Assuming mid-latitudes (40° to 50°N/S).

At which time of year is the relationship
between the length
of day and night, as well as the rate of
change of declination                            Spring equinox and autumn
of the sun, changing at the greatest rate?       equinox
At what approximate date is the earth closest
to the sun (perihelion)?                         Beginning of January
At what approximate date is the earth
furthest from the sun (aphelion)?                Beginning of July
A flight is to be made from 'A' 49°S 180°E/W
to 'B' 58°S, 180°E/W.

The distance in kilometres from 'A' to 'B' is
approximately:                                     1000
An aircraft at position 60°N 005°W tracks
090°(T) for 315 km.

On completion of the flight the longitude will
be:                                                000°40'E
The 'departure' between positions 60°N
160°E and 60°N 'x' is 900 NM to the East.

What is the longitude of 'x'?                      170°W
An aircraft at latitude 02°20'N tracks 180°(T)
for 685 km.
On completion of the flight the latitude will
be:                                                03°50'S
An aircraft at latitude 10° South flies north at
a GS of 890 km/h.
What will its latitude be after 1.5 hour?          02°00'N
An aircraft at latitude 10° North flies south at
a groundspeed of 445 km/h.
What will be its latitude after 1 hour?            02°00'S
Given:
Distance A to B = 120 NM,
After 30 NM aircraft is 3 NM to the left of
course.
What heading alteration should be made in
order to arrive at point 'B'?                      8° right
A ground feature was observed on a relative
bearing of 45° left of the nose and 3 MIN
later on a relative bearing of 90° left of the
nose.
The W/V is calm; aircraft GS 180 kt.
What is the minimum distance between the
aircraft and the ground feature?                   9 NM
An island is observed to be 30° to the right of
the nose of the aircraft.
The aircraft heading is 290°(M), variation
10°(E).

The bearing °(T) from the aircraft to the
island is:                                         330
An island is observed to be 15° to the left.

The aircraft heading is 120°(M), variation
17°(W).

The bearing °(T) from the aircraft to the
island is:                                         088

An aircraft is planned to fly from position 'A'
to position 'B',
distance 480 NM at an average GS of 240 kt.
It departs 'A' at 1000 UTC.
After flying 150 NM along track from 'A', the
aircraft is 2 MIN behind planned time.
Using the actual GS experienced, what is the
revised ETA at 'B'?                             1206
An aircraft is planned to fly from position 'A'
to position 'B', distance 320 NM, at an
average GS of 180 kt. It departs 'A' at 1200
UTC. After flying 70 NM along track from 'A',
the aircraft is 3 MIN ahead of planned time.
Using the actual GS experienced, what is the
revised ETA at 'B'?                               1333 UTC
An aircraft is planned to fly from position 'A'
to position 'B',
distance 250 NM at an average GS of 115 kt.
It departs 'A' at 0900 UTC.
After flying 75 NM along track from 'A', the
aircraft is 1.5 MIN behind planned time.
Using the actual GS experienced, what is the
revised ETA at 'B'?                               1115 UTC
Given:
Magnetic track = 075°,

HDG = 066°(M),

VAR = 11°E,

TAS = 275 kt
Aircraft flies 48 NM in 10 MIN.
Calculate the true W/V °?                         340°/45 kt
Given:
Magnetic track = 210°,

Magnetic HDG = 215°,

VAR = 15°E,

TAS = 360 kt,
Aircraft flies 64 NM in 12 MIN.
Calculate the true W/V?                           265°/50 kt
Given:
Distance 'A' to 'B' is 475 NM,
Planned GS 315 kt,
ATD 1000 UTC,
1040 UTC - fix obtained 190 NM along
track.
What GS must be maintained from the fix in

order to achieve planned ETA at 'B'?              340 kt
Given:
Distance 'A' to 'B' is 325 NM,
Planned GS 315 kt,
ATD 1130 UTC,
1205 UTC - fix obtained 165 NM along
track.
What GS must be maintained from the fix in

order to achieve planned ETA at 'B'?              355 kt
Given:
Distance 'A' to 'B' is 100 NM,
Fix obtained 40 NM along and 6 NM to the
left of course.
What heading alteration must be made to
reach 'B'?                                        15° Right
Given:
Distance 'A' to 'B' is 90 NM,
Fix obtained 60 NM along and 4 NM to the
right of course.
What heading alteration must be made to
reach 'B'?                                     12° Left
(For this question use annex 061-9437A)

Complete line 1 of the 'FLIGHT
NAVIGATION LOG'; positions 'A' to 'B'.
What is the HDG°(M) and ETA?                   268° - 1114 UTC
(For this question use annex 061-9438A)
Complete line 2 of the 'FLIGHT
NAVIGATION LOG', positions 'C' to 'D'.
What is the HDG°(M) and ETA?                   HDG 193° - ETA 1239 UTC
(For this question use annex 061-9439A)
Complete line 3 of the 'FLIGHT
NAVIGATION LOG', positions 'E' to 'F'.
What is the HDG°(M) and ETA?                   HDG 105° - ETA 1205 UTC
(For this question use annex 061-9440A)
Complete line 4 of the 'FLIGHT
NAVIGATION LOG', positions 'G' to 'H'.
What is the HDG°(M) and ETA?                   HDG 344° - ETA 1336 UTC
(For this question use annex 061-9441A)
Complete line 5 of the 'FLIGHT
NAVIGATION LOG', positions 'J' to 'K'.
What is the HDG°(M) and ETA?                   HDG 337° - ETA 1422 UTC
(For this question use annex 061-9442A)
Complete line 6 of the 'FLIGHT
NAVIGATION LOG', positions 'L' to 'M'.
What is the HDG°(M) and ETA?                   HDG 075° - ETA 1502 UTC
What is the effect on the Mach number and
TAS in an aircraft that is climbing with       Mach number increases; TAS
constant CAS?                                  increases
Given:
TAS = 197 kt,
True course = 240°,

W/V = 180/30kt.
Descent is initiated at FL 220 and completed
at FL 40.
Distance to be covered during descent is 39
NM.
What is the approximate rate of descent?       1400 FT/MIN
Given:
ILS GP angle = 3.5 DEG,
GS = 150 kt.
What is the approximate rate of descent?       900 FT/MIN

Given:
aircraft height 2500 FT,
ILS GP angle 3°.

At what approximate distance from threshold
can you expect to capture the GP?           8.3 NM
An island appears 60° to the left of the centre
line on an airborne weather radar display.
What is the true bearing of the aircraft from
the island if at the time of observation the
aircraft was on a magnetic heading (MH) of
276° with the magnetic variation (VAR)
10°E?                                             046°
An island appears 45° to the right of the
centre line on an airborne weather radar
display. What is the true bearing of the
aircraft from the island if at the time of
observation the aircraft was on a magnetic
heading (MH) of 215° with the magnetic
variation (VAR) 21°W?                             059°
An island appears 30° to the right of the
centre line on an airborne weather radar
display. What is the true bearing of the
aircraft from the island if at the time of
observation the aircraft was on a magnetic
heading (MH) of 355° with the magnetic
variation (VAR) 15°E?                             220°
An island appears 30° to the left of the centre
line on an airborne weather radar display.
What is the true bearing of the aircraft from
the island if at the time of observation the
aircraft was on a magnetic heading (MH) of
020° with the magnetic variation (VAR)
25°W?                                             145°
On a chart, the distance along a meridian
between latitudes 45°N and 46°N is 6 cm.
The scale of the chart is approximately:          1: 1 850 000
Given:
Chart scale is 1: 1 850 000.
The chart distance between two points is 4
centimetres.
Earth distance is approximately:                  40 NM
Given:
An aircraft is on final approach to runway
32R (322°);

The wind velocity reported by the tower is
350°/20 kt.;

TAS on approach is 95 kt.
In order to maintain the centre line, the
aircraft's heading (°M) should be:                328°
On a Mercator chart, at latitude 60°N, the
distance measured between W002° and
E008° is 20 cm. The scale of this chart at
latitude 60°N is approximately:                   1: 2 780 000
Assume a Mercator chart.
The distance between positions A and B,
located on the same parallel and 10°
longitude apart, is 6 cm. The scale at the
parallel is 1: 9 260 000.
What is the latitude of A and B?                  60° N or S
Given:
ETA to cross a meridian is 2100 UTC
GS is 441 kt
TAS is 491 kt
At 2010 UTC, ATC requests a speed
reduction to cross the meridian at 2105
UTC.
The reduction to TAS will be approximately:     40 kt
The flight log gives the following data:
"True track, Drift, True heading, Magnetic
variation, Magnetic heading, Compass
deviation, Compass heading"                     119°, 3°L, 122°, 2°E, 120°,
The right solution, in the same order, is:      +4°, 116°

At 0020 UTC an aircraft is crossing the 310°
radial at 40 NM of a VOR/DME station.
At 0035 UTC the radial is 040° and DME
distance is 40 NM.
Magnetic variation is zero.
The true track and ground speed are:            085° - 226 kt
A straight line on a chart 4.89 cm long
represents 185 NM.
The scale of this chart is approximately:       1: 7 000 000
Given:
Required course 045°(M);

Variation is 15°E;

W/V is 190°(T)/30 kt;

CAS is 120 kt at FL 55 in standard
atmosphere.
What are the heading (°M) and GS?               055° and 147 kt
Given:
Airport elevation is 1000 ft.
QNH is 988 hPa.
What is the approximate airport pressure
altitude?                                       1760 FT
The circumference of the parallel of latitude
at 60°N is approximately:                       10 800 NM

                                                the centre of the sun is 6°
Morning Civil twilight begins when:             below the celestial horizon
                                                inclination of the polar axis
Seasons are due to the:                         with the ecliptic plane
Given:
Position 'A' N60 W020,
Position 'B' N60 W021,
Position 'C' N59 W020.
What are, respectively, the distances from A
to B and from A to C?                        30 NM and 60 NM
Given:
True altitude 9000 FT,
OAT -32°C,

CAS 200 kt.
What is the TAS?                             220 kt
Given:
An aircraft is flying a track of 255°(M),

2254 UTC, it crosses radial 360° from a VOR
station,
2300 UTC, it crosses radial 330° from the
same station.
At 2300 UTC, the distance between the       the same as it was at 2254
aircraft and the station is:                UTC

The distance between two waypoints is 200
NM,
To calculate compass heading, the pilot used
2°E magnetic variation instead of 2°W.

Assuming that the forecast W/V applied,
what will the off track distance be at the
second waypoint?                               14 NM
The scale on a Lambert conformal conic         is constant along a parallel of
chart:                                         latitude
A direct Mercator graticule is based on a
projection that is:                            cylindrical
Given:
Aircraft at FL 150 overhead an airport
Elevation of airport 720 FT.
QNH is 1003 hPa.
OAT at FL150 -5°C.

What is the true altitude of the aircraft?     15 300 FT
An aircraft takes off from the aerodrome of
BRIOUDE (altitude 1 483 FT, QFE = 963
hPa, temperature = 32°C).

Five minutes later, passing 5 000 FT on
QFE, the second altimeter set on 1 013 hPa
will indicate approximately:                   6 500 FT
Given:
Half way between two reporting points the
navigation log gives the following
information:
TAS 360 kt,
W/V 330°/80kt, 

Compass heading 237°, 

Deviation on this heading -5°, 

Variation 19°W.

What is the average ground speed for this
leg?                                           403 kt

(For this question use annex 061-11993A)
Given:
TAS is120 kt.
ATA 'X' 1232 UTC,
ETA 'Y' 1247 UTC,
ATA 'Y' is 1250 UTC.
What is ETA 'Z'?                               1302 UTC
A negative (westerly) magnetic variation       True North is East of Magnetic
signifies that:                                North
Given:
The coordinates of the heliport at Issy les
Moulineaux are N48°50' E002°16.5'.

What are the coordinates of the position
directly on the opposite side of the earth?      S48°50' W177°43.5'
Given:
Course 040°(T),

TAS is 120 kt,
Wind speed 30 kt.
Maximum drift angle will be obtained for a
wind direction of:                               130°
Given:
CAS 120 kt,
FL 80,
OAT +20°C. 

What is the TAS?                                 141 kt
Isogonals are lines of equal:                    magnetic variation.
At a specific location, the value of magnetic
variation:                                       varies slowly over time
At latitude 60°N the scale of a Mercator
projection is 1: 5 000 000. The length on the
chart between 'C' N60° E008° and 'D' N60°
W008° is:                                        17.8 cm
Given:
A is N55° 000°

B is N54° E010°

The average true course of the great circle is
100°.

The true course of the rhumbline at point A
is:                                              100°
The two standard parallels of a conical
Lambert projection are at N10°40'N and
N41°20'.

The constant of the cone for this chart is
approximately:                                   0.44
Given:
Position 'A' is N00° E100°, 

Position 'B' is 240°(T), 200 NM from 'A'.

What is the position of 'B'?                     S01°40' E097°07'
The angle between Magnetic North and
Compass North is called:                         compass deviation

The north and south magnetic poles are the       a freely suspended compass
only positions on the earth's surface where:     needle would stand vertical

                                                parallel, equally spaced,
On a Direct Mercator chart, meridians are:      vertical straight lines
On which of the following chart projections is
it NOT possible to represent the north or
south poles?                                    Direct Mercator
                                                With the exception of
                                                meridians and the equator,
Which one of the following, concerning great they are curves concave to the
circles on a Direct Mercator chart, is correct? equator
On a Lambert conformal conic chart, the            is smaller between the
distance between parallels of latitude spaced      standard parallels than outside
the same number of degrees apart:                  them
Which one of the following statements is
correct concerning the appearance of great
circles, with the exception of meridians, on a     The higher the latitude the
Polar Stereographic chart whose tangency is        closer they approximate to a
at the pole ?                                      straight line

Which one of the following describes the
appearance of rhumb lines, except
meridians, on a Polar Stereographic chart?         Curves concave to the Pole
What is the value of the convergence factor
on a Polar Stereographic chart?                    1.0

On a Direct Mercator, rhumb lines are:             straight lines
A useful method of a pilot resolving, during a
visual flight, any uncertainty in the aircraft's   set heading towards a line
position is to maintain visual contact with the    feature such as a coastline,
ground and:                                        motorway, river or railway
An average true track of 120° is drawn
between 'X' (61°30'N) and 'Y' (58°30'N) on a
Lambert Conformal conic chart with a scale
of 1: 1 000 000 at 60°N. 

The chart distance between 'X' and 'Y' is:         66.7 cm
Route 'A' (44°N 026°E) to 'B' (46°N 024°E)
forms an angle of 35° with longitude 026°E.
Variation at A is 3°E. What is the initial
magnetic track from A to B?                        322°
Given:
Direct Mercator chart with a scale of 1: 200
000 at equator;
Chart length from 'A' to 'B', in the vicinity of
the equator, 11 cm.
What is the approximate distance from 'A' to
'B'?                                               12 NM
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the radial and DME distance from
CRK VOR/DME (N5150.4 W00829.7) to
position N5220 W00810?                             030° - 33 NM
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the radial and DME distance from
CRK VOR/DME (N5150.4 W00829.7) to
position N5210 W00920?                             311° - 38 NM
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the radial and DME distance from
CRK VOR/DME (N5150.4 W00829.7) to
position N5230 W00750?                             039° - 48 NM
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the radial and DME distance from
CRK VOR/DME (N5150.4 W00829.7) to
position N5140 W00730?                       113° - 38 NM
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the radial and DME distance from
SHA VOR/DME (N5243.3 W00853.1) to
position N5300 W00940?                       309° - 33 NM
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the radial and DME distance from
SHA VOR/DME (N5243.3 W00853.1) to
position N5310 W00830?                       035° - 30 NM
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the radial and DME distance from
SHA VOR/DME (N5243.3 W00853.1) to
position N5220 W00810?                       139° - 35 NM
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the radial and DME distance from
SHA VOR/DME (N5243.3 W00853.1)
to position N5210 W00920?                    214° - 37 NM
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the radial and DME distance from
CON VOR/DME (N5354.8 W00849.1) to
position N5430 W00900?                       358° - 36 NM
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the radial and DME distance from
CON VOR/DME (N5354.8 W00849.1) to
position N5400 W00800?                       088° - 29 NM
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the radial and DME distance from
CON VOR/DME (N5354.8 W00849.1) to
position N5340 W00820?                       140° - 23 NM
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the radial and DME distance from
CON VOR/DME (N5354.8 W00849.1) to
position N5330 W00930?                       233° - 35 NM
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the radial and DME distance from
BEL VOR/DME (N5439.7 W00613.8) to
position N5410 W00710?                       236° - 44 NM
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the radial and DME distance from
BEL VOR/DME (N5439.7 W00613.8) to
position N5440 W00730?                       278° - 44 NM
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the radial and DME distance from
BEL VOR/DME (N5439.7 W00613.8) to
position N5500 W00700?                        315° - 34 NM

(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the average track (°M) and distance
between WTD NDB (N5211.3 W00705.0)
and KER NDB (N5210.9 W00931.5)?             278° - 90 NM

(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the average track (°M) and distance
between CRK VOR (N5150.4 W00829.7)
and CRN NDB (N5318.1 W00856.5)?             357° - 89 NM

(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the average track (°M) and distance
between CRN NDB (N5318.1 W00856.5)
and WTD NDB (N5211.3 W00705.0)?             142° - 95 NM

(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the average track (°M) and distance
between WTD NDB (N5211.3 W00705.0)
and BAL VOR (N5318.0 W00626.9)?             026° - 71 NM

(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the average track (°M) and distance
between KER NDB (N5210.9 W00931.5) and
CRN NDB (N5318.1 W00856.5)?                 025° - 70 NM

(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the average track (°M) and distance
between BAL VOR (N5318.0 W00626.9) and
SLG NDB (N5416.7 W00836.0)?                 316° - 96 NM

(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the average track (°M) and distance
between CRN NDB (N5318.1 W00856.5)
and BEL VOR (N5439.7 W00613.8)?             058° - 128 NM

(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the average track (°T) and distance
between CON VOR (N5354.8 W00849.1)
and BEL VOR (N5439.7 W00613.8)?               063° - 101 NM
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the average track (°T) and distance
between SLG NDB (N5416.7 W00836.0) and
CFN NDB (N5502.6 W00820.4)?                 011° - 47 NM

(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the average track (°T) and distance
between WTD NDB (N5211.3 W00705.0)
and FOY NDB (N5234.0 W00911.7)?               286° - 81 NM

(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the average track (°T) and distance
between WTD NDB (N5211.3 W00705.0)
and SLG NDB (N5416.7 W00836.0)?               336° - 137 NM

(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the average track (°T) and distance
between SHA VOR (N5243.3 W00853.1) and
CON VOR (N5354.8 W00849.1)?                 002° - 72 NM

(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the average track (°T) and distance
between BAL VOR (N5318.0 W00626.9) and
CRN NDB (N5318.1 W00856.5)?                 270° - 90 NM

(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the average track (°T) and distance
between BAL VOR (N5318.0 W00626.9) and
CFN NDB (N5502.6 W00820.4)?                 327° - 124 NM

(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What is the average track (°T) and distance
between CRN NDB (N5318.1 W00856.5)
and EKN NDB (N5423.6 W00738.7)?               035° - 80 NM


(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
SHA VOR (N5243.3 W00853.1) radial 223°,

CRK VOR (N5150.4 W00829.7) radial 322°.

What is the aircraft position?             N5220 W00920
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
SHA VOR (N5243.3 W00853.1) radial 205°,

CRK VOR (N5150.4 W00829.7) radial 317°.

What is the aircraft position?             N5210 W00910


(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
SHA VOR (N5243.3 W00853.1) radial 120°,

CRK VOR (N5150.4 W00829.7) radial 033°.

What is the aircraft position?             N5230 W00800


(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
SHA VOR (N5243.3 W00853.1) radial 129°,

CRK VOR (N5150.4 W00829.7) radial 047°.

What is the aircraft position?             N5220 W00750


(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
SHA VOR (N5243.3 W00853.1) radial 143°,

CRK VOR (N5150.4 W00829.7) radial 050°.

What is the aircraft position?             N5210 W00800
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
SHA VOR/DME (N5243.3 W00853.1) radial
120°/35 NM.

What is the aircraft position?             N5230 W00800
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
SHA VOR/DME (N5243.3 W00853.1) radial
165°/36 NM.

What is the aircraft position?             N5210 W00830
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
SHA VOR/DME (N5243.3 W00853.1) radial
232°/32 NM.

What is the aircraft position?             N5220 W00930
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
SHA VOR/DME (N5243.3 W00853.1) radial
025°/49 NM.

What is the aircraft position?             N5330 W00830
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
SHA VOR/DME (N5243.3 W00853.1) radial
048°/22 NM.

What is the aircraft position?                  N5300 W0830
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
SHA VOR N5243.3 W00853.1
CRK VOR N5150.4 W00829.7
Aircraft position N5220 W00910
Which of the following lists two radials that   SHA 214°

are applicable to the aircraft position?        CRK 330°
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
SHA VOR N5243.3 W00853.1
CRK VOR N5150.4 W00829.7
Aircraft position N5230 W00820
Which of the following lists two radials that   SHA 131°

are applicable to the aircraft position?        CRK 017°
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
SHA VOR N5243.3 W00853.1
CRK VOR N5150.4 W00829.7
Aircraft position N5230 W00930
Which of the following lists two radials that   SHA 248°

are applicable to the aircraft position?        CRK 325°
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
SHA VOR N5243.3 W00853.1
CON VOR N5354.8 W00849.1
Aircraft position N5330 W00800
Which of the following lists two radials that   SHA 042°

are applicable to the aircraft position?        CON 138°
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
SHA VOR N5243.3 W00853.1
CON VOR N5354.8 W00849.1
Aircraft position N5320 W00950
Which of the following lists two radials that   SHA 325°

are applicable to the aircraft position?        CON 235°
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
SHA VOR (N5243.3 W00853.1) DME 50
NM,
CRK VOR (N5150.4 W00829.7) DME 41
NM,
Aircraft heading 270°(M),

Both DME distances increasing.
What is the aircraft position?                  N5200 W00935
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
SHA VOR (N5243.3 W00853.1) DME 41
NM,
CRK VOR (N5150.4 W00829.7) DME 30
NM,
Aircraft heading 270°(M),

Both DME distances decreasing.
What is the aircraft position?               N5215 W00805
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
CRN VOR (N5318.1 W00856.5) DME 18
NM,
SHA VOR (N5243.3 W00853.1) DME 30
NM,
Aircraft heading 270°(M),

Both DME distances decreasing.
What is the aircraft position?               N5310 W00830
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
CRN VOR (N5318.1 W00856.5) DME 34
NM,
SHA VOR (N5243.3 W00853.1) DME 26
NM,
Aircraft heading 090°(M),

Both DME distances increasing.
What is the aircraft position?               N5255 W00815
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
CON VOR (N5354.8 W00849.1) DME 30
NM,
CRN VOR (N5318.1 W00856.5) DME 25
NM,
Aircraft heading 270°(M),

Both DME distances decreasing.
What is the aircraft position?               N5330 W00820
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
CRK VOR/DME (N5150.4 W00829.7)
Kerry aerodrome (N5210.9 W00931.4)
What is the CRK radial and DME distance
when overhead Kerry aerodrome?               307° - 43 NM
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
SHA VOR/DME (N5243.3 W00853.1)
Birr aerodrome (N5304 W00754)
What is the SHA radial and DME distance
when overhead Birr aerodrome?                068° - 41 NM
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
SHA VOR/DME (N5243.3 W00853.1)
Connemara aerodrome (N5314 W00928)
What is the SHA radial and DME distance
when overhead Connemara aerodrome?             333° - 37 NM
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
CON VOR/DME (N5354.8 W00849.1)
Castlebar aerodrome (N5351 W00917)
What is the CON radial and DME distance
when overhead Castlebar aerodrome?             265° - 17 NM

(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Given:
CON VOR/DME (N5354.8 W00849.1)
Abbey Shrule aerodrome (N5335 W00739)
What is the CON radial and DME distance
when overhead Abbey Shrule aerodrome?          123° - 46 NM
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What feature is shown on the chart at
position N5211 W00931?                         KERRY/Farranfore aerodrome
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What feature is shown on the chart at
position N5212 W00612?                         TUSKAR ROCK LT.H. NDB
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What feature is shown on the chart at
position N5311 W00637?                         Punchestown aerodrome
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What feature is shown on the chart at
position N5351 W00917?                         Castlebar aerodrome
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
What feature is shown on the chart at
position N5417 W01005?                         EAGLE ISLAND LT.H. NDB
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Which of the following lists all the           civil airport: VOR: DME:
aeronautical chart symbols shown at position   Localiser: compulsory
N5150.4 W00829.7?                              reporting point.
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Which of the following lists all the
aeronautical chart symbols shown at position
N5318.0 W00626.9?                              military airport: VOR: DME
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Which of the following lists all the
aeronautical chart symbols shown at position   civil airport: NDB: DME:
N5416.7 W00836.0?                              compulsory reporting point
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Which of the following lists all the
aeronautical chart symbols shown at position   civil airport: NDB: DME: non-
N5318.1 W00856.5?                              compulsory reporting point
(For this question use annex 061-12549A to
061-12613A)
Which of the following lists all the
aeronautical chart symbols shown at position
N5211 W00705?                                  civil airport: NDB; Localiser.
(For this question refer to annex 061-12614A
to 061-12620A)
Which of the aeronautical chart symbols
indicates a VOR/DME?                           1
(For this question refer to annex 061-12614A
to 061-12620A)
Which of the aeronautical chart symbols
indicates a DME?                               2
(For this question refer to annex 061-12614A
to 061-12620A)
Which of the aeronautical chart symbols
indicates a VOR?                               3
(For this question refer to annex 061-12614A
to 061-12620A)
Which of the aeronautical chart symbols
indicates an NDB?                              4
(For this question refer to annex 061-12614A
to 061-12620A)
Which of the aeronautical chart symbols
indicates a basic, non-specified, navigation
aid?                                           5
(For this question refer to annex 061-12614A
to 061-12620A)
Which of the aeronautical chart symbols
indicates a TACAN?                             6
(For this question refer to annex 061-12614A
to 061-12620A)
Which of the aeronautical chart symbols
indicates a VORTAC?                            7

(For this question refer to annex 061-12621A
to 061-12638A)
Which aeronautical chart symbol indicates a
Flight Information Region (FIR) boundary?    1
(For this question refer to annex 061-12621A
to 061-12638A)
Which aeronautical chart symbol indicates a
Control Zone boundary?                       3
(For this question refer to annex 061-12621A
to 061-12638A)
Which aeronautical chart symbol indicates an
uncontrolled route?                            4
(For this question refer to annex 061-12621A
to 061-12638A)
Which aeronautical chart symbol indicates
the boundary of advisory airspace?             5
(For this question refer to annex 061-12621A
to 061-12638A)
Which aeronautical chart symbol indicates a
non-compulsory reporting point?                6
(For this question refer to annex 061-12621A
to 061-12638A)
Which aeronautical chart symbol indicates a
compulsory reporting point?                    7
(For this question refer to annex 061-12621A
to 061-12638A)
Which aeronautical chart symbol indicates a
Way-point?                                     8
(For this question refer to annex 061-12621A
to 061-12638A)
Which aeronautical chart symbol indicates an
unlighted obstacle?                            9
(For this question refer to annex 061-12621A
to 061-12638A)
Which aeronautical chart symbol indicates a
lighted obstacle?                              10
(For this question refer to annex 061-12621A
to 061-12638A)
Which aeronautical chart symbol indicates a
group of unlighted obstacles?                  11
(For this question refer to annex 061-12621A
to 061-12638A)
Which aeronautical chart symbol indicates a
group of lighted obstacles?                    12
(For this question refer to annex 061-12621A
to 061-12638A)
Which aeronautical chart symbol indicates an
exceptionally high unlighted obstacle?         13
(For this question refer to annex 061-12621A
to 061-12638A)
Which aeronautical chart symbol indicates an
exceptionally high lighted obstacle?           14
(For this question refer to annex 061-12621A
to 061-12638A)
What is the meaning of aeronautical chart
symbol No. 15?                                 Aeronautical ground light
(For this question refer to annex 061-12621A
to 061-12638A)
What is the meaning of aeronautical chart
symbol No. 16?                                 Lightship
(For this question refer to annex 061-12621A
to 061-12638A)
Which aeronautical chart symbol indicates an
aeronautical ground light?                     15
(For this question refer to annex 061-12621A
to 061-12638A)
Which aeronautical chart symbol indicates a
lightship?                                   16

An aircraft is flying at FL150, with an outside
air temperature of -30°, above an airport
where the elevation is 1660 ft and the QNH
is 993 hPa. Calculate the true altitude.        13 660 ft
How many degrees has the mean sun moved
along the celestial equator in 8 hours and 8
minutes?
                                                122°
The great circle bearing of position B from
position A in the Northern Hemisphere is
040° . If the Conversion Angle is 4°, what is
the great circle bearing of A from B?
                                                228°
A great circle on the Earth running from the
North Pole to the South Pole is called:         a meridian.
How many small circles can be drawn
between any two points on a sphere?             An unlimited number.
How does the convergency of any two
meridians on the Earth change with varying
latitude?                                       It changes as sine of latitude.
In which occasions does the rhumb line track On tracks directly North -
and the great circle track coincide on the      South and on East - West
surface of the Earth?                           tracks along the Equator.

What is the rhumb line distance, in nautical
miles, between two positions on latitude 60°
N, that are separated by 10° of longitude?

                                                  300 NM
The initial great circle track from A to B is
080° and the rhumb line track is 083° . What
is the initial great circle track from B to A and
in which Hemisphere are the two positions
located?                                          266° and in the northern
                                                  hemisphere.

If you are flying along a parallel of latitude,
you are flying:                                    a rhumb line track.
In the Northern Hemisphere the rhumb line
track from position A to B is 230°, the
covergency is 6° and the difference in
longitude is 10°. What is the initial rhumb line
track from B to A?                                 050°
What is the length of one degree of longitude
at latitude 60° South?                             30 NM
The distance along a meridian between
63°55'N and 13°47'S is:                            4662 NM



When flying on a westerly great circle track in experience an increase in the
the Southern Hemisphere you will:               value of true track.
                                               The date will increase if you
Which of the following alternatives is correct are crossing on a westerly
when you cross the international date line?    heading.

