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					 A Brighter Tomorrow For Africa Foundation (USA)
                         And
Children’s Learning Services – Sierra Leone Partnership
                                                              +




 Report on First half of Phase Two of the Project
     Establishing Comprehensive School Conflict Management Program:
          A Needs Assessment and Capacity Building Project.




                        April – July, 2006.
I Background and Introduction

Children’s Learning Services – Sierra Leone (CLS-SL) presented a proposal to A
Brighter Tomorrow for Africa Foundation (USA) titled ‘Establishing a Comprehensive
School Conflict Management Programs. This is a report on the first half of Phase Two.
The proposal was divided into three phases.
It is commendable that Phase One has already been funded and implemented. The
climax activity of Phase One was a provincial launching of the School Conflict
Management Program in Makeni, a town which serves as provincial headquarter for the
Northern Province districts of Bombali, Koinadugu, Port Loko, Kambia and Tonkolili.

By the end of April 2006, CLS-SL had presented a report on Phase One as well as the
proposed activities and budget for Phase Two to BTA (USA). Shortly after this, BTA
forwarded the funding for the first half of Phase II through it Sierra Leone office. For
information on the entire Project proposal please contact CLS- SL.

II     General Aims and Objectives
A summary of our primary outcome for the entire three phases of the project is as
follows:
    1 To establish baseline information on Conflict Resolution Education programs in
       Schools in other educational institutions in the Northern Province of Sierra
       Leone.
    2 To assist selected Schools in building Comprehensive School Conflict
       Management Programs and in particular to strengthen the capacity of the existing
       Peace Clubs in Port Loko and Lunsar.
    3 Establishment of Comprehensive Conflict Management Programs in more
       Schools in the Northern Province.

III) Objectives achieved in First half of Phase 2

      Appraisal of the activities of the existing Peace Clubs
      Provide training for 112 persons in peer mediation, peaceable classrooms and
       violence prevention.
      Build a peace heritage in the Schools through the provision of planting of peace
       poles as a monument of the commitment of schools and students to peace
       building.
      Help Peace Clubs with support to enrich the teaching and learning activities in
       classroom through the formulation and availability of a series of handout on
       specific topics in school conflict management.
      During the school conflict management Training workshop (a type of Peace
       Camps) we taught skills for management of emotions, violence prevention,
       maintaining peaceable classrooms and peer mediation to participants
      Promote inter-school activities that promote peaceful co-existence and co-
       operation amongst Schools through cooperation activities during and after the
       training.
      Relate the themes of stress management and trauma healing as foundational
       concepts in conflict management
      Relate the role of peace education and active non violence in conflict management
      Relate the significance of strong moral and spiritual values in establishing the
       foundation of the conflict management house.
      Introduce Schools to a variety of conflict management models and approaches.
      Equip students with the principles of conflict resolution as on going strategies for
       conflict management.
      Empower Peace Clubs to be accountable for conflict management and for
       keeping their Schools peaceful.

            IV)     Preliminary Activities in first half of Phase Two
CLS-SL continued follow up activities in some districts after the provincial launching in
February. In May 2006 CLS-SL conducted a follow up and monitoring visit to
Koinadugu, Bombalil and Tonkolili in order to keep the momentum that will ensure
active local participation and commitment to the program. In June 2006, CLS-SL made
a number of visits to Port Loko and Lunsar to execute some of the objectives listed in
phase II. Furthermore, CLS-SL embarked on some extensive preparatory and
consultative activities towards the training in Port Loko some of which are
                     Production of sensitization jingle
                     Corresponding and consulting with various stakeholders of the
                        project
                     Designing and production of handouts in School Conflict
                        Management Program.
                     In-service training of project team.

The training was conducted for three (3) Secondary Schools in Port Loko early in July
for some 0ne hundred and two (102) students thirteen (13) teachers.

