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					COMMERICAL DEVELOPMENT OF NON-INVASIVE SEEDED MISCANTHUS AS A VIABLE
                                             1,2               1 1
DEDICATED BIOMASS CROP. Damian Allen and Jaime Yanes . Mendel BioEnergy Seeds.
                                                 2
dallen@mendelbio.com; jyanes@mendelbio.com. Department of Agronomy, Purdue University.
Damian Allen, 4846 E. 450 N., Lafayette, IN 47905. 765-589-4114. dallen@mendelbio.com

Mendel is developing biomass crops for the power and fuel markets. Miscanthus can yield in excess of 10
tons/acre and as much as twice that of switchgrass. Current biomass Miscanthus varieties are sterile,
triploid clones which must be vegetatively propagated. Mendel has developed Miscanthus that will yield
as much as today’s varieties, but can be direct-seeded.
While sterile triploid clones of Miscanthus x giganteus have been demonstrated as non-invasive, seed-
producing Miscanthus have additional opportunities for volunteering outside of cultivation. Ornamental M.
sinensis has been grown here for a century and is invasive in some geographic regions and land uses,
but not in many others. As demonstrated by sorghum and Johnsongrass, a genus can contain both crops
and invasive species. Mendel is taking a very proactive approach toward ensuring our products will not be
considered invasive in target environments. We are working internally and with university scientists to
understand the invasive characteristics of this genus so we can develop new Miscanthus varieties that
are not invasive in the markets in which we sell them. Late flowering is a viable trait for controlling seed
production in fertile varieties. Evaluation of seedling germination and competitiveness in different land
types, including natural environments, pasture lands, crop lands, etc, is part of our stewardship program.
For the long-term, we are working to develop sterile, seeded varieties, similar to seedless watermelon,
which can be used in any geography. Finally, we are developing mitigation protocols for growers to use
for control of volunteers and for crop-rotation.

DESCRIPTION FOR PROGRAM: New high-yielding direct-seeded crops are needed for the emerging
biofuel and biopower industries. Mendel is developing non-invasive seeded Miscanthus varieties to meet
this need.
KEY WORDS: MISCANTHUS, SEED, BIOENERGY, COMMERCIAL, STEWARDSHIP
SESSION TOPIC: Invasive Exotic Species Management.
FORMAT: Oral Presentation


ASSESSING THE TIMING AND SEQUENCE OF PRESCRIBED FIRE AND HERBICIDE
APPLICATIONS ON THE CONTROL OF THE INVASIVE JAPANESE CLIMBING FERN IN FLORIDA’S
                                    1                  2 1
NATURAL AREAS Kimberly Bohn and Patrick Minogue West Florida Research and Education
                                             2
Center, University of Florida. kkbohn@ufl.edu North Florida Research and Education Center, University
of Florida. pminogue@ufl.edu Kimberly Bohn, 5988 Hwy 90, Bldg 4900, Milton, FL 32583. 850-983-5216
x107. kkbohn@ufl.edu

Japanese climbing fern (Lygodium japonicum) is a non-native, invasive fern that is widespread throughout
southeastern forests. Herbicide treatments provide at least short-term control of the fern, but prescribed
burning, also an integral part of forest management, may actually stimulate fern regrowth. Though
“brown and burn” techniques (e.g. Fall herbicide and dormant season burning) have been common for
other types of vegetation management, less is known about the timing of herbicide applications with
growing season burns to effectively control this invasive species. We applied a 4% v:v solution of
                                          2
glyphosate plus surfactant to ten 400 ft plots at least six weeks before or after growing season burns
(June through September) in five longleaf pine or pine/hardwood forests. Herbicide treatments applied
before burning in May were not effective, likely because there was not enough foliage to absorb the
chemical, or perhaps because new gametophytes germinated after the herbicide application and before
burning. Both the plots treated in July before burning and the plots treated after burning in August or
September showed between 85-100% reductions in fern cover. Changes in cover of non-target, native
species were also significantly correlated with the percent reduction in fern. The results suggest that
sequencing of herbicide treatments with prescribed fires may not be as important to controlling Japanese
climbing fern as is selecting a herbicide application period when there is sufficient fern foliage to absorb
the chemical, though this may be a consequence of the type of herbicide used, since glyphosate is
absorbed and translocated down from the foliage.
DESCRIPTION: This presentation will highlight findings regarding the timing of herbicide applications in
conjunction with growing season burns to control the invasive Japanese climbing fern in longleaf pine and
pine/hardwood forests.
KEY WORDS: LYGODIUM JAPONICUM, PRESCRIBED FIRE, GYPHOSATE, LONGLEAF PINE
FOREST
SESSION TOPICS: Invasive Exotic Species Management (also could fit in tangentially with fire
management or ecosystem and habitat restoration sections)
FORMAT: oral presentation


ARBOREAL COMPOSITION AND BIOMASS OF UNMANAGED PINE-DOMINATED NATURAL
AREAS IN SOUTHERN ARKANSAS. Don C. Bragg, USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station
Don C. Bragg, USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, P.O. Box 3516 UAM, Monticello, AR
71656 870-367-3464 ext. 18. dbragg@fs.fed.us

In the southeastern United States, mature, unmanaged stands of naturally regenerated pine-dominated
timber offer an opportunity to help define a number of ecosystem services provided by forested
landscapes. A number of these increasingly rare forests remain in a variety of protected systems in
southern Arkansas, controlled by an assortment of landowners ranging from private citizens to the timber
industry to public agencies. Though little old-growth remains in this region, these preserved remnants
can help define what was once an extremely common forest type in this region and help set the stage for
ecosystem restoration. This paper presents the arboreal composition and biomass of a number of pine-
dominated natural areas. Generally limited in spatial extent (less than 35 ha), these old forest remnants
are usually quite rich in tree species, with between 24 and 28 taxa. Pine, usually loblolly (Pinus taeda)
and sometimes also shortleaf (Pinus echinata), dominates most of the overstories, but is rarely
represented in the hardwood-dominated understories. This strongly indicates that these natural areas will
eventually succeed into deciduous covertypes. Total live tree biomass in these natural areas also tends
to be substantially greater than most managed pine forests of the southern Arkansas, ranging from 225 to
almost 320 Mg/ha. Higher stem densities in current stands also put the tree biomass considerably
greater than that estimated for the virgin pine-dominated forests of this area.

DESCRIPTION: This talk will discuss the tree biomass and stand composition for a number of
unmanaged pine-dominated natural areas in southern Arkansas.
KEY WORDS: LOBLOLLY, SHORTLEAF, SUCCESSION
SESSION TOPICS: Ecosystem and Habitat Restoration, Current Research and Land Management
Techniques, Monitoring and Tracking of Species and Communities
FORMAT: Oral Presentation


PRO-B SELECTION METHOD FOR UNEVEN-AGED MANAGEMENT OF LONGLEAF PINE FORESTS.
                 1                       2                       1 1
Dale G. Brockway , Edward F. Loewenstein , and Kenneth W. Outcalt . Southern Research Station,
                                                                2
USDA Forest Service. dbrockway@fs.fed.us; pko@windstream.net. School of Forestry and Wildlife
Sciences, Auburn University. loeweed@auburn.edu. Dale G. Brockway, Southern Research Station,
USDA Forest Service, 521 Devall Drive, Auburn, AL 36849. dbrockway@fs.fed.us.

Traditional selection silviculture approaches for uneven-aged management, such as VGDL and BDq,
have often been criticized as being too complex, requiring highly-trained staff and too costly when
compared to even-aged management methods. However, interest in uneven-aged management has
increased since the advent of ecosystem management programs, which place greater emphasis on
ecological values and services while simultaneously extracting timber from the forest. The recently
developed Proportional-B Selection Method (Pro-B) overcomes these objections and makes uneven-aged
management a practical option for forest managers. In an operational-scale field demonstration, Pro-B
was successfully applied in longleaf pine forests on flatwoods and uplands, by forest staff from a wide
range of professional backgrounds, following less than three hours of training. Field crews, in their first
experience with this method, achieved basal areas that were within 3 to 5 percent of the target residual
                        2
basal area of 50 feet per acre. Such high precision is a feature of the Pro-B method, which groups size-
classes into product-relevant and ecologically-meaningful units of stand development and requires tree
markers to remember only three fractions as they make but a single pass through the stand. Flexibility is
another important feature. Because managers are not restricted by maximum-diameter rules, they have
the option of retaining larger older trees within the stand for enhancing structural diversity and improving
wildlife habitat (e.g., RCW cavity trees). This method also lends itself to easy application for attaining
dispersed and aggregated residual overstory structures, so as to achieve objectives consistent with the
emerging practices of Ecological Forestry. Provisions to retain other species, like oak in the uplands and
slash pine in the lowlands, are easily accommodated. Tree markers can leave the best cone producers,
those with the best form or those with broad flattops, while removing trees that appear likely to die in the
near term and breaking up overly-dense clusters. Systematic quantification of tree removal enables
different individuals to apply the Pro-B method and obtain consistent results. Pro-B provides guidance for
maintaining a stable stand structure that develops the characteristics of a mature forest, while at the
same time allowing for the periodic removal of high-quality forest products on a 10 to 15-year cycle. The
Pro-B method is also being tested in other coniferous and hardwood forest types and may eventually
become the preferred method for implementing selection silviculture regionally, nationally and
internationally.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation describes an innovative approach to selection silviculture, which can
be quickly learned and easily applied to accurately obtain desired stand structures that simultaneously
achieve multiple forest stewardship objectives.
KEY WORDS: PINUS PALUSTRIS, SINGLE-TREE SELECTION, GROUP SELECTION, MULTI-
COHORT SILVICULTURE, PROPORTIONAL-B METHOD
SESSION TOPICS: Longleaf Pine Session, Current Research and Land Management Techniques
FORMAT: Invited Oral Presentation


FERAL HOG (SUS SCROFA) DISTURBANCE IN SEEPAGE SLOPE WETLANDS, EGLIN AIR FORCE
                        1                   2 1
BASE, FL. Megan Brown and Debbie Miller . School of Natural Resources and Environment, University
                                2
of Florida. meganbrown@ufl.edu. Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of
Florida. dlm@ufl.edu. Megan Brown, Howard T. Odum Center for Wetlands, 100 Phelps Lab Museum
Road, P.O. Box 116350, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 352-392-2424.
meganbrown@ufl.edu.

