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					Ways to Use Wireless to Operate
       Buildings Better

                          CBE
                          Edward Arens, Cliff Federspiel,
                          David Auslander,Therese Peffer,
                          Charlie Huizenga
                          BWRC
                          Paul Wright, Jan Rabaey, +
                          BSAC
                          Richard White +
                          Berkeley Intel Lab
                          David Culler +


CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT OCTOBER 2003
  Building Systems and Their Monitoring Needs


                    Building                    Current situation:
                                                 Insufficient number
                    Lighting,                   of environmental
                    temperature,                sensors (1/1000sf)
                    sound, air
                    quality…                     Ineffective placement

                                                of sensors (limited by
                                                wires)
                                                 Monthly lump-sum
     Electricity,            Occupancy,
     gas, water,             comfort,           electricity/gas bills
     weather…                productivity        Occupants have little

Energy                                          information, insight, or
                                       People
                                                influence over their
                                                building environment
                         Individual   Solar            Zone
                         recognize    radiation        temperature
                         sensor       sensor           sensor                Sensing and Actuation
                         Physiology   Survey of
                                                     Anemometer
                                                                                 Opportunities
                         sensor       occupant
                                      reaction                                                                            Provide
                                                                                                                        information


 CO2                                                                                                       Message to   Suggest       Shading
                         Individual           Human productivity model
 sensor                                                                                                    occupants     action
                         comfort
                         model
                                                                                                                                      Window
Human
schedule                                                                                                                 Adjust
                         Occupancy                                                                                       position     Blinds
                         model                Total power consumption                  Decisions           Control
                                              model                                                        devices
Door                                                                                                                      Start        AC
sensor                                                                                                                   on/off


                         Building             HVAC                Lighting           Plug load                                        Vent
                                                                                                                        Setpoint
Sound                    thermal              system              model              model                               reset
sensor                   model                model
                                                                                                                                      Refriger

                                                                                                                        Shut down
  Motion
  sensor                                                                                                                              Lights



                                                                                                                                      Computer
           Structure        Window                HVAC                  Zone light         Plug power
           temperature      status                condition             sensor             measurement
           sensor           sensor                                                                                                    Office
                                                                                                                                      device
                           Pressure
           Weather                                Weather               Daylight           Fuel/electric
                           around
           condition                              condition             illumination       price
                           building
                Perspective in a Perimeter Zone

                                                                               Sensing, intelligence, actuation:
                                                  VAV actuator
                                                                 Climate
                                                                 sensor
                                                                                Detect ambient conditions,
                                       Light ballast
                                                                               solar radiation, wind pressure,
BACnet
              Occupancy                                                        natural light, perspiration,
               sensor
                                                                    Reflective
                                                                               occupancy,…
         Base station                             Comfort stat
                                                                    vane
                                                                    actuator    Trade-off energy, thermal
                                                                               comfort, and visual need,…
                                                                 Window         Appropriate adjustments are
                                                                 switch
                                                                               made at: vav valve, light
                 Desk climate sensor
                                                                               dimmer, reflective vanes,…
Prototype wireless
lighting control system
Motivation
  • Lighting accounts for ~50% of commercial building electricity
    consumption
  • Switching is often inadequate and inflexible and results in
    significant energy waste
     • One switch may control the lights for many occupants
     • Switches are often not conveniently located
     • “Ownership” of switches is unclear
     • Switching often does not work well with daylight patterns
Objective

Develop a lighting control system that is:
   • Highly flexible
   • Wireless
   • Cost effective



There are many wireless systems in
development and in the marketplace.
What’s different about our approach?
   • Does not require special ballasts
   • Will work for new or retrofit applications
   • Is easily reprogrammed by the user
   • Will have a low installation cost per
     switch/fixture ($20 target)
  System Overview




                    Wireless controller
Light sensor

                        Desktop, mobile,
                        or wall mounted
                        switch
     System components

                      Radio motes




                           Wireless switch          Ballast



      Power
      supply
                                                               to lamps

Wireless controller

                                     Light sensor
                                                              Motion sensor
 Control flexibility




Switches can be operated by either a local
 switch or through a central control system
    Lighting Groups




Perimeter Daylight Group
    Lighting Groups




Emergency Group
    Lighting Groups




Jethro’s Workspace
    Lighting Groups




Madonna’s Workspace
Control strategies


More creative strategies are possible than with a simple
switch…

Lights on/off
Lights needed/not needed
Minimum light level
Emergency lights on
Non-critical lights off
Progress




 Prototype design
 2 prototypes built
Residential Demand Response Project

Objectives:

 To respond to dynamic electricity pricing, we need:
  • A meter that records time-of-use, as well as use.
  • A system that can automatically operate HVAC and other
    equipment in response to price signals.
  • An interface that accurately obtains the occupants’ preferences
    between price and comfort.
  • Information devices that help the occupant respond intelligently.
  • Sensors and actuators that can be easily installed, (ie, wireless).