           V)     Proceedings of the School Conflict Management Training
                  Workshop 4th –7th July

   A) Sessions on Day one –4th July 2006

           i)     Introduction
           ii)    Appraisal of the activities and impact of the Peace Clubs since 2003.
           iii)   Sharing our Victories- feedback from CLS –SL program
                  development.
           iv)    Group Work - 3 models of Conflict Management viz - Violence
                  Prevention, Peer Mediation, Peaceable Classroom

   i) Introduction

   On Tuesday 4th July, the training workshop commenced with opening courtesies. It
   proceeded with introductions of the CLS team, teachers and students from the various
   Schools (Schlenker Secondary School: SSS, Port Loko Catholic Secondary School:
   PCSS, and Maforki Agricultural Islamic Secondary School: MAISS,) and the
   Evangelical Model Tech/ Vocational Center.

   The CLS Program Co-ordinator gave a brief background and the aim of the training
   workshop. She also informed the workshop participants about the methodology to be
   used in the training. A total of about one hundred and two (102) students, thirteen
   (13) teachers and five CLS-SL personnel attended the four days (3rd to 7th) School
   Conflict Management training workshop hosted at the AME primary School in Port
   Loko town.

ii) Appraisal of the activities and impact of the Peace Clubs since 2003

The Program Coordinator led the workshop in a questions and answers session on
identifying the objectives of the workshop from the view of the participants. Students
identified the following in their responses to various questions. They were expecting to
learn
    - How to resolve conflicts
    - How to mediate
    - How to promote peace in our communities
    - Maintaining peace in our communities
Participants were also requested to share some of the victories/ activities the Peace Clubs
has been doing in the Schools. The responses included
    - Peace Clubs have helped greatly in handling school conflicts through peer
        mediation.
    - The participants, particularly fellow students acknowledged that the students
        themselves are handling their own conflicts.
    - They are now sharing the Peace Clubs philosophies with members of their local
        communities
    - Peace Club teachers and former (old) members have been assisting in the
        recruitment of new members.
    - Corporal punishment has reduced considerably in the schools due to bylaws
        instituted by the Peace Clubs. Students and teachers cited that schools had no bye-
        laws on corporal punishment before the program intervention of promoting peace
        and school conflict management by CLS. The Peace Clubs in their advocacy for
        active non-violence forwarded a bye-law that students defaulters of rules should o
        be given no more than three lashes at a time. In another encounter, Principals of
        schools testify that the conflicts reports caseload in their schools is decreasing and
        the interschool climate has greatly improved from its unhealthy and unpleasant
        status before the intervention
    - Peace Clubs have been contributing in keeping their School environment clean.
    - Peace Club members have helped in transferring the skills learnt to other Schools
        in other districts.

   CLS-SL will be collecting the photographs from the training and closing
   Session and will forward them to BTA shortly.
   CLS is also researching and developing measuring tools for establishing indicators of
   success in various aspects of project implementation. Whilst waiting for this it is
   noteworthy Peace Club have give the additional under mentioned report on their
   impact.
   Much has been achieved through Peer Mediation. Students have had useful
   experiences in managing conflicts as well as preventing violence in school. Student
   and teachers gave evidence of peaceful inter-house and inter-school sports
   competitions since 2003 and after the intervention of CLS. Furthermore, the
   program has invariably reduced the number of students expelled or suspended from
   school yearly and increased the level of interaction between teachers and students.


iii) CLS Update: Sharing some developments in CLS with respect to Peace Building

The Program Co-ordinator commenced this session by sharing from the book ‘People
Building Peace: Successful Stories of Civil Societies, Chapter 11.1, which is the CLS
Chapter titled Food, Education and Peace Building in Sierra Leone. Various portions
were read to the participants particularly those that gave an account of the Peace Clubs in
Port Loko and Lunsar.
Furthermore, a brief report was given of the conference by Civil Society organizations
(Global Partnership for the Prevention of Armed Conflicts) at the United Nations Head
Quarters in New York in July 2005. A Global Action Agenda for the prevention of
Violent Conflicts and build peace was launched and CLS participated in this monumental
event.