When the time is 2000 UTC, it is:                 1400 LMT at 90° West.
When the time is 1400 LMT at 90° West, it
is:                                               1200 LMT at 120° West.
If the Compass Heading is 265°, variation is
33° W and deviation is 3°E, what is the True
Heading?                                          235°
How does the chart convergency change
with latitude in a Lambert Conformal              It is constant and does not
projection?                                       change with latitude.
On a Direct Mercator projection a particular
chart length is measured at 30°N. What earth
distance will the same chart length be if
measured at 60°N?                                 A smaller distance.
Where on a Direct Mercator projection is the
chart convergency correct compared to the
earth convergency?                                At the equator.
A rhumb line on a Direct Mercator chart
appears as a:                                     straight line.
On a chart a straight line is drawn between
two points and has a length of 4.63 cm. What
is the chart scale if the line represents 150
NM?                                               1 : 6 000 000
If the chart scale is 1 : 500 000, what earth
distance would be represented by 7 cm on
the chart?                                        35 000 m
An aircraft is flying at FL180 and the outside
air temperature is -30°C. If the CAS is 150 kt,
what is the TAS?                                  195 kt
Given:
Hdg        265°

TAS        290 kt
W/V         210°/35 kt


Calculate Track and Groundspeed.                  271° and 272 kt
Given:
True Track        239°

True Heading      229°

TAS                555 kt
G/S                577 kt

Calculate the wind velocity.                      130°/100 kt
Given:
True Track        245° 

Drift              5° right

Variation          3° E

Compass Hdg       242° 


Calculate the Magnetic Heading.                   237°
Given:
True Track       245° 

Drift             5° right

Variation         3° E

Compass Hdg      242° 


Calculate the deviation.                       5° W
An aircraft flies from waypoint 7 (63°00' N,
073°00'W) to waypoint 8 (62°00' N, 073°00'
W). The aircraft position is (62°00' N,
073°10'W). The cross track distance in
relation to the planned track is:              4,7 NM R
An aircraft at FL360 is required to descent to
FL120. The aircraft should reach FL120 at 40
NM from the next waypoint. The rate of
descent is 2000 ft/min. The average GS is
420 kt.

The minimum distance from the next
waypoint at which descent should start is:        124 NM
                                                  the direction of the horizontal
                                                  component of the of the
The direction "magnetic north" at a position      earth's magnetic field at that
on the earth is:                                  position.
The horizontal component of the earth's           is very small close to the
magnetic field                                    magnetic poles.
An aircraft follows a radial to a VOR/DME
station.
At 10:00 the DME reads 120 NM.
At 10:03 the DME reads 105 NM.

The estimated time overhead the VOR/DME
station is                              10:24

An aircraft tracks radial 200 inbound to a
VOR station with a Magnetic Heading (MH)
of 010º. After being overhead the VOR
station the aircraft tracks radial 090 outbound
with a MH of 080º. The TAS is 240 kt and the
magnetic variation in the area is 5ºW.


What is the wind vector (T)?                      320º/50kt
An aircraft is at position (53ºN, 006ºW) and
has a landmark at position (52º47'N,
004º45'W), with a relative bearing of 060º.

Given:
Compass Heading = 051º

Variation = 16ºW

Deviation = 2ºE


What is the true bearing of the position line
to be plotted from the landmark to the aircraft
on a Lambert chart with standard parallels at
37ºN and 65ºN?                                  278º
At 10:15 the reading from a VOR/DME
station is 211°/ 90NM, at 10:20 the reading
from the same VOR/DME station is
211°/120NM.


Compass Heading = 200º

Variation in the area = 31ºW

Deviation = +1º

TAS = 390 kt

The wind vector (T) is approximately:             110º/70kt

An aircraft is departing from an airport which
has an elevation of 2000 ft and the QNH is
1003 hPa. The TAS is 100 kt, the head wind
component is 20 kt and the rate of climb is
1000 ft/min. Top of climb is FL 050. At what
distance from the airport will this be achived?   3.6 NM
An aircraft is departing from an airport which
has an elevation of 2000 ft and the QNH is
1003 hPa. The TAS is 100 kt, the head wind
component is 20 kt and the rate of climb is
500 ft/min. Top of climb is FL 050. At what
distance from the airport will this be
achieved?                                         7.2 NM
An aircraft is departing from an airport which
has an elevation of 2000 ft and the QNH is
1003 hPa. The TAS is 100 kt, the head wind
component is 20 kt and the rate of climb is
1000 ft/min. Top of climb is FL 100. At what
distance from the airport will this be
achieved?                                         10.3 NM
An aircraft is departing from an airport which
has an elevation of 2000 ft and the QNH is
1023 hPa. The TAS is 100 kt, the head wind
component is 20 kt and the rate of climb is
1000 ft/min. Top of climb is FL 100. At what
distance from the airport will this be
achieved?                                         11.1 NM
You are departing from an airport which has
an elevation of 2000 ft. The QNH is 1013
hPa.
10 NM away there is a waypoint you are
required to pass at an altitude of 7500 ft.
Given a groundspeed of 100 kt, what is the
minimum rate of climb?                            920 ft/min
You are departing from an airport which has
an elevation of 1500 ft. The QNH is 1003
hPa.
15 NM away there is a waypoint you are
required to pass at an altitude of 7500 ft.
Given a groundspeed of 120 kt, what is the
minimum rate of climb?                            800 ft/min
During approach the following data are
obtained:
DME 12.0 NM, altitude 3000 ft
DME 9.8 NM, altitude 2400 ft
TAS = 160 kt, GS = 125 kt
The rate of descent is:                           570 ft/min
Given:
A descending aircraft flies in a straight line to
a DME.
DME 55.0 NM, altitude 33000 ft
DME 43.9 NM, altitude 30500 ft
M = 0.72, GS = 525 kt, OAT = ISA
The descent gradient is:                          3.7%
Given:
Position NDB (55°10´N, 012°55´E)

DR Position (54°53´N, 009°58´E)

NDB on the RMI reads 090°

Magnetic variation = 10°W

The position line has to be plotted on a
Lamberts conformal chart with standard
parallels at 40°N and 48°N. Calculate the
direction (T) of the bearing to be plotted from
the NDB.                                          262°
                                                  The apparent solar day is the
                                                  period between two
                                                  successive transits of the true
Which statement is correct about the              sun through the same
apparent solar day?                               meridian.
The length of the apparent solar day varies the tilt of the earth's axis and
continuously throughout a year. This is           the elliptical orbit of the earth
caused by:                                        around the sun.

                                                  the mean sun is in transit with
At 0000 Local Mean Time of an observer:           the observer's anti-meridian.

In a sunrise/sunset table given for the 28th of
June at a certain latitude, sunrise is gven as
0239 and sunset is given as 2127.
What is the latitude?                           60°N
The time difference in Local Mean Time
between sunset at positions A (50°N, 120°E)
and B (50°S, 120°E) on the 21st of              some hours and the sun rises
November is:                                    earlier in B than in A.
(For this question use Annex 061-600087 or
Europe Low Altitude Enroute Chart E(LO)
1A)
An aircraft is flying from Inverness VORDME
(N57°32.6', W 004°02.5W) to Aberdeen
VORDME (N57°18.6', W002°16.0'W). 

At 1000 UTC the fix of the aircraft is
determined by VORDME Inverness: radial =
114; DME-distance = 20.5 NM.
At 1006 UTC the fix of the aircraft is
determined by VORDME Aberdeen: radial =
294; DME-distance = 10.5 NM.
What is the average GS of the aircraft
between 1000 UTC and 1006 UTC?                   280 kt
(For this question use Annex 061-600088 or
Europe Low Altitude Enroute Chart E(LO)
1A)
Two consecutive waypoints of a flight plan
are Stornoway VORDME (N58°12.4',
W006°11.0') and Glasgow VORDME
(N55°52.2', W 004°26.7'). 

During the flight the Actual Time Over
Stornoway is 11:15 UTC and the Estimated
Time Over Glasgow is 11:38 UTC. At 11:21
UTC the fix of the aircraft is exactly over
reporting point RONAR.
What is the Revised UTC over Glasgow,
based on this last fix?                          11:36
A VOR is situated at position (N55°26',
W005°42'). The variation at the VOR is 9°W.
The position of the aircraft is (N6°00'N,
W010°00'). The variation at the aircraft-
position is 11°W. The initial TT-angle of the
great circle from the aircraft position to the
VOR is 101.5°.

Which radial is the aircraft on?                 294
An NDB is located at position (N55°26',
W005°42'). The variation at the NDB is 9°W.
The position of the aircraft is (56°00'N,
010°00'W). The variation at the aircraft-
position is 11°W. The initial TT- of the great
circle from the aircraft position to the NDB
position, is 101.5°.

What is the Magnetic Bearing of the NDB
from the aircraft?                               112.5°

On a True Heading of 090° the aircraft
experiences drift of 5°S. On a True Heading
of 180° the aircraft experiences no drift. On
both headings the TAS is 200 kt and it is
assumed that the wind is the same.
What is the experienced wind speed and
direction?                                       360° / 17 kt
(For this question use Annex 061-600093)
The fix of the aircraft position is determined
by radials from three VOR-stations. The
measurements contain small random errors,
known systematic errors and unknown
systematic errors. The measured radials are
corrected for known systematic errors and
are plotted on a navigation chart. The result
is shown at Annex CG101 What is the most
probable position of the aircraft?             1

The direction of Magnetic North at a certain   the horizontal component of
position coincides with the direction of:      the Earth's magnetic field.


                                             The direction of a line
A definition of a Magnetic Track angle is:   referenced to Magnetic North.
An aircraft is flying at FL200. The QNH,
given by a meteorological station at an
elevation of 1300ft is 998.2 hPa. OAT = -
40ºC. The elevation of the highest obstacle
along the route is 8 000 ft.
Calculate the aircraft's approximate
clearance above the highest obstacle on this
route.                                       10 500 ft
Given: An aircraft is flying at FL100, OAT =
ISA - 15ºC. The QNH, given by a
meteorological station with an elevation of
100 ft below MSL is 1032 hPa.
1 hPa = 27 ft

Calculate the approximate True Altitude of
this aircraft.                                9900 ft
An aircraft is flying at FL250, OAT = - 45°C.
The QNH, given by a station at MSL, is 993.2
hPa.
Calculate the approximate True Altitude.      23400 ft
The QNH, given by a station at 2500 ft, is
980hPa.The elevation of the highest obstacle
along a route is 8 000 ft and the OAT = ISA -
10°C. 

When an aircraft, on route has to descend
the minimum indicated altitude (QNH on the
subscale of the altimeter) to maintain a
clearance of 2000 ft, will be:                10 400 ft

An aircraft flies at FL 250. OAT = - 45°C. The
QNH, given by a meteorological station with
an elevation of 2830 ft, is 1033 hPa.
Calculate the clearance above a mountain
ridge with an elevation of 20410 ft.           4 200 ft
An aircraft is flying at FL 200. OAT = 0°C.
When the actual air pressure on an airfield at
MSL is placed in the subscale of the
altimeter the indicated altitude is 19300ft.
Calculate the aircraft's true altitude.         21 200 ft
An aircraft is flying at FL100. The OAT = ISA -
15°C. The QNH given by a station at an
elevation 3000 ft is 1035hPa.
Calculate the approximate True Altitude.        10 200 ft
An aircraft has to fly over a mountain ridge.
The highest obstacle, indicated in the
navigation chart, has an elevation of 9 800 ft.
The QNH, given by a meteorological station
at an elevation of 6200ft, is 1022hPa. The
OAT = ISA+5ºC. 

Calculate the approximate indicated altitude
to obtain a clearance of 2000 ft.               11 500 ft and 11 700 ft
A great circle intersects the equator in
030°W with a great circle direction of
035°(T). An aircraft tracking the great circle
will reach the maximum Northern/Southern
latitude in position                            (55°N, 060°E)

An aircraft follows a great circle in the
Northern Hemisphere. At a certain moment
the aircraft is in the position on the great
circle where the great circle direction is     track angle will decrease and
270°(T). Continuing on the great circle the    the latitude will decrease.
Position A = (56°00.0'S, 163°57.2'E)

Position B = (56°00.0'S, 171°47.4'W)

                                               great circle direction at B is
For the route from A to B the                  080.7°
Position A = (30°00.0'N, 175°23.2'W)

Position B = (30°00.0'N, 173°48.1'E)

                                               rhumb line distance is
For the route from A to B the                  578NM.

                                               dependent on the heading of
Deviation on the standby compass is            the aircraft.

                                               the horizontal component of
                                               the earth's magnetic field is
                                               too small to permit the use of a
Near the magnetic pole                         magnetic compass.

                                               1 minute of arc along the
                                               equator measures a greater
                                               distance than 1 minute of arc
On an oblate spheroid representing the         along the meridian at a latitude
earth's shape                                  of 45ºN/S.

                                               The angular distance of the
                                               sun north or south of the
The declination of the sun is defined as:      Celestial equator.
                                              The earth is one of the planets
                                              which are all moving in
Which statement is correct?                   elliptical orbit around the sun.

                                              Planets move in elliptic orbits
The first law of Kepler states:               with the sun in one of the foci.

The time interval between sunrise and         The declination of the sun and
sunset is dependent on:                       the latitude of the observer.
                                              the inclination of the earth axis
The main reason for the occurrence of         with regard to the plane of the
seasons on earth is                           ecliptic.


                                              The apparent sun is the visible
Which statement regarding the apparent sun sun, the mean sun is a
and the mean sun is correct?                  fictitious sun.
Position A is (31º00'S, 176º17'W)

Rhumb line track (T) from A to B is 270º.

Initial great circle track (T) from A to B is
266.2º.


The Approximate position of B is:             (31º00'S, 168º58'E)

                                             The orbit of the earth around
Which statement about the orbit of the earth the sun is an ellipse with the
is correct?                                  sun at one of the foci.


                                              the radius vector sun-earth
                                              sweeps out equal areas in
Kepler's second law states that               equal time.

                                              The mean sun is a fictitious
                                              sun coinciding each year with
                                              the apparent sun at the Spring
                                              Equinox and travelling along
In which statement is the "Mean Sun" best     the celestial equator at uniform
described?                                    speed.
                                              The point of the earth's orbit
What is meant by "Aphelion"?                  furthest away from the sun.

                                              Close to the equinoxes the
                                              influence of latitude on the
Which statement about the duration of         duration of daylight is at its
daylight is true?                             smallest.
Consider the positions (00ºN/S, 000ºE/W)
and (00ºN/S, 180ºE/W) on the ellipsoid.       The route via the North Pole is
Which statement about the distances           shorter than the route along
between these positions is correct?           the equator.
                                                  The Poles are the points of
                                                  intersection between the
Which definition describes best the notion        earth's axis and the surface of
"Poles"?                                          the earth.
Geodetic latitude and geocentric latitude         at the Poles and on the
coincide                                          equator.
Two places on the parallel of 47ºS lie 757.8
km apart. Calculate the difference in
longitude.                                        10º00'

The definition of True North for any observer the direction of the observer's
is                                            meridian to the North Pole.


An aircraft is in the position (86ºN, 020ºE).
When following a rhumb line track of 085º(T)      fly via a spiral to the North
it will:                                          Pole.
The maximum difference in distance when
proceeding along the great circle between
two positions, in stead of the rhumb line, will   on East-West tracks at high
occur                                             latitudes.
                                                  The equator is a greatcircle
                                                  with its plane perpendicular to
Which definition of the equator is correct?       the earth rotational axis.

                                                  Latitude is the angle between
                                                  the plane of the equator and
What is the correct definition of latitude of a   the line from the centre of the
position on the earth?                            earth to the position.
Given:
A (56°N , 145°E)

B (57°N , 165°W)

What is the difference in longitude between
A and B?                                    050°
                                            A meridian and its anti-
                                            meridian form a complete
Which statement about meridians is correct? great circle.

                                                  At any point the scale over a
                                                  short distance in the direction
                                                  of the parallel is equal to the
                                                  scale in the direction of the
                                                  meridian and the meridians
                                                  are perpendicular to the
An aeronautical chart is conformal when:          parallels.
On a Mercator's projection the distance
between (17°N, 035°E) and (17°N, 040°E) is
5 cm.
 The scale at 57°N is approximately:       1 : 6 052 030
The constant of the cone in a Lambert chart
is 0.8666500. The angle between the north
directions of the meridian in position A
(65°00'N, 018°00'W) and the meridian of
position B (75°00'N, 023°00'W) on the chart
is:                                          4.3°
Given: Lambert conformal conical projection,
scale 1: 1 234 000. Standard parallels 36°N
and 60°N.. A (53°N, 010°W), B (53°N,
020°W). 


The distance on the map between position A
and position B measured along the rhumb
line:                                      is less than 54.19 cm

A VOR is situated at position (74ºN, 094ºW);
local variation is 50ºW. A Polar
Stereographic chart supplied with a
Greenwich grid is used for navigation. To
proceed along (magnetic) radial 238 inbound
an aircraft has to follow a Grid Track of    103º


(For this question use Annex 061-600199)
Which figure in the Appendix represents the
geographic latitude of position P, which is
situated above the surface of the ellipsoid?      figure A


(For this question use Annex 061-600200)
Which figure in the Appendix represents the
geocentric latitude of position P, which is
situated above the surface of the ellipsoid?      figure B
On the earth's ellipsoid one degree of latitude
near the equator is                               less than 60 NM
On a Mercator's projection a straight line is
drawn between (40°N, 050°W) and (50°N,
060°W). 

Calculate the angle between the straight line
and the great circle in position A.               3.5°
Two places are situated on the same parallel      The great circle is situated
in the Southern Hemisphere. The great             between the parallel and the
circle, rhumb line and the straight line          straight line, because the
between these places are drawn on a Polar         concave side of the great
Stereographic Projection.                         circle is always pointed
Which statement is correct?                       towards the pole.
From Rakovnik (50° 05.9' N, 013° 41.5' E) to
Frankfurt FFM (50° 05.9' N, 008° 38.3' E) the
True Track of departure along the straight
line is 272.0°. 

The constant of the cone of this Lambert
conformal projection is:                          0.79
The positions A (30°00'N, 017°30'E) and B at
longitude (30°00'N, 023°30'E) are plotted on
a Lambert chart with a constant of the cone
of 0.5. A and B are connected by a straight
line. The True Track measured at A is
088.5°. 

What is the True Track measured at B?        091.5°
The SR/SS table for the 23rd of February at
latitude 40ºN gives:

SR = 06:44
SS = 17:44

At 12:00 Central European Time (UTC+1) at
40ºN:                                        the sun rises at 64ºW.
                                             is reflected in the slow
The long term periodic change in the Earth's movement of the magnetic
Magnetic Field                               poles.

                                               The declination of the sun and
                                               the latitude of the observer will
                                               affect the duration of civil
Which statement is true?                       twilight.
                                               is the component of the
                                               Earth's magnetic field which
The Directive Force                            aligns the compass needle.
With an increase in magnetic latitude there
will be a decrease in the                      directive force.
Given:
Compass Heading = 233°

True Track           = 256°

Drift Angle          = 10°R

Deviation            = -3°


What is the variation?                         16°E
Which of the following variables affect
deviation?

1. magnetic latitude
2. aircraft heading
3. aircraft altitude
4. aircraft electronic equipment               1, 2 and 4
The distance between A and B is 90 NM. At
a distance of 15 NM from A the aircraft is 4
NM right of course. To reach destination B,
the correction angle on the heading should
be:                                            19º
The distance between A and B is 90 NM. At
a distance of 75 NM from A the aircraft is 4
NM right of course. The track angle error
(TKE) is:                                      3ºR
The True course in the flight log is 270º, the
forecast wind is 045º(T)/15kt and the TAS is
120kt.
After 15 minutes of flying with the planned
TAS and TH the aircraft is 3 NM South of the
intended track and 2.5 NM ahead of the dead
reckoning position.
The track angle error (TKE) is:                5ºL

An aircraft is flying from A to B a distance of
50 NM. The True Course in the flight log is
270º, the forecast wind is 045º(T)/15kt and
the TAS is 120kt.
After 15 minutes of flying with the planned
TAS and TH the aircraft is 3 NM South of the
intended track and 2.5 NM ahead of the dead
reckoning position.
To reach destination B from this position, the
correction angle on the heading should be:      17º

(For this question use Annex 061-600385)
After 15 minutes of flying with the planned
TAS and TH the aircraft is 3 NM South of the
intended track and 2.5 NM ahead of the dead
reckoning position.
To reach destination B from this position, the
TH should be:                                  292º

(For this question use Annex 061-600386)
After 15 minutes of flying with the planned
TAS and TH the aircraft is 3 NM South of the
intended track and 2.5 NM ahead of the dead
reckoning position.
To reach destination B from this position, the
TH should be:                                  078º


An aircraft is flying from A to B a distance of
50 NM.. The True course in the flight log is
090º, the forecast wind is 225º(T)/15kt and
the TAS is 120 kt. After 15 minutes of flying
with the planned TAS and TH the aircraft is 3
NM South of the intended track and 2.5 NM
ahead of the dead reckoning position.
To reach destination B from this position, the
correction angle on the heading should be:      17º
An aircraft is flying from A to B. The true
course according to the flight log is 090º, the
estimated wind is 225º(T)/15kt and the TAS
is 120 kt.
After 15 minutes of flying with the planned
TAS and TH the aircraft is 3 NM South of the
intended track and 2.5 NM ahead of the dead
reckoning position.
The Track angle error (TKE) is:                 5ºR
(For this question use Annex 061-600389)
An aircraft is flying according the flight log at
the Annex. After 15 minutes of flying with the
planned TAS and TH the aircraft is 3 NM
North of the intended track and 2.5 NM
ahead of the dead reckoning position.
To reach destination B from this position the
TH should be:                                     112º


(For this question use Annex 061-600390)
An aircraft is flying according the flight log at
the Annex. After 15 minutes of flying with the
planned TAS and TH the aircraft is 3 NM
North of the intended track and 2.5 NM
ahead of the dead reckoning position.
To reach destination B from this position the
TH should be:                                     258º
Mu'a, Tonga Islands, is situated at (21°11'S,
175°07'W)

In the Air Almanac the standard time of
Tonga Islands is listed as UTC +13.

For August 21st the sunrise table in the Air
Almanac shows:
20°S: 06:18

30°S: 06:28


What is the Standard Time of sunrise at
Mu'a?                                              06:59 on August 22nd.
An observer is situated on the parallel of
23.5°S. Which statement about the passage          It passes through the zenith
of the apparent sun in relation to this position   once a year around December
is correct?                                        22nd.
When proceeding, on a given date, along a
parallel towards the East, the moment of
sunrise will occur one hour earlier every 15°
difference in longitude when it is expressed
in                                                 UTC

Standard time for some areas is listed in the keeping the same date as the
Air Almanac as UTC +13 instead of UTC -11. political and or economical
The reason for this is                        entity to which they belong.
At (54°N, 020°W) the sun rises on November
28th at 09:01 UTC.
                                              earlier since the latter position
At (44°N, 020°W) the sun will rise            lies further South.
Position "Elephant Point" is situated at
(58°00'N, 135°30'W).


Standard time for this location is listed in the
Air Almanac as UTC -8.

If sunset occurs at 00:57 UTC on 21st
January, what is the time of Sunset in LMT?        15:55 on January 20th.

An aircraft departs from Schiphol airport and
flies to Santa Cruz in Bolivia (South America)
via Miami in Florida. The departure time (off
blocks) is 07:45 ST at the 10th of
November, taxi time before take off at
Schiphol is 25 minutes. The flight time to
Miami over the Atlantic Ocean is 09h20m.
The total taxi time in Miami to and from the
gate is 25 minutes. The time spend at the
gate is 02h40m. From Miami to Santa Cruz
the airborne time is 06h30m. Calculate the
time and date of touch down in Santa Cruz in
ST Bolivia if the difference between ST and
UTC is 5 hours.                                21:05 10th Nov.

                                                   Standard time is determined
                                                   by the government of the
                                                   appropriate state and does not
                                                   necessarily follow the borders
Which statement about ST is true?                  of 15° wide longitude zones.


                                           both the direction of rotation of
                                           the Earth around its axis and
The reason that the solar day lasts longer its orbital rotation around the
than the sidereal day is that              sun are the same.
                                           The difference between the
What may cause a difference between a DR- actual wind and the forecasted
position and a Fix?                        wind.


The accuracy of the, manually calculated,
DR-position of an aircraft is, among other         the accuracy of the forecasted
things, affected by                                wind.


The accuracy of the, manually calculated,
DR-position of an aircraft is, among other         the flight time since the last
things, affected by                                position update.
Consider the following factors that determine
the accuracy of a DR position:
1. The flight time since the last position
update.
2. The accuracy of the forecasted wind.
3. The accuracy of the TAS.
4. The accuracy of the steered heading.

Using the list above which of the following
contains the most complete answer?               1, 2, 3 and 4

(For this question use Annex 061-600414)
The GMT of Morning Civil Twilight at
(66º48'N, 095º26'W) on 27th of January is?       1436 GMT

(For this question use Annex 061-600415)
The GMT of Sunrise at (66º48'N, 095º26'W)
on 27th of January is?                    1549 GMT


(For this question use Annex 061-600416)
What is the duration of morning Civil Twilight
at (66º48'N, 095º26'W) on 27th of January? 01h 13m

A route is flown from (80°S, 100°W) to (80°S,
140°E). At 180°E/W the Grid Track (GT) and
True Track (TT) on a Polar Stereographic
chart, whose grid is aligned with the
Greenwich meridian, are respectively:            110°(G) and 290°(T)
A route is flown from (85°S, 100°E) to (85°S,
140°W). At 180°E/W the Grid Track (GT)
and True Track (TT) on a Polar
Stereographic chart, whose grid is aligned
with the Greenwich meridian, are
respectively:                                    250°(G) and 070°(T)
A route is flown from (80°S, 100°W) to (80°S,
140°E). At 160°W the Grid Track (GT) and
True Track (TT) on a Polar Stereographic
chart with a grid orientated on the 180º
meridian are respectively:                       290°(G) and 270°(T)
A route is flown from (85°S, 100°E) to (85°S,
140°W). At 160°E the Grid Track (GT) and
True track (TT) on a Polar Stereographic
chart with a grid orientated on the 180º
meridian are respectively:                       070°(G) and 090°(T)
Thule VOR is located at (76°32'N, 68°15'W).
A Polar Stereographic chart with the grid
aligned with the Greenwich meridian is to be
used. The local variation is 75°W. Which grid
track must be maintained to track radial
210(M) inbound?                                  023°(G)
A route is drawn from (75°00'N, 060°00'E) to
(75°00'N, 030°00'W) on a Polar
Stereographic chart with the grid aligned with
the Greenwich meridian. The Grid Track
(GT) is:                                         255º(G)
Route A - B is drawn on a Polar
Stereographic chart with the grid aligned with
the Greenwich meridian. The True Track of
the straight line at A (75°N, 010°W) is 080°.
What is the Grid Track when passing the
meridian 050°E?                                090º(G)

Route A - B is drawn on a Polar
Stereographic chart with the grid aligned with
the Greenwich meridian. The true track of the
straight line at A is 060°. When passing the
meridian 100°E, the true track is 090°. The
grid track of this route on the chart is:        350º(G)
Route A - B is drawn on a Polar
Stereographic chart with the grid aligned with
the Greenwich meridian. The true track of the
straight line at A (75°S, 010°W) is 080°.
What is the Grid Track when passing the
meridian of 050°E?                               070º(G)
Route A - B is drawn on a Southern Polar
Stereographic chart whose grid is aligned
with the Greenwich meridian. The true track
of the straight line at A is 120°. When
passing the meridian of 100°E the true track
is 090°. The grid track of this route on the
chart is:                                        190º(G)
A straight line from A (75ºS, 120ºE) to B
(75ºS, 160ºE) is drawn on a Polar
Stereographic chart. When passing the
meridian 155ºE, the True Track is:               075º
A straight line from A (75ºN, 120ºE) to B
(75ºN, 160ºE) is drawn on a Polar
Stereographic chart. When passing the
meridian 155ºE, the True Track is:               105º
A straight line from A (53ºN, 155ºW) to B
(53ºN, 170ºE) is drawn on a Lambert
Conformal conical chart with standard
parallels at 50ºN and 56ºN.

When passing the meridian 175ºE, the True
Track is:                                        260.0º
A straight line from A (53ºS, 155ºE) to B
(53ºS, 170ºW) is drawn on a Lambert
Conformal conical chart with standard
parallels at 50ºS and 56ºS.

When passing 175ºW, the True Track is:           078.0º

An aircraft is flying from SALCO to BERRY
HEAD on Magnetic Track 007º, TAS 445 kt.
The wind is 050º(T)/40 kt. 

Variation 5ºW, deviation +2º


At 1000 UTC the RB of locator PY is 311º.

At 1003 UTC the RB of locator PY is 266º. 


Calculate the True bearing of locator PY at
1003 UTC from the aircraft.                      272º (T)
An aircraft is flying from SALCO to BERRY
HEAD on Magnetic Track 007º, TAS 445 kt.
The wind is 050º(T)/40 kt. 

Variation 5ºW, deviation +2º


At 1000 UTC the RB of locator PY is 311º.

At 1003 UTC the RB of locator PY is 266º. 


Calculate the distance of the aircraft from
locator PY at 1003 UTC.                           21 NM

The standard parallels of a Lambert chart are
26°N and 48°N and the stated scale is 

1:2 500 000.                                  The scale at 28°N is smaller
Which statement is correct?                   than the scale at 24°N.
                                              The scale reaches its
Which statement is correct about the scale of minimum value at the parallel
a Lambert projection?                         of origin.
Which statement is correct about the scale of The scale reaches its
a Polar Stereographic projection of the       minimum value at the North
Northern polar area?                          pole.


                                                  The parallel of origin is the
Which statement is true about the parallel of     parallel at which the scale
origin of a conformal chart?                      reaches its minimum value.
If a failed RMI rose is stuck on 090° and the
ADF pointer indicates 225°, the relative
bearing to the station will be:                   135°.
A VOR is sited at position A (45°00'N,
010°00'E). An aircraft is located at position B
(44°00'N, 010°00'E). Assuming that the
magnetic variation at A is 10°W and at B is
15°W, the aircraft is on VOR radial:              190°
A DME station is located 1000 feet above
MSL.
An aircraft flying at FL 370 in ISA conditions
which is 15 NM away from the DME station,
will have a DME reading of:                       16 NM
The frequency of the amplitude modulation
and the colour of an outer marker (OM) light
is:                                               400 Hz, blue
An RMI indicates aircraft heading and
bearing. To convert the RMI bearings of
NDBs and VORs to true bearings the correct
combination for the application of magnetic       NDB: aircraft position
variation is:                                     VOR: beacon position
An aircraft is flying on the true track 090°
towards a VOR station located near the
equator where the magnetic variation is
15°E. The variation at the aircraft position is
8°E.