Feral hog (Sus scrofa) foraging has resulted in widespread soil disturbances in seepage slope wetlands
on Eglin Air Force Base, in the Florida Panhandle. Rooting by nonindigenous hogs can set back
succession and cause changes in species composition. The potential changes are particularly important
in seepage slopes because these wetlands provide increasingly rare habitat for many threatened and
                                                             2
endangered plant species. In 2002, randomly selected 1 m plots were established in 24 seepage slopes.
These plots were surveyed to monitor hog disturbance and its influence on plant assemblages. This study
uses data collected over the last eight years to investigate: 1) if hogs selectively return to the same areas
to forage leaving other areas undisturbed; 2) how the amount of hog damage has changed over the
years; and 3) possible shifts in dominant functional guilds in relation to hog disturbance. This study
provides explanatory inference to describe patterns of disturbance and how these patterns affect species
composition. Understanding hog disturbance and its effects on seepage slope vegetation is essential to
guide management in the protection of these rare wetland communities.

DESCRIPTION: This poster will present data from a multi-year study that assesses feral hog foraging and
its effects on vegetation dynamics in seepage slope wetlands on Eglin Air Force Base.
KEY WORDS: SEEPAGE SLOPE WETLANDS, DISTURBANCE, INVASIVE SPECIES, SUS SCROFA
SESSION TOPIC: Species and Communities Conservation
FORMAT: Poster Presentation

                                                                    1                   1
ARKANSAS WETLAND FLORA STRUCTURE 2011. David Burge , Travis D. Marsico , and Billy
      2 1                                                             2
Justus . Department of Biological Sciences, Arkansas State University. United States Geological
Survey, Little Rock, AR. David Burge, PO BOX 559, State University, Arkansas, 72467. 501-655-9260.
david.burge@smail.astate.edu

Assessments are vital because they provide information to land managers for the condition of natural
systems. A powerful tool aiding land managers with the assessment of natural areas are floristic quality
indices. During the summer of 2011, the Environmental Protection Agency commissioned the National
Wetlands Condition Assessment, the first comprehensive examination for the condition of the United
States’ wetlands. As part the Arkansas vegetation survey team, we quantified plant species identity and
                                                                                                      2
abundance at 24 randomly selected wetlands in southern and eastern Arkansas. From five 100m plots
at each site, we identified all vascular plant species, determined cover of each species, and recorded
height and diameter-at-breast-height class for all trees in the plots. Collected from wetlands in the
Mississippi Alluvial Plain and the Gulf Coastal Plain, we compared our data with floristic quality indices
developed for wetlands in the adjacent states. The results from this assessment will aid the
implementation efforts of the Arkansas Multi-Agency Wetland Planning Team and illustrate the need for
floristic quality indices specific to the ecoregions of Arkansas.

DESCRIPTION: The assessment provides baseline data on plant species identity and abundance in
Arkansas wetlands. These data will be used to provide a condition of wetlands and guide wetland
management strategies.
KEY WORDS: WETLANDS, FLORISTIC QUALITY, GULF COASTAL PLAIN, MISSISSIPPI ALLUVIAL
PLAIN, ARKANSAS, REGIONAL PLANNING
SESSION TOPICS: Monitoring and tracking of species communities.
FORMAT: Poster


C FALL APPLICATIONS OF RIMSULFURON (MATRIX SG) IN RANGELANDS FOR THE CONTROL
OF DOWNEY BROME AND MEDUSAHEAD. *John Cantlon, Jerry Pitts, Kike Edwards, Norm McKinley,
Bill Kral, Craig Alford and Ronnie Turner. DuPont Land Management, Suite 500, 390 Union Blvd.,
Lakewood, CO. 80228. john.d.cantlon@usa.dupont.com. 303-716-3932.

Description: MATRIX SG herbicide offers CONTROL of MEDUSAHEAD and cheatgrass control in
western states to suppress wildfire and harm to arid habitats.

Downy brome (Bromus tectorum) and medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-meduseae) are harmful winter
annual grasses that infest land within the GREAT BASIN. DuPont Landmark XP herbicide, Matrix SG
and imazapic herbicides were tested at various rates to control downy brome and medusahead in non-
cropland and rangeland sites. Sites include western arid states.

The new label attributes for applications on rangeland provides broader tool for control. The herbicide
rates determine efficacy and longevity. Methods are offered for the successful release of desired grasses
or the restoration of deteriorated land areas. Directions for proper timing, use precautions, grass
tolerance and overall program success for the land manager managing atrophied systems is reviewed.

DESCRIPTION: Rangeland tests to date, with the low use rate sulfonylurea herbicides, have shown
excellent results for control programs. Current technical attributes and performance results are outlined.
KEYWORDS: MATRIX SG, CONTROL, MEDUSAHEAD, CHEATGRASS, GREAT BASIN
SESSION TOPICS: Management of Invasive species
FORMAT: Poster


DEVELOPING COST-EFFECTIVE EARLY DETECTION NETWORKS: A REGIONAL MODEL. Alycia W.
     1,2           1                   1                     2            2                 3
Crall , Mark Renz , Brendon J. Panke , Gregory J. Newman , Jim Graham , Carmen Chapin , Chuck
         4 1
Bargeron . Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706.
                                                       2
crall@wisc.edu; mrenz@wisc.edu; bjpanke@wisc.edu. Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado
State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523. Alycia.Crall@colostate.edu; newmang@nrel.colostate.edu;
                         3
jim@nrel.colostate.edu. Great Lakes Network, National Park Service, Ashland, WI 54806.
                             4
carmen_chapin@nps.gov. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, University of Georgia,
Tifton, GA 31793. cbargero@uga.edu. Alycia W. Crall, 2612 Willard Dr., Charlottesville, VA 22903 970-
227-3310. crall@wisc.edu

Early detection and rapid response (EDRR) seeks to control or eradicate new invasions to prevent their
spread, but effective EDRR remains elusive due to financial and managerial constraints. As part of the
Great Lakes Early Detection Network, we asked stakeholders to indicate their needs for an effective
EDRR communication tool. Our results led to the development of a website with five primary features: 1)
the ability of casual observers to report a sighting; 2) a network of professionals to verify new sightings; 3)
email alerts of new sightings across data providers; 4) maps of species distributions across data
providers; and 5) easy communication channels among stakeholders. Using these results, we provide a
cost-effective framework for online EDRR networks that integrate data and develop social capital through
a virtual community. This framework seeks to provide real-time data on current species distributions and
improve across jurisdictional collaboration with limited oversight.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation will discuss a framework for successful early detection and rapid
response using the Great Lakes Early Detection Network as a regional example. Regional data synergy,
data quality procedures, and collaboration across diverse stakeholders will be presented.
KEY WORDS: INVASIVE SPECIES, EARLY DETECTION, RAPID RESPONSE, REGIONAL
NETWORKS
SESSION TOPICS: Invasive Exotic Species Management, Monitoring and Tracking of Species and
Communities, Species and Communities Conservation
FORMAT: Oral Presentation

                                                                                                  1
PROSPECTS FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF HYGROPHILA POLYSPERMA. J. P. Cuda , A.
           1                     2 1
Mukherjee , and W. A. Overholt . Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida,
                     2
Gainesville, Florida; Biological Control Research and Containment Laboratory, Ft. Pierce, Florida
James P. Cuda, Bldg 970, Natural Area Drive, Gainesville, Fl-32611 352-273-3921. jcuda@ufl.edu

Hygrophila, Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anders (Acanthaceae), is an invasive aquatic weed in
Florida. This weed is typically found in flowing fresh water channels and structured shorelines as a rooted
submerged or emergent plant. Hygrophila forms dense vegetative stands that occupy the entire water
column, affecting navigation, irrigation and flood control activities. It has been classified as a Federal
Noxious Weed, Florida State Category II invasive plant and Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council listed
Category I invasive species. As a part of an ongoing classical biological control project on this weed,
exploratory field surveys were conducted in a range of habitats in India and Bangladesh to identify natural
enemies of hygrophila in its native range. A mesocosm simulated herbivory experiment also was
conducted to determine the impact of defoliation on growth and biomass accumulation in hygrophila. In
addition, predictive distribution maps of hygrophila under current and future climate scenarios were
developed to understand the potential for range expansion by this invasive weed. In total, 55 sites were
surveyed in India and 13 sites in Bangladesh. Several previously unknown insect natural enemies and a
very damaging aecial rust fungus were collected. Results of the mesocosm study demonstrated that
growth and accumulated biomass of the defoliated plants were significantly lower than the control plants,
suggesting that an insect defoliator may be effective in reducing the growth and vigor of hygrophila.
Predicted distribution of hygrophila indicated that in the USA spread of this invasive weed will be
restricted to the warmer and wetter parts of the country.

DESCRIPTION: This poster presentation will highlight the results of the artificial defoliation of the invasive
weed hygrophila and natural enemies collected during native range surveys.
KEY WORDS: HYGROPHILA, BIOLOGICAL CONTROL, INVASIVE SPECIES
SESSION TOPICS: Invasive Exotic Species Management
FORMAT: Poster Presentation


INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF COGONGRASS, IMPERATA CYLINDRICA (POACEAE):
                                                               1                    2
PROSPECTS FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL. James P. Cuda , William A. Overholt , Jennifer L. Gillett-
         1                             3                 4                   5   1
Kaufman , Oghenekome U. Onokpise , Dean A. Williams , and Bruno P. Le Ru . Department of
                                                                               2
Entomology & Nematology, Unversity of Florida, jcuda@ulf.edu; gillet@ufl.edu. Biological Control
                                                                           3
Research & Containment Laboratory, University of Florida, billover@ufl.edu. College of Engineering
                                                                                   4
Sciences, Technology and Agriculture, Florida A&M University, o.onokpise@att.net. Department of
                                                            5
Biology, Texas Christian University, dean.williams@tcu.edu. International Centre of Insect Physiology
and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya, bleru@icipe.org. James P. Cuda, Entomology & Nematology Dept.,
University of Florida/IFAS, Gainesville, FL 32611-0620. 352-273-3921. jcuda@ufl.edu.

Cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv, is an aggressive, rapidly colonizing invasive weed of pine
plantations, livestock pastures, roadsides, railways, reclamation areas, and natural communities in the
southeastern USA. Once established, this federal noxious weed quickly displaces the native or planted
vegetation, often forming dense monocultures that reduce the productivity and biodiversity in the invaded
area and creating a fire hazard. Herbicides and mechanical/physical control practices are routinely used
often in combination for controlling existing cogongrass stands, but these conventional methods are
expensive, labor intensive and not sustainable due to the grass's regenerative capacity. Furthermore,
non-selective chemical controls are unsuitable for cogongrass infestations adjacent to sensitive natural
areas because they can damage non-target species and contaminate irrigation water. Minimizing the use
of herbicides and other non-selective control practices is needed to maintain the integrity of agriculture
and the environment. Our long-term goal is to shift the successional dynamics of public and privately
owned agricultural lands and conservation areas currently dominated by cogongrass towards more
desirable plant communities where this invasive weed is reduced to a minor component of the flora. This
goal will be accomplished by (a) elucidating the genetics of US populations of cogongrass, and (b)
developing new biological control agents with the expectation that land managers will incorporate host
specific insects and pathogens into an environmentally sustainable IPM strategy for cogongrass
management in the southern United States.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation will provide an overview of prospects for classical biological control of
cogongrass with particular emphasis on new natural enemies recently discovered in Africa.
KEY WORDS: COGONGRASS, POPULATION GENETICS, BIOCONTROL, NATURAL ENEMIES, IPM
SESSION TOPIC: Cogongrass Workshop
FORMAT: Oral Presentation



FFWCC’s OBJECTIVE-BASED VEGETATION MANAGEMENT (OBVM) SAMPLING AT THE
MANAGMENT UNIT LEVEL. J. Ryan Cummings, Frank Powell, James Parker, Aric Larson.
WRScompass, Tallahassee, Florida. rcummings@wrscompass.com; fpowell@wrscompass.com;
jparker@wrscompass.com; alarson@wrscompass.com J. Ryan Cummings, 508-A Capital Circle S.E.,
Tallahassee, Florida 32301; 850-531-9860. rcummings@wrscompass.com
The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FFWCC), has lead land management
responsibility for approximately 1.5 million acres of land on 42 Wildlife Management and Wildlife
Environmental Areas (WMA/WEA) throughout Florida. FFWCC has implemented an objective-based
vegetation management (OBVM) approach to resource management on these Trustee-owned lands. The
goal of the OBVM program is to provide timely data to FFWCC managers, biologists, and administrators
to enable science-informed management of natural communities. This approach supports land
management decisions by setting clear, measurable, management objectives for existing and historic
natural communities, taking management actions to achieve those objectives and then monitoring
vegetation response at set intervals.

WRScompass’s role in this program is to 1) provide decision-support data to FFWCC land managers and
biologists 2) provide an assessment of the conditions of plant communities across each WMA/WEA and
that those select communities are, on average, within the bounds of their appropriate vegetation structure
and composition objectives, and 3) to learn how management activities influence those plant community
structures and compositions. For individual management units, sampling is initiated on a two-year post-
disturbance basis, or an appropriate interval to measure plant response to possible future treatment. This
level of sampling continues every year thereafter until the next management treatment is applied.
Therefore, in any particular year, only a portion of the management area will be sampled at the
management unit level. This provides sampling results that help FFWCC managers and biologists
determine the appropriate land management actions needed for specific management units within each
WMA/WEA.

DESCRIPTION: Discover one of Florida’s premier land management tools, Objective-Based Vegetation
Management. This program is an innovative resource management technique which utilizes scientifically
gathered data of existing vegetation structure and composition within individual WMA/WEA planning
units, allowing for focused, unit-specific land management decisions, resulting in successful, cost-efficient
resource management outcomes.
KEY WORDS: SCIENCE-INFORMED LAND MANAGEMENT, VEGETATION MONITORING, WILDLIFE
MANAGEMENT & WILDLIFE ENVIRONMENTAL AREAS (WMA/WEA), NATURAL COMMUNITIES
SESSION TOPICS: Current Research and Land Management Techniques, Public Land Acquisition and
Management, Monitoring and Tracking of Species and Communities, Invasive Exotic Species
Management, Fire Management
FORMAT: Presentation


TRACKING INVASIVE SPECIES MANAGEMENT EFFORTS AND LOCATIONS IN NEW YORK WITH
VOLUNTEERS AND PROFESSIONALS. Jennifer Dean. New York Natural Heritage Program. Jennifer
Dean, 625 Broadway, Albany, NY 12233-4757. dean@nynhp.org.

Invasive species have become a ubiquitous challenge for those tasked with managing lands and waters.
Deciding whether to control invasive populations and identifying the most effective techniques are best
made with accurate, up-to-date spatial data and information about other management efforts. In New
York, the State invasive species database (iMapInvasives) was launched in 2010 to provide an effective,
GIS-based mechanism for aggregating and sharing detailed invasive species data. Initial efforts focused
on gathering existing State datasets and training users for basic online data entry. In addition to land
managers and professionals, training opportunities have also been targeted toward educators and citizen
scientists. These efforts have produced an extensive and growing dataset of invasive species
observations for NY, but also new challenges, such as addressing data gaps and ensuring the quality of
data contributions. To overcome these challenges, we are developing technologies to facilitate data entry,
reaching out to groups in regions lacking data, and creating data verification processes. The
iMapInvasives program is continually being improved through extensive input from users and experts.
This year, features for complex data input were developed to help land managers track and share
monitoring and treatment efforts. These projects are increasing the utility of the iMapInvasives dataset for
land managers, researchers, policy makers, and educators concerned with invasive species.

DESCRIPTION: New York is now in its second season of using iMapInvasives for tracking invasive
species through the contributions of professionals and volunteers. Find out about the innovations and
challenges associated with compiling a state-wide dataset of invasive species.
KEY WORDS: INVASIVE SPECIES, GIS, CITIZEN SCIENCE, MANAGEMENT, MAPPING
SESSION TOPICS: Invasive Exotic Species Management; Monitoring and Tracking of Species and
Communities
FORMAT: Oral Presentation


HYDROLOGIC IMPACTS FROM A LARGE CANAL AND SUBSEQUENT RECOVERY FOLLOWING
FILLING OF THE CANAL IN THE BIG CYPRESS SWAMP OF SOUTHWEST FLORIDA. Michael
Duever South Florida Water Management District. mduever@sfwmd.gov. Michael Duever, South Florida
Water Management District, 2660 Horseshoe Drive North, Naples, FL 34104 USA, 239-263-7615 Ext.
7685 mduever@sfwmd.gov.

The 55,000 acre Southern Golden Gate Estates (SGGE) development was created during the 1960s in
southwest Florida. Its main features are an extensive road grid and system of four large drainage canals.
Impacts included lowered wet and dry season water tables, drastically fluctuating point discharges to the
coast, increased wildfires, and invasion of nuisance native and exotic vegetation. This paper describes
hydrologic impacts of the original development, and the initial hydrologic recovery following filling of most
of the easternmost SGGE canal. Hydrologic monitoring along a transect across the Fakahatchee Strand
flowway east of the canal had shown seasonal pre-restoration water table drawdowns of almost 2 m next
to the canal. The water table had been measurably lowered out to a distance of over 1.5 km from the
canal during the wet season and to almost 5 km during the dry season. Filling of the canal was
completed in 2007, and since then, we have seen partial restoration of wet season overland flows, and
substantially higher water tables in Fakahatchee Strand. When comparing data from monitoring wells
near the filled canal and other wells near an unfilled canal 3 km west of the filled canal in Picayune
Strand, we are seeing substantially increased hydroperiods and wet and dry season water levels.
However, because of the distance over which canals affect water levels in this area, we will not see
complete hydrologic recovery of the lands west of the filled canal until other nearby canals have been
filled.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation will describe 25 years of monitoring the extent of drainage into
adjacent wetlands from a large canal under four different management scenarios, including four years
after the canal had been filled.
KEY WORDS: WETLAND, DRAINAGE, RESTORATION, CANAL MANAGEMENT, SUBSTRATES
SESSION TOPICS: Ecosystem and Habitat Restoration
FORMAT: Oral Presentation


LESSONS IN RARE SPECIES CONSERVATION: SUCCESSES AND FAILURES RESTORING
POPULATIONS OF CASTILLEJA LEVISECTA (OROBANCHACEAE). Peter W. Dunwiddie, Biology
                                                                                            th
Department, University of Washington. pdunwidd@u.washington.edu. Peter W. Dunwiddie, 5548 38
Ave. NE, Seattle, WA 98105. 206-817-0899. pdunwidd@u.washington.edu.

Only 12 natural populations of golden paintbrush (Castilleja levisecta) remain in lowland prairies in the
Pacific Northwest. Over the last two decades, at least two populations have been extirpated, and several
others have fallen precipitously, declining from thousands of plants to <100. Efforts to reverse these
declines, augment existing populations and establish new, viable populations have been ongoing for over
15 years to help meet recovery goals for this federally threatened species. These actions have been
informed by extensive research and monitoring, including annual censusing of extant populations, field
and greenhouse investigations, genetic studies of existing populations, and carefully monitored
experimental seed sowing and plug outplanting. Identifying appropriate source populations and sites for
new paintbrush populations, developing effective and efficient methods for successfully establishing large
numbers of individuals, and manipulating the composition and structure of recovery sites to enhance their
suitability for viable, self-sustaining populations, have been the central focus of these studies. Progress in
resolving these challenges has been slow, but significant milestones have been reached in the last two
years as we have documented substantial recruitment of new plants in both augmented, extant
populations and in newly outplanted sites. This presentation reviews the steps that have proven most
successful in moving paintbrush recovery forward, as well as the missteps that have delayed this process.
From this experience, we provide guidelines to assist others in developing more successful and efficient
programs for recovering rare plants.

DESCRIPTION: Fifteen years of efforts to establish viable populations of a threatened rare plant are
beginning to yield success. This experience provides guidance for others developing more efficient
programs for recovering rare plants.
KEY WORDS: RARE SPECIES RECOVERY,
SESSION TOPICS: Species and Communities Conservation
FORMAT: Oral presentation


THE CHIP-N LOWER OHIO RIVER VALLEY SURVEY PROJECT: A MULTISTATE EFFORT TO
                                                                                1             2
SURVEY AND MAP AQUATIC AND RIPARIAN INVASIVE SPECIES. Chris Evans , Cheryl Coon , and
              3 1                                                                           2
Teena Ligman . River to River Cooperative Weed Management Area. rivertoriver@gmail.com. Wayne
                                   3
National Forest. ccoon@fs.fed.us. Hoosier National Forest. tligman@fs.fed.us. Chris Evans, 8588
Route 148, Marion, IL 62959 (618)-998-5920. rivertoriver@gmail.com.