 CLS Program Coordinator reported that she was privileged to attend the International
Conference. Since then our CLS peace building work reflect that CLS-SL is committed to
the global action plan. Cognizance has been taken of the contributions to the national
peace building process through the student’s active participation. The handout on
Highlights of the GPPAC was distributed to students and its highlights reviewed as
follows:
    1)    Promote human security and address the root causes of conflict
    2)    Make prevention the fundamental goal of collective security arrangements
    3)    Prevention and peace building requires an integrated architecture of effective
          institutional capacities and partnerships
 The Session also continued with an introduction of A Brighter Tomorrow for Africa
Foundation (USA) as the main partner funding the training program. It was recalled that
BTA had funded the first Phase of the Project, which was a needs assessment of School
Conflict Management Programs in all districts of the Northern province.

iv) Proceedings of Training sessions on School Conflict Management

Day One Continued--
 In the afternoon of the first day, a session was held on the meaning and scope of Conflict
Management. The question was posed on ‘ what is Conflict Management? After various
responses the following was agreed upon
“Conflict Management refers to programs that teach concepts and skills for
preventing, managing and resolving conflicts peacefully.”

A hand out on the meaning and scope was distributed. The discussion that followed
emphasized that the task for CLS, the various Peace Clubs, and indeed all Secondary
Schools is building comprehensive school conflict management programs as a strategic
contribution of schools to the national peace building process in Sierra Leone.
Furthermore, the skills will equip administrators, teachers and students with skills for
peaceful conflict resolution and violent prevention in schools. It was noted that violent
conflicts has been a menace in schools and communities before and after the war.

 Over the coming years, the CLS- BTA partnership with Schools has an aim to empower
students, teacher and administrators with knowledge and skills in a number of thematic
areas of peace education, conflict management program models as well as stress
management and trauma healing.

Day one ended with a description of the Conflict management programs models that will
be adopted in the current training workshop for implementation by the Peace Clubs.
These were identified as Violence Prevention, Peaceable Class Rooms and
Peer Mediation.
 The peace Clubs in Port Loko, it was highlighted were already using peer mediation in
conflict resolution but Violence Prevention and Peaceable Class rooms were fairly new
concepts.
Following this participants were assigned into three main groups for their group work
session as follows.

   -   Group One- Violence Prevention
   -   Group Two- The Peaceable Classroom
   -   Group Three Peer Mediation

Training Workshop Sessions in Day two - 5th July 2006

First Session: - Diagrammatic presentation of the Comprehensive School Conflict
Management Building was done.
 The Facilitator and participants reviewed key lesson covered in Day One with an
emphasis on the meaning and scope of Conflict Management programs. A list of School
Conflict Management programs models was identified as follows:
                Life Skills
                Peaceable Classrooms
                Win -Win Negotiations Strategies
                Mediation Skills
                Violence Prevention
The foundation for building a Comprehensive School Conflict Management program
was also established which comprises of the subjects of
      Active non- violence and Peace Education,
      Stress management and Trauma Healing
      Strong spiritual and Moral Values.
These foundation components were further discussed. This started with the Active Non-
violence and Peace education component.
A recap and revision of the West African Network for Peace building (WANEP)
curriculum on Active non-violence and peace education which consists of five units was
done.
Unit 1 -Myself, others and our environment
Unit 2 - Peaceful Living (Understanding Peace)
Unit 3 -Non Peaceful Living (Understanding Conflict)
Unit 4- Communication
Unit 5- Dealing with our differences (Handling Stereotypes and Prejudices)

In addition discussions followed on the other two foundation components of
Stress management and Trauma healing and Strong Spiritual and Moral foundation.
A catalogue of spiritual and moral values and guiding principles for conflict management
and peace building were collectively identified, after a definition of values. Values are
things/qualities that build our character. Twelve living values and others listed were
Peace, Respect, Love, Tolerance, Honesty, Humility, and co-operation, Responsibility,
Happiness, Freedom, Simplicity and Unity.
 The other sessions on day two were study of the Highlight on GPPAC, benefits of school
conflict managements programs, elements of conflicts.