The aircraft is on VOR radial:                    255°
Given:
Magnetic heading 280°

VOR radial 090°

What bearing should be selected on the omni-
bearing selector in order to centralise the
VOR deviation needle with a "TO" indication? 270°

A VOR is sited at position 58°00'N 073°00'W
where the magnetic variation equals 32°W.

An aircraft is located at position 56°00'N
073°00'W where the magnetic variation
equals 28°W.

The aircraft is on VOR radial:              212

In order to plot a bearing from a VOR station,
a pilot needs to know the magnetic variation:    at the VOR
An aeroplane flies over position A which is
due North of a VOR station sited at position
B.
The magnetic variation at A is 18°W, and at
B is 10°W.

What radial from B is the aircraft on?           010°
An aircraft DME receiver does not lock on to
its own transmissions reflected from the         they are not on the receiver
ground because:                                  frequency

The DME (Distance Measuring Equipment)
operates in the following frequency range:       962 to 1213 MHz
A DME is located at MSL.
An aircraft passing vertically above the
station at flight level FL 360 will obtain a
DME range of approximately:                      6 NM
During a flight at FL 210, a pilot does not
receive any DME distance indication from a
DME station located approximately 220 NM
away.                                            aeroplane is below the 'line of
The reason for this is that the:                 sight' altitude
When Mode C is selected on the aircraft
SSR transponder the additional information       pressure altitude based on
transmitted is:                                  1013.25 hPa

The ground Secondary Surveillance Radar
(SSR) equipment incorporates a transmitter
and receiver respectively operating in the
following frequencies:

                Transmitter        Receiver     1030 MHz       1090 MHz
Assuming sufficient transmission power, the
maximum range of a ground radar with a
pulse repetition frequency of 450 pulses per
second is: (Given: velocity of light is 300 000
km/s)                                           333 km
What is the approximate maximum
theoretical range at which an aircraft at
FL130 could receive information from a VDF
facility which is sited 1024 FT above MSL? 180 NM

In ISA conditions, what is the maximum
theoretical range at which an aircraft at FL80
can expect to obtain bearings from a ground
VDF facility sited 325 ft above MSL ?             134 NM
A radio beacon has an operational range of
10 NM. By what factor should the transmitter
power be increased in order to achieve an
operational range of 20 NM?                       Four
Quadrantal errors associated with aircraft
Automatic Direction Finding (ADF)                 signal bending by the aircraft
equipment are caused by:                          metallic surfaces
Errors caused by the effect of coastal
refraction on bearings at lower altitudes are     inland and the bearing crosses
maximum when the NDB is:                          the coast at an acute angle
The principle used in VOR bearing
measurement is:                                   phase comparison
Which frequency band is used by VOR
transmissions?                                    VHF
Transmissions from VOR facilities may be          uneven propagation over
adversely affected by:                            irregular ground surfaces
If VOR bearing information is used beyond
the designated operational coverage, errors       interference from other
could be caused by:                               transmitters
You are flying along an airway which is 10
NM wide (5 NM either side of the centreline).
The distance to the VOR/DME you are using
is 100 NM. If you are on the airway
boundary, how many dots deviation will the
VOR needle show if one dot represents 2
degrees?                                          1.5
An airway 10 NM wide is to be defined by two
VORs each having a resultant bearing
accuracy of plus or minus 5.5°. 

In order to ensure accurate track guidance
within the airway limits the maximum
distance apart for the transmitter is
approximately:                                    105 NM
An aircraft is required to approach a VOR via
the 104° radial. Which of the following
settings should be made on the VOR/ILS
deviation indicator?                              284° with the TO flag showing
An aircraft, on a heading of 180°M is on a
bearing of 270°M from a VOR. 

The bearing you should select on the OMNI
bearing selector to centralise the VOR/ILS
left/right deviation needle is:                   090°
An aircraft is required to approach a VOR
station via the 244° radial. In order to obtain
correct sense indications the deviation
indicator should be set to:                       064° with the TO flag showing
What is the maximum theoretical range that
an aircraft at FL150 can receive signals from
a VOR situated 609 feet above MSL?            184 NM
Which of the following frequencies is within
the DME frequency band?                       1000 MHz

Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)                UHF band and uses two
operates in the:                                  frequencies
For a conventional DME facility 'Beacon
Saturation' will occur whenever the number
of aircraft interrogations exceeds:               100
The aircraft DME receiver is able to accept
replies to its own transmissions and reject       the time interval between
replies to other aircraft interrogations          pulse pairs is unique to that
because:                                          particular aircraft

The aircraft DME receiver cannot lock on to       aircraft transmitter and DME
interrogation signals reflected from the          ground station are transmitting
ground because:                                   on different frequencies

In which situation will speed indications on an
airborne Distance Measuring Equipment             When tracking directly towards
(DME) most closely represent the                  the station at a range of 100
groundspeed of an aircraft flying at FL400?       NM or more
The time taken for the transmission of an
interrogation pulse by a Distance Measuring
Equipment (DME) to travel to the ground
transponder and return to the airborne
receiver was 2000 micro-second, including
time delay. The slant range from the ground
transponder was:                                  158 NM
The reason why pre take-off holding areas
are sometimes further from the active runway
when ILS Category 2 and 3 landing                 aircraft manoeuvring near the
procedures are in progress than during good       runway may disturb guidance
weather operations is:                            signals

Which of the following correctly describes the
Instrument Landing System (ILS) localiser         Two overlapping lobes on the
radiation pattern?                                same VHF carrier frequency
An aircraft tracking to intercept the
Instrument Landing System (ILS) localiser
inbound on the approach side, outside the         may receive false course
published ILS coverage angle:                     indications
The MIDDLE MARKER of an Instrument
Landing System (ILS) facility is identified       alternate dots and dashes and
audibly and visually by a series of:              an amber light flashing
The OUTER MARKER of an Instrument                 75 MHz and is modulated by
Landing System (ILS) facility transmits on a      morse at two dashes per
frequency of:                                     second
What approximate rate of descent is required
in order to maintain a 3° glide path at a
groundspeed of 120 kt?                            600 ft/min
Airborne weather radar systems use a
wavelength of approximately 3 cm in order  detect the larger water
to:                                        droplets
In the Mapping Mode of an Airborne Weather
Radar which can utilise two different beam
shapes, the:                               fanshaped beam effective up
                                           to a maximum of 50 NM to 60
                                           NM range is used

Which of the following cloud types is most
readily detected by airborne weather radar?       cumulus


Why is a secondary radar display screen free      The principle of 'echo' return is
of storm clutter?                                 not used in secondary radar
In order to indicate radio failure the aircraft
SSR transponder should be selected to
code:                                             7600
In order to indicate unlawful interference with
the planned operation of the flight, the
aircraft Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR)
transponder should be selected to:                7500
An apparent increase in the transmitted
frequency which is proportional to the
transmitter velocity will occur when:             the transmitter moves towards
                                                  the receiver
The VOR system is limited to about 1° of
accuracy. One degree at 200 NM represents
a width of:                                    3.5 NM
An aircraft is "homing" to a radio beacon
whilst maintaining a relative bearing of zero.

If the magnetic heading decreases, the
aircraft is experiencing:                    right drift
An NDB is on a relative bearing of 316° from
an aircraft.
Given:
Compass heading 270°

At aircraft deviation 2°W, Variation 30°E 

At station Variation 28°E, 

Calculate the true bearing of the NDB from
the aircraft                                 254°

A Primary radar operates on the principle of: pulse technique

The different segments of the satellite
navigation system NAVSTAR/GPS are the:            control, space and user

One of the tasks of the control segment of
the satellite navigation system                   monitor the status of the
NAVSTAR/GPS is to:                                satellites
                                                 selecting appropriate satellites
The main task of the user segment (receiver)     automatically, to track the
of the satellite navigation system               signals and to measure the
NAVSTAR/GPS is to calculate receiver             time taken by signals from the
position by:                                     satellites to reach the receiver

                                                 transmit signals which can be
One of the tasks of the space segment of the     used, by suitable receivers, to
satellite navigation system NAVSTAR/GPS          determine time, position and
is to:                                           velocity
The geometric shape of the reference
system for the satellite navigation system
NAVSTAR/GPS, defined as WGS 84, is:              an ellipsoid
In civil aviation, the height value computed
by the receiver of the satellite navigation      height above the WGS-84
system NAVSTAR/GPS is the:                       ellipsoid
In relation to the satellite navigation system
NAVSTAR/GPS,
the term 'inclination' denotes the angle         orbital plane and the
between the:                                     equatorial plane

How long does it take a NAVSTAR/GPS              Approximately 12 hours (1/2 of
satellite to orbit the earth?                    a sidereal day)
At what approximate height above the WGS-
84 ellipsoid are NAVSTAR/GPS satellites
circling the earth?                              20200 km
The orbital planes of the satellite navigation   inclined 55° to the equatorial
system NAVSTAR/GPS are:                          plane
In which frequency bands are the L1 and L2
frequencies used by the satellite navigation
system NAVSTAR/GPS for transmission of
the navigation message?                          UHF
Which one of the following inputs to an Area
Navigation System (R-NAV) comes from an
external, not on-board, system?                  VOR/DME radial/distance
Which one of the following sensors/systems
is self-contained?                               Inertial Navigation System
In relation to Area Navigation Systems
(RNAV), which of the following is an Air Data
input?                                           True airspeed
Which of the following equipments uses
primary radar principles?                        Airborne weather radar (AWR)
Which of the following equipments works on       Secondary Surveillance Radar
the interrogator/transponder principle?          (SSR)

In order to indicate an emergency situation,
the aircraft Secondary Surveillance Radar
(SSR) transponder should be set to:              7700
The theoretical maximum range for an
Airborne Weather Radar is determined by
the:                                             pulse repetition frequency

The selection of code 7500 on an aircraft        unlawful interference with the
SSR transponder indicates:                       planned operation of the flight
The selection of code 7600 on an aircraft
SSR transponder indicates:                       radio communication failure

The selection of code 7700 on an aircraft
SSR transponder indicates:                       an emergency
What is the wavelength of an NDB
transmitting on 375 kHz?                         800 m
In which frequency band does an ILS glide
slope transmit?                                  UHF

Which of the following is likely to have the     Interference from other NDBs,
greatest effect on ADF accuracy?                 particularly at night
Assuming a CDI with five dots on each side
of the display operating in ILS (localiser)
mode, what does each of the dots represent
approximately?                                   0.5°
Outer marker transmits on 75 MHz and is
modulated by an aural frequency of:              400 Hz
In order to enter a phantom waypoint that is     does not have to be in range
designated by a VOR/DME simple RNAV              when entered but must be
system, the VOR/DME                              when used

An aircraft is flying on a heading of 270°(M).
The VOR OBS is also set to 270° with the full
left deflection and FROM flag displayed.
In which sector is the aircraft from the VOR
ground station?                                  NW
An Omni-bearing selector (OBS) shows full
deflection to the left when within range of a
serviceable VOR.
What angular deviation are you from the
selected radial?                                 10° or more
In accordance with Doc 8168, a pilot flying an
NDB approach must achieve a tracking
accuracy within……… of the published
approach track.                                  +/-5°
What is the minimum number of satellites
required by a GPS in order to obtain a three
dimensional fix?                                 4
What is the colour sequence when passing
over an Outer, Middle and Inner Marker
beacon?                                          blue - amber - white



                                                 timing the period that is taken
In a Satellite-Assisted Navigation system        for a satellite's transmission to
(GNSS/GPS) a position line is obtained by:       reach the aircraft's receiver
In which frequency band do Satellite-
Assisted Navigation systems (GNSS/GPS)
provide position information that is available
to civil aircraft?                               UHF
                                           air to ground and ground to air
                                           data link communications and
The two main design functions of Secondary improved ATC aircraft
Surveillance Radar (SSR) Mode S are:       surveillance capability



Which one of the following is an advantage      It is insensitive to geographical
of a Microwave Landing System (MLS)             site and can be installed at
compared with an Instrument Landing             sites where it is not possible to
System (ILS)?                                   use an ILS
A frequency of 10 GHz is considered to be
the optimum for use in an airborne weather      the larger water droplets will
radar system because:                           give good echoes
What is the minimum number of satellites
required for the NAVSTAR/GPS to carry out
two dimensional operation?                      3
In an Airborne Weather Radar the areas of
greatest turbulence are usually indicated on    colour zones of red and
the screen by:                                  magenta
The azimuth transmitter of a Microwave
Landing System (MLS) provides a fan-
shaped horizontal approach zone which is        + or - 40° of the runway centre-
usually:                                        line
Which of the following is a complete list of
airborne weather radar antenna stabilisation
axes?                                           roll and pitch
In an Airborne Weather Radar that has a
colour cathode display increasing severity of
rain and turbulence is generally shown by a
change of colour from:                          green to yellow to red

When an aircraft is operating its Secondary
Surveillance Radar in Mode C an air traffic
controller's presentation gives information
regarding the aircraft's indicated pressure
altitude in increments of:                    100 ft
Which of the following combinations is likely
to result in the most accurate Area
Navigation (RNAV) fixes?                      DME/DME
A radar facility transmitting at a Pulse
Recurrence Frequency (PRF) of 1200
pulses/second will have a maximum
unambiguous range of approximately:           69 NM

The maximum theoretical range at which an
aircraft at FL230 may receive signals from a
VOR facility sited at mean sea level is:     190 NM
The frequency of an SSR ground
transmission is:                             1030 +/- 0.2 MHz
Which of the following gives the best
information about the progress of a flight
between 2 en-route waypoints from a RNAV
equipment?                                   ETO
The main factor which determines the
minimum range that can be measured by a
pulsed radar is:                                   pulse length
Ignoring pulse length, the maximum pulse
repetition frequency
(PRF) that can be used by a primary radar
facility to detect targets
unambiguously to a range of 200 NM is:
(pps = pulses per second)                          405 pps

Which of the following is the ICAO allocated
frequency band for ADF receivers?            190 - 1750 kHz
ICAO specifications are that range errors
indicated by Distance Measuring Equipment + or - 0.25 NM plus 1.25% of
(DME) should not exceed:                     the distance measured

Every 10 kt decrease in groundspeed, on a          decrease in the aircraft's rate
3° ILS glidepath, will require an approximate:     of descent of 50 FT/MIN
MLS installations notified for operation,          + or - 40° about the nominal
unless otherwise stated, provide azimuth           courseline out to a range of 20
coverage of:                                       NM
Instrument Landing Systems (ILS) Glide
Paths provide azimuth coverage (i) ….. °
each side of the localiser centre-line to a
distance of (ii) …. NM minimum from the
threshold.                                         (i) 8        (ii) 10
The rate of descent required to maintain a
3.25° glide slope at a groundspeed of 140 kt
is approximately:                                  760 ft/min
Airborne weather radars are generally based
on the use of:                                     primary radar in the SHF band
                                                   static interference - night effect
Factors liable to affect most NDB/ADF              - absence of failure warning
system performance and reliability include:        system
The maximum pulse repetition frequency
(PRF) that can be
used by a primary radar facility in order to
detect targets
unambiguously at a range of 50 NM is:
(pps = pulses per second)                          1620 pps
Ignoring pulse length and fly-back, a radar
facility designed to have a maximum
unambiguous range of 50 km will have a
PRF (pulses per second) of:                        3000
Which of the following lists are all errors that
affect the accuracy and reliability of the         Satellite clock; satellite
Satellite-Assisted Navigation system               ephemeris; atmospheric
(GNSS/GPS)?                                        propagation
In ISA conditions, approximately what is the
maximum theoretical range at which an
aircraft at FL210 may expect to receive
signals from a VOR facility sited 340 feet
above mean sea level ?                             204 NM
What are the modulation frequencies of the
two overlapping lobes that are used on an
ILS approach?                                      90 HZ        150 HZ
An aircraftis flying a 3° glidepath and
experiences a reduction in groundspeed from
150 kt at the outer marker to 120 kt over the
threshold. The effect of this change in
groundspeed on the aircraft's rate of descent
will be a decrease of approximately:               150 FT/MIN
The minimum range of a primary radar, using
the pulse technique, is determined by the
(i)........ ; the maximum unambiguous range        (i) pulse length (ii) pulse
by the (ii).........                               repetition frequency
Due to 'Doppler' effect an apparent decrease
in the transmitted frequency, which is
proportional to the transmitter's velocity, will   the transmitter moves away
occur when:                                        from the receiver

In order to carry out an Independent three-
dimensional fix, Receiver Autonomous
Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) and failure
detection and exclusion of any faulty satellite,
signal reception is required from a minimum
number of how many satellites?                   6
A ground radar transmitting at a PRF of 1200
pulses/second will have a maximum
unambiguous range of approximately:              67 NM

The principle of operation of an ILS localiser
transmitter is based on two overlapping lobes
that are transmitted on (i).......... frequencies (i) the same      (ii)
and carry different (ii)..........                modulation frequencies

Signal reception is required from a minimum
number of satellites that have adequate
elevation and suitable geometry in order for a
Satellite-Assisted Navigation System (GPS)
to carry out independent three dimensional
operation without the Receiver Autonomous
Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) function. The
number of satellites is:                       4
                                               On the non-approach end of
Where, in relation to the runway, is the ILS   the runway about 300 m from
localiser transmitting aerial normally         the runway on the extended
situated?                                      centreline

There are two NDBs, one 20 NM inland, and
the other 50 NM inland from the coast.
Assuming that the error caused by coastal
refraction is the same for both propagations,
the extent of the error in a position line
plotted by an aircraft that is over water will     greater from the beacon that is
be:                                                50 NM inland
If an aircraft flies along a VOR radial it will
follow a:                                          great circle track
An aircraft at 6400 ft will be able to receive a
VOR groundstation at 100 ft above MSL at
an approximate maximum range of:                   113 NM
An aircraft at FL100 should be able to
receive a VOR groundstation at 100 ft above
MSL at an approximate maximum range of:          137 NM
What is the minimum level (ISA conditions)
that an aircraft, at a range of 113 NM, must
fly in order to contact the tower on R/T for a
VDF bearing from an airport sited 169 ft
above MSL?                                       FL60
An aircraft is on radial 120 with a magnetic
heading of 300°, the track selector (OBS)
reads: 330. The indications on the Course
Deviation Indicator (CDI) are 'fly':             left with 'TO' showing
Which one of the following disturbances is
most likely to cause the greatest inaccuracy
in ADF bearings?                                 Local thunderstorm activity

Given: Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) for a
VOR is selected to 090°.

From/To indicator indicates "TO".
CDI needle is deflected halfway to the right.
On what radial is the aircraft?               275

Of what use, if any, is a military TACAN
station to civil aviation ?                      It can provide DME distance
The frequency range of a VOR receiver is:        108 to 117.95 MHz
Which of the following is an ILS localiser
frequency?                                       109.15 MHz
The maximum range of primary radar
depends on:                                      pulse repetition frequency
A frequency of airborne weather radar is:        9375 MHz

                                                 measuring the time taken for a
                                                 minimum number of satellites'
                                                 transmissions, in known
In a Satellite-Assisted Navigation System        positions, to reach the
(GNSS/GPS), a fix is obtained by:                aircraft's receiver
Which of the following coordinate systems is
used by the NAVSTAR/GPS receiver to
calculate position (latitude, longitude and
altitude)?                                   WGS 84

Which of the following lists all the parameters
that can be determined by a GPS receiver        Latitude, longitude, altitude
tracking signals from 4 different satellites?   and time
What approximate rate of descent is required
in order to maintain a 3° glidepath at a
groundspeed of 90 kt?                           450 ft/min


                                                 within the coverage of station-
ICAO Annex 11 defines Area Navigation            referenced navigation aids or
(RNAV) as a method of navigation which           within the limits of the
permits aircraft operation on any desired        capability of self-contained
flight path:                                     aids, or a combination of these
                                               the computed position based
The Flight Management Computer (FMC)           on a number of sources (IRS,
position is:                                   Radio, ILS, GPS etc)
Under JAR-25 colour code rules, features
displayed in red on an Electronic Flight       warnings; flight envelope and
Instrument System (EFIS), indicate:            system limits

Under JAR-25 colour code rules, features
displayed in amber/yellow on an Electronic
Flight Instrument System (EFIS), indicate:     cautions, abnormal sources

Under JAR-25 general colour code rules,
features displayed in green on an Electronic
Flight Information System should indicate:     engaged modes

Under JAR-25 colour code rules features
displayed in cyan/blue, on an Electronic
Flight Instrument Systems (EFIS), indicate:    the sky
Under JAR-25 colour code rules for
Electronic Flight Instrument Systems (EFIS),
increasing intensity of precipitation are      green, amber/yellow, red,
coloured in the order:                         magenta
(For this question use annex 062-9905A)
Which of the figures depicts an Electronic
Flight Instrument System (EFIS) display in
MAP mode?                                      Figure 3
(For this question use annex 062-9906A)
Which of the figures depicts an Electronic
Flight Instrument System (EFIS) display in
PLAN mode?                                     Figure 2
(For this question use annex 062-9907A)
Which of the figures depicts an Electronic
Flight Instrument System (EFIS) display in
Expanded (EXP) VOR/ILS mode with an ILS
frequency selected?                            Figure 1
(For this question use annex 062-9908A)
Which of the figures depicts an Electronic
Flight Instrument System (EFIS) display in
Expanded (EXP) VOR/ILS mode with a VOR
frequency selected?                            Figure 4
(For this question use annex 062-9909A)
Which of the figures depicts an Electronic
Flight Instrument System (EFIS) display in
FULL VOR/ILS mode with an VOR frequency
selected?                                      Figure 1
(For this question use annex 062-9910A)
Which of the figures depicts an Electronic
Flight Instrument System (EFIS) display in
PLAN mode?                                     Figure 2
(For this question use annex 062-9911A)
Which of the figures depicts an Electronic
Flight Instrument System (EFIS) display in
MAP mode?                                      Figure 3
(For this question use annex 062-9912A)
Which of the figures depicts an Electronic
Flight Instrument System (EFIS) display in
Expanded (EXP) VOR/ILS mode with an
VOR frequency selected?                         Figure 4
(For this question use annex 062-9913A)
Which of the figures depicts an Electronic
Flight Instrument System (EFIS) display in
Expanded (EXP) VOR/ILS mode with an ILS
frequency selected?                             Figure 5
(For this question use annex 062-9914A)
Which of the figures depicts an Electronic
Flight Instrument System (EFIS) display in
FULL VOR/ILS mode with an ILS frequency
selected?                                       Figure 6
(For this question use annex 062-9915A)
What drift is being experienced?                8° Left
(For this question use annex 062-9916A)
What is the value of the track from TBX to
YTB?                                            097°(T)
(For this question use annex 062-9917A)
What wind velocity is indicated?                105°(M)/20KT
(For this question use annex 062-9918A)
What is the value of the selected course?       299°(M)
(For this question use annex 062-9919A)
What is the aircraft track?                     272°(M)
(For this question use annex 062-9920A)
The letters QTX and adjacent symbol
indicate a:                                     VOR/DME/VORTAC
(For this question use annex 062-9921A)
The 'O' followed by the letters 'KABC'
indicate:                                       an off-route airport
(For this question use annex 062-9922A)
What is the heading bug selected to?            260°(M)
(For this question use annex 062-9923A)
The diagram indicates that the aircraft is to   right of the localiser and below
the:                                            the glidepath
What airborne equipment, if any, is required
to be fitted in order that a VDF let-down may
be flown?                                       VHF radio



Which of the following is an advantage of       It only requires a VHF radio to
Ground/DF (VDF) let-down?                       be fitted to the aircraft

In which frequency band does the Microwave
Landing System (MLS) operate?              SHF


In an Electronic Flight Instrument System       Navigation radios
(EFIS) data relating primarily to navigation in GPS
the FMC is provided by:                         Inertial Reference Systems
For any given circumstances, in order to
double the effective range of a primary radar
the power output must be increased by a
factor of:                                         16
The prime factor in determining the
maximum unambiguous range of a primary
radar is the:                                      pulse repetition frequency
Given:
VOR station position N61° E025°, variation
13°E;

Estimated position of an aircraft N59° E025°,
variation 20°E.

What VOR radial is the aircraft on?                167°
The BFO selector switch on the ADF control
panel must be in the 'on' position to enable       hear the IDENT of NDBs using
the pilot to:                                      NON A1A transmissions

An aircraft is on the 120° radial from a VOR
station. Course 340° is selected on the HSI
(Horizontal Situation Indicator).
If the magnetic heading is 070°, the deviation
bar relative to the aeroplane model, will be: behind.
You are on a heading of 090°M and are on
the 255 radial from a VOR station. You set
190° on your OBS. The deviation bar will
show:                                          Full scale deflection left with a
                                               'from' indication

A pilot flying an aircraft at FL 80, tunes in a
VOR which has an elevation of 313 m. Given
ISA conditions, what is the maximum
theoretical distance at which a pilot might
expect to receive the VOR signals?                 151 NM
The OBS is set to 235°. The indications of
the VOR are half scale deflection left and 'to'.
The aircraft is on the radial:                     050°
An aircraft passes overhead a DME station
at 12000 feet above the station. At that time,
the DME reading will be:                           approximately 2 NM.
GPS system satellites transmit their signals
on two carrier waves 1575 MHz and 1227
MHz and supply two possible codes
accessible according to user (civil or
military).                                         only the 1 575 MHz carrier
Commercial aviation uses:                          wave and one code
A weather radar, set to the 100 NM scale,
shows a squall at 50NM. By changing the
scale to 50 NM, the return on the radar            increase in area and move to
screen should:                                     the top of the screen
A cumulonimbus cloud in the vicinity of an
aeroplane can cause certain navigation
systems to give false indications.
This is particularly true of the:                  ADF
An ADF provides the aircraft with bearing
information with respect to a ground
station.
To do this, the ground station emits a signal
pattern which is:                               omnidirectional

An aircraft, at FL 410 (ISA conditions) is
passing overhead a DME station at mean
sea level. The DME indicates approximately: 6.8 NM

A VOR and an NDB are co-located. You
cross the VOR radial of 240° on a heading of
360°(M). In the vicinity of the station you
should read a relative bearing on the ADF of: 060
The code transmitted by a SSR transponder
consists of:                                  pulses
The Flight Management System (FMS) is
organised in such a way that:                 the navigation database is
                                              "read only" to the pilot.

The operating principle of a DME is the         time between the transmission
measurement of the:                             and reception of radio pulses
You are on a magnetic heading of 055° and
your ADF indicates a relative bearing of
325°. The QDM is:                               020°
An aircraft at FL300 (ISA conditions), with a
ground speed of 300 kt, is about pass
overhead a DME station at MSL. The DME
receiver is capable of determining ground
speed.
One minute before the overhead, DME
speed and distance indications are
respectively:                                   less than 300 kt and 7 NM.
Given:
W/V (T) 230/ 20 kt,
Var.        6E,
TAS         80 kt
What relative bearing from an NDB should
be maintained in order to achieve an
outbound course of 257°(M) from overhead
the beacon?                                     188°

On the QDR of 075° (in the vicinity of the
station) with a magnetic heading of 295°, the
relative bearing on the ADF indicator is:      320°
When flying at 6000 feet above ground level,
the DME indicates 5 NM. What is the
horizontal distance from the aircraft to
overhead the DME?                              4.9 NM
An aircraft is situated at 30°N - 005°E with a
magnetic variation of 10°W.

A VOR is located at 30°N - 013°E with a
magnetic variation of 15°W.