The CHIP-N (Central Hardwoods Invasive Plant Network) partnership was launched in 2009 to work
across agency jurisdictions and state lines. This partnership brought together four CWMAs and three
National Forests (Hoosier, Shawnee, and Wayne) to work towards a common goal to extend the reach of
individual efforts and determine the extent and distribution of aquatic and terrestrial invasive species
along the lower Ohio River Valley. Aquatic systems were mapped, and infestation levels of aquatic and
riparian non-native invasive plants inventoried. In addition, two aquatic invasive mollusks (zebra mussel
and Chinese mystery snail) were also surveyed. Surveys were conducted at inland lakes, along the
Ohio River, and along major tributaries. The method uses a snorkeler and kayak companion to
accomplish complete aquatic inventories of boat ramps within 30 minutes, resulting in 6-8 site surveys a
day. Terrestrial and wetland invasive plants around each boat ramp and parking area were also
surveyed. Overall, 259 ramps were surveyed across the three state region and 513 infestations were
documented for 15 different species. The data for each invasive species were used to create online
maps (http://www.rtrcwma.org/chip-n/), to promote public awareness of invasive species in the Lower
Ohio River Valley. The partners will develop an interstate strategic plan for prioritization and treatment of
invasives. Strategized treatments will contain and prevent the spread of invasives beyond current
locations, protect native aquatic and terrestrial vegetation thus providing a positive, landscape-level
ecological impact in the Lower Ohio River Basin.

DESCRIPTION: This project used an innovative survey technique and multistate cooperation to survey
and map aquatic and riparian invasive species along the lower Ohio River Valley. These types of regional
efforts, that cross boundaries and jurisdictions, are necessary to address invasive species at ecological
scales.
KEY WORDS: AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES, CWMAS, HYDRILLA, SURVEY, REGIONAL
COORDINATION
SESSION TOPICS: Invasive Exotic Species Management
FORMAT: Oral Presentation
RAISING PUBLIC AWARENESS STATEWIDE THROUGH THE ILLINOIS INVASIVE SPECIES
AWARENESS MONTH. Chris Evans. River to River Cooperative Weed Management Area.
rivertoriver@gmail.com. Chris Evans, 8588 Route 148, Marion, IL 62959 (618)-998-5920.
rivertoriver@gmail.com.

Raising awareness about invasive species and gaining public support are critical components of any
invasive species management efforts. A coalition of groups and agencies came together to organize and
coordination educational efforts across Illinois. May 2011, through a governor’s proclamation, was
officially Illinois Invasive Species Awareness Month (ISAM). Educational presentations, hikes, workdays,
tours, and other events were held across the state to inform citizens about invasive species and let htem
know what they can do to help prevent the spread of these species. ISAM used these events, along with
a website (www.illinoisinvasives.org), facebook page (www.facebook.com/illinoisisam), awards programs,
and school challenges to reach the public. This presentation will review some of the events and efforts
during the 2011 Illinois Invasive Species Awareness Month.

DESCRIPTION FOR PROGRAM: This presentation will review some of the planning efforts, events, and
innovative public relation programs utilized during the 2011 Illinois Invasive Species Awareness Month.
KEY WORDS: EDUCATION, INVASIVE SPECIES, PUBLIC RELATIONS, AWARENESS
SESSION TOPICS: Invasive Exotic Species Management
FORMAT: Oral Presentation


INVASIVE GRASS (MICROSTEGIUM VIMINEUM) INCREASES FIRE INTENSITY AND REDUCES
                                                                1              2           3
TREE REGENERATION IN EASTERN FORESTS S. Luke Flory , Sarah Emery , Keith Clay , and
             4 1
Joseph Robb . Agronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, lukeflory@gmail.com.
2                                                                            3
 Department of Biology, University of Louisville. sarah.emery@louisville.edu. Department of Biology,
                                       4
Indiana University. clay@indiana.edu. Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge. joe_robb@fws.gov. S. Luke
Flory, PO Box 110500, Gainesville, FL 32611-0500, 518-774-4649. lukeflory@gmail.com.

Plant invasions may change fire regimes by increasing fuel loads and fuel bed continuity, resulting in
greater fire intensity, rate of spread, and extent. Fires can subsequently promote further plant invasions
by exposing soil and releasing nutrients, resulting in a positive feedback between plant invaders and fire.
We are investigating the interaction between fire and the invasive annual grass Microstegium vimineum
(stiltgrass), including differences in fire behavior in invaded and uninvaded areas and the dynamics of
invasions and response of native species using prescribed burns and experimental fires at Big Oaks
National Wildlife Refuge in southern Indiana. Microstegium invasions produce widespread, dense fine
fuels following plant senescence which may cause abnormally intense, continuous fires. Our results show
that fires in Microstegium-invaded areas had higher peak temperatures, greater average flame heights,
and more percent area burned than fires in nearby uninvaded habitats. Both spring and fall fires reduced
Microstegium seedling density compared to unburned plots but invasions returned within one year.
Herbicide treatments alone or in combination with fire greatly suppressed invasions. Trees experimentally
planted into invaded areas had much higher survival than trees in nearby uninvaded habitats in the
absence of fire, but prescribed fires caused a greater reduction in tree survival in invaded than uninvaded
areas. Our results suggest that Microstegium invasions may increase fire severity and reduce tree
regeneration, but also provide methods for land managers to control invasions in forests where
prescribed fires are used.

DESCRIPTION: Invasions of the non-native grass Microstegium vimineum increase fire severity and
inhibit tree regeneration in eastern forests.
KEY WORDS: PLANT INVASION, PRESCRIBED FIRE, INVASIVE SPECIES MANAGEMENT, TREE
REGENERATION
SESSION TOPICS: invasive species management, fire
FORMAT: oral presentation


INITIAL GROUND COVER RECOVERY FOLLOWING SILVICULTURAL TREATMENTS IN A
LONGLEAF PINE FOREST. Lisa M. Giencke-Davis, L. Katherine Kirkman, Steven B. Jack, Robert J.
Mitchell. Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center. ldavis@jonesctr.org; kkirkman@jonesctr.org;
sjack@jonesctr.org; rmitchell@jonesctr.org. Lisa Giencke-Davis, 3988 Jones Center Drive, Newton, GA
39870. 229-734-4706. ldavis@jonesctr.org.

Within a fire-dependent longleaf pine ecosystem, we examine disturbance to and initial recovery of the
ground cover following various silvicultural timber harvest treatments. Specifically, our objectives are: 1)
compare species composition and richness before and after operational treatments, 2) identify species
that are sensitive to disturbance, and 3) relate ground cover response to a range of disturbance
intensities associated with multiple skidder passes. The study design was a randomized incomplete block
with six blocks and three treatments per block. Canopy removal treatments included: 1) uncut control, 2)
single-tree selection, 3) group selection, and 4) group selection with tree retention in gaps. Ground cover
vegetation was sampled prior to timber harvest and one year later and included categorization of ground
cover into classes ranging from high quality (dominated by wiregrass, a disturbance-sensitive species) to
                                                                                                           2
low quality (disturbed areas dominated by ruderal species) and quantification of species richness in 1 m
plots. We examined vegetation response to disturbance intensity by assessing species richness in paired
    2
1 m disturbed and undisturbed plots within disturbance levels ranging from exposure to 0-8 skidder
passes. Species richness was not affected by silvicultural treatment, but, regardless of treatment type,
high-quality plots declined in species richness more than low-quality plots, likely due to extreme drought.
As a result, similarity between low- and high-quality plots increased over time. A trend toward species
richness increasing with disturbance level was due in part to the presence of ruderal species. Monitoring
over numerous fire cycles will be required to determine long-term effects.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation will compare patterns of ground cover species richness and
composition prior to and following silvicultural timber harvest treatments in a longleaf pine system.
KEY WORDS: DISTURBANCE, SPECIES RICHNESS, TIMBER HARVEST
SESSION TOPICS: Current Research and Land Management Techniques
FORMAT: Poster Presentation


ACCURACY OF A MODIFIED NEW ZEALAND AQUATIC WEED RISK ASSESSMENT FOR THE U.S.
                 1,2                3                    3                          1,3 1
Doria R. Gordon , Crysta A. Gantz , Christopher L. Jerde , and W. Lindsay Chadderton . The Nature
                    2                                                          3
Conservancy and Department of Biology, University of Florida, dgordon@tnc.org. Department of
Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame. Crysta.Gantz.2@nd.edu; cjerde@nd.edu;
lchadderton@tnc.org Doria R. Gordon, The Nature Conservancy, P.O. Box 118526, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611 352-392-5949. dgordon@tnc.org

We tested the accuracy of a risk assessment system for aquatic plants modified from that used by New
Zealand’s Biosecurity Program for the U.S. The system includes 38 questions with additive scores within
12 categories of biological, historical, and environmental tolerance data. We identified 33 aquatic plant
species that are major invaders in the continental U.S., 32 minor invaders, and 84 non-invaders. The
species are from 55 families and span all aquatic growth forms. Excluding species introduced to the U.S.
within 50 years, we had sufficient data to use 127 species for testing. The system has 97% accuracy for
both major invaders and non-invaders when a threshold score of 32 is used to differentiate non-invaders
from major invaders. Model validation using 10 major invaders and 10 non-invaders resulted in 100%
accuracy. Our results should facilitate management prioritization on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
projects and provide data to inform the risk assessment procedures used by the U.S. Department of
Agriculture APHIS PPQ.

DESCRIPTION: Our test of a modified New Zealand risk assessment system for freshwater plant species
had 97% accuracy in identifying both major and non-invaders in the U.S.
KEY WORDS: INVASIVE AQUATIC PLANT, PREVENTION, SCREENING, RISK ASSESSMENT
SESSION TOPIC: Invasive Exotic Species Management
FORMAT: Oral Presentation


AN EVALUATION OF BIOENGINEERING TECHNIQUES TO ESTABLISH WOODY VEGETATION
ALONG THE MARGINS OF RESTORED WETLANDS ON PHOSPHATE MINELAND IN FLORIDA
                    1              2                  3              4                  3
Janet M. Grabowski , M.J. Williams , Rosemarie Garcia , Casey Beavers , Jessica Pederson , Mary
             1 1
Anne Gonter . USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Brooksville Plant Materials Center,
                                                            2
janet.grabowski@fl.usda.gov; maryanne.gonter@fl.usda.gov. USDA, NRCS, Florida State Office.
                         3
mj.williams@fl.usda.gov. Mosaic, LLC. rosemarie.garcia@mosaicco.com;
                                    4
Jessica.Pederson@mosaicco.com. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Mining
and Mineral Regulation, casey.beavers@dep.state.fl.us. Janet M. Grabowski, 14119 Broad Street,
Brooksville, FL. 352-796-9600. janet.grabowski@fl.usda.gov.