At this point the BTA National Co-ordinator - Mr. Abu Bakarr Kamara was formally
introduced. Responding, Mr. Abu- Bakarr thanked CLS-SL for granting him the
opportunity to participate in the Workshop. He spoke about the various programs of
BTA in the country and also stressed to the students about the benefits to be derived from
joining the Peace Clubs. A big hand of applause was extended to Mr. Abu Bakarr.

Highlight on GPPAC
A general overview of the agenda of the Global Action Agenda for the prevention of
violent conflict and build peace was given and indication was made of its highlights and
framework.

What are some of the benefits that school conflict management program bring? These
were discussed and a handout that listed them was distributed.
   - Teaching time is increased and suspensions as well as detentions decreased
   - Violence is prevented
   - Tensions are reduced and school climate is improved,
   - Interpersonal communications skills will improve.
This was the first time these benefits are introduced formally
Elements of Conflicts

There are four main elements of conflicts viz People, Place, Issue, Response. What do
people bring into a Conflict? - Anger, feelings, Needs, Interests, Values, Cultures,
Relationships, Unresolved problems etc. Four common emotions (feelings) that people
bring into conflicts were identified - fear, hurt/pain, anger, self – pity

Five principles of conflict resolution were also covered they are: (1) Separate the people
from the problem (2) focus on interests not positions (3) generate options for mutual gain
(4) assure a fair process and practice direct communication.
The workshop also related case studies of the applications of conflict management in
various school subjects: viz Social Studies, Religious and Moral Education and Health
Education were given as examples..
At the end of day two, students raised a concern and made special request for assistance
with funds to offset their transportation cost, as many of them have to travel long
distances to attend the training workshop.
The Program Co-ordinator replied that they should put their request in writing and
through their teachers so that the matter will be tabled for discussion.

Day Three- 6th July 2006

This consisted mainly of Group work on Models of Conflict management.
The Peaceable Classroom, Violence Prevention and Peer Mediation as well as
Rehearsals. Students were trained to present skits on the three models. This was not only
meant for them to understand the models but to use drama as a means of communicating
the various models to the Schools and the Committees.


The Peace Pole Planting Ceremony

On Friday 7th July 2006. The Police, students, teachers, CLS personnel and others, at
about 11. 00 am joined others in a match pass from Port Loko town center (near Bai
Bureh Memorial Hall) accompanied by the brass band of the Port Loko Catholic School
to the Schlenker Secondary School were a Peace Pole was planted. The distance was
about two miles. The Sierra Leone Broadcasting Service recorded and televised the
event.

  On arrival at the Schlenker Secondary School grounds at about 12.30 pm the peace pole
planting ceremony was conducted. During this monumental ceremony, statements were
made CLS Coordinator on the relevance of this ceremony, by the Vice-Principal of the
Schlenker Secondary, School, Representative from the Police, and from three pupils
from the three Secondary Schools represented.
 Planting of Peace poles at the Islamic and the Port Loko Catholic Secondary Schools
was postponed owing to the fact that both Schools were in the process of being relocated
to new premises.

Closing Session of the School Conflict Management Training Workshop – Friday 7th
July at the Bai Bureh Memorial Hall, Port Loko
The closing ceremony climaxed the training workshop and peace pole planting. It
attracted participants from various works of life including prominent personalities from
the Port Loko Township.
The chairman for the occasion – Mr. Moifungba – a Senior Teacher from the Muraildo
Secondary School in Lunsar and himself a trained Peace Club Teacher. In his opening
statement he thanked CLS for its contribution towards peace building within schools in
Sierra Leone.
A statement was also made from Representative of B.T.A. Mr. Abu-Kamara. He spoke
about the founder Sarah Armstrong and briefly explained about BTA’s mission, aims and
objectives in Sierra Leone.

The Chairman of Port Loko District Council - Mr. J. B. Amara was also present. Mr.
Amara sent special congratulations to CLS and BTA, as well as to the students and
teachers in their task of helping to curb School violence. His advise to students was that
they should ensure that violent conflicts in Sierra Leonean Schools becomes a thing of
the past.