The aircraft is situated on the VOR radial:    287°
The heading of your aircraft is 075° (M). On
the CDI a course of 025° is preselected. The
VOR indications are 'TO' with the needle
showing right deflection. Relative to the
station, you are situated in a quadrant
defined by the radials:                      205° and 295°

The OBS is set on 048°, TO appears in the
window. The needle is close to full right
deflection. The VOR radial is approximately: 238°


Which one of the following methods is used
by a Microwave Landing System (MLS) to
indicate distance from the runway threshold?         A precision facility DME
Which one of the following correctly lists the       Separate azimuth and
major ground based components of a                   elevation transmitters, DME
Microwave Landing System (MLS)?                      facility
In which frequency band do most airborne
weather radars operate?                              SHF
The maximum range obtainable from an ATC
En-Route Surveillance Radar is
approximately:                                       200-300 NM
In Airborne Weather Radar (AWR), the main
factors which determine whether a cloud will         size of the water drops;
be detected are:                                     wavelength/frequency used
In order to ascertain whether a cloud return
on an Aircraft Weather Radar (AWR) is at or
above the height of the aircraft, the tilt control
should be set to:
(Assume a beam width of 5°)                          2.5° up
Which one of the following lists information
given by a basic VOR/DME-based Area
Navigation System when tracking inbound to
a phantom waypoint?                                  Crosstrack distance; Distance
                                                     to Go
Which of the following lists information
required to input a waypoint or 'Phantom             Radial and distance from a
Station' into a basic VOR/DME-based Area             VOR/DME to the waypoint or
Navigation System?                                   'Phantom Station'

(For this question use annex 062-12409A)
Which of the distances indicated will be
shown on a basic VOR/DME-based Area
Navigation Equipment when using a
'Phantom Station'?                                   12 NM

(For this question use annex 062-12410A)
Which of the distances indicated will be
shown on a basic VOR/DME-based Area
Navigation Equipment when using a
'Phantom Station' at position 'X'?                   9 NM
                                            when operating at low altitudes
Erratic indications may be experienced when close to the limit of reception
flying towards a basic VOR/DME-based Area range from the reference
Navigation System 'Phantom Station':        station


                                               It transfers the information
                                               given by a VOR/DME station
                                               into tracking and distance
Which of the following is one of the functions indications to any chosen
of the Computer in a basic RNAV system?        Phantom Station/waypoint



The required 24 NAVSTAR/GPS operational         6 orbital planes with 4
satellites are located on:                      satellites in each plane
Which of the following statements about the
'visibility' of NAVSTAR/GPS satellites is       It varies, depending on the
correct?                                        time and observer's location

How many operational satellites are required
for Full Operational Capability (FOC) of the
satellite navigation system NAVSTAR/GPS? 24
Which of the following satellite navigation
systems has Full Operational Capability
(FOC) and is approved for specified flights
under IFR conditions in Europe?                NAVSTAR/GPS
                                               PRN is a code used for the
In relation to the satellite navigation system identification of the satellites
NAVSTAR/GPS, which of the following            and the measurement of the
statements correctly describes the term        time taken by the signal to
'Pseudo Random Noise (PRN)' signal?            reach the receiver
Which of the following NAVSTAR/GPS
satellite navigation system codes can be
processed by 'unauthorised' civil aviation
receivers?                                     C/A

Almanac data stored in the receiver of the      fast identification of received
satellite navigation system NAVSTAR/GPS         signals coming from visible
is used for the:                                satellites


How does a NAVSTAR/GPS satellite                Each satellite transmits its
navigation system receiver recognise which      signal, on common
of the received signals belongs to which        frequencies, with an individual
satellite?                                      Pseudo Random Noise code
What is the time taken to receive the
complete Navigation Message (complete set       12.5 minutes (= 30 seconds
of data) from all satellites?                   per data frame)
Which of the following statements
concerning the L1 and L2 NAVSTAR/GPS            The higher frequency is used
transmission frequencies and codes is           to transmit both the C/A and P
correct?                                        codes
Which one of the following errors can be
compensated for by a NAVSTAR/GPS
receiver comparing L1 and L2 frequencies?        Ionospheric delay


Concerning the NAVSTAR/GPS satellite             It is a technique by which a
navigation system, what is the meaning of        receiver checks the reliability
the term 'Receiver Autonomous Integrity          of the signals it is receiving
Monitoring' (RAIM)?                              and can detect if one of the
                                                 signals is incorrect
                                                 determined by the time taken
                                                 for the signal to arrive from the
The distance between a NAVSTAR/GPS               satellite multiplied by the
satellite and receiver is:                       speed of light

                                                 is tracking all currently visible
In relation to the satellite navigation system   satellites above the receiver's
NAVSTAR/GPS, 'All in View' is a term used        mask angle and uses them to
when a receiver:                                 compute the position
The reason why the measured distance
between a NAVSTAR/GPS satellite and a
receiver is called a 'Pseudo-Range' is           calculated range includes
because the:                                     receiver clock error
What type of satellite navigation system
NAVSTAR/GPS receiver is most suitable for
use on board an aircraft?                        Multichannel

                                               on the upper side of the
The receiver aerial for a NAVSTAR/GPS          fuselage in the vicinity of the
system should be mounted:                      centre of gravity
In the NAVSTAR/GPS satellite navigation
system, re-use of Selective Availability would
give the option to artificially degrade the
accuracy by:                                   dithering the satellite clock

In the event of the re-use of Selective
Availability, how does this affect, if at all, the It degrades position accuracy
navigation accuracy of the NAVSTAR/GPS by manipulating satellite
satellite navigation system ?                      signals


In the NAVSTAR/GPS satellite navigation          is corrected by using signals
system, receiver clock error:                    from four satellites
                                                 minimised by the receiver
                                                 using a model of the
The influence of the ionosphere on the           atmosphere and comparing
accuracy of the satellite navigation system      signals transmitted by the
NAVSTAR/GPS is:                                  satellites

What are the effects, if any, of shadowing by
parts of the aircraft (e.g. wing) on the
reception of signals from NAVSTAR/GPS         It may prevent the reception of
satellites?                                   signals
                                              3 satellites with a low elevation
                                              above the horizon and an
Which of the following geometric satellite    azimuth of 120° from each
constellations provides the most accurate     other together with a fourth
NAVSTAR/GPS position fix?                     directly overhead




                                              Fixed ground stations compute
In relation to the NAVSTAR/GPS satellite      position errors and transmit
navigation system, what is involved in the    correction data to a suitable
differential technique (D-GPS)?               receiver on the aircraft
Which of the following statements about the
accuracy that can be obtained with the LAAS   The closer the receiver is to a
(local area augmentation system) of the       LAAS ground reference
satellite navigation system NAVSTAR/GPS       station, the more accurate is
is correct?                                   the aircraft position fix.

How does a receiver of the NAVSTAR/GPS
satellite navigation system determine the     It calculates it by using
elevation and azimuth data of a satellite     Almanac data transmitted by
relative to the location of the antenna?      the satellites

What is the procedure to be followed if, on a
flight under IFR conditions using the
NAVSTAR/GPS satellite navigation system,
the number of satellites required to maintain The flight may be continued
the RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity       using other certificated
Monitoring) function are not available?       navigation systems

Which of the following, if any, is a
prerequisite if a receiver of a NAVSTAR/GPS The prescribed IFR-equipment
satellite navigation system is to be used in must be installed and
combination with a multi sensor system?      operational

What datum is used for the Minimum
Descent Altitude (MDA) on a non-precision
approach when using the NAVSTAR/GPS
satellite navigation system?                  Barometric altitude

Which of the following is the datum for
altitude information when conducting flights
under IFR conditions on airways using the
NAVSTAR/GPS satellite navigation system? Barometric altitude
The Captain of an aircraft flying at FL100
wishes to obtain weather information at the
destination airfield (0ft) from the airfield's
VOR. Assuming ISA conditions, what is the
approximate maximum theoretical range at
which it can be expected to obtain this
information?                                   125 NM
                                               hear the IDENT of some NDB
The BFO selector on an ADF receiver is         stations radiating a continuous
used to:                                       wave signal
An NDB transmits a signal pattern in the
horizontal plane which is:                        omnidirectional
DME channels utilise frequencies of
approximately:                                    1000 MHz
A VOR and DME are co-located.
You want to identify the DME by listening to
the callsign.                                     DME callsign is the one with
Having heard the same callsign 4 times in 40      the higher pitch that was
seconds the:                                      broadcast only once
The heading rose of an HSI is frozen on
200°.

Lined up on the ILS of runway 25, the
localiser needle will be:                         centred
In relation to radar systems that use pulse
technology, the term 'Pulse Recurrence Rate
(PRR)' signifies the:                        number of pulses per second
                                             virtually eliminate lateral lobes
                                             and as a consequence
The advantage of the use of slotted antennas concentrate more energy in
in modern radar technology is to:            the main beam
What is the maximum number of Secondary
Surveillance Radar (SSR) transponder codes
in Mode A?                                   4096

Which of the following lists the phenomena
least likely to be detected by radar?             clear air turbulence
Given:
Aircraft heading 160°(M),

Aircraft is on radial 240° from a VOR,

Selected course on HSI is 250°.
                  behind the aeroplane symbol
The HSI indications are deviation bar:            with the FROM flag showing
In a primary radar using pulse technique,
pulse length determines:                          minimum measurable range
In a primary radar using pulse technique,
pulse recurrence frequency (PRF)/pulse
recurrence rate (PRR) determines:                 maximum theoretical range
In a primary radar using pulse technique, the
ability to discriminate between targets in
azimuth is a factor of:                           beam width

Which of the following radar equipments
operate by means of the pulse technique?
1. Aerodrome Surface Movement Radar
2. Airborne Weather Radar
3. Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR)
4. Aerodrome Surveillance (approach)
Radar                                             1, 2, 3 and 4
On which of the following radar displays is it
possible to get an indication of the shape,
and to some extent the type, of the aircraft      Aerodrome Surface Movement
generating the return?                            Radar (ASMR)

In the Flight Management Computer (FMC)
of the Flight Management System (FMS),
data relating to flight plans is stored in the:   navigation database
In the Flight Management Computer (FMC)
of the Flight Management System (FMS),
data relating to V1, VR and V2 speeds is
stored in the:                               performance database
In the Flight Management Computer (FMC)
of the Flight Management System (FMS),
data relating to STARs and SIDs is stored in
the:                                         navigation database
In the Flight Management Computer (FMC)
of the Flight Management System (FMS),
data relating to aircraft flight envelope
computations is stored in the:               performance database

In the Flight Management Computer (FMC)
of the Flight Management System (FMS),
data relating to waypoints is stored in the:    navigation database
In the Flight Management Computer (FMC)
of the Flight Management System (FMS),
data relating to cruising speeds is stored in
the:                                            performance database
Apart from radials and distances from           Heading from the aircraft
VOR/DME stations, what information is           compass system and true
required by the VOR/DME Area Navigation         airspeed from the air data
computer in order to calculate the wind?        computer

                                                TAS from the Air Data
On what data is a VOR/DME Area                  Computer; heading from the
Navigation system operating in the dead         aircraft compass; the last
reckoning mode?                                 computed W/V.
                                                VOR/DME Area Navigation
                                                computer is receiving neither
Under which of the following circumstances      radial nor distance data
does a VOR/DME Area Navigation system           information from VOR/DME
switch to Dead Reckoning mode?                  stations.

Under which of the following circumstances      The system is receiving
does a VOR/DME Area Navigation system           information from only one
switch to Dead Reckoning mode?                  VOR
                                                The VOR/DME Area
                                                Navigation system has its own
How does a VOR/DME Area Navigation              NAV tuner and the system
system selects the DME-stations to be used      itself tunes the DME stations
for positioning?                                providing the most accurate
                                                position.
What type of clock is used in NAVSTAR
GPS satellites?                                 Atomic
How many satellites form the nominal
NAVSTAR GPS constellation?                      24
What is the inclination to the equatorial plane
of the satellite's orbit in the NAVSTAR GPS
constellation?                                  55°
                                                The height of the transmitter
Which of the following affects VDF range?       and of the receiver.
What is the "Q" code for a magnetic bearing
from a VDF station?                             QDR
What according to ICAO Annex 10 is the
range of a locator?                              10 - 25 NM
According to ICAO Annex 10, in which
frequency band(s) does a locator normally
transmit?                                        LF/MF
                                                 Aircraft height is not limiting for
Which of the following is correct regarding      the reception of signals from
the range of an NDB?                             the NDB.

                                                 measures the phase
                                                 difference between the
In order to measure the radial from a VOR,       reference phase and the
the aircraft VOR receiver                        variable phase of the signal.
Which of the following errors is associated
with the use of VOR?                             Scalloping.

                                           The transponder reply carrier
                                           frequency differs by 63 MHz
Regarding the DME system, which one of the from that of the interrogation
following statements is true?              signal.


                                             The DME operating
Which one of the statements below is correct frequencies are in the UHF
regarding the DME?                           frequency band.

What is measured in order to establish         The difference in depth
aircraft position in relation to the localiser between the 90 Hz modulation
beam on an ILS?                                and the 150 Hz modulation.
Which facility associated with the ILS may be
identified by a two-letter identification
group?
                                               Locator.
Assuming a five dot display on either side of
the ILS localiser cockpit display, what is the
angular displacement of the aircraft from the
localiser centreline when the CDI is deflected
2 dots to the right?                           1.0° to the left.

Full deflection on a glide slope indicator
indicates that the aircraft is approximately:    0.7º above or below the
                                                 correct glide path.


Which of the following is correct regarding      False beams will only be found
false beams on a glide path?                     above the correct glide path.
Full scale deflection of the localiser needle    2.5° offset from the localiser
indicates that the aircraft is approximately:    centreline.
On what carrier frequency does the inner
marker transmit?                                 75 MHz.
What is the audio frequency of the inner
marker?                                          3000 Hz
Which of the following alternatives is correct
regarding audio- and visual signals in the       Audio: 1300 Hz, alternating
cockpit when passing overhead a middle           dots and dashes. Visual:
marker?                                          Amber light flashes.
In relation to primary radar, what does the          The number of pulses
term Pulse Recurrence Frequency signify?             transmitted per second.
What information may be displayed on an
ATC radar screen connected only to a
primary radar system?                                Aircraft position only.

                                                     One directional antenna both
Considering a primary radar system, what             for transmitting and for
kind of aerials are used?                            receiving.


Which one of the following is an advantage The required power of
of a secondary radar system when compared transmission from the ground
to a primary radar system?                 equipment is reduced.


The indicated range from a DME station is:           slant range.
Which one is the most correct statement              Range within "line of sight",
regarding the range of the DME system?               and maximum 200 Nm.
Precision RNAV (P-RNAV) requires a track-            ± 1.0 NM for 95% of the flight
keeping accuracy of:                                 time.

On which of the following displays are you
able to get a direct read-out (no calculation is
necessary from the pilot) of the magnetic
bearing from the aircraft to the NDB?            Moving card ADF and RMI.

                                                     Distance between actual
What is cross track distance (XTK-distance)          position and great circle track
in an Area Navigation System?                        between active waypoints.


                                                     A method of navigation which
Which statement about RNAV-routes is                 permots aircraft operation on
correct?                                             any desired flight path.
By which of the following flight deck
equipment are the waypoints inserted into an
FMS RNAV-system by the pilot?                        Control Display Unit
Output from which of the following
combination of navigational sources provide
enough information to the RNAV-equipment             Inertial Reference System and
to calculate the wind vector?                        Air Data Computer
Area Navigation is a method of navigation
that permits aircraft operation on any desired
flight path within the limits of the capability of
self contained systems. Which of the
following systems is such a self contained
sytem?                                               Inertial Reference System
                                                     For 95% of the flight time, the
Which of the following statements regarding          track keeping accuracy must
B-RNAV is correct?                                   not exceed 5 NM.
A fix obtained by rho-rho navigation is based
on information from two:                      DMEs
Which of the following statements about the
scalloping (path deflection) of VOR-radials, in   Scalloping has a negative
relation to the accuracy of navigation using a    effect on the accuracy of
VOR/DME RNAV-system, is correct?                  navigation.
Which of the following data can be found in
the navigation database?
1: SIDs and STARs
2: radio aids
3: optimum flight level
4: company routes
5: cruise speeds                                  Only 1, 2 and 4.
An aircraft is flying a heading of 245° towards
a VOR at FL300. The HSI displays a
"selected course" of 255º with a TO-
indication. The variation at the VOR is 15ºE.
Variation at the aircraft position is 16°E and
the deviation is +1°. 

When the pilot keeps the CDI on the left
inner dot on a display with two dots on either    the VOR will be approached
side                                              along radial 070.
A VOR and an NDB are located in the same
position. Both the VOR- and the ADF-
readings are displayed on the RMI. The
aircraft is tracking away from the beacons        The direction of the ADF
along the 090 radial. The magnetic variation      pointer will change, the
is changing rapidly. Which of the following is    direction of the VOR pointer
correct?                                          will not change.

Which component of an Area Navigation
System displays the Cross Track Distance?         Navigation display.
                                                  the system calculates the
                                                  position of the aircraft without
                                                  reference to externally
                                                  generated (man-made)
IRS is a self-contained system because            signals.


                                                  A waypoint defined by a radial
A phantom station (as used in a 2D RNAV-          and a DME-distance from a
system) is                                        VOR/DME-station.
The minimum airborne equipment required           VHF transmitter-receiver
for operation of a the VHF direction finder is    operating in the 118 MHz to
a:                                                136 MHz range.
The navigational function of the horizontal
                                           the indication of the cross
situation indicator (HSI) in relation to area
navigation systems is                      track distance (XTK).
                                           it operates independently of
                                           navigational aids outside the
The IRS is a self-contained system because aircraft.
What is the maximum latitude of a GPS-
satellite ground track?                    55° N/S
                                                To deny the receiver the use
                                                of GPS-satellites with an
For what reason is a mask angle set-up in a     elevation less than the mask
GPS-receiver?                                   angle.

EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Wide Area Differential GPS
Overlay System) is a form of:            (WADGPS)

                                                the receiver sensitivity in order
                                                to achieve optimum target
The "gain" control knob of an AWR adjusts:      acquisition.
To improve the detection of precipitation
area(s) in e.g thunderstorms, in which the top the tilt setting should be lower
of the cloud lies at or slightly above the level when the aircraft climbs to a
of flight,                                       higher altitude.

(For this question use Annex 062-600097)

The magnetic heading of an aircraft is 040°.
On the Airborne Weather Radar display the
relative bearing of and the distance to the
most southerly part of Lands End
(approximate position: 50°03'N , 005°40'W)
are, 030°R and 80 NM.


What is the position of the aircraft based on
these observations?

The slant range correction and the map
convergency between aircraft position and
Lands End may be neglected.                     (49°25'N , 007°30'W)

The transmission of the glide slope beacon is UHF frequency with a
characterised by a:                           minimum range of 10 NM.


                                                slight curves that can be
'Beam bends' in the ILS approach path are       followed by large aircraft.
                                                Scalloping causes rapid
                                                indicator changes from side to
One of the possible disturbances of the ILS     side of the intended approach
signal is "scalloping". Which statement is      path which can not be followed
correct?                                        by the aircraft.
An ILS marker beacon operates in the:           VHF band.
An aircraft has a Magnetic Heading of 290º
and is on VOR radial 280. Which value has
to be selected on the OBS to get a TO
indication and the CDI centred?                 100
                                                24 bits address code, giving
With mode-S each aircraft can be uniquely       more than 16 million possible
interrogated and identified by using the        codes.
                                              Mode S Broadcast will
Which statement with respect to interrogation transmit information to all
modes is correct?                             mode S transponders.


                                             With ALT selected a reply in
Which statement is correct with respect to   the modes A, C and S can be
selections on the transponder control panel? transmitted.

                                               when two or more aircraft are
                                               in approximately the same
                                               direction from the interrogator
                                               with a difference in slant range
Garbling in mode A and C may occur:            of less than 1.7 NM.
The Glide Path antenna is located on the
side of the runway approximately               300 m beyond the threshold

                                               non-precision approach
                                               guidance for the reciprocal of
The back CRS of an ILS may give:               the main approach runway.

                                           in the SHF band, 300 kHz
The MLS frequencies and available channels frequency separation giving
are                                        200 available channels.
In accordance with ICAO Annex 10 the GPS
NAVSTAR position accuracy in SPS should
be for 95% of the time:                    13 metres horizontally

                                               To ensure the transmitted data
                                               of the satellites is controlled
What is the function of the control segment in and updated from time to time
GPS NAVSTAR?                                   by ground stations.
                                               the kinds of precipitation which
Airborne Weather Radar has been primarily are usually accompanied by
developed to detect                            turbulence.
The antennae of modern airborne weather        inputs from the aircraft's
radars are stabilized by means of:             attitude system.
                                               They are stabilized with
                                               respect to the pitch and
Which statement relating to the stabilization rollaxis but not with respect to
of airborne weather radar antennae is true? the yaw-axis.

When using airborne weather radar in the       of mistaking the edge of
mapping mode in polar areas one runs the       coastal ice off shore for the
risk                                           real coastline.

                                               where the area of heaviest
The heaviest turbulence is likely to be        precipitation is closest to the
encountered                                    edge of the thunderstorm cell.
(For this question use Annex 062-600164)
The pictures in the Annex are showing an
aircraft's position with respect to some
thunderstorm cells and the image the pilot is
getting from the radar. To detect this "blind increase the range setting of
alley" the pilot should                       his radar.

                                           the transmission can be
                                           interrupted to avoid reflection
MLS can minimise multi path errors because by stationary objects.

                                                 provides basically the same
MLS not equipped with DME P                      approach capabilities as ILS.

The addition of DME-P to MLS is necessary        obtain three dimensional
to                                               positions.
                                                 ILS encounters difficulties
                                                 because of surrounding
                                                 buildings and/or the terrain or
MLS is primarily being installed at airports     interference from local music
where                                            stations.

A VOR is situated at the far end of a runway
on which an aircraft is making an ILS
approach. Nav 1 is switched to the localiser
frequency and Nav 2 to the VOR frequency.
At the moment that the needle of # 1
indicator reaches the outer dot the deflection   approximately a quarter of the
of the needle of # 2 indicator will be at        scale.
The DME Line Of Position is a circle with        a the ground distance and
radius:                                          centre the DME-station.


                                                 VOR with a limited range used
TVOR is a                                        in the terminal area.
                                                 the magnetic great circle
Unless otherwise specified a radial is           direction from the beacon.
On an RMI the front end of a VOR pointer
indicates the                                    radial plus 180º.

                                                 to provide the ATC controller
                                                 with bearings of aircraft in the
A VDF may be used                                absence of radar.
With regard to the range of NDB's and the
accuracy of the bearings they provide can be the range increases and the
stated that in general at night              accuracy decreases.


                                                 is caused by the refraction
                                                 from the aircraft's fuselage
The quadrantal error of an ADF                   and is compensated for.
The inputs of information used to achieve the
RNAV required accuracy may be:
1. NDB
2. IRS
3. VOR/DME
4. G.N.S.S.

The combination regrouping all the correct
statements is:                                    2, 3 and 4.

A 3-dimensional RNAV system has capability the horizontal plane and in the
in:                                        vertical plane.
A 2-dimensional RNAV system has a
capability in the:                         horizontal plane.
Benefits of Area Navigation include:
1. Shorter flight distance
2. Reduction in fuel and flight time.
3. No radio contact within RNAV airspace.

4. Reduction in the number of ground training
facilities
5. Pilot choice of vertical and horizontal
separations.

The combination regrouping all the correct
statements is:                                    1, 2 and 4.

                                                  RNAV allows aircraft to take a
                                                  more direct flight path without
                                                  requiring to fly over ground
One of the benefits of RNAV is:                   based facilities.
Range of VDF depends on:
1. Loudness of the voices of the pilot and
the operator when transmitting.
2. Power of airborne and ground
transmitters.
3. Power of pilot voice when transmitting.
4.. Aircraft altitude and ground transmitter
elevation

The combination regrouping all the correct
statements is:                                    2 and 4.
VDF measures the bearing of the aircraft          reference to true or magnetic
with:                                             north at the station.
In flight, a pilot can improve the range of his
transmission with a VDF operator by:              increasing altitude.
Locators are:
1. High powered NDBs used for en route and
airways navigation.
2. Low powered NDBs used for airfield or
runway approach.
3. Beacons with a usually range of 10 to 250
NM.
4. Beacons with a usually range of 10 to 25
NM.

The combination regrouping all the correct
statements is:                             2 and 4.
According to ICAO Annex 10 a locator has a
range of:                                  10 to 25 NM

                                               NDB is a ground equipment,
                                               and ADF is an airbone
Concerning ADF and NDB:                        equipment.
The FMS navigation data base usually
contains:

1. airport reference data.
2. ATC frequencies.
3. Company routes.
4. Nav. Aid. frequencies.

The combination regrouping all the correct
statements is:                               1, 3 and 4.
On modern passenger aircraft, the navigation
data base usually contains:                  airport reference data.

A pilot is flying between two waypoints
defined by suitably located VOR/DMEs.
Equipped with a simple 2D RNAV system,         reads cross track error and the
this pilot:                                    distance to go on CDI or HSI.

                                               lateral and vertical navigation,
On a modern commercial aircraft, the FMS       , and guidance and
provides:                                      performance management.
The UHF band is the assigned frequency
band of the:                                   ILS glide path transmitter.
ILS transmitters use the:                      UHF and VHF bands.
The localiser transmitters operate in a
frequency band between:                        108 MHz and 111.975 MHz.
108.35 MHz can only be:                        an ILS frequency.



                                              All markers transmit at 75
Regarding ILS which of the following is true? MHz.
Which of the following list use the VHF
band:

1. Locator
2. Localiser
3. Outer Marker
4. Glide path

The combination that regroups all the
corrects statements is:                            2 and 3.

Middle marker beacons of an ILS transmit at: 75 MHz.

Inner marker beacons of an ILS transmit at:        75 MHz.
NDB is the abbreviation for:                       Non Directional Beacon.
ADF is the abbreviation for:                       Automatic Direction Finder.

VDF is the abbreviation for:                       VHF Direction Finder.
Which of the following Nav Aids will provide
an RNAV system with position?                      VOR/DME.

The Control and Display Unit (CDU) on an           used by the crew to input data
FMS is:                                            into FMC.
The ILS marker identified visually by an
amber light flashing is the:                       middle marker.
The ILS marker identified visually by an blue
flashing light is the:                             outer marker.
The ILS marker identified visually by an white
light flashing is the:                             inner marker
The ILS marker identified audibly by a series
of two dashes per second is the:                   outer marker.
The ILS marker identified audibly by a series
of dots (6/sec.) is the:                           inner marker.
The ILS marker identified audibly by a series
of alternate dots and dashes is the:               middle marker.
The ILS marker with an aural frequency of
400 Hz is:                                         outer marker.
The ILS marker with an aural frequency of
1300 Hz is the:                                    middle marker.
The ILS marker with the higher aural
frequency is the:                                  inner marker.
On an ILS approach, when flying overhead
the outer marker the color of the flashing light
will be:                                           blue.
                                                   a continuous series of
                                                   alternate dots and dashes, the
                                                   dashes keyed at the rate of 2
                                                   dashes per second, and the
The audio frequency modulation of the              dots at the rate of 6 dots per
middle marker shall be keyed as follows:           second.
Reflection from ionospheric layers is used in
the following radio frequencies:              HF
The wavelength of a radio signal with a
frequency of 121.95 MHz is:                   2.46 m
The frequency which corresponds to a
wavelength of 12 cm is:                       2500 MHz.
The wave length of a radio signal transmitted
at a frequency of 75 MHz is:                  4 m.

The wave length of a radio signal transmitted
at a frequency of 118.7 MHz is:               2.53 m.

The wavelength of a non-directional beacon
(NDB) with a frequency of 300 kHz is:            1000 metres.
The VHF Omnirange (VOR) uses the
following wavelengths:                           metric.
The VHF direction finder uses the following
wavelengths:                                     metric.
                                                 range from the transmitter to
Skip distance is the:                            the first sky wave.
                                                 higher frequency and higher
The skip distance of HF-transmission will        position of the reflecting
increase with:                                   ionospheric layer.
In the propagation of MF waves, the              at night, due to the
phenomenon of FADING is particularly             combination of the sky and
found:                                           ground waves.

(For this question use Annex 062-600178)
An aircraft is flying on the 050 radial with a
MH of 250º. On the HSI the CRS is set to
060. Which HSI shows the correct
indications?                                     Figure B

(For this question use Annex 062-600179)
An aircraft is flying on the 050 radial with a
MH of 250º. On the CDI the CRS is set to
060.
Which CDI shows the correct indications?         Figure C

(For this question use Annex 062-600180)
An aircraft is flying on the 245 radial with a
MH of 250º. On the HSI the CRS is set to
060.
Which HSI shows the correct indications?         Figure A

(For this question use Annex 062-600181)
An aircraft is flying on the 245 radial with a
MH of 250º. On the CDI the CRS is set to
060.
Which CDI shows the correct indications?         Figure D

(For this question use Annex 062-600182)
An aircraft is flying on the 170radial with a
MH of 315º. On the HSI the CRS is set to
180.
Which HSI shows the correct indications?         Figure C

(For this question use Annex 062-600183)
An aircraft is flying on the 170 radial with a
MH of 315º. On the CDI the CRS is set to
180.
Which CDI shows the correct indications?         Figure D
(For this question use Annex 062-600184)
An aircraft is flying on a MH of 210°. The
magnetic variation at the VOR is 5°W and at
the aircraft 10°W.

According to the HSI shown at the Annex the
aircraft is on radial:                      025

(For this question use Annex 062-600185)
An aircraft is flying on a MH of 210°. The
magnetic variation at the VOR is 5°W and at
the aircraft 10°W.

According to the CDI shown at the Annex the
aircraft is on radial:                      025


(For this question use Annex 062-600186)
An aircraft is flying on a MH of 210°. 

The magnetic variation at the VOR is 5°W
and at the aircraft 10°W.

Which VOR-RMI corresponds to the
indications on the HSI shown on the Annex? Figure B


(For this question use Annex 062-600187)
An aircraft is flying on a MH of 210°. 

The magnetic variation at the VOR is 5°W
and at the aircraft 10°W.

Which VOR-RMI corresponds to the
indications on the CDI shown on the Annex? Figure D


(For this question use Annex 062-600188)
 An aircraft is flying on a MH of 010°. 

The magnetic variation at the VOR is 10°W
and at the aircraft 12°W.

Which VOR-RMI corresponds to the
indications on the HSI shown on the Annex? Figure C


(For this question use Annex 062-600189)
An aircraft is flying on a MH of 010°. 

The magnetic variation at the VOR is 10°W
and at the aircraft 12°W.

Which VOR-RMI corresponds to the
indications on the CDI shown on the Annex? Figure A


(For this question use Annex 062-600190)
 An aircraft is flying on a MH of 010°. 

The magnetic variation at the VOR is 10°W
and at the aircraft 12°W.

Which VOR-RMI corresponds to the
indications on the HSI shown on the Annex? Figure B
(For this question use Annex 062-600191)
 An aircraft is flying on a MH of 010°. 

The magnetic variation at the VOR is 10°W
and at the aircraft 12°W.

Which VOR-RMI corresponds to the
indications on the CDI shown on the Annex? Figure D

                                                   The Pulse Repetition
How can a DME-interrogator distinguish             Frequency of the pulse-pairs
between its own reply pulse-pairs and the          transmitted by the interrogator
reply pulse-pairs of other aircraft in the area,   varies, for each interrogator, in
using the same DME-station?                        a unique rhythm.

                                                   The EPC has to detect if the
                                                   interrogator-receiver has been
What is the function of the Echo Protection        locked on, by reflected pulse-
Circuit (EPC)?                                     pairs.

                                                   The interrogation does not
                                                   start before pulse-pairs of the
Which statement about the interrogation by         tuned DME-station are
the DME-interrogator is correct?                   received.

(For this question use Annex 062-600219)
An aircraft is on the 065 radial with a
heading of 090ºM.

The Course Reference Selector (CRS) is set
on 240.

Which HSI shows the correct indications?           B

Echoes that do not change in distance from
the antenna (relative speed zero) of a ground
radar with a Moving Target Indicator (MTI)    The moving target indicator
are dangerous for the following reason        (MTI) eliminates such echoes.
                                              two VDF's at different
To provide a pilot with the position of the   locations, able to take
aircraft in the absence of radar, ATC must    bearings simultaneously on
have at its disposal at least                 the transmitted frequency.
Range of VDF depends on:
1. Line of sight formula
2. Power of transmitters
3. Intervening high ground.

The combination regrouping all the correct
statements is:                                     1, 2 and 3.
One of uses of the VDF service is providing
aircraft with:                                     homing.
Allocated frequencies for NDB are:                 190 kHz to 1750 kHz.

                                                   LF/MF NDBs used as an aid
Locators are:                                      for final approach.
                                                the data includes SIDs,
                                                STARS and runway
What is true about the FMC databases:           approaches.

                                                the navigation database may
                                                be customized for the specific
Concerning FMC databases:                       airline operations.

All ILS marker beacons transmit at:             75 MHz.
The UHF band is assigned to the:

1. Locator
2. Localiser
3. Outer marker
4. Glide path

The combination that regroups all the
corrects statements is :                        4.

Outer marker beacons of an ILS transmit at: 75 MHz.

Kalman filtering is used within:                Navigation computer.
The localiser transmits in:                     the VHF band.
Given :
Aircraft position 34°15'N 098°E, magnetic
variation 28°W, FL 280. 