Bioengineering is a planting technique that uses whips or live stakes to stabilize the banks of streams and
ditches with low to moderate flow velocities. Whips are long stem or trunk cuttings of easily rooted trees
or shrubs with basal diameters of ¾ to 1½ inches. Bioengineering may be a cost effective method of
incorporating woody plants for wildlife habitat on mineland restoration sites, but has not been tested
under Florida conditions. The USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Brooksville Plant
Materials Center was asked by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Mining
and Mineral Regulation and Mosaic, LLC to test the effectiveness of bioengineering on constructed ponds
at three Mosaic restoration sites. Two planting dates, January (dormant, dry season) and July (growing,
wet season) were tested for two years (2008 and 2009). Single whips of seventeen species (varied
between planting dates) were planted at three landscape positions (water’s edge, 10 feet, and 20 feet
upslope). Carolina willow (Salix caroliniana) and elderberry (Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis)
established at all sites and elevations. Coralbean (Erythrina herbacea), buttonbush (Cephalanthus
occidentalis), and swamp dogwood (Cornus foemina) were also promising and success may be improved
with the use of more consistent planting materials. Although rainfall was lower in the winter,
establishment was better for the January plantings. Shoots that emerged on whips from the July
plantings originated at or near the soil surface, indicating that desiccation of the whip due to high
temperatures was a problem.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation will address the potential of utilizing bioengineering to incorporate
some easily rooted woody species on restored wetlands in Florida on sites that had previously been
mined for phosphate ore. Species that hold promise for this use, as well as planting and site limitations
encountered during this research project will be discussed.
KEY WORDS: PROPAGATION, WHIP, LIVE STAKE, HARDWOOD CUTTING, WILDLIFE HABITAT
SESSION TOPICS: Ecosystem and Habitat Restoration (Upland and Wetland)
FORMAT: Oral Presentation


EFFECTS OF AMINOCYCLOPYRACHLOR ON INVASIVE SPECIES AND NATIVE PLANTS OF
                       1                   1           1               2             3 1
FLORIDA. Anna Greis , Greg MacDonald , Jason Ferrell , Brent Sellers , Kimberly Bohn . Agronomy
                                                                           2
Department, University of Florida. greis.anna@gmail.com; pineacre@ufl.edu. Agronomy Department,
                                                                                   3
University of Florida Range Cattle Research and Education Center. sellersb@ufl.edu. School of Forest
Resources and Conservation, University of Florida West Florida Research and Education Center.
kkbohn@ufl.edu. Anna Greis, Bldg. 258 Museum Rd., Gainesville, Fl. 32611. 850-545-7307.
greis.anna@gmail.com
Aminocyclopyrachlor (MAT- 28) is a synthetic auxin herbicide developed for noncrop weed management.
It is currently unknown what affect this herbicide will have on many troublesome invasive species as well
as non-target species, specifically the impact on desirable native plants. Therefore the objective was to
determine if aminocyclopyrachlor can be used to control invasive species (particularly cogongrass –
Imperata cylindrica) with minimal damage to native plants; thus providing an additional method for
invasive species management in Florida. In the greenhouse, native and invasive grasses were treated
post emergence with MAT-28 at rates of 0.018 to 0.28 kg-ai/ha. Visual injury symptoms were evaluated
and dry weight biomass recorded at 4 WAT. All invasive grasses, including cogongrass, and native
grasses were stunted only at the highest (0.28 kg-ai/ha) rate while native forbs were severely injured at all
rates. A cogongrass field study was conducted at a heavily infested cogongrass site in Hillsborough
County, FL to test the utility of combining MAT-28 with sublethal standard treatments to gain selectivity
towards desirable grasses and forbs. Treatments were broadcast applied at 20 GPA carrier volume. Plots
were evaluated for % injury every 3 months. Imazapyr (92% control) and glyphosate (76% control)
treatments provided better cogongrass control than MAT-28 (0% control) at 18 months after treatment.
Though not effective alone for cogongrass control, MAT-28 has potential for use in natural areas where
native grasses are prevalent or desired and invasive forbs are the target species.

DESCRIPTION FOR PROGRAM: This presentation will cover the effects of MAT-28 on select native and
invasive plants as well as a comprehensive study on herbicides used for cogongrass control.
KEY WORDS: COGONGRASS, AMINOCYCLOPYRACHLOR, NATIVE PLANTS, INVASIVE SPECIES
SESSION TOPICS: Invasive Exotic Species Management, Ecosystem and Habitat Restoration, Current
Research and Land Management Techniques
FORMAT: Oral Presentation


GIS TECHNOLOGY AS A PATH TO RESTORATION: MAPPING LONGLEAF PINE FORESTS. John C.
Gilbert and John S. Kush. Longleaf Pine Stand Dynamics Laboratory, School of Forestry and Wildlife
Sciences, Auburn University. gilbejo@auburn.edu; kushjoh@auburn.edu. John C. Gilbert, 3301 Forestry
& Wildlife, Auburn University, AL 36849 334-329-0236. gilbejo@auburn.edu

The restoration movement in the longleaf pine community emphasizes restoring functional ecosystems
across its historic range. Focus is required to preserve, enhance, and restore functional longleaf pine
ecosystems on both public and private lands, where the majority of longleaf is privately owned. Without a
suitable conservation planning tool and map showing the location and condition of existing longleaf pine
forests across all types of land ownership, these various restoration efforts continue in a scattered and
undocumented approach, where the impact of the restoring functioning landscape scale longleaf pine
ecosystems continues to be an unknown. The purpose of this effort is to create regional GIS database of
existing spatial data about longleaf pine which will provide a baseline of knowledge and aid conservation
and restoration efforts. The GIS database is being created and continuously updated by collecting and
compiling existing available spatial data about longleaf pine stands using the best available technology.
This GIS database helps assess the extent and condition of available spatial data on longleaf pine
forests, which provides a building block in the restoration of the longleaf pine ecosystem. The database
will serve as an effective conservation tool by targeting areas of high ecological potential and thereby
maximizing the impact of restoration dollars. Among the various utilities of this database are the abilities
to identify areas that lack spatial data about longleaf pine stands, to develop potential ways to prioritize
likely restoration focal areas and/or corridors, and to serve as an educational tool to promote longleaf
restoration.


DESCRIPTION: This presentation will discuss the information collected from a project mapping longleaf
pine stands across its range and even beyond its native range. This is a vital tool to aid longleaf
restoration efforts.
KEY WORDS: LONGLEAF PINE, MAPPING, GIS, PLANNING TOOL
SESSION TOPICS: Conservation Planning, Conservation at the Landscape Level, Species and
Communities Conservation
FORMAT: Poster Presentation


GREATER ABUNDANCE AND DIVERSITY OF NATIVE COCCINELLIDS IN AGRICULTURAL GRASS-
DOMINATED HABITATS THAN NATURAL TALLGRASS PRAIRIES Lauren M. Hart and Deborah L.
Finke. Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia. Lmhd74@mizzou.edu;
finked@missouri.edu. Lauren M. Hart, 1-31 Agriculture Building, Columbia, MO 65211; (573) 884-0491.
Lmhd74@mizzou.edu.

Coccinellid communities are increasing in species richness with the intentional or unintentional
introduction of non-native species, while simultaneously declining in species evenness as the abundance
of native species decreases, potentially due to predation by or competition with non-native species. The
destruction of natural habitats may exacerbate this trend, since invasion success is often tied to
environmental degradation. Our objective was to determine whether coccinellid community composition
varies between simplified agricultural tall fescue habitats and diverse natural tallgrass prairie habitats,
either remnant or restored. We predicted that natural tallgrass prairie habitats would resist the
establishment of non-native coccinellid species and therefore promote the abundance and species
richness of native coccinellid species. We compared coccinellid communities between natural and
agricultural habitats by collecting adult coccinellids from five remnant tallgrass prairies, five restored
prairies, and four fescue fields throughout Missouri using yellow sticky traps on a monthly basis
throughout the summer of 2010. Contrary to our prediction, we found that total coccinellid abundance
and species richness was greater in agricultural habitats than in natural habitats. This result was driven
by the greater abundance and species richness of native lady beetles in tall fescue than tallgrass prairie
habitats. These preliminary data do not support the hypothesis that natural tallgrass prairie habitats
provide a refuge for native coccinellid species by resisting the invasion of non-native species. However,
habitat characteristics, perhaps resource availability or food web interactions, do appear to play a role in
mediating the interaction between native and non-native species.

DESCRIPTION: This study compares the coccinellid communities among native remnant tallgrass
prairies, restored tallgrass prairies and agricultural tall fescue habitats. Initial findings are contrary to
expectations, with tall fescue hosting a greater abundance and species richness than either prairie
habitat.
KEY WORDS: COCCINELLIDAE, TALLGRASS PRAIRIE, RESTORATION, DIVERSITY
SESSION TOPICS: Species and Communities Conservation
FORMAT: Poster Presentation, student competition


HOW EFFECTIVE ARE ATTEMPTS TO PRESCRIBE NATURAL FIRE REGIMES IN A MODERN
                                    1,2              2                2                2 1
LANDSCAPE? Sharon M. Hermann , John S. Kush , John C. Gilbert , and Becky Barlow . Department
                                                                  2
of Biological Sciences, Auburn University. hermasm@auburn.edu. Longleaf Pine Stand Dynamics
Laboratory, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University. hermasm@auburn.edu;
kushjoh@auburn.edu; gilbejo@auburn.edu; becky_barlow@auburn.edu. Sharon M. Hermann,
Department of Biological Sciences, 331 Funchess Hall, Auburn University, AL 36849 334-844-3933.
hermasm@auburn.edu

It is well understood that ecological integrity is lost when burning is excluded from fire-dependent
ecosystems. However, negative outcomes of ineffective application of fire are rarely considered. This
problem is increasingly common in the modern landscape and may be exacerbated by climate change.
Results of ineffective burning, including hardwood encroachment, are often ignored for years, in part
because it is assumed that burning within natural ranges of fire frequency is sufficient to maintain
ecosystem health. Longleaf pine woodlands provide a case study to explore whether meeting goals of
natural fire frequency is adequate for maintaining ecological integrity. The 97% loss of this once-vast
forest is of such high regional concern that there are multiple on-going efforts to replant the dominant
tree, but regrettably, less attention is paid to maintaining the small fraction of the landscape that retains
residual longleaf stands despite value of this habitat to many species of special concern. Ongoing
degradation of longleaf pine woodlands due to ineffective burning happens even on public lands with
management plans based on natural fire frequency. Our premise is that prescribed burning should be
viewed as a tool and not as a goal, especially in light of constraints imposed by the modern landscape
and by potential consequences of climate change. We 1) present examples of prescribed fire efforts
based in part on duplicating natural frequencies, 2) caution against focus on single aspects of burn
regimes, 3) describe habitat degradation related to ineffective fire, and 4) suggest alternative approaches
to enhance adaptive management.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation will focus on longleaf pine woodlands and examine habitat degradation
caused by ineffective use of prescribed fire despite efforts to mimic natural burn regimes. We suggest
alternative approaches to enhance fire management and promote ecological integrity in a modern
landscape subjected to climate change.
KEY WORDS: PRESCRIBED FIRE, FIRE REGIME, LONGLEAF PINE, ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT,
CLIMATE CHANGE
SESSION TOPICS: Fire Management, Current Research and Land Management Techniques, Species
and Communities Conservation, Monitoring and Tracking of Species and Communities
FORMAT: Oral Presentation