Statement from the Police
In his contribution, Mr. Lakkoh, the Police Representative pledged the support of the
Police and remarked that the program would greatly help to empower students to help
settle conflicts amongst themselves and in the community. His son was amongst those
who took part in the training and he was particularly happy for this.

Contributions from Students
Students were given opportunities make presentations like skits on their school conflict
management models of Violence Prevention, The peaceable Classroom and Peer
Mediation.

A very important part of the ceremony was the distribution of certificates to students
and teachers who have taken it as part of their responsibilities to bring peace into their
Schools. Distribution of certificates was done by the Program Co-ordinator; assisted by
Ms Rosemarie Kai-Banya (SLEFES Peace Building Assistant) and Mr. Amara, the Port
Loko District Chairman.
 It was also remarkable that some past students who had been members of the Peace
Clubs for over three years were present and had been following up events. They were
particularly recognized. The Program Co-ordinator in her own contributions encouraged
all students to study well and be role models for other pupils.

In another engagement during this closing session, representatives from the students’
body forwarded a request addressed to the Port Loko District Chairman. The request
centered mainly on (a) the need for continuity and capacity building for student and
teachers in the School Conflict management program (b) For a piece of land to build a P
structure that will serve as a center for the various Peace Clubs.
 In his response, the District Chairman said that he was happy for the students’ bold
venture and urged them to form a representation from the various Schools and visit him
at his District Office so that the matter will be given active consideration.
Mr Amidu, Project Officer of CLS-SL, led the formal induction of new students into the
membership of the Peace Clubs from the various Schools.
These recruits pledged themselves to become instruments for Peace in their schools
through the Peace Clubs.

Closing remarks from the Chairman

In his concluding remarks, the Chairman extended to CLS-SL and especially students
who are going to be the future leaders of the nation .The focus now is on the young
people for it is especially for them that the program has been organized. Special thanks
was extended to all those who have attended the program.

Conclusion - CLS and the beneficiaries are very grateful to BTA for the timely and
significant support to the school conflict management program. Preparations for the
second half of phase two are well underway. Activities undertaken in preparation for the
second half include:
     Planning on the follow up activities such as the Annual Plans of Peace Clubs.
     Communications and correspondences towards completion of the needs
        assessment in two MEST districts of Tonkolili II and Port Loko II. and
        preparation for orientation trainings in the two districts.
     Printing a selected number of handouts into A-3 posters for use by Peace Clubs in
        the next academic year.
        Making contacts for media coverage and others aspects of the training.
     Designing badges and T-shirts within the Peace Heritage collection
     Planning for the Peace Pole planting ceremony in the other school in PortLoko
Annexes
1) Participants were therefore drawn from the three Secondary Schools in the town viz.
Port Loko Catholic Secondary School, Schlenker Secondary School and Islamic
Secondary School. They include students and teachers as well.
Participants.

School                No. Of students    No of           School
                                         Teachers        population
Port Loko Catholic    48                 4               1, 112
Secondary School
Maforki Islamic       24                 3               306
Secondary School
Schlenker             30                 6               1,289
Secondary School

Grand Total           102                13



(2) Resource Persons - CLS – SL Staff
    1.    Emma Kamara
    2.    Amidu Y. Turay
    3.    Henry Williams
    4.    Noela Samura
    5.    Anthony Kamara

(3)List of Handouts
    1.     What is Conflict Management?
    2.     Benefits of School Conflict Management Programme
    3.     Examples of violent reaction to conflict
    4.     Principles of Conflict Resolution
    5.     The Peaceable Classroom in Summary
    6.     Active Non-Violence and Peace Education
    7.     Program Curriculum Outline
    8.     Highlights of GPAAC
    9.     Warning Signs of Youth Violence
    10.    Violence against Self
    11.    Recognizing violence warning signs in others
    12.    Controlling your own risk of violence behavior
    13.    The twelve living values

				
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