PTC VOR/DME position 36°12'N 098°E,
magnetic variation 13°E. 


In order to read the most accurate ground
speed given by the DME receiver from his
present position, the pilot must fly on which
PTC Radial?                                     167°
Given:
Aircraft position 52°09'S 024°E, magnetic
variation 14°W, FL 310. 

BIT VOR/DME position 54°42'S 024°E,
magnetic variation 14°E. 


In order to read the most accurate ground
speed given by the DME receiver from his
present position, the pilot must follow which
BIT radial?                                     346°

Given:
aircraft position 36°15'S 178°E, magnetic
variation 21°W, FL 310. 

UEB VOR/DME position 36°15'S 178°W,
magnetic variation 21°E. 


In order to read the most accurate ground
speed on the DME receiver from his present
position, the pilot must fly which UEB radial? 249°
Classify the marker from lower aural
frequency to higher aural frequency :
1. Inner marker (if available)
2. Middle marker
3. Outer marker
                                                   3 - 2 -1
Performing an ILS approach, you will fly
overhead the markers in an specific order.
This order is:                                     OM, MM, IM (if available).
The ILS marker with an aural frequency of
3000 Hz is the:                                    inner marker (if available).
The ILS marker with the lower aural
frequency is the:                                  outer marker.
On an ILS approach, when flying overhead
the middle marker the color of the flashing
light will be:                                     amber.
On an ILS approach, when flying overhead
the inner marker (if available) the color of the
flashing light will be:                            white.

The audio frequency modulation of the outer        2 dashes per second
marker shall be keyed as follows:                  continuously.
The audio frequency modulation of the inner
marker (if available) shall be keyed as            6 dots per second
follows:                                           continuously.
The ILS inner marker (if available)
modulation frequency is:                           3000 Hz.
The ILS outer marker modulation frequency
is:                                                400 Hz.
The ILS middle marker modulation frequency
is:                                                1300 Hz.
On final on ILS approach, at 0,6 NM from the
threshold, which marker are you likely to
hear?                                              The middle marker.
On final on an ILS approach, you are flying
overhead the outer marker. You can expect
to be at:                                          4 NM from the threshold.


In an ILS, concerning the localiser principle
of operation, the difference in depth of        increase with displacement
modulation (DDM) will:                          from the centerline.
Concerning the localiser principle of
operation in an ILS, the needle of the aircraft
indicator is centred when the difference in
depth of modulation (DDM) is:                   null.
The basic principle of operation of the ILS is
the difference in depth of modulation (DDM)
between the two lobes:
1. if the aircraft strays right, the higher tone
lobe will be received at a higher intensity
than the lower tone lobe.
2. a DDM of zero indicates the exact runway
centreline.
3. the depth of modulation increases away
from the centerline.
4. a DDM of zero indicates a balance
between modulations.

The combination that regroups all the
corrects statements is:                            1, 2, 3 and 4.
The type of modulation used for the ILS
frequency carrier is:                              amplitude modulation.

                                                   a radiation pattern which is
                                                   amplitude modulated by a
ILS produces:                                      90Hz and a 150Hz signal.
Concerning the localiser principle of
operation in an ILS system, the difference in
depth of modulation (DDM) :
1. decreases with respect to the angular
displacement from the centerline.
2. increases with right displacement from the
centerline.
3. decreases with left displacement from the
centerline.
4. increases linearly with displacement from
the centreline.

The combination regrouping all the correct
statements is:                                     2 and 4.

Concerning the localiser principle of           increases linearly with respect
operation in an ILS system, the difference in to the angular displacement
depth of modulation (DDM):                      from the centerline.
In an ILS system,concerning the glidepath
principle of operation, the difference in depth
of modulation (DDM):
1. decrease with angular displacement below
the glidepath.
2. increase with angular displacement above
the glidepath.
3. decrease with angular displacement above
the glidepath.
4. increase with angular displacement below
the glidepath.

The combination regrouping all the correct
statements is:                                     2 and 4.
Concerning the glidepath principle of
operation in an ILS, the difference in depth of increase with displacement
modulation (DDM) will:                          above or below the glidepath.


The ILS receiver of an aircraft flying down   90 Hz and 150 Hz lobes at
the exact runway centreline will receive:     equal depth.
Concerning the glidepath principle of
operation in an ILS system, the needle of the
indicator is centred when the difference in
depth of modulation (DDM) is:                 null.

The basic principle of operation of the ILS is
the difference in depth of modulation (DDM)
between the 90 Hz and 150 Hz lobes.
A DDM of zero indicates:
1. the higher tone lobe is received at a higher
strenght than the lower tone lobe.
2. the exact runway centreline
3. the aircraft is on the glidepath.
4. a balance between modulations.               2, 3 and 4.


The ILS receiver of an aircraft on approach    the modulation from both
and flying on the glidepath will receive:      lobes at equal depth.


The ILS receiver of an aircraft on approach    more of the 150 Hz localiser
and flying on the right of the exact runway    signal than the 90 Hz localiser
centreline will receive:                       signal.

                                               the difference in depth of
The principle of operation of an ILS is:       modulation.




What is the effect of multipath signals
(coming from the same aircraft) at the         They may result in bearing
Ground VHF Direction Finder station?           errors.


Which statement is correct for homing
towards an NDB in an area with constant        The Relative Bearing of the
wind and constant magnetic variation?          NDB should be kept 000°.

                                               The Relative Bearing of the
Which statement is correct for tracking        NDB should be equal (in
towards an NDB in an area with constant        magnitude and sign) to the
wind and constant magnetic variation?          experienced Drift Angle.

                                               A change in the direction of
                                               the plane of polarisation due to
What causes the so-called night effect?        reflection in the ionosphere.
                                                 Fluctuating indications of the
Night Effect in an ADF may cause:                needle on the RMI.
                                                 In a period of 40 seconds the
                                                 DME ident will be heard once
The identification of a DME in combination       on an audio frequency of 1350
with a collocated VOR is as follows:             Hz.

                                                  to prevent that DME
The reason for using different frequencies for interrogation pulse pairs being
the airborne and ground equipment of a DME received by the aircraft after
is                                                reflection on the earth surface.
                                                  The DME frequency is paired
                                                  with the localizer frequency so
The selection of the DME frequency for a          only the localiser frequency is
ILS/DME installation is as follows:               set.
The effect of masking the DME antenna of
the aircraft from the ground installation is that The Airborne installation
Interruption of reception of DME signals          switching to the memory mode
results in:                                       for about 10 to 15 seconds.
                                                  measures the difference in
                                                  depth of modulation of the two
An ILS receiver:                                  transmitted signals.
A locator beacon differs from an NDB with
respect to:

1. operational use
2. transmission power
3. presentation in the cockpit
4. frequency band.

From the above stated differences the
following numbers are correct:                   1 and 2
                                                 relative bearing on a fixed card
The ADF indication in the cockpit is a           indicator
                                                 With propagation over sea the
                                                 range will be greater than the
Which statement is correct with respect to       range with propagation over
the range of an NDB?                             land.


Which statement is correct with respect to
the different types of VOR?                      A TVOR has a limited range.

                                             phase difference between the
In the VOR receiver the radial is determined variable signal and the
by measurement of the                        reference signal.
On the RMI the tip of a VOR needle indicates
060.

With the CRS set on 055 the indications on       TO, half scale deflection to the
the HSI are                                      right.
By selecting one VHF frequency, in the           rho-theta information from a
range of 108 to 112 MHz, on the NAV              terminal VOR/DME can be
receiver                                         obtained.
With respect to the principle of distance
measurement using DME can be stated
that:
1. the interrogation signal is transmitted on
the same frequency as the reply signal.
2. the DME station always has a transponder
delay of 50 milliseconds.
3. the time between the pulse pairs of the
interrogation signal is at random.
4. In the search mode more pulse pairs per
second are transmitted than in the tracking
mode.

Which of the above given statements are
correct?                                        3 and 4
                                                At a certain moment of time
                                                the phase of the reference
Two aircraft are located on (arbitrary)         signals is equal and the phase
different radials but at equal distances from a of variable signals is unequal
VOR-station. Which statement is true?           for both aircraft.

                                              At a certain moment of time,
                                              both the phase of the
Two aircraft are located on the same radial   reference signals and of the
but at (arbitrary) different distances from a variable signals are unequal
VOR-station. Which statement is true?         for both aircraft.
                                              The Doppler effect is used to
                                              create a signal which is
                                              received by the aircraft's VOR-
Which statement is true about the use of the receiver as a frequency
Doppler effect in a Doppler VOR?              modulated signal.

                                                a Master Control Station,
                                                Monitor Stations and Ground
The GPS control segment consists of             Antenna's.

One of the tasks of the GPS control segment to detect the malfunctioning of
is                                          satellites.

                                             to determine and send new
                                             ephemeris and new satellite
One of the tasks of the GPS control segment clock error data to the GPS-
is                                           satellites.
If the (angular) displacement of an aircraft
(with respect to the localiser centerline)
doubles (e.g. from 1° tot 2°) the measured
Difference in Depth of Modulation            doubles.
                                             To make the ILS-localizer
                                             receiver less susceptible to
                                             interference from commercial
                                             FM-stations (radio and
What is the function of a FM-immune filter? television).
                                               These transmissions may
                                               interfere with the ILS localizer
What is the effect of FM broadcast stations    signal which may lead to
that transmit on frequencies just below 108    erroneous localizer deviation
MHz on the performance of ILS.                 indication.


                                               Localizer transmitter:    300
                                               meter behind end of runway
                                               Glide path transmitter:   300
                                               meter behind threshold
                                               Middle Marker:           1000
Which answer states the typical distances      meter from threshold
along the centerline of the runway of the      Outer Marker:             4
various ILS components?                        NM from threshold
                                               the flat plate antenna
Comparing a parabolic reflector with a flat    generates less side lobes than
plate antenna of the same size                 the parabolic reflector.
When an operator increases the range on a      the PRF becomes lower and
radar-display, in general,                     the pulse length larger.
The reading of the RMI bearing is 300° at the
tip of the needle. The magnetic variation at
the DR position is 24°W, the magnetic
variation at the NDB is 22°W and the
deviation is -2°. The compass heading is
020°. The true bearing is:                    274°
                                              The mountain effect is caused
                                              by reflections onto steep
                                              slopes of mountainous terrain
Which statement about the errors and effects which may cause big errors in
on NDB radio signals is correct?              the bearing.
The three main components of VOR airborne
equipment are                                 Receiver, Antenna, Display

The ident of a DME in case of collocation      In 40 seconds the DME ident
with a VOR is as follows:                      will sound once.
                                               The middle marker indicates
                                               the position for the decision for
The three different markers can be used in     a missed approach during a
the ILS to determine the distance to the ILS   CAT I approach due too bad
touchdown point of the runway as follows:      visibility.
réponseB                         réponseC                       réponseD                       variability




53°20'N 169°22W                  45°00'N 169°22W                53°20'N 172°38'E




9°                               15.6°                          5.2°




060°11'S                         059°49'S                       060°00'S



1 HR 15 MIN                      1 HR 45 MIN                    5 HR 00 MIN


constant-heading track           great circle                   constant-drift track




6 378.4                          6 367.0                        6 399.9




01°11'N 131°11'E                 01°11'S 131°11'E               01°11'N 128°49'E


                                                                a straight line plotted on a
the constant average drift route the great-circle route         Lambert chart


090°                             093°                           270°

6 350 km                         18 500 km                      40 000 km


60° North and South              90° North and South            0° North and South (equator)
mean scale between pole and      mean scale between the
equator                          parallels of the secant cone   scale at the equator

Direct Mercator projection       Gnomonic projection            Lambert conformal projection


1: 7 408 000                     1: 3 208 000                   1: 185 200
370.00 NM                      67.20 NM                        3.69 NM




0.60                           0.92                            0.42

                               varies as the secant of the     equals earth convergency at
is zero throughout the chart   latitude                        the standard parallels


1: 3 000 000                   1: 5 000 000                    1: 1 000 000


330° (T)                       150° (T)                        210° (T)
small circle concave to the                                    curve convex to the nearer
nearer pole                    spiral curve                    pole


10 800 km                      2 700 NM                        10 800 NM
straight lines regardless of   curves concave to the pole of   straight lines within the
distance                       projection                      standard parallels




57 NM                          70 NM                           81 NM




49°57'E                        51°51'E                         40°33'E




250°                           135°                            315°




1: 4 750 000                   1: 7 000 000                    1: 6 000 000




023°                           247°                            305°
The scale decreases with                                The scale increases south of
increasing distance from the                            the Equator and decreases
Equator.                       The scale is constant.   north of the Equator.




208°                           211°                     180°




194°                           204°                     180°




064°                           048°                     072°



200 kt, 3.5° right             192 kt, 7° left          225 kt, 7° left




237 kt, LSS 296 kt             490 kt, LSS 461 kt       461 kt , LSS 296 kt




6° right                       9° left                  3° left




600 kt                         535 kt                   450 kt




360° / 33 kt                   090° / 33 kt             180° / 33 kt




240 kt                         550 kt                   480 kt
190° / 15 kt                        355° / 15 kt                     185° / 15 kt




230 kt                              180 kt                           200 kt




225° / 60 kt                        220° / 60 kt                     325° / 60 kt


24 kt                               27 kt                            21 kt




288°                                261°                             270°



It decreases by 6°                  It increases by 3°               It decreases by 3°

093°54.0'W                          093°53.1'W                       094°12.0'W


680 FT                              1890 FT                          3640 FT



10800 ft/min                        3600 ft/min                      900 ft/min

25.3°                               27.5°                            66.5°
agreed by the international         needed by the sun to move        between sunset and when the
aeronautical authorities which is   from the apparent height of 0°   centre of the sun is 12° below
12 minutes                          to the apparent height of 6°     the celestial horizon



0243 UTC                            2143 UTC                         0523 UTC




varies by 10°                       decreases by 6°                  varies by 4°
450 NM                       600 NM                        150 NM




208°                         031°                          332°




0.90                         0.85                          0.87




78°45'N 087°E                79°15'N 074°E                 70°15'N 080°E




099°                         279°                          049°




1400 FT                      1350 FT                       1300 FT




220°                         310°                          130°


68°                          72°                           62°



0930                         0113                          2230



1200                         1300                          0700
must be 0° at the magnetic   varies between a maximum of
equator                      45° East and 45° West         cannot exceed 90°
66°42'                       68°25'                         21°35'



1: 3 750 000                 1: 2 000 000                   1: 6 000 000


048°(T)                      090°(T)                        312°(T)


1: 700 000                   1: 130 000                     1: 7 000 000


1: 3 000 000                 1: 3 500 000                   1: 1 500 000



106 mm                       167 mm                         72 mm



1: 30 000 000                1: 18 000 000                  1: 21 000 000
shows all great circles as   the scale is only correct at   shows lines of longitude as
straight lines               parallel of origin             parallel straight lines


0.941                        0.500                          0.766


0.40                         0.50                           0.64
weakens with increasing      weakens with increasing        is approximately the same at
distance from the magnetic   distance from the nearer       all magnetic latitudes less
poles                        magnetic pole                  than 60°




1215 on 1 May                1315 on 1 May                  1615 on 30 April



1200                         0200                           0600


1: 6 000 000                 1: 2 500 000                   1: 3 000 000

in the area between the
standard parallels           along the parallel of origin   along the prime meridian
52°05'                          80°39'                          38°15'



1: 8 000 000                    1: 3 000 000                    1: 2 500 000

complex curve                   curve convex to the equator     straight line

north and south limits of the
chart                           standard parallels              Equator

862 kg                          895 kg                          940 kg
5.2 m/sec                       1.6 m/sec                       2.2 m/sec

1 MIN 55 SEC                    2 MIN 30 SEC                    0 MIN 34 SEC


183 kt                          209 kt                          131 kt


5420 NM                         1788 NM                         2040 NM

It is the time zone system      It is an expression for local
applicable only in the USA      mean time                       It is another term for UTC

2200                            0615                            0815
In the region of the magnetic   In the region of the magnetic
South Pole.                     North Pole.                     On the geographic equator

-56°C                           -66°C                           -81°C




237°/36 kt                      307°/36 kt                      124°/36 kt




0.84                            0.76                            0.78




025°/47 kt                      200°/95 kt                      025°/45 kt
340°/25 kt                        340°/98 kt                       155°/25 kt

2.36                              3.25                             39.0
parallel straight lines equally   arcs of concentric circles       straight lines converging
spaced                            equally spaced                   above the pole


38                                205                              70.4

with the same variation           having the same longitude        of equal latitude
the shortest distance between
two points on a Polyconic         any straight line on a Lambert   a line convex to the nearest
projection                        projection                       pole on a Mercator projection

                                                                   can only be a parallel of
is a Loxodromic line              is a Rhumb line                  latitude


3 HR 12 MIN                       3 HR 53 MIN                      2 HR 15 MIN

1 litre equals 3.78 US-GAL        1 US-GAL equals 4.55 litres      1 litre equals 4.55 US-GAL




007°                              359°                             337°

43200 NM                          5400 NM                          10800 NM

0621:20 previous day              1738:40 same day                 0621:20 same day

81°10'                            75°00'                           78°45'

45°                               60°                             0°
                                                                  gravitational effect of the sun
                                  relative speed of the sun along and moon on the speed of
earth's rotation                  the ecliptic                    rotation of the earth


isotachs                          isogrives                        isoclines




N40º 00´ E070º 30´                N40º 00´ E060º 00´               N40º 00´ E068º 10´
100 MIN                      90 MIN                    80 MIN




290 kt                       246 kt                    250 kt




0.42                         0.44                      0.39



position                     track                     drift



19.2 NM                      38.4 NM                   16.0 NM




355 º/15 kt                  195 º/61 kt               195 º/63 kt




318°                         234°                      038°




25°W                         5°W                       9°W
                                                       the horizontal and the total
                              True North and Compass   intensity of the earth's
True North and Magnetic North North                    magnetic field




322°                         294°                      278°
346°               018°               025°




091°               100°               101°

deviation          compass error      drift

true heading       magnetic course    magnetic track
1609 m             1012 m             1500 m




04°00'N 030°02'W   04°00'N 030°00'W   03°58'N 030°02'W




60°00'N 030°00'E   59°00'N 060°00'W   59°00'N 090°00'W




6L - 256kt         6R - 251kt         8R - 259kt




6°R - 251 kt       8°R - 261 kt       6°R - 259 kt




3°R - 470 kt       5°L - 475 kt       5°R - 475 kt




9°R - 143 kt       9°L - 146 kt       18°R - 146 kt
4°R - 310 kt   4°R - 314 kt   4°L - 310 kt




7°R - 531 kt   9°R - 433 kt   8°L - 435 kt




6°R/490 kt     6°L/402 kt     6°R/462 kt




7°L - 156 kt   4°L - 168 kt   4°L - 145 kt




2°R - 166 kt   4°L - 167 kt   3°L - 166 kt




176 - 370 kt   192 - 370 kt   189 - 370 kt




125 - 322 kt   126 - 320 kt   125 - 318 kt




345 - 100 kt   348 - 102 kt   002 - 98 kt




179 - 220 kt   181 - 180 kt   180 - 183 kt




279 - 152 kt   272 - 121 kt   275 - 150 kt




134 - 188 kt   120 - 190 kt   128 - 180 kt
028 - 415 kt   032 - 425 kt   036 - 435 kt




224 - 175 kt   222 - 181 kt   226 - 186 kt




091 - 183 kt   103 - 178 kt   098 - 178 kt




7L - 269 kt    5L - 255 kt    5R - 207 kt




2L - 420 kt    6L - 395 kt    5L - 385 kt




3L - 415 kt    4L - 400 kt    6L - 400 kt




10L - 104 kt   9L - 105 kt    8R - 104 kt




9R - 140 kt    11R - 142 kt   11R - 140 kt




1L - 225 kt    1R - 175 kt    1R - 165 kt




2L - 224 kt    1L - 225 kt    1R - 221 kt




6R - 192 kt    3L - 190 kt    4L - 195 kt
1R - 205 kt    1L - 265 kt    1R - 295 kt




057 - 144 kt   052 - 143 kt   051 - 144 kt




006 - 95 kt    358 - 101 kt   359 - 102 kt




173 - 424 kt   175 - 420 kt   175 - 432 kt




305 - 169 kt   309 - 170 kt   309 - 141 kt




002 - 173 kt   359 - 166 kt   357 - 168 kt




311 - 230 kt   313 - 235 kt   310 - 233 kt




001 - 435 kt   017 - 490 kt   357 - 502 kt




079 - 211 kt   075 - 213 kt   077 - 210 kt




121 - 207 kt   121 - 199 kt   097 - 201 kt




262 - 237 kt   264 - 241 kt   264 - 237 kt
257/35kt    255/25kt    265/30kt




115/70kt    110/80kt    105/75kt




070/40kt    070/45kt    075/50kt




180/30kt    185/35kt    180/40kt




000/05kt    000/10kt    180/10kt




005/50kt    010/55kt    010/45kt




360/35kt    180/35kt    295/35kt




088/15 kt   270/20 kt   095/25 kt




335/45kt    335/55kt    340/45kt
076°, 34 MIN    096°, 29 MIN    095°, 31 MIN




068° - 460 kt   078° - 450 kt   102° - 450 kt




26 kt           15 kt           20 kt




18 kt           8 kt            15 kt




37 kt           16 kt           25 kt




0730 UTC        0810 UTC        0716 UTC


4               6               7


7 HR 48 MIN     7 HR 49 MIN     8 HR 10 MIN


1 HR 09 MIN     1 HR 10 MIN     1 HR 40 MIN


3 HR 25 MIN     3 HR 26 MIN     4 HR 10 MIN
10 HR 05 MIN        11 HR 00 MIN       11 HR 02 MIN


11 HR 06 MIN        11 HR 07 MIN       11 HR 15 MIN


4 HR 59 MIN         5 HR 00 MIN        5 HR 08 MIN


00 HR 57 MIN        00 HR 58 MIN       01 HR 01 MIN


00 HR 43 MIN        00 HR 44 MIN       00 HR 45 MIN


3 HR 25 MIN         3 HR 19 MIN        3 HR 20 MIN




earth convergency   conversion angle   difference in longitude




860 FT/MIN          890 FT/MIN         920 FT/MIN




M0.76               M0.78              M0.80




79 NM               49 NM              59 NM




165 kt              169 kt             174 kt




27 kt               31 kt              34 kt
150               329               43




1390 FT/MIN       1240 FT/MIN       1290 FT/MIN




M0.73             M0.75             M0.79




12 kt and 38 kt   15 kt and 43 kt   18 kt and 50 kt




58 NM             63 NM             68 NM




36 kt             21 kt             26 kt




2400 FT/MIN       1000 FT/MIN       1550 FT/MIN




25 kt             30 kt             15 kt
36°W          38°W          41°W



19 kt         16 kt         28 kt




0448          0451          0454




1650 FT/MIN   1750 FT/MIN   1850 FT/MIN




50 NM         60 NM         30 NM

145 kt        210 kt        35 kt




2000 FT/MIN   1700 FT/MIN   1800 FT/MIN




009°36'E      008°E         019°E



24 kt         27 kt         18 kt
1900 FT/MIN                       1600 FT/MIN                     1700 FT/MIN




302°                              088°                            122°




8° Right                          2° Left                         4° Right

magnetic pole movement            a reducing field strength       an increasing field strength
causing numerical values at all   causing numerical values at all causing numerical values at
locations to increase.            locations to decrease.          all locations to increase.




117.7 NM                          124.2 NM                        118.2 NM




73.5 NM                           78 NM                           45 NM



March and September               June and December               April and August



45°                               66°                             0°




Summer solstice and spring        summer solstice and winter      Winter solstice and autumn
equinox                           solstice                        equinox

End of March                      Beginning of July               End of June

End of December                   Beginning of January            End of September
1222       540        804



005°15'E   002°10'W   000°15'E


140°W      145°E      175°E



04°10'S    04°30'S    09°05'S


12°15'N    22°00'N    03°50'N


12°15'S    22°00'S    03°50'S




6° right   4° right   8° left




12 NM      3 NM       6 NM




270        250        310




122        268        302




1203       1153       1157
1401 UTC     1347 UTC     1340 UTC




1110 UTC     1044 UTC     1050 UTC




320°/50 kt   210°/15 kt   180°/45 kt




195°/50 kt   235°/50 kt   300°/30 kt




360 kt.      300 kt       320 kt.




375 kt       395 kt       335 kt




9° Right     6° Right     18° Right
16° Left                     4° Left                     8° Left




282° - 1128 UTC              282° - 1114 UTC             268° - 1128 UTC



HDG 188° - ETA 1229 UTC      HDG 193° - ETA 1249 UTC     HDG 183° - ETA 1159 UTC



HDG 095° - ETA 1155 UTC      HDG 106° - ETA 1215 UTC     HDG 115° - ETA 1145 UTC



HDG 354° - ETA 1326 UTC      HDG 034° - ETA 1336 UTC     HDG 344° - ETA 1303 UTC



HDG 320° - ETA 1412 UTC      HDG 337° - ETA 1322 UTC     HDG 320° - ETA 1432 UTC



HDG 064° - ETA 1449 UTC      HDG 075° - ETA 1452 UTC     HDG 070° - ETA 1459 UTC

Mach number remains constant; Mach number decreases; TAS Mach number increases; TAS
TAS increases                 decreases                  remains constant




800 FT/MIN                   950 FT/MIN                  1500 FT/MIN



1000 FT/MIN                  700 FT/MIN                  800 FT/MIN




7.0 NM                       13.1 NM                     14.5 NM
086°           226°           026°




101°           239°           329°




130°           160°           190°




195°           205°           325°


1: 1 000 000   1: 185 000     1: 18 500 000




74 NM          100 NM         4 NM




322°           316°           326°



1: 278 000     1: 5 560 000   1: 556 000




30° N or S     0°             45° N or S
90 kt                              75 kt                              60 kt



115°, 5°R, 120°, 3°W, 123°, +2°, 117°, 4°L, 121°, 1°E, 122°, -3°, 125°, 2°R, 123°, 2°W, 121°, -
121°                             119°                             4°, 117°




090° - 232 kt                      080° - 226 kt                      088° - 232 kt


1: 3 500 000                       1: 6 000 000                       1: 5 000 000




036° and 151 kt                    052° and 154 kt                    056° and 137 kt




320 FT                             680 FT                             - 320 FT

18 706 NM                          20 000 NM                           34 641 NM
                                                                       the sun's upper edge is
the centre of the sun is 12°        the centre of the sun is 18°       tangential to the celestial
below the celestial horizon         below the celestial horizon        horizon
Earth's elliptical orbit around the                                    variable distance between
Sun                                 Earth's rotation on its polar axis Earth and Sun




52 NM and 60 NM                    60 NM and 30 NM                    60 NM and 52 NM




215 kt                             200 kt                             210 kt
                                randomly different than it was
greater than it was at 2254 UTC at 2254 UTC                      less than it was at 2254 UTC




7 NM                              0 NM                           21 NM
is constant along a meridian of   is constant across the whole   varies slightly as a function of
longitude                         map                            latitude and longitude

conical                           spherical                      concentric




15 840 FT                         14 160 FT                      14 720 FT




6 800 FT                          3 500 FT                       4 000 FT




354 kt                            373 kt                         360 kt




1257 UTC                       1300 UTC                          1303 UTC
True North is West of Magnetic Compass North is East of          Compass North is West of
North                          Magnetic North                    Magnetic North
S48°50' E177°43.5'                S41°10' W177°43.5'             S41°10' E177°43.5'




145°                              115°                           120°




102 kt                            120 kt                         132 kt
compass deviation.                pressure.                      wind velocity.
depends on the type of            depends on the magnetic
compass installed                 heading                        depends on the true heading



16.2 cm                           35.6 cm                        19.2 cm




096°                              104°                           107°




0.90                              0.66                           0.18



N01°40' E097°07'                  S01°40' E101°40'               N01°40' E101°40'

compass error                     magnetic variation             alignment error
a position where the horizontal
component of the earth's          a freely suspended compass     the value of magnetic
magnetic field is a maximum       needle will stand horizontal   variation equals 90°
inclined, equally spaced,                                        inclined, unequally spaced,
straight lines that meet at the   parallel, unequally spaced,    curved lines that meet at the
nearer pole                       vertical straight lines        nearer pole


Lambert's conformal               Transverse Mercator            Polar stereographic

                                  They approximate to straight
They are all curves concave to    lines between the standard     They are all curves convex to
the equator                       parallels                      the equator
is constant between the           is larger between the standard
standard parallels and is greater parallels and is smaller outside is constant throughout the
outside them                      them                             chart


                                    They are complex curves that
                                    can be convex and/or concave They are curves convex to
Any straight line is a great circle to the Pole                  the Pole



Ellipses around the Pole         Curves convex to the Pole        Straight lines

0.866                            0.5                              0.0

curves concave to the equator    ellipses                         curves convex to the equator
fly the reverse of the heading
being flown prior to becoming                                     fly reverse headings and
uncertain until a pinpoint is    fly expanding circles until a    associated timings until the
obtained                         pinpoint is obtained             point of departure is regained




33.4 cm                          38.5 cm                          36.0 cm



328°                             032°                             038°




21 NM                            22 NM                            14 NM




048° - 40 NM                     014° - 33 NM                     220° - 40 NM




350° - 22 NM                     295° - 38 NM                     170° - 22 NM




024° - 43 NM                     023° - 48 NM                     017° - 43 NM
104° - 76 NM    293° - 39 NM   106° - 38 NM




057° - 27 NM    293° - 33 NM   324° - 17 NM




070° - 58 NM    207° - 31 NM   019° - 31 NM




129° - 46 NM    132° - 36 NM   212° - 26 NM




354° - 34 NM    198° - 37 NM   346° - 34 NM




214° - 26 NM    049° - 45 NM   169° - 35 NM




320° -   8 NM   094° - 64 NM   260° - 30 NM




119° - 42 NM    311° - 22 NM   240° - 24 NM




165° - 27 NM    335° - 43 NM   025° - 38 NM




223° - 36 NM    320° - 44 NM   333° - 36 NM




090° - 46 NM    278° - 10 NM   098° - 45 NM
296° - 65 NM    126° - 33 NM    222° - 48 NM




090° - 91 NM    270° - 89 NM    098° - 90 NM




169° - 91 NM    349° - 90 NM    177° - 92 NM




315° - 94 NM    135° - 96 NM    322° - 95 NM




018° - 153 NM   206° - 71 NM    198° - 72 NM




197° - 71 NM    205° - 71 NM    017° - 70 NM




262° - 86 NM    128° - 99 NM    308° - 98 NM




089° - 95 NM    229° - 125 NM   238° - 130 NM




071° - 100 NM   113° - 97 NM    293° - 98 NM
020° - 46 NM    348° - 46 NM    191° - 45 NM




294° - 80 NM    075° - 81 NM    277° - 83 NM




344° - 139 NM   156° - 136 NM   164° - 138 NM




010° - 71 NM    358° - 72 NM    006° - 71 NM




278° - 89 NM    267° - 95 NM    273° - 85 NM




335° - 128 NM   330° - 130 NM   320° - 127 NM




042° - 83 NM    031° - 81 NM    044° - 82 NM




N5230 W00910    N5210 W00910    N5210 W00930
N5118 W00913   N5205 W00915   N5215 W00917




N5225 W00805   N5220 W00750   N5240 W00750




N5215 W00755   N5210 W00750   N5205 W00755




N5155 W00810   N5205 W00805   N5200 W00800




N5300 W00945   N5225 W00805   N5250 W00950




N5208 W00840   N5315 W00915   N5317 W00908




N5305 W00815   N5228 W00935   N5303 W00810




N5328 W00820   N5155 W00915   N5200 W0925
N5258 W00825   N5225 W00917   N5228 W00920




SHA 025°
      SHA 205°
      SHA 033°

CRK 141°       CRK 321°       CRK 149°




SHA 304°
      SHA 312°
      SHA 124°

CRK 189°       CRK 197°       CRK 009°




SHA 068°
      SHA 060°
      SHA 240°

CRK 145°       CRK 138°       CRK 137°




SHA 213°
      SHA 033°
      SHA 221°

CON 310°       CON 130°       CON 318°




SHA 137°
      SHA 317°
      SHA 145°

CON 046°       CON 226°       CON 055°




N5215 W00940   N5215 W00745   N5235 W00750
N5205 W00915   N5215 W00915   N5225 W00810




N5252 W00923   N5307 W00923   N5355 W00825




N5250 W0030    N5305 W00930   N5310 W00820




N5343 W00925   N5335 W00925   N5337 W00820




119° - 44 NM   127° - 45 NM   299° - 42 NM




248° - 42 NM   060° - 42 Nm   240° - 41 NM
154° - 38 NM                 326° - 37 NM                 146° - 38 NM




077° - 18 NM                 257° - 17 NM                 086° - 18 NM




116° - 47 NM                 296° - 46 NM                 304° - 47 NM



Waterford NDB                Connemara aerodrome          Punchestown aerodrome



WTD NDB                      KERRY/Farranfore aerodrome Clonbullogue aerodrome



Connemara aerodrome          KERRY/Farranfore aerodrome Clonbullogue aerodrome



Connaught aerodrome          Connemara aerodrome          Brittas Bay aerodrome



Belmullet aerodrome          Carnmore aerodrome           Clonbullogue aerodrome



civil airport: VOR: non-     VOR: DME: NDB:compulsory
compulsory reporting point   reporting point              VOR: DME: NDB: ILS




civil airport: VOR: DME      military airport: VOR: NDB   VOR: DME: danger area
VOR: DME: NDB: compulsory   civil airport: VOR: DME: non-   VOR: DME: NDB: non-
reporting point             compulsory reporting point      compulsory reporting point



VOR: DME: NDB: compulsory   civil airport: VOR: DME: non-   VOR: DME: NDB: compulsory
reporting point             compulsory reporting point      reporting point: ILS




VOR: NDB                    civil airport: Locator          NDB: Locator



2                           6                               7



3                           5                               6



5                           6                               2



6                           2                               3




6                           2                               3



7                           1                               2



1                           3                               6




3                           4                               5



4                           5                               2
5                              2                             3



2                              3                             4



7                              8                             15



8                              15                            6



15                             6                             7



10                             11                            12



11                             12                            9



12                             13                            9



9                              10                            11



14                             9                             11



10                             12                            13



Visual reference point         Hazard to aerial navigation   Lighthouse


Off-shore helicopter landing   Shipwreck showing above the
platform                       surface at low tide           Off-shore lighthouse



16                             10                            14
10                                   12                               14




14 120 ft                            17 160 ft                        15 210 ft



148°                                 18°                              56°




212°                                 220°                             224°

a parallel of latitude.              a difference of longitude.       a longitude.