CONTROL TACTICS DEVELOPED AGAINST THE ARGENTINE CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS
                            1                      2 1
CACTORUM. Stephen Hight and James Carpenter. USDA-ARS, Center for Medical, Agricultural, and
                                                                   2
Veterinary Entomology, Tallahassee, FL. stephen.hight@ars.usda.gov; USDA-ARS, Crop Protection
Management Research Unit, Tifton, GA. jim.carpenter@ars.usda.gov Stephen Hight, 6383 Mahan Drive,
Tallahassee, FL 32308, 850-656-9870 x18, stephen.hight@ars.usda.gov

The Argentine cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, is celebrated as a classical biological control agent of
non-native prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp. However, after the intentional introduction of this moth to a
Caribbean island in the 1950s, C. cactorum eventually made its way to Florida by 1989. This invasive
pest now represents an economical and ecological threat to native prickly pears in USA and Mexico. A
variety of tools and tactics were developed to study and control C. cactorum. A survey tool based on the
female sex pheromone was developed to identify moth presence. To address the advancement of C.
cactorum along the southeastern USA Gulf coast and new incursions into Mexico, control tactics including
the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) were developed, validated, and implemented. In support of the SIT,
studies were conducted on mass rearing, radiation biology, overflooding ratios, transport-cold storage-
release techniques, and host plant sanitation efforts. Sanitation and host plant removal were used along
the Gulf coast and on Isla Mujeres, Mexico as part of a multifaceted control program. Implementation of
the SIT and sanitation efforts reduced the pest’s westward USA advance and eradicated the moth from
Mexico and several barrier islands along the USA coast. A bi-national cooperative effort was formed
between USDA and SAGARPA to fund monitoring efforts and prevent the spread of this pest in North
America. The program has slowed the spread but needs additional involvement from cooperators such
as national and state parks, wildlife refuges, ranchers, nursery operators, and cactus enthusiasts.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation will discuss the tactics used to monitor and control the non-native
cactus moth. These efforts have lead to eradication events of the pest on barrier islands in Mexico and
the USA, and slowed the spread of this prickly pear destroying pest along the southeastern USA Gulf
coast.
KEY WORDS: CACTUS MOTH, INVASIVE INSECT PEST, OPUNTIA, PRICKLY PEAR,
CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM
SESSION TOPICS: Invasive Exotic Species Management
FORMAT: Oral Presentation


INTEGRATING CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND STORAGE CONSIDERATIONS WITH
RESTORATION AND MANAGEMENT OF PINE FLATWOODS IN CENTRAL FLORIDA, USA. C. Ross
Hinkle and K. Elizabeth Becker. Department of Biology, University of Central Florida.
rhinkle@mail.ucf.edu C. Ross Hinkle, P.O. Box 162368, Department of Biology, University of Central
Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2368 407-823-1333.

A large conservation landscape area of approximately 12000 acres that was formerly a working ranch has
been the subject of extensive restoration activities over the past 20 years. The Nature Conservancy has
actively managed the Disney Wilderness Preserve. It was formerly a ranch with open pastureland to pine
flatwoods. Large areas were restored to wetlands from areas that had previously been converted from
wetlands to improved pasture. This study focused upon areas being restored from pasturelands to pine
flatwoods and areas being managed by controlled burning as native pine flatwoods habitat. In addition to
determining carbon storage within various land uses currently maintained at the site, a yearlong
assessment has been made of carbon flux in a large footprint of the fire maintained longleaf pine
flatwoods. Preliminary results show that approximately 25% greater carbon storage can be gained in
flatwoods versus pasturelands and that approximately 5.1 tons of carbon is sequestered per hectare in
the longleaf pine flatwoods areas. Further studies are planned to relate land management activities for
multiuse purposes such as biodiversity maintenance, water conservation, and ultimately ecosystem
services. The outcome of the project is expected to contribute to management regimes that include
carbon storage considerations in these restoration and management efforts.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation will cover preliminary results from the Disney Wilderness Carbon
project. The project is being conducted to evaluate the role of carbon storage and sequestration as part
of the management goals along with biodiversity management and other conservation activities.
KEY WORDS: carbon sequestration and storage, fire management, ecosystem services
SESSION TOPICS: Zack’s Session on Climate, Carbon and Fire”) on November 2nd Fire Management
FORMAT: Oral Presentation


HOW SEASON, IGNITION, AND FREQUENCY OF PRESCRIBED FIRE INFLUENCE FIRE BEHAVIOR
                                                                                                  1
AND HARDWOOD RESPROUTING IN A SOUTHEASTERN PINE FOREST. Tracy L. Hmielowski ,
                    2                     1 1
Kevin M. Robertson , and William J. Platt . Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State
                                                    2
University. thmiel1@tigers.lsu.edu; btplat@lsu.edu. Fire Ecology Research Lab, Tall Timbers Research
Station. krobertson@ttrs.org. Tracy L. Hmielowski, 107 Life Sciences Building, Louisiana State University,
Baton Rouge, LA, 70803 727-612-3060. thmiel1@tigers.lsu.edu.

Fire is a critical process for limiting the abundance of hardwood species in southeastern pine forests. The
choice of prescribed regime to mimic this natural process can influence fire behavior and the response of
plant communities. This study was conducted to determine the effects of prescribed fire season (dormant
or growing), ignition pattern (heading or backing), and fire return interval (1-2 years) on fire behavior
(fireline intensity, maximum temperature, and residence time) and hardwood genet biomass in a
frequently burned southeastern pine forest. We hypothesized that early growing season prescribed fires
would have more active fire behavior and less resprouting biomass of hardwood genets compared to
dormant season fires, and that fire behavior and resprouting biomass would increase with longer time
since previous fire. Fire behavior measurements were taken during prescribed fires and aboveground
biomass of hardwood genets was measured pre-fire and one-year post fire. Fireline intensity was greatest
in the dormant season, using head fire, and in two-year time since fire treatments, but other fire behavior
measurements showed no significant differences among treatments. Resprout vigor one year post fire
was lower in early growing season fire treatments, but there was no significant difference between ignition
patterns or time since last fire treatments. These results suggest that seasonal changes in hardwood
resource allocation are of greater importance than fire behavior in determining the resprouting ability of
individual hardwoods following prescribed fires in a frequently burned habitat.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation discusses differences in fire behavior and hardwood resprout vigor
among prescribed fire treatments. Results from this study indicate prescribed fire treatments with less
resprout vigor are not the same as those with more active fire behavior.
KEY WORDS: PRESCRIBED FIRE, HARDWOOD RESPROUTS, FIRE BEHAVIOR, SOUTHEASTERN
PINE FOREST
SESSION TOPICS: Fire Management, Current Research and Land Management Techniques
FORMAT: Oral Presentation


REGULATION OF BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCKS: PROTECTING ECOLOGICAL INTERESTS WITHOUT
STIFLING OPPORTUNITIES. Richard D. Iverson Richard D. Iverson, NCDA&CS, Plant Industry
Division, 1060 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, NC, 27699, 919-733-6930x246. rick.iverson@ncagr.gov.

The regulation of biofuel feedstock production will safeguard the environment from unintentional plant
invasions, but regulation in many states will require new laws which would require more state resources
and possibly add to production costs. The regulation of potentially invasive biofuel feedstocks in many
states is limited to provisions of noxious weed regulations authorized by state plant pest laws. Most
states use the “dirty list” approach to noxious weed regulation by banning for import, introduction or
release only those species that are designated as noxious. This approach effectively protects agriculture
and the environment by preventing the entry of harmful plant species that may not yet be present in the
state and by preventing the spread of species that can still be contained or eradicated by prudent use of
resources. However, these regulations do not address the potential harm that could result from
unintentional plant escapes in biofuel feedstock production. Under the Federal Plant Protection Act,
authority is granted to USDA, APHIS to categorize and develop management plans for pest plants that
are not defined as quarantine pest plants but a proposal to address potentially invasive biofuels is still
pending. Also, Executive Order 13112 obligates each federal agency to not authorize, fund or carry out
actions that promote invasives. Good stewardship, whether required by law or accomplished voluntarily,
should include management practices that reduce the risk of escape including actions such as:
installation of buffer strips, managing run-off, controlling propagules, monitoring for escapes, minimizing
escapes during harvest and transport and posting of bonds should site remediation become necessary.

DESCRIPTION: Existing laws and regulations in many states do not provide for the regulation of
potentially invasive plants in biofuel feedstock production. This presentation describes the function of
noxious weed regulations and proposes stewardship actions that biofuel feedstock producers can take to
minimize escapes of potentially harmful biofuel feedstock candidates.
KEY WORDS: NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS, BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION, BIOFUELS,
NOXIOIUS WEEDS
SESSION TOPICS: Invasive Exotic Species Management
FORMAT: Oral Presentation


SOUTH FLORIDA RANCHLANDS: A SIGNIFICANT STOPOVER AND WINTERING HABITAT FOR
                                   1                      2                 1 1
SHOREBIRDS. Jerome A. Jackson , Bette J. S. Jackson , and Patricia Borden . Department of Marine
                                                                          2
and Ecological Sciences, Florida Gulf Coast University. jjackson@fgcu.edu; Department of Biological
Sciences, Florida Gulf Coast University. bjackson@fgcu.edu. Jerome A. Jackson, Department of Marine
and Ecological Sciences, Florida Gulf Coast University, 10501 FGCU Blvd. South, Ft. Myers, FL 33965
239-590-7193. jjackson@fgcu.edu
Lightning-started fire is an integral part of south Florida ecosystems, historically burning some areas of
south Florida on nearly an annual basis. Such fires often created pine savannas and grasslands --
habitats that early Europeans viewed as perfect for raising cattle, establishing a ranching tradition that
persists. These areas are subjected to a very wet summer and fall, followed by an increasingly dry winter
and spring. Low areas seasonally become shallow ponds and a few centimeters of water flood many
grasslands for weeks at a time, creating habitat occupied by several species of migrant shorebirds. We
studied shorebirds on the Babcock Ranch in Charlotte County, Florida, from 2008-2011 and will present
an assessment of their abundance, phenology, and habitat use on this ranch along with historical records
for this and similar areas in the region. These wet grasslands are similar to Arctic breeding areas of many
wintering or transient shorebirds and may provide significant inland refugia for shorebirds in the event of
coastal oil spills.