 To be a breakthrough, this system must be inexpensive:
  • $50 for meter, $30 for thermostat, $10 for sensor nodes.
  • It must also last at least 10 years without battery changes.
        Demand-response system
                                                                                            Outdoor
                                                                                            Sensors



    Power
                                                                     Indoor
                                                                     Sensors
                                                                                                 Wattmeters ,
                                                                                                   Switches,
                            Existing                                                          Action-suggesting
                            Meter                                                             alerts and displays
(Links by Internet or                   (two alternatives)
 wireless services to:)                                                                      Sun control blinds,
                                                                                             Lighting dimmers
  Electrical Utility
   Grid Operator                                                                                 Appliances
 Weather Service…             Panel                                                               Refrigerator
                                           User                           Base
 Price schedules in,                                                     Station
                                           Interface
 Electric usage out                                          (Wi-Fi or
                                                             TinyOS)

               DSL, Cable, Cell-phone                                    Heating System
                                                  Home                    Air Conditioner       Smart Ventilator
               text messaging, or WAN
                                                  Server
               radio system                                              Hot Water Heater             Pool Pump
Demonstration Sept. 30

Attendees:                 List of demos:
California Energy Comm.    DR System
                             Framework
  Commissioner Rosenfeld
  and staff                  Physical model
                             User interface
  PIER staff
                           Energy Scavenging
TAC members
                             Light and vibration
CIEE
                           Power on/off motes
                           Device prototyping
                             Thermostat
                             Price-signalling mote
  Wattmeters and wireless relays

(By Richard White’s group at BSAC)



                                     appliance
                                     “zip” cord




                                                                     120 Hz
                                                                   output signal
                                        Iout      Iin
                                           60 Hz
                                         AC current     MEMS cantilever with
                                                        piezoelectric film
  DR System simulation and control


DR system simulated in Java code, including:


 House thermal behavior.
 DR control algorithms.
 Wireless network
 communications.
 Will control the model
 house via the wireless
 motes.
                                                                       Smart Thermostat Control
                                                                       Levels
                                                                                                                                                    Operator presets typical setback Temperature setpoints
  External          Realtime pricing                   Weather forecast                                                           Operator          Operator presets Demand Response temperature setpoints
Communication       from Utility via                      (WWW)                                                                                      (amount of temperature discomfort acceptable based on price).
                                                                                                                                                    Operator maintains manual override.
                         meter
                   LOW $      MED $$    HIGH $$$


                    • Wireless motes
                    • Scavenged power
 Goal Seeking       • Tiny OS
                                                                           Energy cost vs.thermal comfort and power need




 Supervisory                                        Typical energy saving setback Temperature setpoints                                                                                                                            Auto control of water heater, refrigerator, pool equipment depending on price
                   Thermal comfort                  Demand Response Temperature Setpoints (based on price)                                                                                                Power                    Send notice to motes on stove, washer, dryer, dishwasher (current price and
   Control            vs. price                     Temperature Setpoints based on adaptive model
                                                                                                                                                                                                       consumption vs.               upcoming price)
                                                    Preheat or precool based on advance notice of price increase
                                                    Expert system optimize cooling or heating (temp sensors, weather forecast)                                                                             price
                                                    Manual override
                                                    Shut off




 Coordination                                                         Heat or cool                     Use economizer                                                                                                    Power to which
 What, how, when                                                                                          fan or ac                                                                                                        appliance




                                                                                                                                                                            Appliance power sensors




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Appliance power sensors
Direct Control                                                   On/off                   On/off                   On/off                                                                                 On/off                On/off                On/off
                                                                                                                high/med/low




   Interface         Mote interface                             Heater                AC control              Fan/economizer           Smart advice                                                            •Wireless power sensor                                                                                     Traffic light on
                                                                                                                                                                                                               •Wireless relay at outlet
   Computer          (radio to hub)                             control                (wired)                control (wired)             text                                                                                                                                                                              appliance
                                                                (wired)
                      • Wireless motes/tiny OS
                      • Scavenged power




                                                                                                                                                        Operator actuated




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Operator actuated
   Sensor/            LR                BR                      Ext                                                                    Sensor on                                                           Wireless                 Wireless              Wireless            Temp mote                                   Power
   Actuator          Temp              Temp                    Temp                                                                    window or                                                            relay                    relay                 relay                in Ref                                    sensor
                     mote              mote                    mote                                                                      blind


                                                                                                                                                                                                      Power                   Power                   Power
                                                                                                                                                                                                      sensor                  sensor                  sensor


Physical Target    Living               Bed                                                                                            Window/blind                                                       Pool                   Water                Refrigerator                                                       Stove, Washer,
                   Room                room                                                                                                                                                            equipment                 heater                                                                                 Dryer, Dishwasher
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Blow dryer…
Thermostat simulation and prototyping


                           Working,interactive
                           thermostat simulated
                           on PC screen




       Thermostat and
       signalling motes
       fabricated using
       rapid prototyping
Energy usage screen
 Obtaining user preferences




We are examining various
versions of interface—the
challenge is to balance
energy cost and comfort.

				
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posted:1/29/2013
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