None.                                One.                             Two.

                                  It increases with decrease of       It is of constant value and
It changes as cosine of latitude. latitude.                           does not change with latitude.
                                  On East - West tracks in the
On high latitude tracks directly northern hemisphere north of         On East - West tracks in
East - West.                      the magnetic equator.               polar areas.




520 NM                               600 NM                           866 NM




260° and in the southern             260° and in the northern         266° and in the southern
hemisphere.                          hemisphere.                      hemisphere.

                                     on a track which is constantly
on a north - south track.            changing direction.              a great circle track.




053°                                 056°                             047°

52 NM                                60 NM                            90 NM

7702 NM                              5008 NM                          3008 NM

                                     always have the rhumb line
                                     track between the departure
fly a spiral and finally end up at   point and the destination to the experience a decrease in the
the south pole.                      left of your great circle track. value of true track.
                                                                 If you are crossing from
                                                                 westerly longitude to easterly
The date will increase if you are The date will always be the    longitude the date will remain
crossing on a easterly heading. same.                            the same.
                                                                 0800 LMT at the Prime
2400 LMT at 120° West.           1200 LMT at 60° East.           meridian.
                                                                 0600 LMT at the Prime
1400 LMT at 090° East.           1000 LMT at 060° West.          meridian.


229°                             301°                            295°

It changes with cosine of        It increases with increase of   It changes with sine of
latitude.                        latitude.                       latitude.



Twice the distance.              The same distance.              A larger distance.


At the two parallels of tangency. At the poles.                  All over the chart.
                                  curve convex to the nearer     small circle concave to the
complex curve.                    pole.                          nearer pole.



1 : 1 000 000                    1 : 3 000 000                   1 : 5 000 000


3.5 km                           35 NM                           0.35 km


115 kt                           180 kt                          145 kt




259° and 272 kt                  260° and 315 kt                 259° and 305 kt




310°/100 kt                      300°/100 kt                     165°/100 kt




243°                             247°                            253°
1° E                              5° E                           11° E




8,8 NM R                          8,8 NM L                       4,7 NM L




166NM                             88 NM                          236 NM

the great circle between the                                     the compass North at that
position and the magnetic north   the isogonal to the magnetic   position corrected for
pole.                             North pole.                    variation.
is maximum at the magnetic        is minimum at the magnetic     increases with an increase of
poles.s                           equator.                       the magnetic latitude.




10:18s                            10:21                          10:27




310º/60kts                        300º/50kt                      330º/50kt




277ºs                             276º                           250º
100º/60kts    120º/50kt    110º/40kt




4.4 NMs       4.0 NM       5.4 NM




8.8 NMs       10.8NM       6.6 NM




11.1 NMs      13.3 NM      15.4 NM




10.3 NMs      13.3 NM      16.6 NM




590 ft/mins   750 ft/min   1080 ft/min




870 ft/min    730 ft/min   530 ft/min
600 ft/min                        730 ft/min                          700 ft/min




3.9%                              4.1%                                3.5%




272°                             258°                                 265°
                                 The duration of the apparent         The duration of the apparent
The apparent solar day is the    solar day is constant                solar day is constant
period between two successive throughout a year due to the            throughout a year due to the
transits of the mean sun through constant velocity of the earth in    constant rotational speed of
the same meridian.               its orbit around the sun.            the earth around its axis.
                                 the fact that the earth is closest   the fact that the earth is
                                 to the sun around the 1st of         closest to the sun around the
the equation of time.            January.                             1st of July.
the apparent sun is in transit
with the observer's anti-        the mean sun is in transit with      the apparent sun is in transit
meridian.                        the observer's meridian.             with the observer's meridian.




80°N                              55°S                                00° N/S

                                  negligible small because A and negligible small because A
some hours and the sun rises      B are located at the same      and B are located
earlier in A than in B.           meridian.                      symmetrically to the equator.
385 kt         485 kt         180 kt




11:34          11:38          11:33




276            278            296




108.5°         110.5°         114.5°




180° / 17 kt   360° / 34 kt   180° / 34 kt
4                                  2                               3

the great circle to the magnetic   the isogonic line to the         the isoclinic line to the
North pole.                        Magnetic North pole.             Magnetic North pole.
                                                                    The direction of a line
The direction of the longitudinal The direction of the longitudinal referenced to the isogonic
axis of an aircraft referenced to axis of an aircraft referenced to line to the Magnetic North
Magnetic North.                   Compass North.                    pole. Compass North.




9 200 ft                           11 800 ft                       20 200 ft




9400 ft                            10600 ft                        11200 ft



24000 ft                           25500 ft                        26100 ft




9 700 ft                           10 000 ft                       11 200 ft




4 600 ft                           3 500 ft                        3 000 ft
20 700 ft                          20 200 ft                        19 300 ft



10 000 ft                          9 600 ft                         7 200 ft




10 900 ft and 11 100 ft            11 800 ft and 12 000 ft          11 900 ft and 11 200 ft




(35°N, 120°W)                      (55°S, 060°E)                    (35°S, 120°W)




track angle will increase and the track angle will decrease and     track angle will increase and
latitude will decrease.           the latitude will increase.       the latitude will increase.


great circle direction at B is     rhumb line distance is 1455.4    rhumb line distance is 1206.6
100.1°.                            NM.                              NM.


rhumb line distance is 648.7       great circle direction at A is   great circle direction at B is
NM.                                275.4°.                          092.7°.
                                                                    positive if the Compass North
independent of the latitude of                                      is to the west of Magnetic
the aircraft's position.           zero on the magnetic equator.    North.

the vertical component of the      the angle of dip is maximal      the angle of dip is minimal
earth's magnetic field is too      whereby a freely suspended       whereby a freely suspended
small to permit the use of a       compass needle will be almost    compass needle will be
magnetic compass.                  fully horizontally aligned.      almost fully vertically aligned.

1 minute of arc along the      1 minute of arc along the
equator measures the same      meridian at low latitudes            1 minute of arc along the
distance as 1 minute of arc    measures a greater distance          meridian at 0ºN/S measures
                               than 1 minute of arc along the
along the meridian at a latitude                                    the same distance as 1
of 45ºN/S.                     meridian at high latitudes.          minute of arc at 90ºN/S.
                               The arc from the celestial
The arc of the meridian of the horizon to the sun measured
sun measured from the nearest along a vertical line                 The arc along the celestial
pole to the sun.               perpendicular on the horizon.        sphere from zenith to the sun.
                                                                      The planets move around the
The sun moves in an elliptical     The Solar System consists of       sun like all stars of the Solar
orbit around the Earth.            the sun, planets and stars.        System.
The angular speed of the planet
in the orbit around the sun is   All planets orbit around the sun Planets move around the sun
constant.                        at the same speed.                  in a circular orbit.
                                                                     The inclination of the axis of
The date and the longitude of    The latitude and the longitude the earth and the longitude of
the observer.                    of the observer.                    the observer.
                                                                     the length of the day as
the distance between the sun     the elliptical form of the orbit of stated by the second law of
and the earth.                   the earth around the sun.           Kepler.
                                                                     The apparent sun is not
The apparent sun is a fictitious                                     important for navigation as
sun coupled to UTC, the mean The mean sun moves along                difference in time with the
sun is related to the local mean the ecliptic, the apparent sun      mean sun is maximal 4
time.                            along the celestial equator.        seconds.




(31º00'S, 161º32'W)                 (31º00'S, 173º24'W)               (31º00'S, 173º24'E)
                                    The orbit of the earth around
The orbit of the earth around the the sun is an ellipse with the   The orbit of the Earth is a
sun is a circle with the sun at its sun at a point halfway between circle with the sun at a point
centre.                             the two foci.                  next to its centre.
                                                                   the area swept out by the
                                   the length of the radius vector radius vector sun-earth per
the radius vector sun-earth        sun-earth is directly           hour increases with
moves at constant angular          proportional to the square root increasing length of the
speed.                             of its angular speed.           radius vector.

                                   The mean sun is a fictitious       The mean sun is a fictitious
The mean sun is a fictitious sun   sun the orbit of which coincides   sun the orbit of which
coinciding each year with the      with that of the apparent sun,     coincides with that of the
apparent sun at the Spring         but is corrected for mean          apparent sun, but is corrected
Equinox and travelling along the   astronomical and atmospheric       for the mean difference in
ecliptic at uniform speed.         refraction.                        hour angle.
The point of the earth's orbit     The point of the sun's orbit       The point of the sun's orbit
closest to the sun.                furthest away from the earth.      closest to the earth.

Close to the solstices the         On September 10th the
influence of latitude on the       duration of daylight is longer on In summer the length of the
duration of daylight is at its     the Southern Hemisphere than period of daylight decreases
smallest.                          on the Northern Hemisphere. with increasing latitude.

The route via the equator is       The route via either pole and    The route via the South pole
shorter than the route via the     the route via the equator are of is shorter than the route via
South Pole.                        equal length.                    the North Pole.
The Poles are the points of
intersection between the surface     The Poles are the points on the    The poles are the points on
of the earth and the extended        surface of the earth which have    the surface of the earth where
line joining the star Polaris with   the same distance to all points    gravity acts under an angle of
the centre of the earth.             of the ecliptic.                   exactly 90º.

only at the Poles.                   only on the equator.               at 45ºN/S.


4º39'                                9º19'                              4º51'
                                     the direction of the observer's    the reading of the observer's
the direction of the Greenwich       Magnetic North corrected for       compass corrected for
meridian to the North Pole.          local variation.                   deviation and local variation.
                                                                        follow a line which lies at first
                                                                        to the North of the parallel of
                                                                        86ºN but after having passed
follow a small circle which lies to fly to the north via an arbitrary   a DL of 180º to the South of
the North of the parallel of 86ºN. line.                                it.


on North-South tracks at high        on East-West tracks at low         on North-South tracks at low
latitudes.                           latitudes.                         latitudes.
The equator is a greatcircle with    The equator is a small circle      The equator is a small circle,
its plane parallel to the earth      with its plane perpendicular to    the plane is parallel to the
rotational axis.                     the earth rotational axis.         earth rotational axis.

Latitude is the angle between        Latitude is the angle between
the earth's rotational axis and      the plane of the Prime Meridian Latitude is the angle between
the line from the centre of the      and the plane of the meridian the plane of the ecliptic and
earth to the position.               of the position.                the parallel of the position.




020°                                 130°                               001°

A meridian is a complete great       The plane of a meridian is         All meridians are parallel to
circle of 360°.                      parallel to the equator.           the Meridian of Greenwich.




                                     every great circle is             the meridians and parallels
the map is an equidistant            represented by a straight line in are perpendicular to each
normal projection.A                  the map.                          other.



1 : 5 556 000A                       1 :10 626 460                      1 :18 658 470
5.0º                               5.8º                            10.0º




                                                                   is between 54.19 cm and
is more than 57.13 cm              is 55.66 cm                     57.13 cm




283º                               013º                            193º




figure B                           figure C                        figure D




figure A                           figure C                        figure D
                                                                   more than 60 NM but less
60 NM                              more than 60 NM                 than 61 NM




3.2°                               1.8°                            7.0°
                                   The rhumb line is situated      The great circle is situated
                                   between the great circle and    between the parallel and the
                                   the straight line because the   straight line, because the
The correct sequence from          shortest distance between to    concave side of the great
North to South is: Great circle,   places on Earth is the great    circle is always pointed
straight line, rhumb line.         circle.                         towards the equator.




0.77                               0.40                            0.20
082.5°                             085.5°                              094.5°




the sun rises at 79ºW.             the sun sets at 86ºE.               the sun sets at 116ºE.
                                   is caused by the westerly
                                   movement of the geographic          affects mainly the compass
is caused by sunspot activity.     North Pole.                         deviation.
The duration of the civil twilight                                     Civil twilight at the equator
on 21st of March and on 23rd of                                        lasts longer than at 60°N or
September is equal at all places Only the declination of the sun       60°S because the radius of
on Earth independent of            will affect the duration of civil   the equator is larger than the
latitude.                          twilight.                           radius of the 60°parallel.

is zero over the geographical      equals the vertical component       is about twice as strong on
poles.                             of the Earth's magnetic field.      60°N/S as on the Equator.
                                   vertical component of the           total magnetic force of the
angle of dip.                      Earth's magnetic field.             Earth's magnetic field.




20°W                               36°E                                10°W




1, 2 and 3.                        2 and 3.                            3 and 4.




16º                                3º                                  21º



6ºR                                19ºR                                22ºR
6ºR    2ºL    3ºR




12º    5º     14º




258º   287º   280º




112º   090º   100º




12º    5º     10º




12ºR   17ºL   6ºL
078º                               090º                              107º




292º                               270º                              253º




06:59 on August 21st.              07:39 on August 21st.             07:39 on August 22nd.

It passes through the zenith       It passes through the zenith      It passes through the zenith
twice a year around June 21st      once a year around March          twice a year around March
and December 22nd.                 21st.                             21st and September 23rd.




LMT                                Standard Time                     LAT (local apparent time)


the fact that they are keeping     the setup of the sunrise/sunset
daylight saving time.              tables.                         the sense of earth rotation.

                                     also at 09:01 UTC since both
later since the latter position lies positions are situated on the
further South.                       same meridian.                  at 07:41 LMT.
08:57 on January 21st.           16:57 on January 20th.          09:59 on January 21st.




22:05 10th Nov.                  07:05 11th Nov.                 09:05 11th Nov.

Standard time is the time that is
determined by division of the                                    In all cases the standard
longitude by 15 and rounding off                                 times at Western longitudes
the answer to the nearest         The standard time at 125° W is are slow on and at Eastern
integer.                          UTC - 8h20m                    longitudes fast on UTC.

                                 the sun has an own movement
                                 through the universe opposite
                                 to the movement of the earth the orbital speed of the earth
the orbital track of the earth   due to the gravitational forces around its axis diminishes
around the sun is an ellipse.    of celestial bodies.              slowly.
                                                                   The difference between the
The difference between no-wind The difference between no-          magnetic and the true wind
and the actual wind.             wind and the forecasted wind. direction.
                                                                   the accuracy of the
                                 the accuracy of the adjustment adjustment of the position
                                 of the position lines for the     lines for the motion of the
                                 motion of the aircraft between aircraft between the last and
the accuracy of the actual wind. the last fix and the DR-position. the new DR-position.
                                                                   the accuracy of the
                                 the accuracy of the adjustment adjustment of the position
                                 of the position lines for the     lines for the motion of the
                                 motion of the aircraft between aircraft between the last and
the accuracy of the actual wind. the last fix and the DR-position. the new DR-position.
1 and 2               1, 2 and 3            1, 2 and 4



0927 GMT              1541 GMT              0814 GMT



0927 GMT              1541 GMT              0814 GMT




08h 14m               09h 27m               01h 02m




070°(G) and 250°(T)   290°(G) and 110°(T)   250°(G) and 070°(T)




070°(G) and 250°(T)   290°(G) and 110°(T)   110°(G) and 290°(T)




270°(G) and 290°(T)   110°(G) and 270°(T)   270°(G) and 110°(T)




090°(G) and 070°(T)   250°(G) and 090°(T)   090°(G) and 250°(T)




285°(G)               203°(G)               323°(G)




285º(G)               315º(G)               225º(G)
110º(G)    070º(G)    150º(G)




060º(G)    130º(G)    010º(G)




110º(G)    090º(G)    330º(G)




350º(G)    120º(G)    030º(G)



095º       105º       255º



285º       075º       255º




257.5º     100.0º     102.5º




102.0º     282.0º     258.0º




268º (T)   277º (T)   275º (T)
24 NM                            23 NM                             22 NM



The scale at 37°N is larger than The scale at 46°N is larger       The scale at 30°N is smaller
the scale at 20°N.               than the scale at 50°N.           than the scale at 37°N.
                                 The scale reaches its             The scale reaches its
The scale reaches its minimum maximum value at the parallel        maximum value at the
value at the standard parallels. of origin.                        standard parallels.
                                                                   The scale reaches its
The scale reaches its minimum The scale reaches its                maximum value at the North
value at the equator.         maximum value at the 45°N.           pole.

                                                                    The parallel of origin together
The parallel of origin is the    The parallel of origin is the only with the standard parallel(s),
parallel at which the scale      parallel at which the chart is     are the only parallels at which
reaches its maximum value.       conformal.                         the chart is conformal.

Impossible to read, due to the
RMI failure.                     315°.                             225°.




195°                             185°                              180°




14 NM                            15 NM                             17 NM


3000 Hz, blue                    1300 Hz, blue                     400 Hz, amber



NDB: beacon position             NDB: beacon position              NDB: aircraft position
VOR: beacon position             VOR: aircraft position            VOR: aircraft position




278°                             262°                              285°
280°                              100°                            090°




208                               360                             180

                                  at the half-way point between
at the aircraft location          the aircraft and the station    at both the VOR and aircraft




018°                              350°                            342°

                                  the pulse recurrence rates are
DME transmits twin pulses         varied                         DME uses the UHF band


108 to 118 MHz                    329 to 335 MHz                  962 to 1213 kHz.



7 NM                              11 NM                           8 NM


                                                                  the power of the transmitted
aeroplane is circling around the                                  signal is too less to be
station                          altitude is too high             received by the DME-station.

                               aircraft height based on sub-
altitude based on regional QNH scale setting                      height based on QFE




1090 MHz       1030 MHz           1090 MHz      1090 MHz          1030 MHz     1030 MHz




666 km                            1333 km                         150 km
220 NM                          120 NM                            150 NM




158 NM                          107 NM                            114 NM



Six                             Eight                             Two
signal bending caused by
electrical interference from                                      skywave/groundwave
aircraft wiring                   misalignment of the loop aerial contamination
                                                                  near the coast and the
near the coast and the bearing inland and the bearing crosses bearing crosses the coast at
crosses the coast at right angles the coast at right angles       an acute angle
                                                                  difference in depth of
envelope matching                 beat frequency discrimination modulation

UHF                             SHF                               HF

static interference              night effect                     quadrantal error
noise from precipitation static                                   sky wave interference from
exceeding the signal strength of sky wave interference from the   distant transmitters on the
the transmitter                  same transmitter                 same frequency




3.0                             4.5                               6.0




50 NM                           165 NM                            210 NM


284° with the FROM flag                                           104° with the FROM flag
showing                         104° with the TO flag showing     showing




270°                            360°                              180°


064° with the FROM flag         244° with the FROM flag
showing                         showing                           244° with the TO flag showing
220 NM                           147 NM                            156 NM

10 MHz                           100 MHz                           100 GHz
                                                                   SHF band and uses
VHF band and uses the            UHF band and uses one             frequency modulation
principle of phase comparison    frequency                         techniques


200                              60                                80
                                 aircraft interrogation signals
pulse pairs are amplitude        and transponder responses are     transmission frequencies are
modulated with the aircraft      63 MHz removed from each          63 MHz different for each
registration                     other                             aircraft


reflections are subject to                                         DME pulse recurrence rates
doppler frequency shift          DME transmits twin pulses         are varied


                                 When overhead the station,        When tracking directly away
When passing abeam the           with no change of heading at      from the station at a range of
station and within 5 NM of it    transit                           10 NM




186 NM                           296 NM                            330 NM


                                to increase distance from the to increase aircraft separation
heavy precipitation may disturb runway during offset approach in very reduced visibility
guidance signals                operations                      conditions
                                                                Two overlapping lobes on
                                A pencil beam comprising a      different radio carrier
Two overlapping lobes on the    series of smaller beams each frequencies but with the same
same UHF carrier frequency      carrying a different modulation modulation


only glide path information is   will receive signals without      can expect signals to give
available                        identification coding             correct indications

two dashes per second and a                                        dashes and an amber light
blue light flashing              dots and a white light flashing   flashing
                                                                   300 MHz and is modulated by
200 MHz and is modulated by      75 MHz and is modulated by        morse at two dashes per
alternate dot/dash in morse      alternate dot/dash in morse       second


550 ft/min                       800 ft/min                        950 ft/min
transmit at a higher pulse
repetition frequency for        obtain optimum use of the          detect the smaller cloud
extended range                  Cosecant squared beam              formations as well as large



fanshaped beam effective up to pencil beam to a maximum            pencil beam effective from
a range of 150 NM is used      range of 60 NM is used              zero to 150 NM is used


cirrocumulus                    stratus                            altostratus

The frequencies employed are    A moving target indicator          The frequencies employed
too high to give returns from   facility suppresses the display    are too low to give returns
moisture sources                of static or near static returns   from moisture sources


7700                            7000                               7500



7600                            7700                               7000


the transmitter moves away      the receiver moves towards the the transmitter goes into
from the receiver               transmitter                    standby


2.0 NM                          2.5 NM                             3.0 NM




left drift                      zero drift                         a wind from the west




252°                            072°                               074°
                                                                   continuous wave
transponder interrogation       phase comparison                   transmission
main control station, the
monitoring station and the      antenna, the receiver and the      atomic clock, power supply
ground antennas                 central control unit (CDU)         and transponder

                                manipulate the signals of
manufacture and launch the      selected satellites to reduce     grant and monitor user
satellites                      the precision of the position fix authorisations
transmitting signals which, from   monitoring the status of the
the time taken, are used to        satellites, determine their
determine the distance to the      positions and to measure the     monitoring the orbital planes
satellite                          time                             of the satellites
                                   compute the user position from
                                   the received user messages
transmit signals to suitable       and to transmit the computed
receivers and to monitor the       position back to the user        monitor the satellites' orbits
orbital planes autonomously        segment                          and status
a mathematical model that
describes the exact shape of the
earth                            a sphere                           a geoid

                              height above Mean Sea Level
geometric height above ground (MSL)                                 flight level

horizontal plane at the location                                    horizontal plane at the
of the receiver and the direct     orbital plane and the earth's    location of the receiver and
line to a satellite                axis                             the orbital plane of a satellite
                                                                    365 days because the
Approximately 24 hours (one                                         satellites are located in a
sidereal day)                      12 days                          geostationary orbit


10900 km                           36000 km                         19500 km
                                   inclined 90° to the equatorial   parallel to the equatorial
inclined 55° to the earth axis     plane                            plane



VHF                                EHF                              SHF

                                   Inertial Navigation System
Magnetic heading                   (INS) position                   Pressure altitude

GPS                                Basic RNAV system                VOR/DME

Inertial Navigation System (INS)
position                           VOR/DME radial/distance          Doppler drift
Secondary Surveillance Radar       Distance Measuring Equipment     Global Positioning System
(SSR)                              (DME)                            (GPS)
Global Positioning System          Airborne Weather Radar           Aerodrome Surface
(GPS)                              (AWR)                            Movement Radar



7600                               7500                             7000


beam width                         pulse length                     carrier wave frequency


an emergency                       transponder malfunction          radio communication failure
                                    unlawful interference with the
an emergency                        planned operation of the flight      transponder malfunction

                                                                         unlawful interference with the
radio communication failure         transponder malfunction              planned operation of the flight

8000 m                              8m                                   80 m

VHF                                 SHF                                  EHF

Frequency drift at the ground       Interference from other NDBs, Mutual interference between
station                             particularly during the day   aircraft aerials



1.5°                                2.5°                                 2.0°

1300 Hz                             2000 Hz                              3000 Hz

does not have to be in range                                             has to be positively identified
when entered or used                must be in range                     by one of the pilots




SW                                  SE                                   NE




less than 10°                       1.5° or more                         2.5 or more



+/-10°                              +/-2.5°                              +/-2°


3                                   5                                    6


amber - white - green               white - amber - blue                 blue - green - white

                                    timing the period that is taken      the aircraft's receiver
the aircraft's receiver measuring   for a transmission from the          measuring the time difference
the phase angle of the signal       aircraft's transmitter/receiver to   between signals received
received from a satellite in a      reach and return from a              from a minimum number of
known position                      satellite in a known position        satellites



SHF                                 EHF                                  VHF
                                continuous automatic position        the elimination of ground to
                                reporting using Global               air communications and the
collision avoidance using TCAS Positioning System (GPS)              introduction of automatic
II and improved long range (HF) satellites and collision             separation between aircraft
communication capability.       avoidance using TCAS II              using TCAS II

                                                                     There is no restriction on the
                                                                     number of ground
                                    The installation does not        installations that can be
It does not require a separate      require to have a separate       operated because there is an
azimuth (localiser) and elevation   method (marker beacons or        unlimited number of
(azimuth) transmitter               DME) to determine range          frequency channels available
greater detail can be obtained at
the more distant ranges of the                                       enables the aircraft to detect
smaller water droplets              static interference is minimised clear air turbulence


4                                   5                                2

blank areas where there is no       colour zones of green and        areas which are coloured
colour                              yellow                           black


+ or - 50° of the runway centre- + or - 60° of the runway centre- + or - 30° of the runway
line                             line                             centre-line


roll, pitch and yaw                 pitch and yaw                    roll and yaw



yellow to amber to blue             green to red to black            yellow to orange to red




200 ft                              250 ft                           150 ft


VOR/DME                             NDB/VOR                          VOR/VOR



135 NM                              270 NM                           27 NM



230 NM                              170 NM                           151 NM

1050 +/- 0.5 MHz                    1090 +/- 0.3 MHz                 1120 +/- 0.6 MHz



ETD                                 ATA                              Elapsed time on route.
pulse amplitude                      pulse repetition rate             pulse frequency




782 pps                              308 pps                           810 pps


255 - 455 kHz                  300 - 3000 kHz                          200 - 2000 kHz
+ or - 0.5 NM or 3% of the                                             + or - 0.25 NM plus 3% of the
distance measured whichever is + or - 1.25 NM plus 0.25% of            distance measured up to a
the greater                    the distance measured                   maximum of 5 NM

increase in the aircraft's rate of   decrease in the aircraft's rate   increase in the aircraft's rate
descent of 50 FT/MIN                 of descent of 100 FT/MIN          of descent of 100 FT/MIN
+ or - 20° about the nominal         + or - 40° about the nominal      + or - 20° about the nominal
courseline out to a range of 20      courseline out to a range of 30   courseline out to a range of
NM                                   NM                                10 NM




(i) 25       (ii) 17                 (i) 35      (ii) 25               (i) 5      (ii) 8


850 ft/min                           670 ft/min                        700 ft/min
                                     secondary radar in the SHF        secondary radar in the VHF
primary radar in the UHF band        band                              band

static interference - station        height error - station            coastal refraction - lane slip -
interference - latitude error        interference - mountain effect    mountain effect