DESCRIPTION: We will discuss shorebird diversity, abundance, and the phenology and nature of use of
pine savanna and grassland habitats of the Babcock Ranch in southwest Florida, and will compare these
data with historical records of this and other similar habitats in the region.
KEY WORDS: SHOREBIRDS, GRASSLANDS, SAVANNAS, WETLAND CONSERVATION, MIGRANT
STOPOVER AREAS
SESSION TOPICS: Species and Communities Conservation; or Conservation at the Landscape Level
FORMAT: Oral Presentation


MOVEMENTS OF NATURAL AREA PLANTS WITHIN THE GREATER CARIBBEAN: NEW INVASIVE
SPECIES OR NEWLY INVADIBLE HABITATS. Colette C. Jacono and Kenneth A. Langeland, University
of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. colettej@ufl.edu; gator8@ufl.edu. Colette Jacono,
             st
7922 NW 71 St., Gainesville, FL 32653. 352-392-6894. colettej@ufl.edu.

Sauer’s model of geographic patterning in plants proposes seed dispersal as the positive force in natural
migrations and the environment as the negative force by regulating germination and establishment.
Sauer’s model is highly applicable to wetlands where hydrology is the driving environmental variable
selecting for life history traits and defining the presence of a particular species. Luziola subintegra,
Hymenachne amplexicaulis, and Scleria lacustris are wetland species native in the Greater Caribbean
that have become introduced and invasive in Florida. Their recent movement has not been accounted for
by human means and we hypothesize that a natural force of geographic patterning may be at play. In
testing Sauer’s model, we employed experimental data from in- and ex-situ seed storage treatments and
emergence trials with S. lacustris. Our results demonstrated the influence of hydrology on colonization of
the plant species. A weaker, yet significant environmental effect was demonstrated on the fate of seeds,
their persistence in the seed bank and ability to regenerate over time stored. Empirical data from field
monitoring allowed inference on how hydrologic forces can work to promote the recruitment of S. lacustris
at near monoculture levels. As wetland environments in Florida continue to change, primarily from the
lowering of groundwater tables and climatic drought, they could be experiencing shifts in their
environmental restrictions that may offer newly invadible habitat to the forces of seed migration and
dispersal in the Greater Caribbean.

DESCRIPTION: Experimental data is used to test a simple model of seed dispersal that may explain the
recent invasion of Neo-tropical wetland species in Florida.
KEYWORDS: WETLAND, HYDROLOGY, SEED BANK, SEEDLING, WRIGHT’S NUTRUSH.
SESSION TOPICS: Geologic and Climatic Factors in Conservation; Monitoring and Tracking of Species
and Communities; Current Research.
FORMAT: Oral presentation.


RESTORATION CONVERSION OF BOREAL FOREST WETLANDS IN SUPERIOR, WISCONSIN.
Jensen, Jens. JFNew and Associates, Inc., Verona, Wisconsin. Email: jjensen@jfnew.com
JFNew is in the fourth year of completing a 120-acre restoration project in compensation for forested
wetland conversion impacts along a new transmission line in northwestern Wisconsin. The restoration
project activities are three-fold: removal of aggressive woody species, planting of boreal forest tree
species and monitoring to assess the success of conversion. The first two activities, the removal of
aggressive woody species and planting of appropriate boreal forest species, are taking place over the first
four years of the restoration. Woody vegetation that is targeted for control as part of this phase includes
Populus tremuloides, Alnus incana and various Salix species. Woody removal activities include cut stump
treatment, forestry mowing and targeted, aquatic-approved herbicide treatment. Native boreal forest
species are targeted for planting across the site. In the wetland areas these include Picea mariana, Larix
laricina and Thuja occidentalis; in the upland islands these include Picea glauca, Pinus strobus, Abies
balsamea and Thuja occidentalis. Restoration work and monitoring began in 2008. The goal of the project
is set the successional trajectory of the site to support an assemblage of boreal forest tree species within
10 years. This is largely measured by survival of trees and reduction of invasive species across the site.
In addition to the boreal forest conversion monitoring, state listed plant monitoring is also required within
the wetland areas. Populations of the State Threatened Petasites sagittatus and Salix planifolia were
identified and are being protected on the site.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation will discuss the Boreal Forest conversion JFNew is completing to
compensate for transmission line impacts. The presentation will discuss the intial site selection, design
and implementation of conversion activities. The presentation will also discuss the results of the project
thus far, in its fourth year.
KEY WORDS: BOREAL FOREST, RESTORATION, MITIGATION, TRANSMISSION, INVASIVE
SPECIES
SESSION TOPICS: Boreal Forest Restoration, Mitigation, Transmission Lines, Vegetative monitoring,
Invasive species, Threatened Species
FORMAT: This abstract is for a poster or oral presentation.


INVASIVE PLANT RISK-MAPPING: A NEW ONLINE TOOL FOR SETTING REGIONAL RESPONSE
                          1                 1                1                        1
PRIORITIES. Doug Johnson , Elizabeth Brusati , Dana Morawitz , Falk Schuetzenmeister , Cynthia
      1                 1              1 1
Powell , Suzanne Harmon , Tony Morosco . California Invasive Plant Council, Berkeley, CA.
dwjohnson@cal-ipc.org. Doug Johnson, 1442-A Walnut St. #462, Berkeley, CA 94709, 510-843-3902,
dwjohnson@cal-ipc.org.

Maps of invasive plant distribution are essential for planning effective management. However, at the
landscape scale, comprehensive distribution data is rarely available, and is not easily captured through
field mapping. The knowledge of local experts is often sufficient to provide seamless distribution data at a
coarse resolution. Cal-IPC is working with local experts to create maps for 200 invasive plant species
throughout California based on USGS 7.5-minute quadrangles as the mapping unit. Through interviews,
local experts map abundance, spread trend, and management status by quad for each species. The
resulting maps show management opportunities based on spatial patterns, such as outliers and leading
edges. In addition, Cal-IPC is modeling climatically-suitable range for each species, and examining how
this range may change as climate shifts. When overlaid with maps of current distribution, suitability maps
help show vulnerability to spread. This “risk mapping” approach has been used to determine priorities for
eradication, containment and surveillance in the Sierra Nevada. An online tool in development will allow
natural resource managers to generate maps and management recommendations for their area, and to
update quad data. The system will be linked to existing online occurrence databases such as Calflora.
The quad-based approach can be used by other states, and the tool can be adopted by national online
mapping systems to produce national maps. Future steps include: adding layers for conservation values;
adding algorithms to model vectors of spread; and increasing capability to use data from outside
California in suitability modeling.

DESCRIPTION: Cal-IPC has developed a “risk mapping” approach to set regional priorities for invasive
plant management, and has used the approach to generate recommendations for the Sierra Nevada. An
online tool is in development. The approach, which is based on expert knowledge data and USGS quads,
can be scaled up for mapping at the national level.
KEY WORDS: MAPPING, EARLY DETECTION, INVASIVE PLANTS, MANAGEMENT, ONLINE TOOLS
SESSION TOPICS: INVASIVE EXOTIC SPECIES MANAGEMENT
FORMAT: ORAL PRESENTATION


SPATIAL PATTERNS OF BIODIVERSITY AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN FLORIDA. Shelly A.
         1                       2                3              4 1
Johnson , Patrick O’Donoughue , Rajeev Pillay , Jessica Steele . School of Forest Resources and
                                                               2
Conservation, University of Florida. shelly.johnson@ufl.edu. Department of Environmental Engineering
                                                             3
Sciences, University of Florida. podonoughue@gmail.com. Department of Wildlife Ecology and
                                                           4
Conservation, University of Florida. rajeev.pillay@ufl.edu. Department of Geography, University of
Florida. steele.jessica@gmail.com. Johnson, Shelly A., PO BOX 110410, School of Forest Resources
and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL USA 32611. 928-814-6107.
shelly.johnson@ufl.edu.

Ecosystem services refer to the utility of ecosystems to society. The biological and physical functions of
the ecosystem provide support for provisioning, regulating, and cultural services. Tradeoffs can exist
between the amounts and types of services provided by the ecosystem, and can vary along landscape
gradients. We investigated the interactions and tradeoffs of ecosystem services in Florida to assess land
use and biodiversity conservation conflicts. We used existing data to quantify 7 proxy-indicators of
ecosystem services (i.e. timberland, cattle inventory, citrus production, carbon sequestration, groundwater
quality, biodiversity, outdoor recreation), which represented provisioning, regulating, and cultural services
in the state. We employed spatial statistical analyses (i.e. Moran’s I, Pearson’s Correlation, Simpson’s
Diversity Index, Cluster Analysis, Principle Component Analysis) to identify spatial patterns, interactions,
and bundles. We found distinct spatial patterns for 6 of the 7 services with significant positive and
negative correlations. Services were geographically clustered on the landscape as a result of the
underlying human activities occurring at the county level, with observed change in services along both
latitudinal and agricultural gradients. The tradeoffs between ecosystem services, from an anthropocentric
perspective, should be considered for effective ecosystem management and conservation planning, with
the potential to significantly impact biodiversity conservation and future management decisions.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation will address the tradeoffs and spatial patterns which occur among
ecosystem services across the Florida landscape.
KEY WORDS: AGRICULTURE, BIODIVERSITY, ECOSYSTEM SERVICES, LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY,
LAND USE CONFLICT
SESSION TOPICS: Conservation at the landscape Level, Conservation Planning
FORMAT: Oral Presentation or Poster Presentation (student)


TREE COMMUNITY SUCCESSION WITHIN AN ISOLATED WESTERN WISCONSIN PRESERVE.
Travis Jones and Amanda Little. University of Wisconsin-Stout. jonestrav@my.uwstout.edu;
                                        th
littlea@uwstout.edu Travis Jones, 1413 6 St East Menomonie, WI 54751 715-456-3288.
jonestrav@my.uwstout.edu

The purpose of the study was to characterize the tree community in the 28 acre Birch Creek Preserve in
southeast Menomonie, and determine its likely future with no management. The preserve is located on a
sandy river terrace in the Lower Chippewa River State Natural Area. A stratified-random sampling
                                                      2
scheme was used to sample a total of eighteen 100 m plots. At each plot the diameter of the trees were
recorded at breast height. Red maples (Acer rubrum) were the most frequent tree on the site, and
generally were small in size (9.55 cm DBH). The most abundant large-diameter tree on the site was the
black oak (Quercus velutina, (24.30 cm DBH). The site has a continuum index of 524.97. The continuum
index compares this site to forests around Wisconsin. Forests with low numbers (100) are early
successional, and forests with large numbers (1000) are in a later successional stage. The data suggest
that the Birch Creek forest is in transition from a black oak forest into a red maple forest, because there
are very few black oak saplings, but numerous red maple saplings. As the black oaks die off, the red
maples will slowly take their place. Historical survey notes indicate that the property was a brush-savanna
in the mid-1800s. Black oaks became dominant in the era of fire-suppression, and now a continued lack
of fire is leading to red maple dominance. This pattern is common in many wooded areas of western
Wisconsin.