3240 pps                             610 pps                           713 pps



6000                                 167                               330

Satellite mutual interference;   Satellite to ground time lag;         Satellite mutual interference;
satellite ephemeris; atmospheric atmospheric propagation;              frequency drift; satellite to
propagation                      satellite clock                       ground time lag




245 NM                               163 NM                            183 NM


75 kHZ       135 kHZ                 328 MHZ 335 MHZ                   63 MHZ     123 MHZ
250 FT/MIN                        50 FT/MIN                          100 FT/MIN


(i) transmission frequency (ii)   (i) pulse length (ii) length of the (i) transmission frequency (ii)
transmitter power output          timebase                            pulse repetition frequency

                                                                     there is no relative movement
the transmitter and receiver      the transmitter moves toward       between the transmitter and
move towards each other           the receiver                       the receiver




7                                 4                                  5


135 NM                            270 NM                             27 NM



                                  (i) different    (ii)
(i) the same        (ii) phases   modulation frequencies             (i) different      (ii) phases




5                                 6                                  3
                                  At the non-approach end about      At the approach end about
At the approach end of the        150 m to one side of the           150 m to one side of the
runway about 300 m from           runway and 300 m along the         runway and 300 m from
touchdown on the centreline       extended centreline                touchdown




                                                                   the same from both beacons
the same from both beacons                                         when the aircraft is on a
when the aircraft is on a relative greater from the beacon that is relative bearing of 090° and
bearing of 180° and 360°           20 NM inland                    270°

rhumbline track                   line of constant bearing           constant magnetic track


113 km                            100 NM                             180 NM
137 km                              125 NM                              220 NM




FL50                                FL80                                FL100



right with 'TO' showing             right with 'FROM' showing           left with 'FROM' showing


Coastal effect                      Quadrantal error                    Precipitation interference




085                                 265                                 095

                                    It can provide a DME distance It can provide a magnetic
It is of no use to civil aviation   and magnetic bearing          bearing
108 to 111.95 MHz                   118 to 135.95 MHz             108 to 135.95 MHz

108.25 MHz                          110.20 MHz                          112.10 MHz

wave length                         frequency                           pulse length
9375 GHz                            9375 kHz                            93.75 MHz

                                    measuring the time taken for        measuring the pulse lengths
the aircraft's receiver measuring   an aircraft's transmissions to      of signals received from a
the phase angle of signals          travel to a number of satellites,   minimum number of satellites
received from a number of           in known positions, and return      received in a specific
satellites in known positions       to the aircraft's receiver          sequential order



ED 87                               ED 50                               PZ 90


                                                                        Latitude, longitude and
Latitude and longitude              Latitude, longitude and time        altitude


400 ft/min                          600 ft/min                          700 ft/min

                                    within the coverage of station-     outside the coverage of
outside the coverage of station-    referenced navigation aids          station-referenced navigation
referenced navigation aids          provided that it is equipped        aids provided that it is
provided that it is equipped with   with a minimum of one               equipped with a minimum of
a minimum of one serviceable        serviceable self-contained          two serviceable self-
self-contained navigation aid       navigation aid                      contained navigation aids
                                                                    another source of aircraft
                                                                    position; it is independent of
the actual position of the aircraft the same as that given on the   other navigation sources
at any point in time                No. 1 IRS                       (IRS, Radio, ILS, etc)

flight envelope and system        warnings; cautions and            cautions and abnormal
limits; engaged modes             abnormal sources                  sources; engaged modes


flight envelope and system
limits                            warnings                          engaged modes



cautions, abnormal sources        the earth                         the ILS deviation pointer


                                                                    flight envelope and system
engaged modes                     the flight director bar(s)        limits


                                  black, amber/yellow, magenta,
green, red, magenta, black        red                           amber/yellow, magenta, black



Figure 4                          Figure 1                          Figure 2



Figure 3                          Figure 4                          Figure 1




Figure 2                          Figure 3                          Figure 4




Figure 1                          Figure 2                          Figure 3




Figure 4                          Figure 5                          Figure 6



Figure 3                          Figure 4                          Figure 6



Figure 4                          Figure 5                          Figure 2
Figure 5                           Figure 6                          Figure 1




Figure 6                           Figure 2                          Figure 3




Figure 2                           Figure 3                          Figure 5

20° Right                          20° Left                          12° Right


170°(M)                            140°(M)                           280°(T)

030°(M)/20KT                       255°(M)/20KT                      285°(M)/20KT

272°(M)                            260°(M)                           280°(M)

300°(M)                            260°(M)                           280°(M)


TACAN                              VOR                               Airport


a designated alternate airport     an off-route VOR/DME              the destination airport

272°(M)                            280°(M)                           300°(M)

right of the localiser and above   left of the localiser and below   left of the localiser and above
the glidepath                      the glidepath                     the glidepath


VOR                                none                              VOR/DME

                                                                   It does not require any
It is pilot interpreted and does   It does not require any special special equipment, apart from
not require the assistance of      equipment to be fitted to the   a VHF radio, to be installed in
ATC                                aircraft                        the aircraft or on the ground


EHF                                VHF                               UHF

                                                                     Inertial Reference Systems
Inertial Reference Systems         GPS                               Navigation radios
Aircraft Weather Radar             Aircraft Weather Radar            Terrain Collision Alerting
Navigation radios                  Navigation radios                 System
2                                   4                                 8

                                                                      height of the transmitter
power output                        size of parabolic receiver aerial above the ground




347°                                160°                              193°
                                                                      hear the IDENT of NDBs
adjust the loop to the aural null                                     using NON A2A
position                            stop the loop rotation            transmissions




in front.                           right.                            left.



Full scale deflection right with a Full scale deflection left with a Full scale deflection right with
'from' indication                  'to' indication                   a 'to' indication




180 NM                              100 NM                            120 NM


230°                                060°                              240°

                                    FLAG/OFF, the aircraft is
0 NM.                               within the cone of silence.       fluctuating and not significant.




only the 1 575 MHz carrier wave only the 1 227 MHz carrier            the two carrier waves and one
and two codes                   wave and one code                     public code

increase in area and appear         decrease in area but not
nearer to the bottom of the         change in position on the         decrease in area and move to
screen                              screen                            the top of the screen



VOR                                 weather radar                     DME
frequency modulated at 30
Hertz                             a beam rotating at 30 Hertz    unidirectional



6.8 km                            6.1 NM                         6.1 km




240                               300                            120

phase differences                 frequency differences          amplitude differences
the pilot is able to modify the
navigation database in the FMC    the navigation database of the the navigation datbase of the
between two updates.              FMC is valid for one year.      FMC is created by the pilot.
frequency change between the                                      phase difference between
emitted wave and reflected                                        emitted wave and reflected
wave                              frequency of the reflected wave wave


200°                              055°                           235°




300 kt and 7 NM.                  less than 300 kt and 5 NM.     300 kt and 5 NM.




172°                              008°                           352°



040°                              220°                           140°



5.2 NM                            4.6 NM                         4.3 NM




281°                              101°                           256°
295° and 025°                       025° and 115°                   115° and 205°



058°                                038°                            218°

Timing the interval between the                                     Timing the interval between
transmission and reception of       Measurement of the frequency    the reception of sequential
primary radar pulses from the       shift between the MLS azimuth   secondary radar pulses from
aircraft to MLS station             and elevation transmissions     the MLS station to the aircraft
Separate azimuth and elevation      Combined azimuth and            Combined azimuth and
transmitters, outer and middle      elevation transmitter, DME      elevation transmitter, outer
marker beacons                      facility                        and inner marker beacons

UHF                                 EHF                             VHF


100-200 NM                          50-100 NM                       300-400 NM
                                                                    rotational speed of radar
range from cloud;                   size of the water drops;        scanner;
wavelength/frequency used           diameter of radar scanner       range from cloud




0°                                  2.5° down                       5° up



Aircraft position in latitude and
longitude                           Wind velocity                   True airspeed; drift angle

Magnetic track and distance       Magnetic track and distance to Radials from a minimum of
from the aircraft to the waypoint a VOR/DME from the waypoint two VORs to the waypoint or
or 'Phantom Station'              or 'Phantom Station'           'Phantom Station'




21 NM                               10 NM                           11 NM




11 NM                               14 NM                           8 NM
because, under adverse
conditions (relative bearing to
the Phantom Station other than
180°/360°) it takes the computer
more time to calculate the       when in the cone of silence  when the Phantom Station is
necessary information            overhead the Phantom Station out of range

                                   It automatically selects the two
                                   strongest transmitters for the
                                   Area-Nav-Mode and continues
It checks the ground station       working by memory in case          It calculates cross track
accuracy using a built-in test     one of the two necessary           information for NDB
programme                          station goes off the air           approaches
                                                                      6 orbital planes with 3
                                                                      satellites in each plane plus 6
                                                                      reserve satellites positioned
3 orbital planes with 8 satellites 4 orbital planes with 6 satellites in a geostationary orbital
in each plane                      in each plane                      plane

It is the same throughout the
globe                              It is greatest at the equator     It is greatest at the poles



18                                 12                                30



NNSS-Transit                       COSPAS-SARSAT              GLONASS
                                                              PRN occurs in the receiver. It
                                                              is caused by the signal from
PRN is the atmospheric           PRN describes the continuous one satellite being received
jamming that affects the signals electro-magnetic background from different directions
transmitted by the satellites    noise that exists in space   (multipath effect)



P                                  C/A- and P                        P and Y

                                   assignment of received PRN-
recognition whether Selective      codes (Pseudo Random Noise)       correction of receiver clock
Availability (SA) is operative     to the appropriate satellite      error
                                   The receiver detects the
                                   direction from which the
                                   signals are received and
                                   compares this information with    Each satellite transmits its
The Doppler shift is unique to     the calculated positions of the   signal on a separate
each satellite                     satellites                        frequency

12 hours (= period of the          25 seconds (= 1 second per        24 seconds (= 1 second per
satellites orbit)                  data frame)                       data frame)

C/A and P codes are                                                  The lower frequency is used
transmitted at different times on The higher frequency is only       to transmit both the C/A and
both frequencies                  used to transmit the P code        P codes
Multipath                           Tropospheric                   Receiver noise
                                                                   It is a technique whereby the
                                                                   receivers of the world-wide
It is the ability of the GPS      It is a method whereby a         distributed monitor stations
satellites to check the integrity receiver ensures the integrity (ground segment)
of the data transmitted by the    of the Pseudo Random Noise automatically determines the
monitoring stations of the        (PRN) code transmitted by the integrity of the navigation
ground segment                    satellites                       message
                                  calculated, using the WGS-84 determined by the phase shift
                                  reference system, from the       of the Pseudo Random Noise
calculated from the Doppler shift known positions of the satellite code multiplied by the speed
of the known frequencies          and the receiver                 of light

is receiving the signals of all
visible satellites but tracking   is receiving and tracking the       requires the signals of all
only those of the 4 with the best signals of all 24 operational       visible satellites for navigation
geometric coverage                satellites simultaneously           purposes
                                  movement of satellite and
                                  receiver during the distance
measured distance is based on calculation is not taken into           calculated range is based on
the Pseudo Random Noise code account                                  an idealised Keplerian orbit


Sequential                          Multiplex                        Any hand held type
                                                                     under the fuselage in order to
inside the tail fin to minimise the                                  receive correction data
influence of reflections from the in the vicinity of the receiver to transmitted by D-GPS
wing and fuselage                   avoid long transmission lines stations

                                    using a less accurate atomic      offsetting satellite atomic
                                    clock in a satellite for signal   clocks by a predetermined
shutting off selected satellites    processing                        constant amount
It increases because only
signals from satellites in the      It has no influence because, by
most suitable geometric             selecting of the most suitable It degrades accuracy by
constellation are selected by the   signals, the computing process reducing the number of
receiver                            in the receiver is quicker      available satellites
                                                                    is negligible small because of
                                    can be minimised by             the great accuracy the atomic
is the biggest part of the total    synchronisation of the receiver clocks installed in the
error; it cannot be corrected       clock with the satellite clocks satellites


                                only significant if the satellites
minimised by computing the      are located at a small elevation
average of all signals          angle above the horizon               negligible
                                The signals will be distorted,
                                however the error can be
                                corrected for using an                It has no influence because
                                algorithm and information from        high frequency signals are
It causes multipath propagation unaffected signals                    unaffected
3 satellites with an azimuth of                                    4 satellites with an azimuth of
120° from each other and an        4 satellites with an azimuth of 90° from each other and an
elevation of 45° above the         90° from each other and a low elevation of 45° above the
horizon                            elevation above the horizon     horizon

                                                                   Signals from satellites are
                                                                   received by 2 different
The difference between signals Receivers from various              antennas which are located a
transmitted on the L1 and L2         manufacturers are operated in fixed distance apart. This
frequencies are processed by         parallel to reduce the        enables a suitable receiver on
the receiver to determine an         characteristic receiver noise the aircraft to recognise and
error correction                     error                         correct for multipath errors
The increase in accuracy of
position fixes is independent of                                   A LAAS corrects the position
the aircraft position in relation to A LAAS cannot correct for     of the aircraft by relaying the
the LAAS ground reference            satellite timing and orbital  information via a geo-
station.                             position error.               stationary satellite.

The data is stored in the          The data is based on the           The data is determined by the
receiver together with the         direction to the satellite         satellite and transmitted
Pseudo Random Noise (PRN)          determined at the location of      together with the navigation
code                               the antenna                        message


                                                                      The flight may be continued
                                   A constant heading and speed       as planned if at least 4
                                   must be flown until the required   satellites are available and
The flight has to be continued     number of satellites are again     the pilot monitors the GPS-
under VFR conditions               available                          System manually

The prescribed IFR-equipment       The RAIM-function of the GPS
must be in working correctly and   receiver must be able to     Multi-sensor systems are not
the navigation information         monitor all prescribed       certificated for flights under
continuously displayed             navigation systems           IFR conditions

If using Differential-GPS (D-
GPS) the altitude obtained from
the D-GPS, otherwise
barometric altitude             Radar altitude                        GPS altitude


                                                                      GPS altitude if 4 or more
The average of GPS altitude                                           satellites are received
and barometric altitude            GPS altitude                       otherwise barometric altitude




125 km                             12.5 NM                            1250 km

                                   hear the IDENT and must
stop loop rotation                 always be switched ON              find the loop 'null' position
bi-lobal circular                 a cardioid balanced at 30 Hz    a beam rotating at 30 Hz

300 MHz                           110 MHz                         600 MHz

DME callsign was not
transmitted, the distance          DME callsign is the one with   VOR and DME callsigns were
information is sufficient proof of the lower pitch that was       the same and broadcast with
correct operation                  broadcast several times        the same pitch


                                                                  centred with the 'fail' flag
left of centre                    right of centre                 showing

delay after which the process re- the number of cycles per        ratio of pulse period to pulse
starts                            second                          width

                                have a wide beam and as a
simultaneously transmit weather consequence better target         eliminate the need for
and mapping beams               detection                         azimuth slaving


3600                              1000                            760

                                  turbulence in cloud that has    wet snow and turbulence in
precipitation                     precipitation                   cloud that has precipitation


                                                                ahead of the aeroplane
behind the aeroplane symbol       ahead of the aeroplane symbol symbol with the TO flag
with the TO flag showing          with the FROM flag showing    showing

target discrimination             maximum measurable range        beam width


target discrimination             minimum range                   beam width


aerial rotation rate              Pulse Recurrence Rate (PRR) pulse length




1, 2 and 4 only                   2, 3 and 4 only                 2 and 4 only


Secondary Surveillance Radar      Aerodrome Surveillance          Airborne Weather Radar
(SSR)                             (approach) Radar                (AWR)



air data database                 performance database            auto flight database
air data computer                 navigation database              auto flight computer



air data computer                 performance database             auto flight computers



air data computer                 navigation database              auto flight computers



air data computer                 performance database             auto flight computers



air data computer                 navigation database              auto flight computers


True airspeed from the air data   Heading from the aircraft        Vertical speed from the air
computer                          compass system                   data computer
                                                                   Radial from one VOR;
                                                                   distances from two DMEs;
TAS from the Air Data                                              TAS from the Air Data
Computer; heading from the        Radial from one VOR;             computer; heading from the
aircraft compass.                 distances from two DMEs.         aircraft compass.

VOR/DME Area Navigation           VOR/DME Area Navigation
computer is not receiving         computer is not receiving
information from the Air Data     information from the aircraft    When 'DR' is selected by the
Computer.                         compass system.                  pilot.

The system is receiving           The system is receiving      The system is receiving
information from one VOR and      information from one VOR and information from the two
one DME                           two DMEs                     DMEs

                                  The VOR/DME Area                 The VOR/DME Area
the pilot tunes the closest       Navigation system uses           Navigation System has its
VOR/DME stations within range     whatever stations are tuned on   own NAV tuner and it always
on the VOR/DME Area               the aircraft's normal NAV        tunes the DME stations
navigation control panel.         selector.                        closest to the aircraft position.

Quartz                            Mechanical                       Laser

12                                6                                36


45°                               35°                              65°
                                                                   Strength of the pilot's voice
Coastal refraction.               Sky wave propagation.            when transmitting.

QNH                               QTE                              QDM
25 - 50 NM                         50 - 100 NM                       100 - 300 NM


MF/HF                              HF                                HF/VHF
                                   The range of an NDB will most     The transmitter power of the
The range is limited to the line   likely increase at day time       NDB station has no affect on
of sight.                          compared to night time.           the range.
                                                                     measures the time difference
measures the time difference                                         between sending the
between reception of the two                                         interrogation signal and
signals transmitted from the       uses pulse technique to           receiving the transponder
ground installation.               determine the radial.             signal.

Coastal refraction.                Quadrantal error.                 Night effect.

The DME measures the phase
difference between the                                               When passing overhead the
reference and variable phase       DME operates in the VHF           DME station the DME will
signals to calculate the distance. frequency band.                   indicate 0.
                                   The indicated distance is the
                                   ground distance measured
Two lines of position obtained     from the aircraft's projected     The DME ground station is
from two different DME's give      position on the ground to the     always co-located with a VOR
an unambiguous fix.                DME ground installation.          station.
                                                                     The difference in time
The difference in phase            The bearing to the localiser      between the 90 Hz
between the 90 Hz modulation       antenna found by means of a       modulation and the 150 Hz
and the 150 Hz modulation.         loop antenna.                     modulation.



Inner marker.                      Outer marker.                     Glide path.




2.0° to the left.                  2.0° to the right.                1.0° to the right.


1.25º above or below the           1.5º above or below the           2.5º above or below the
correct glide path.                correct glide path.               correct glide path.
False beams will only be found
more than 10 degrees to the left   False beams are only present      False beams will only be
or to the right of the localiser   when flying a back-beam ILS       found below the correct glide
centreline.                        approach.                         path.
5° offset from the localiser       1.25° offset from the localiser   10° offset from the localiser
centreline.                        centreline.                       centreline.
Same frequency as the              Same frequency as the glide
localiser.                         path.                             3000 Hz.

1300 Hz                            400 Hz                            75 MHz

Audio: 400 Hz, 2 dashes per        Audio: 75 MHz, 2 dashes per       Audio: 3000 Hz, alternating
second. Visual: Blue light         second. Visual: Blue light        dots and dashes. Visual:
flashes.                           flashes.                          Amber light flashes.
The number of revolutions
performed by the radar antenna                                       The time between each
per minute.                    The radar frequency used.             transmission of pulses.

                                   Aircraft position, SSR code and
Aircraft position and SSR code.    altitude.                       Aircraft altitude.
A directional antenna for                                          An omnidirectional antenna
transmitting, and an               One directional antenna for     for transmitting, and a
omnidirectional antenna for        transmitting and one for        directional antenna for
receiving.                         receiving.                      receiving.
The relatively small ground
antenna transmits no side lobes,
thus eliminating the danger of     Possibility of obtaining speed
false replies from the airborne    information for aircraft within
transponder.                       range.                            Is not limited to line of sight.
                                                                     ground range only if the
                                   zero when passing overhead        beacon is co-located with
ground range.                      the station.                      VOR.
                                   Operates on the principle of      Has unlimited range due to
Operates on VHF.                   phase comparison.                 ground wave propagation.
± 10.0 NM for 95% of the flight    ± 5.0 NM for 95% of the flight    ± 8.0 NM for 95% of the flight
time.                              time.                             time.




Fixed card ADF and RMI.            Moving and fixed card ADF.        Fixed card ADF only.

                                                                     Distance between air position
Distance between actual          Distance between air position       and great circle track
position and next waypoint.      and planned track.                  between active waypoints.
                                 RNAV-routes are only used in
In general RNAV-routes           terminal areas in order to make
coincide with standard routes in more efficient use of the
order to make optimum use of approach and landing facilities         All waypoints of RNAV-routes
the available VOR/DME-stations of an airport                         are called phantom stations


Navigation display                 Symbol generator                  Course deviation indicator


Global Positioning System and      Inertial Reference System and Compass system and Inertial
Compass System                     Global Positioning System     Reference System




Global Positioning System          VOR/DME-system                    DME/DME-system
                                                                     B-RNAV can be used up to
In case of B-RNAV, RNP1 is         B-RNAV is only applicable         FL95. Above FL95 P-RNAV
required.                          when flying in TMA's.             is required.

VORs s                             NDBs                              VDFs
                                 Scalloping has no effect on the        Scalloping has no effect on
                                 accuracy of navigation                 the accuracy of navigation
                                 because it only results in the         because this accuracy is
Scalloping has a positive effect movement of the needle of the          independent of VOR- or DME-
on the accuracy of navigation.s Course Deviation Indicator.             measurements.




Only 2, 3 and 4.s                   Only 2, 3 and 5.                    1, 2 , 3, 4 and 5.




the aircraft will pass south of the the aircraft will pass north of     the VOR will be approached
VOR.s                               the VOR.                            along radial 080.



                                    The direction of the VOR            Neither the direction of the
Both the direction of the ADF       pointer will change, the            ADF pointer nor the direction
pointer and the direction of the    direction of the ADF pointer will   of the VOR pointer will
VOR pointer will change.s           not change.                         change.


Radio Magnetic Indicator.s          DME Indicator.                      Attitude display.
                                    the system has the ability to       the system has the ability to
the system has a battery back-      calculate the aircraft's radio      calculate the aircraft's
up which guarantees the well-       position without any reference      position with an accuracy
functioning of the system in        to either man-made or natural       comparable to the GPS-
case of power-failure.s             information.                        position.

                                    An existing VOR/DME-station
A non-existing VOR/DME-             created in the memory of the        A waypoint defined by two
station defined by two DME          Navigation Computer Unit of         DME-distances from two
distances.s                         the RNAV-system.                    different VOR/DME-stations.

Radio compass operating in the Receiver operating in the 108
200 kHz to 1750 kHz range.     MHz to 118 MHz range.                    SSR Transponder.

                                    the indication of the track angle the indication of the wind
the indication of the RNP.          error (TKE).                      component.
                                                                      the calculation of the position
it operates off its own power       the system generates a            does not require any
supply                              warning in case of a failure.     software.

90° N/S                             35° N/S                             67.5° N/S
To make the receiver select                                         To select from all visible GPS-
GPS-satellites with a certain       To eliminate the reception of   satellites the satellite-
optimum elevation which is          the signal from GPS-satellites configuration which results in
about equal to the mask angle.      with an elevation of about 90°. the smallest GDOP.
                                                                    stand-alone Global
Local Area Augmentation             Local Area Differential GPS     Navigation Satellite System
System (LAAS)                       (LADGPS)                        (GNSS)
                                                                    the power level of the
                                                                    transmitted energy is made
                                    the automatic gain control of   dependent on the selected
the brightness of the display.      the AWR is activated.           range.

the tilt setting should be higher   the tilt setting should be higher the tilt setting should be lower
when the aircraft climbs to a       when the selected range           when the selected range
higher altitude.                    decreases.                        increases.




(49°35'N , 007°36'W)                (49°45'N , 007°42'W)              (48°50'N , 006°22'W)
VHF frequency modulated with
a 90 Hz AM and 150 Hz AM            300 to 3000 Hz Amplitude          UHF carrier frequency with a
navigation signal.                  modulation for the ATIS.          possible 'voice ident'.
curves in the glide path that are
visible on the indicator, but       curves in the normal approach curved approaches made
change too fast to be followed      procedure because of 'noise   with the aid of the instrument
by large aircraft.                  abatement'.                   landing system.

Scalloping are major changes or
bends in the approach path          Scalloping are minor changes      Scalloping are rapid changes
which can not be followed by the    or bends which can be followed    or bends which can be
aircraft.                           by the aircraft.                  followed by the aircraft.
LF/MF band.                         HF band.                          UHF band.



110                                 280                               290

Special Position Identification     twelve-pulse train giving 212
(SPI) pulse.                        possible codes.                   long (30.25 msec) P3 pulse.
                                                                         Intermode A/C/S all call and
                                    Mode S Selective will trigger        Intermode A/C only all call,
Mode S Only all-call will trigger   replies of all mode S                differ in the pulse spacing
transponder replies of all mode     transponders. Mode A/C               used between the P1 and P3
A/C/S transponders.                 transponders are suppressed.         pulse.

                                                                  With the selector knobs the
The correct ICAO 24 bits aircraft With ON selected a reply in the four digits of the squawk can
address code must be inserted modes A,C and S can be              be selected using the decimal
on the control panel.             transmitted.                    symbols 0 through 9.

when two or more aircraft are in    with two or more aircraft in         with two or more aircraft in
approximately the same              different directions from the        different directions from the
direction from the ground station   ground station, at the same          interrogator, at the same
with a difference in slant range    altitude and a slant range of        altitude and a slant range of
of more than 1.7 NM.                less than 1.7 NM.                    more than 1.7 NM.
300 m from the far end of the       200 m beyond the ILS
runway                              reference point.                     200 m before the threshold

non-precision approach                                       precision approach guidance
guidance for the main approach precision approach guidance   for the reciprocal of the main
runway.                        for the main approach runway. approach runway.
                                                             in the SHF band for the MLS
in the range 5060 - 5090 MHz,                                elements and the VHF band
200 kHz separation giving 150 in the VHF- and UHF band, 40 for the DME, 100 available
available channels.            available channels.           channels.


22 metres 3-D                       5 metres vertically                  30 metres horizontally

                                     To monitor and ensure that the
                                     transmitted signals are saved       To transmit a signal used by
                                     and processed to utilise            a suitable receiver to
It calculates the aircraft position. WAAS.                               calculate position.
                                     all kinds of frozen precipitation
areas of severe clear air            such as hail, snow and        areas of wind sheer and
turbulence.                          graupel.                      severe aircraft icing.
                                                                   feedback from the antenna
artificial gravity switches.      mercury switches.                accelerometers.
                                  They are stabilized with         The pilot can choose the axes
                                  respect to the yaw-axis, but not of stabilization with the
They are stabilized with respect with respect to the pitch and     system's stabilization selector
to the pitch, roll, and yaw-axis. roll axis.                       switch.

                                                                         of underestimating distances
of getting a distorted picture      of aurora borealis (polar light)     because the cold seawater is
because of ice reflection.          causing false returns.               causing super refraction.


in the area of heaviest             about halfway between two            in the very core of a
precipitation.                      thunderstorm cells.                  thunderstorm cell.
                                                                  select the cosecant square
switch over from normal to WX-                                    beam for better alley
mode.                          initiate a steep climb.            detection.
                                                                  the transmission reverts to
the frequency of MLS is much                                      circular polarization when the
higher than the frequency of       MLS has a larger beam width    beam is reflected by
ILS.                               than ILS.                      stationary objects.
provides the capability for        provides the capability for
curved approaches but not of       segmented approaches but of    provides the capability for
segmented approaches.              not curved approaches.         CAT 3 approaches.
assure a constant angular
velocity of the azimuth and        support the time referenced
elevation sweep.                   scanning beam.                 allow linear approaches.


meteorological conditions are                                     topographical conditions
likely to cause ILS ducting by     the main approach paths lead   preclude the installation of
super refraction.                  over water.                    ILS marker beacons.




                                   approximately three quarters of
approximately halfway the scale.   the scale.                      the outer dot.
the slant range and centre the     the ground distance and centre the slant range and centre the
DME-station.                       the aircraft.                   aircraft.
test VOR transmitting such a
signal that the reference- and     high power VOR in the          low power DVOR in the
variable signal are always in      frequency range 108 MHz -      frequency range 112 MHz -
phase.                             112 MHz.                       118 MHz.
the true great circle direction    the magnetic great circle      the true great circle direction
from the beacon.                   direction to the beacon.       to the beacon.
                                   magnetic bearing to the        magnetic bearing from the
radial.                            station.                       station.

                                                                  in emergency type situations
in lieu of ILS for precision       in combination with radar to   when the aircraft is unable to
approach purposes.                 solve the 180º ambiguity.      transmit on VHF.

the range decreases and the        the range and the accuracy   the range and the accuracy
accuracy increases.                both increase.               both decrease.
                                                                may be caused by the
                                                                interference of VOR's within
is caused by aircraft magnetism                                 range of the ADF receiver
and varies with the deviation as is caused by interference from and cannot be compensated
shown on the deviation table.    the sky wave.                  for.
1, 2 and 3.                       1, 2, 3 and 4.                   2 and 4.
the horizontal plane, in the
vertical plane and a timing       the horizontal plane and a       the horizontal plane and a
function.                         speed management system.         cruise management system.

vertical plane.                   timing function.                 horizontal and vertical planes.




1, 2, 4 and 5.                    2, 4, and 5.                     3, 4, and 5.
RNAV allows pilots to manage
horizontal and vertical                                            RNAV allows to obtain ATC
separation with other aircrafts   RNAV allows to fly at RNAV       clairance by HF radio without
without obtaining any ATC         flight level with a 500 ft       the requirement to establish
clearance.                        separation.                      any radio contact.




2.                                3 and 4.                         1.
reference to true or magnetic     reference to aircraft relative   reference only to magnetic
north at the aircraft.            bearing.                         north at the aircraft.

speaking louder.                  flying out of clouds.            decreasing altitude.
1 and 3.                          2 and 3.                        1 and 4.

75 to 250 NM                   7.5 to15 NM                        75 to150 NM
                               ADF is a civilian equipment        ADF is an ground equipment
                               whereas NDB is a military          and NDB can be a ground
NDB is a locator and ADF is an equipment used by civilians        equipment or an airbone
en route nav-aid.              too.                               equipment.




1, 2 and 3.                       1 and 3.                        1, 2, 3 and 4.

obstacle altitudes.               aircraft performance data.      ATC frequencies.
                                                                  enters relative position
                                  reads VOR/DME bearing and       between his aircraft and the
must update any altitude          distance on CDI or HSI to       VOR/DMEs on CDU to
change in RNAV system to          compute himself the cross       calculate the cross track
have correct cross track error.   track error.                    error.


                                  a 3D area navigation and an
an air/ground datalink.           air/ground datalink.            traffic alert information

ILS localiser transmitter.        outer marker beacon.            all the 3 ILS marker beacons.
VHF, UHF and HF bands.            VHF band only.                  UHF band only.
                                                                  111.975 MHz and 117.975
329.15 MHz and 335 MHz.           108 MHz and 117.975 MHz.        MHz.
a VOR frequency.                  an ATC frequency.               a NDB frequency.

                                                                  The DME paired with ILS
                                  The glide path transmitter is   channels are usually zero
The localiser part of frequency   located 300m from the           referenced next to the
band is shared with the DME.      departure end of the runway.    departure end of the runway.
2 and 4.                        1, 2, 3 and 4.                 1 and 3.

90 MHz.                         150 MHz.                       1300 Hz.
                                                               It depends on the modulating
90 Hz.                          150 MHz.                       frequency.
Non Directional Bearing.        Navigation Director Beacon.    Night Directional Beacon.
Automatic Detection Finding.    Aircraft Directional finder.   Aircraft Direction Finding.
                                                               Very High Frequency
VHF Direction Finder.           Very direct Finder.            Deviation Finding Station.

ADF                             VDF                            NDB.
                                                               used on ground only to
the system used to update the                                  monitor the maintenance
navigation database.            the Autopilot control panel.   procedure.

outer marker.                   inner marker.                  locator.

inner marker.                   middle marker.                 locator.

outer marker                    middle marker                  locator

inner marker.                   middle marker.                 locator.

middle marker.                  locator.                       outer marker.

locator.                        outer marker.                  inner marker.

inner marker.                   locator.                       middle marker.

locator.                        inner marker.                  outer marker.

outer marker.                   locator.                       middle marker.


amber.                          green.                         white.



                                                               3 dashes, 3 dots and 3
2 dashes per second             6 dots per second              dashes per second
continuously.                   continuously.                  continuously.

VHF                             UHF                            VLF

24.60 cm                        2.46 cm                        24.60 m

2500 kHz.                       360 MHz.                       3600 MHz.
40 m.                            7.5 m.                       75 m.


25.3 m.                          2.53 cm.                     25.3 cm.


100 metres.                      10 metres.                   1 metre.

hectometric.                     decimetric.                  centimetric.

hectometric.                     decimetric.                  centimetric.
highest critical frequency       wavelength distance of a
distance.                        certain frequency.           thickness of the ionosphere.
lower frequency and higher       higher frequency and lower   lower frequency and lower
position of the reflecting       position of the reflecting   position of the reflecting
ionospheric layer.               ionospheric layer.           ionospheric layer.

by day, due to the combination
of sky and ground waves.         at night and when raining.   by day and when raining.




Figure C                         Figure D                     Figure A




Figure D                         Figure A                     Figure B




Figure B                         Figure C                     Figure D




Figure A                         Figure B                     Figure C




Figure D                         Figure A                     Figure B




Figure A                         Figure B                     Figure C
015        205        195




015        205        195




Figure C   Figure D   Figure A




Figure A   Figure B   Figure C




Figure D   Figure A   Figure B




Figure B   Figure C   Figure D




Figure C   Figure D   Figure A
Figure A                             Figure B                      Figure C

The time-interval between both                                     On the Y-channel the time-
pulses of consecutive pulse-    The DME-transponder uses a         interval between the pulses of
pairs transmitted by the        slightly different, randomly       an interrogator pulse-pair is
interrogator varies, for each   varying, delay for each            36 msec and of a transponder
                                interrogating aircraft.
interrogator, in a unique pattern.                                 pulse-pair 30 msec.
                                The EPC has to detect if
The EPC has to detect if pulse- unwanted squitter-pulses are
pairs reflected by the          interfering with the well-       The EPC has to protect the
ionosphere are interfering with functioning of the interrogator- transponder-receiver against
directly received pulse-pairs.  receiver.                        reflected pulse-pairs.
                                                                 The interrogation starts
The interrogation starts when                                    directly after the correct DME-
the interrogator has been        The interrogation can only take frequency has been selected
warmed up sufficiently, whether place if the Echo Protection     on the frequency-selecting-
pulse-pairs are received or not. Circuit has been locked.        panel by the pilot.




A                                    C                             D

                                                                   The frequency of the
The radar is not able to display The MTI does not recognise        transmitted radar signals
two echoes moving in the same this as a moving object due to       changes too much by the
direction.                       the blind speed                   Doppler effect.
                                                                   three VDF's at different
two co-located VDF's, able to   one VDF able to take               locations able to take
take bearings simultaneously on simultaneous bearings on           simultaneous bearings on
the transmitted frequency.      different frequencies.             different frequencies.




1 and 3.                             2.                            1 and 2.

altitude.                            heading.                      ground speed.
1.90 kHz to 17.50 kHz.               1900 kHz to 17500 kHz.        19 Hz to 17500 Hz.

high powered NDBs used for en beacons with a range of 10 to        low powered ADFs used for
route and airways navigation. 250 NM.                              airfield or runway approach.
                               the performance database
                               contains aeronautical
the data can not be customized information for the planned     the navigation database
for the specific airline       area of operations of the       contains the company's cost
operations.                    aircraft.                       index strategy.

only the navigation database     only the performance database company database and FMC
may be customized by the         may be customized by the      databases can not be used at
company's cost index strategy.   company.                      the same time.
                                                               It depends on the modulating
90 MHz.                          150 MHz.                      frequency.




1 and 3.                         3 and 4.                      1.

90 MHz.                          150 MHz.                      75 Hz.
                                                               Electronic Flight Instrument
VOR receiver.                    DME receiver.                 System (EFIS).
the UHF band.                    the HF band.                  both UHF and VHF bands.




                                                               Aircraft will not receive DME
                                                               information from PTC due to
193°                             332°                          the line of sight rule.




014°                             166°                          194°




291°                             111°                          069°
1- 2 - 3                           1-3-2                             2-1-3


IM (if available), MM, OM.         OM, IM (if available), MM.        MM, IM (if available), OM.

middle marker.                     centreline marker.                outer marker.

centreline marker.                 inner marker (if available).      middle marker.


blue.                              green.                            white.


blue.                              green.                            amber.
                                                                     3 dashes, 3 dots and 3
a continuous series of alternate 6 dots per second                   dashes per second
dots and dashes.                 continuously.                       continuously.
                                                                     3 dashes, 3 dots and 3
a continuous series of alternate 2 dashes per second                 dashes per second
dots and dashes.                 continuously.                       continuously.

400 Hz.                            1300 Hz.                          240 Hz.

1300 Hz.                           3000 Hz.                          1500 Hz.

800 Hz.                            400 Hz.                           3000 Hz.

                                   No markers can be located at
The inner marker (if available).   this distance.                    The outer marker.


10 NM from the threshold.          25 NM from the threshold.         1 NM from the threshold.
                                   increase with left displacement
                                   from the centerline and           increase from center position
                                   decrease with right               to half full scale of the needle
decrease with displacement         displacement from the             of the indicator and decrease
from the centerline.               centerline.                       until full scale of the needle



maximum.                           less than 90 Hz.                  more than 150 Hz.
2 and 3.                          2, 3 and 4.                    1 and 3.

frequency modulation.             phase modulation.              dual modulation.
                                                                 a 90 Hz lobe and a 150 Hz
a radiation pattern which is      two lobes modulated in         lobe which are amplitude
amplitude modulated by the        frequency by a 90Hz and a      modulated by the VHF
VHF frequency of the ILS.         150Hz signal.                  frequency of the ILS.




1 and 3.                          1 and 4.                       2 and 3.

increases linearly with respect   decreases proportionally to the decreases with respect to the
to the distance from the centre   angular displacement from the angular displacement from
line.                             centerline.                     the centerline.




1 and 3.                          1 and 4.                       2 and 3.
                                 increase with displacement   increase from center position
decrease with linear             above the glidepath and      to half full scale of the needle
displacement above or below      decrease with displacement   of the indicator and decrease
the glidepath.                   below the glidepath.         until full scale of the needle.
no modulated signal because                                   the same frequency
the left and the right lobes     the maximum magnitude of the modulated signal from both
cancel each other along the      difference between the 90 Hz lobes with the maximum of
centerline.                      and 150 Hz amplitudes.       magnitude.



maximum.                         less than 90 Hz.                 150 Hz or 90 Hz.




2 and 3.                         1, 2 and 4.                      1 and 3.
                                                                  the same modulation
no modulated signal because       the maximum magnitude of the frequency signals from both
the two lobes cancel each other difference between the two        lobes with the maximum of
along the centerline.             amplitudes.                     magnitude.
a modulated signal and will shift
the localiser needle to the right
according to the magnitude of
the difference between the two the modulation from both lobes
amplitudes.                       at equal amplitude.             the left lobe modulation only.
                                                                  modulation of the ILS
                                  the difference between the      frequency by the amplitude of
the phase comparison.             frequencies of the two tones.   two modulating signal.
                                                                  It may result in an increase of
Regardless the difference in                                      the distance at which the
distance travelled by these                                       Ground VHF Direction Finder
signals, it results in their      It reduces the range at which station receives signals from
extinction of the signals at the  the Ground VHF Direction        the aircraft, if the Ground
Ground VHF Direction Finder       Finder station receives signals Station is situated in the
station.                          from the aircraft.              skipzone.

The Relative Bearing of the      The Relative Bearing of the
NDB should be equal (in          NDB should be equal (in        The Relative Bearing of the
magnitude and sign) to the       magnitude and sign) to the     NDB should be equal to the
experienced Drift Angle.         applied Wind Correction Angle. QDM.

                                 The Relative Bearing of the
                                 NDB should be equal (in        The Relative Bearing of the
The Relative Bearing of the      magnitude and sign) to the     NDB should be equal to the
NDB should be kept 000°.         applied Wind Correction Angle. QDM.

The difference in velocity of the The absence of the surface
EM-waves over land and over       wave at distances larger than   Interference between the
sea, at night.                    the skip distance.              ground and the space wave.
                                                                      Noise in the received EM-
                                                                      wave, which hardly will be
A constant error in the indicated No bearing error because of         noticed by the pilot looking at
bearing.                          the built-in compensator unit.      the RMI.

                                   The DME ident will repeat          The VOR ident and DME
Every 30 seconds the DME           three times every period of 30     ident are the same and no
ident will be repeated.            seconds.                           difference can be heard.


to avoid second trace returns                                       that side lobes can be
when a DME is more than 200        that more DME frequencies are suppressed by the Side Lobe
NM away.                           available for different beacons. Suppressor (SLS).
                                                                    When an ILS/ DME is flown
                                   The pilot has to insert the      then selection of the DME
The DME frequency has to be        channel number and also the X has always to be done
selected by the pilot.             or Y.                            manually.

                                   The airborne equipment             The signal controlled search
The ground installation not        switching directly to the search   circuit (SCS) blanking the
sending any pulse pairs..          mode.                              DME display.
measures the phase difference      compares the difference in
between the two transmitted        frequency of the two               measures the phase rotation
signals.                           transmitted signals.               of the two transmitted signals.




1, 2 and 3                         2, 3 and 4                         1 and 4
magnetic bearing on a fixed
card indicator                 true bearing on an RMI                 relative bearing on an RMI
                               During the night the range of          In order to double the range
                               an NDB will decrease due to            of an NDB, the transmission
The range depends on the       the interference of the direct-        power should be increased
altitude of the aircraft.      and earth reflected wave.              with a factor 16.
                               A VOT is located along an
                               airway with the purpose to
A DVOR is less accurate than a provide an in-flight check of the      A CVOR is primarily used for
CVOR.                          airborne equipment.                    instrument approaches.
                                                                      time difference between the
                                                                      reception of the variable
                                   doppler shift on the reference     signal and the reference
phase of the variable signal.      signal.                            signal.



TO, half scale deflection to the   FROM, half scale deflection to     FROM, half scale deflection
left.                              the left.                          to the right.
                                   rho-theta information from an      theta-theta information from
rho-rho information from an        enroute VOR/DME station can        enroute VOR's can be
ILS/DME can be obtained.           be obtained.                       obtained.
1, 2, 3, and 4                       2, 3 and 4                          1 and 2
At a certain moment of time the      At a certain moment of time,        At a certain moment of time,
phase of the reference signals       both the phase of the reference     both the phase of the
is unequal and the phase of          signals and of the variable         reference signals and of the
variable signals is equal for both   signals are equal for both          variable signals are unequal
aircraft.                            aircraft.                           for both aircraft.

At a certain moment of time, the     At a certain moment of time,        At a certain moment of time,
phase of the reference signals       both the phase of the reference     the phase of the reference
is unequal and the phase of          signals and of the variable         signals is equal and the
variable signals is equal for both   signals are equal for both          phase of variable signals is
aircraft.                            aircraft.                           unequal for both aircraft.
The Doppler effect is used to
create a signal which is received    By using the Doppler effect it is   By using the Doppler effect it
by the aircraft's VOR-receiver       possible to determine the           is also possible to determine
as an amplitude modulated            range of the aircraft from the      the aircraft's approach speed
signal.                              VOR station more accurately.        to the VOR.
                                                                         a Master Control Station,
                                     a Master Control Station,           Monitor Stations, Ground
Master Control Stations and          Monitor Stations and                Antenna's and Geostationary
Monitor Stations.                    Geostationary Satellites.           Satellites.

to control continuously the          to calculate and transmit          to calculate the accuracy of
motion of GPS-satellites.            differential corrections to users. GPS.

                                to calculate and transmit
to control continuously the     differential corrections to users
position and the motion of GPS- which are able to receive Wide to regulate the transmitted
satellites.                     Area Differential GPS systems. power by the satellites.



increases fourfold.                  is halved.                          remains unchanged.
To make both the ILS-localizer-                                          To make both the ILS-
and glide path receiver less         To make the ILS localizer           localizer- and glide path
susceptible to interference from     receiver less susceptible to        receiver less susceptible to
commercial FM-stations (radio        interference from earth-            interference from earth-
and television).                     reflected localizer-signals.        reflected localizer-signals.
These transmissions may             These transmissions may          These transmissions may
interfere with the ILS localizer    activate the FM immune filter    activate the FM immune filter
and glide path signals which        which results in the             which results in the
may lead to erroneous deviation     appearance of the localizer      appearance of the localizer
indications.                        failure flag.                    and glide path failure flag.


Localizer transmitter:     100      Localizer transmitter:    100    Localizer transmitter:    300
meter behind end of runway          meter behind end of runway       meter behind end of runway
Glide path transmitter: 100         Glide path transmitter: 100      Glide path transmitter: 300
meter behind threshold              meter behind threshold           meter behind threshold
Middle Marker:             1.5      Middle Marker:            1000   Middle Marker:            1.5
NM from threshold                   meter from threshold             NM from threshold
Outer Marker:              10       Outer Marker:             4      Outer Marker:             10
NM from threshold                   NM from threshold                NM from threshold
the parabolic reflector generates   the flat plate antenna has a     the parabolic reflector has a
less side lobes than the flat       considerably smaller beam        considerably smaller beam
plate antenna.                      width.                           width.
both the PRF and the pulse          the PRF becomes higher and       both the PRF and the pulse
length increase.                    the pulse length smaller.        length decrease.




094°                             272°                                294°
                                 Lightning during atmospheric
Night effect is a result of      disturbances may cause a            Shore line effects may cause
interference of the surface wave reduction of the signal strength    a huge bearing error due to
and the space wave causing a that may result in only slight          reflection of the radio signal
reduction in range.              bearing errors.                     onto steep coasts.
Receiver, Phase comparator,                                          Display, Pulse generator,
Range gate                       Demodulator, Antenna, CDU           phase comparator
In 30 seconds the DME ident      In case of collocation the DME      The DME ident comes up
comes up 3 times at an audio     ident is not necessary if the       every 10 seconds at an audio
frequency of 1350 Hz.            VOR ident is present.               frequency of 1020 Hz.

                                    The inner marker warns the       The markers are only
The outer marker indicates the      pilot of the last chance to      important in the situation
position where normally the         commence the missed              when the Glide Path
descent has to commence.            approach procedure.              transmission has ceased.
knowledge check mark significance prov n° code date         subj chairman ia n° ez n°




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10/24/2007
ass doc kind ass doc ref_annex suf_annex_a suf_annex_b suf_annex_c suf_annex_d
1818 A




2304 A



2305 A   B
2325 A



2326 A
9437 A



9438 A



9439 A



9440 A



9441 A



9442 A
11993 A
12549 A




12549 A




12549 A
12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A
12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A
12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A
12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A
12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A
12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A




12549 A
12549 A




12549 A




12549 A



12549 A



12549 A



12549 A



12549 A



12549 A




12549 A




12549 A
12549 A




12549 A




12549 A



12614 A



12614 A



12614 A



12614 A




12614 A



12614 A



12614 A




12621 A



12621 A
12621 A



12621 A



12621 A



12621 A



12621 A



12621 A



12621 A



12621 A



12621 A



12621 A



12621 A



12621 A



12621 A



12621 A
12621 A
600087




600088
600093
600199




600200
600385




600386
600389




600390
600414



600415




600416
9905 A



9906 A




9907 A




9908 A




9909 A



9910 A



9911 A
9912 A




9913 A




9914 A

9915 A


9916 A

9917 A

9918 A

9919 A


9920 A


9921 A

9922 A


9923 A
12409 A




12410 A
600097
600164
600178




600179




600180




600181




600182




600183
600184




600185




600186




600187




600188




600189




600190
600191




600219
suf_annex_e kind_ass_doc_a kind_ass_doc_b kind_ass_doc_c kind_ass_doc_d
kind_ass_doc_e validation type catchword application_ATPLA   length_atpla score_atpla




                 TRUE                          TRUE                     1           1




                 TRUE                          TRUE                     2           2




                 TRUE                          TRUE                     2           2



                 TRUE                          TRUE                     1           1


                 TRUE                          TRUE                     1           1




                 TRUE                          TRUE                     2           2




                 TRUE                          TRUE                     2           2



                 TRUE                          TRUE                     1           1


                 TRUE                          TRUE                     2           2

                 TRUE                          TRUE                     1           1


                 TRUE                          TRUE                     1           1

                 TRUE                          TRUE                     1           1

                 TRUE                          TRUE                     1           1


                 TRUE                          TRUE                     2           2
TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2


TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   2   2

TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   2   2

TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2
TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   1   1
TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2


TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2



TRUE   TRUE   2   2

TRUE   TRUE   2   2


TRUE   TRUE   2   2



TRUE   TRUE   1   1

TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   2
TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




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TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2


TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   2   2



TRUE   TRUE   2   2

TRUE   TRUE   1   1
TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   2   2


TRUE   TRUE   2   2


TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   2   2



TRUE   TRUE   2   2

TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   3   3



TRUE   TRUE   2   2


TRUE   TRUE   2   2


TRUE   TRUE   1   1
TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   2   2

TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1

TRUE   TRUE   1   1
TRUE   TRUE   1   1

TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   2   2


TRUE   TRUE   1   1

TRUE   TRUE   1   1

TRUE   TRUE   1   1

TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   3   3
TRUE   TRUE   3   3

TRUE   TRUE   1   1

TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   2   2

TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   2   2

TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   1   1

TRUE   TRUE   1   1

TRUE   TRUE   1   1

TRUE   TRUE   1   1

TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   2
TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   2



TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   1   1
TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   1   1

TRUE   TRUE   1   1

TRUE   TRUE   1   1
TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   3   2




TRUE   TRUE   3   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2
TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2
TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2
TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2
TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2
TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   3   3




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TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2


TRUE   TRUE   1   1


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TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1
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TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2
TRUE   TRUE   1   1




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TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2
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TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2

TRUE   TRUE   1   1




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TRUE   TRUE   2   2



TRUE   TRUE   1   1
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TRUE   TRUE   2   2




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TRUE   TRUE   2   2



TRUE   TRUE   1   1



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TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   1   1




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TRUE   TRUE   2   2
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TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2
TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   3   3



TRUE   TRUE   3   3



TRUE   TRUE   3   3



TRUE   TRUE   3   3



TRUE   TRUE   3   3



TRUE   TRUE   3   3


TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   2



TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2
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TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2


TRUE   TRUE   2   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   2



TRUE   TRUE   2   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   2
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TRUE   TRUE   3   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2


TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   3   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2

TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1

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TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2
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TRUE   TRUE   2   2

TRUE   TRUE   1   1

TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2

TRUE   TRUE   1   1
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TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   1   1
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TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   2



TRUE   TRUE   2   2

TRUE   TRUE   1   1


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TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1
TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1

TRUE   TRUE   1   1

TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   3   2



TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2
TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2
TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2
TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2
TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2
TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2
TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2
TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   2



TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   1
TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1
TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1
TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   3   2



TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   1

TRUE   TRUE   1   1

TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   1

TRUE   TRUE   1   1

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TRUE   TRUE   2   1
TRUE   TRUE   2   1

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TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1

TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   2   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   2   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   1
TRUE   TRUE   2   1




TRUE   TRUE   3   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1

TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   1




TRUE   TRUE   3   2




TRUE   TRUE   3   2
TRUE   TRUE   3   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   1
TRUE   TRUE   2   1




TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   3   3




TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1
TRUE   TRUE   3   1




TRUE   TRUE   3   1




TRUE   TRUE   3   1




TRUE   TRUE   3   1




TRUE   TRUE   3   1
TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   3   1




TRUE   TRUE   5   1



TRUE   TRUE   3   1




TRUE   TRUE   3   1




TRUE   TRUE   3   1
TRUE   TRUE   3   1



TRUE   TRUE   3   1




TRUE   TRUE   3   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   1




TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   2   1



TRUE   TRUE   2   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1




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TRUE   TRUE   1   1
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TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   1



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TRUE   TRUE   1   1




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TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1
TRUE   TRUE   1   1

TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   2   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   1   1


TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   1   1



TRUE   TRUE   3   2
TRUE   TRUE   3   2




TRUE   TRUE   3   2




TRUE   TRUE   3   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   1




TRUE   TRUE   2   1

TRUE   TRUE   1   1




TRUE   TRUE   3   2




TRUE   TRUE   2   1




TRUE   TRUE   3   2
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TRUE   TRUE   3   2


TRUE   TRUE   1   1




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TRUE   TRUE   2   1
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TRUE   TRUE   3   1




TRUE   TRUE   3   2




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TRUE   TRUE   3   1




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TRUE   TRUE   3   2




TRUE   TRUE   3   2



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TRUE   TRUE   4   2




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TRUE   TRUE   2   1




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application_ATPLH   length_atplh score_atplh application_ATPLHIR   length_atplhir




      TRUE                     1           1        TRUE                            1




      TRUE                     2           2        TRUE                            2




      TRUE                     2           2        TRUE                            2



      TRUE                     1           1        TRUE                            1


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      TRUE                     2           2        TRUE                            2




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TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2




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TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




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TRUE    3   3   TRUE   3



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TRUE    3   3   TRUE   3


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




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TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2



TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2

TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    3   2   TRUE   3



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE    2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE    2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE    2   2   TRUE   2
TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2
TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2
TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2
TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2
TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2
TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2
TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2
TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2

TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2

TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2
TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2

TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2

TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2
TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3




TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3
TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2
TRUE    2   1   TRUE    2




FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0




TRUE    3   3   TRUE    3




TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1
TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3
TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




TRUE   5   1   TRUE   5



TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3
TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3



TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2



TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    2   1   TRUE   2


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    3   2   TRUE   3
TRUE    3   2   TRUE   3




TRUE    3   2   TRUE   3




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   3




TRUE    2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE    2   1   TRUE   2

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    3   2   TRUE   3




TRUE    2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE    3   2   TRUE   3
TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3




TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2



TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2
TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3




TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3




TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3
TRUE    3   2   TRUE   3




TRUE    3   2   TRUE   3




TRUE    3   2   TRUE   3



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1
TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   4   2   TRUE   4




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3



TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3




TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2
TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2



TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2



TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3
TRUE    3   2   TRUE   3




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    2   2   TRUE   2


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   2
TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE    2   2   TRUE   2

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    2   2   TRUE   2




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1
FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


TRUE    2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   2



TRUE    2   2   TRUE   2

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1
FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   2


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   2

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   2



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   2



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    2   2   TRUE   2


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1
FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   2




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    2   2   TRUE   2
TRUE    2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE    2   2   TRUE   2



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1
FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1
FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1
FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1
FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE    2   1   TRUE   2


TRUE    2   1   TRUE   2


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    2   1   TRUE   2

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE    2   1   TRUE   2



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE    2   1   TRUE   2
TRUE    2   1   TRUE   2



TRUE    2   1   TRUE   2




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1
FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1
FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1
FALSE   0   0   TRUE    1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE    1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE    1




FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0



FALSE   0   0   TRUE    1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE    1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE    1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE    2




FALSE   0   0   TRUE    1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE    1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE    1
FALSE   0   0   TRUE   2




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   3




TRUE    2   2   TRUE   2


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE    3   1   TRUE   3


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1
FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



TRUE    2   1   TRUE   2


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1
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TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1
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FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


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TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1
FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1
FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1
FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1
FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1
TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1
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TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2
TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2
TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1
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TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1
FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1
FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   2




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   2




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1
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FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1

FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1
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FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1
FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


FALSE   0   0   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE    1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1
TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1
score_atplhir application_CPLA   length_cpla score_cpla application_CPLH   length_cplh




           1       TRUE                    1          1       TRUE                   1




           2       FALSE                   0          0      FALSE                   0




           2       FALSE                   0          0      FALSE                   0



           1       TRUE                    1          1       TRUE                   1


           1       TRUE                    1          1       TRUE                   1




           2       TRUE                    2          2       TRUE                   2




           2       TRUE                    2          2       TRUE                   2



           1       TRUE                    1          1       TRUE                   1


           2       FALSE                   0          0      FALSE                   0

           1       TRUE                    1          1       TRUE                   1


           1       TRUE                    1          1       TRUE                   1

           1       TRUE                    1          1       TRUE                   1

           1       FALSE                   0          0      FALSE                   0


           2       FALSE                   0          0      FALSE                   0
2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2




2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


2   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0

1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2

1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




2   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0




2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2




2   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0




2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2




2   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0
1   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1



2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2




0   TRUE    2   2   FALSE   0




2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2




2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2




2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1
2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2




2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2




2   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0


2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2




2   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0



2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2

2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2


2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2



1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1

1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1



1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




2   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0
1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0




0   TRUE    2   2   FALSE   0




2   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0




1   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0




2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2




2   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1



2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2



2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2

1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1
1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1



2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2


2   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1



2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2



2   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0

1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




3   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0



2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2


2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1
1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1



2   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0

1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1

1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1
1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1

1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1

1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1

1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1

1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2




0   TRUE    2   2   FALSE   0




3   TRUE    3   3   TRUE    3
3   TRUE   3   3   TRUE   3

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2
1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




0   TRUE    2   2   FALSE   0



1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1



2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2




2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2




2   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1
1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1
1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




2   TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3




2   TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2
2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2
2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2
2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2
2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2
2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




3   TRUE   3   3   TRUE   3




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1
1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2
1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2
2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2



2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1
1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




2   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0




2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2



1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




2   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0




2   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0



1   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0



1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0

1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1

1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1
1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2



2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2


1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2


1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2
2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2
2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2




3   TRUE    3   3   TRUE    3



3   TRUE    3   3   TRUE    3



3   TRUE    3   3   TRUE    3



3   TRUE    3   3   TRUE    3



3   TRUE    3   3   TRUE    3



3   TRUE    3   3   TRUE    3


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2



2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2




2   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0
2   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0




2   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0




2   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0




2   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0


1   TRUE    2   1   TRUE    2




1   TRUE    2   1   TRUE    2




2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2



1   TRUE    2   1   TRUE    2




2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2
2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




2   TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2
2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1
1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1
1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1

1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1



2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2



2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2

1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0



1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1
1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0



1   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0

1   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0

1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1



1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




2   TRUE    3   2   TRUE    3



1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE    2   1   TRUE    2




2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2




2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2




2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2
2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2
2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2
2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2
2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2
2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2
2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2
2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2
1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1
1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1
1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE    1




2   TRUE   3   2   FALSE   0



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE    2

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE    1

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE    2


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE    2

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE    1

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE    2
1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2

1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2

1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2
1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3




2   TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3
2   TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2
1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE    2




0   TRUE   1   1   FALSE   0




3   TRUE   3   3   TRUE    3




1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE    1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE    1
1   TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




1   TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




1   TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




1   TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




1   TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3
1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




1   TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




1   TRUE   5   1   TRUE   5



1   TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




1   TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




1   TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3
1   TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3



1   TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




1   TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2



1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1
1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0



1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1

1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1



1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1
1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1

1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    2   1   TRUE    2


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1



1   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1



2   TRUE    3   2   TRUE    3
2   TRUE    3   2   TRUE    3




2   TRUE    3   2   TRUE    3




1   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0




1   TRUE    2   1   TRUE    2




1   TRUE    2   1   TRUE    2

1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




2   TRUE    3   2   TRUE    3




1   TRUE    2   1   TRUE    2




2   TRUE    3   2   TRUE    3
2   TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3




2   TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2



1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2
1   TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




1   TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




2   TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3




2   TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3




1   TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3




1   TRUE   3   1   TRUE   3
2   TRUE    3   2   TRUE    3




2   TRUE    3   2   TRUE    3




2   TRUE    3   2   TRUE    3



1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1



1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1



1   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0
1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   4   2   TRUE   4




1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1
1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



2   TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3



2   TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3




2   TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2
1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2



1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2



1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   3   2   TRUE   3
2   TRUE    3   2   TRUE    3




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   FALSE   0




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




2   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0


1   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1
1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1



1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




2   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0
1   TRUE   2   1   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1

1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1


1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2




2   TRUE   2   2   TRUE   2



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1




1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1



1   TRUE   1   1   TRUE   1
2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2

1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1


1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1



1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1



1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




1   TRUE    1   1   TRUE    1




2   TRUE    2   2   TRUE    2




1   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0



1   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0



1   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0


1   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0


1   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0


1   FALSE   0   0   FALSE   0
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score_cplh application_IRA length_ira score_ira application_IRH length_irh score_irh




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application_PPLA   length_ppla score_ppla application_PPLH   length_pplh score_pplh




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