DESCRIPTION: In the absence of fire, isolated woodlands on sandy terraces in western Wisconsin
develop first into black oak and then red maple successional stages.
KEY WORDS: Succession, Black oak, Red maple, Continuum Index, Wisconsin
SESSION TOPICS: Species and Communities Conservation, Fire Management
FORMAT: Poster presentation


LESSONS LEARNED FROM GAINING POLITICAL AND COMMUNITY SUPPORT OF HAWAII’S
FIRST PREDATOR – PROOF FENCE AT KAENA POINT NATURAL AREA RESERVE Randy
         1                   2             11
Kennedy , Lindsay C Young , Emma Yuen Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division
                                                                                 2
of Forestry and Wildlife, randall.w.kennedy@hawaii.gov, Emma.Yuen@Hawaii.gov; Pacific Rim
Conservation, lindsay@pacificrimconservation.com Randy Kennedy, Native Ecosystem Protection and
Management Section Division of Forestry and Wildlife Hawaii Department of Land and Natural
Resources, 1151 Punchbowl Street, Room 325, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813 Phone: (808) 587-0054 E- mail:
Randall.W.Kennedy@hawaii.gov

The coastal strand ecosystem of the public access Ka`ena Point Natural Area Reserve on the island of
Oahu, Hawai`i hosts one of the largest seabird colonies in the main Hawaiian Islands, and contains up to
11 species of endangered plants. It is also one of the most culturally significant sites in Hawai`i where
souls are said to leap into the afterlife. Due to the negative impacts of invasive mammals on native
species, construction of a predator-proof fence is planned for late 2009 and the five invasive mammal
species present will subsequently be removed. Prior to construction, two and a half years of extensive
public outreach was done. These efforts reached over 1800 individuals directly in addition to the
thousands that were reached via 11 printed news stories (both local and national) and airing of seven
unique television pieces. As a result of these efforts, what was considered a controversial project has
achieved broad public support and resulted in the formation of a community and school group dedicated
to helping protect the area. During outreach efforts, extensive ecological monitoring was conducted on
both native and non-native species to document the effects of predator removal and to determine how
best to eradicate the predators present, with the public occasionally participating in this monitoring. The
exclusion and removal of these predatory animals is anticipated to result in an increase in the existing
population of nesting seabirds, encourage new seabird species to nest at Ka`ena Point, and enhance
regeneration and recruitment of native plants and invertebrates. Perhaps just as significant, this project
has increased the public awareness of restoration techniques and will provide the people of Hawai’i with a
rare opportunity to visit a restored ecosystem.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation will discuss the construction of the first predator –proof fence in Hawaii
and possibly the United States, and the process of gaining political and community support for this
project, which is located in a high cultural, recreational and natural sensitive area.
KEY WORKS: SEABIRDS, COASTAL RESTORATION, PREDATOR CONTROL, HAWAII
SESSION TOPICS:           Current Research and Land Management Techniques
FORMAT: Oral Presentation

                                                                                     1                1
HAWAII’S PLANT EXTINCTION PREVENTION (PEP) PROGRAM Randy Kennedy , Vickie Caraway ,
               2 1
Joan Yoshioka . Hawaii’s Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Forestry and Wildlife,
                                                                 2
Randall.W.Kennedy@hawaii.gov, Vickie.L.Caraway@hawaii.gov. Plant Extinction Prevention Program,
jyoshinaga@dofawha.org. Randy Kennedy, Native Ecosystem Protection and Management Section,
Division of Forestry and Wildlife, Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, 1151 Punchbowl
Street, Room 325, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813, Phone: (808) 587-0054, E- mail:
Randall.W.Kennedy@hawaii.gov

Approximately 90% of Hawaii’s flora is endemic, found nowhere else in the world. But this diversity is in
peril. Already Hawaii has lost 100 plant species to extinction. The loss of habitat, which is a direct and
cumulative effect of human occupation, land conversion, invasive non-native plants and animals,
wildfires, and other anthropogenic threats, greatly contributes to this loss. The PEP Program, developed
by the Hawaii Rare Plant Restoration Group, a group comprised of rare plant experts from over 30
organizations, has since grown to five island programs, addressing recovery actions for plant species that
have fewer than 50 plants remaining in the wild (PEP species), on the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai,
Maui Nui, and Hawaii Island. Five Island PEP Coordinators lead the efforts on each island program and
are part of the Statewide PEP Program. The program addresses conservation of species across multiple
landowner boundaries and works closely with land managers that have PEP species on their property.
This is a comprehensive approach to species recovery rather than a piecemeal approach of the past.
PEP species are targeted for collection of propagules, management in situ, surveying for additional
populations, monitoring, and reintroductions into natural areas.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation will discuss accomplishments of Hawaii’s Plant Extinction Prevention
(PEP) Program whose mission is to protect the rarest Hawaiian plants from extinction by monitoring and
managing wild plants, collecting seeds and establishing new populations. The program focus is on
species that have fewer than 50 plants remaining in the wild, presently 183 ‘PEP’ species or 15% of the
Hawaiian flora.
KEY WORKS: EXTINCTION, PLANT RESTORATION, HAWAII
SESSION TOPICS: Species and Communities Conservation
FORMAT: Oral Presentation


CLIMATE ADAPTATION KNOWLEDGE EXCHANGE (CAKE): AN ONLINE TOOL TO INCORPORATE
ADAPTATION INTO YOUR CONSERVATION PLANNING. Livia Kent. CAKE Managing Editor, Island
Press. lkent@islandpress.org. Livia Kent, 1718 Connecticut Ave, NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20009
202-232-7933 x16. lkent@islanpress.org.

Many conservation planners are already practicing climate adaptation at some level. At the very least,
they recognize the impending impacts of climate change and are considering ways to respond to it. Since
adaptation protects our ecosystems, species, and communities by strategically factoring the impacts of a
changing climate into planning and resource management, it is vital that practitioners connect and are
able to share climate-smart conservation strategies along with best practices and lessons learned.
Whether actively engaged in these strategies or new to the concept, anyone wanting to implement an
approach that incorporates adaptation into conservation planning will find the Climate Adaptation
Knowledge Exchange, CAKE, to be an invaluable online resource.

CAKE offers a common, approachable forum for people across disciplines and sectors to exchange
resources, data, and tools related to climate change adaptation. This oral presentation will take audience
members on a dynamic tour of CAKE and the georeferenced resources available for incorporating
adaptation strategies into conservation planning. It will explore case studies in Florida and across the
country that involve monitoring, scenario planning, and prioritizing conservation targets in the context of
climate change. It will also showcase how each study is uniquely linked to the tools and reports used in
the planning for the case study, as well as to the people involved in the project. Additionally, it will
demonstrate how users in the field of conservation planning can contribute their own case studies and
literature and join an interactive community of people practicing climate adaptation.

DESCRIPTION: Adaptation strategies protect our ecosystems, species, and communities by strategically
factoring climate change impacts into planning and resource management. It is vital that practitioners
connect and are able to share climate-smart conservation strategies along with best practices and
lessons learned. Whether actively engaged in adaptation or new to the concept, anyone wanting to
implement an approach that incorporates adaptation into conservation planning will find the Climate
Adaptation Knowledge Exchange to be an invaluable online resource.
KEY WORDS: CLIMATE ADAPTATION, ONLINE RESOURCES, RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
PLANNING, CASE STUDIES, ADAPTATION TOOLS
SESSION TOPICS: Conservation Planning
FORMAT: Oral Presentation



TECHNOLOGY, TEAMWORK AND TORTOISES: AN APPLICATION OF LINE TRANSECT
DISTANCE SAMPLING TO ESTIMATE A LOW-DENSITY GOPHER TORTOISE POPULATION ON A
                                           1                  2 1
LARGE MANAGED AREA. Michael T. Keys , Christina H. Legleu . U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, St.
                                                      2
Marks National Wildlife Refuge. michael_keys@fws.gov. Louisiana State University, School of
Renewable Natural Resources. clegleu@tigers.lsu.edu. Michael Thomas Keys, 1255 Lighthouse Road,
St. Marks, FL 32355 850-925-6121. michael_keys@fws.gov.

Gopher tortoises are a cryptic, highly fossorial species that occur in relatively low densities with clumped
distribution patterns and are thought to be declining within most remnant xeric habitats in the coastal plain
of the southeastern US. Surveying for this species to accurately establish population estimates with
known confidence intervals presents several technical, fiscal and personnel challenges, and to date has
not been completed on the majority of managed areas within Florida where the largest remaining
populations and suitable habitats exist. Developing estimates with known confidence intervals is an
essential step in elucidating population trends over time. Natural areas land managers now have access
to commercially available hardware, software and freeware that allows for efficient and accurate field
surveys, real-time navigation capability, and data analysis when investigating this and other similar
species. We present results from a large-scale application of the line transect distance sampling (LTDS)
technique conducted on 137 km of transects in a matrix of 2,200 ha of suitable gopher tortoise habitat
within a 28,300 ha managed property in Northern Florida. Additional information is presented relating to
methodology used in developing simple habitat suitability models incorporating soils, topography and
vegetative characteristics. These models were used to facilitate selection of an appropriate sampling
frame that ideally captures the spatial extent of the property's gopher tortoise population. Lastly, we
discuss lessons learned in relation to survey crew dynamics, skill development and efficiency as we
applied the LTDS technique in a variety of challenging field situations.

DESCRIPTION: Land managers have frequently failed to meet public expectations and legislative
obligations to manage imperiled gopher tortoise populations through best science methods. The crucial
missing element has typically been the most basic to wildlife management – employing objective, robust
population estimate techniques.
KEY WORDS: GOPHER TORTOISE, POPULATION ESTIMATE, SAMPLING FRAME, HABITAT
SUITABILITY MODEL
SESSION TOPICS: MONITORING AND TRACKING OF SPECIES AND COMMUNITIES,
CONSERVATION AT THE LANDSCAPE LEVEL
FORMAT: Oral Presentation
MANAGING POTAMOGETON CRISPUS ABUNDANCE THROUGH WHOLE-LAKE HERBICIDE
TREATMENT: A CASE STUDY FROM MERMET LAKE, IL. Jordan Charles Kiefer, Chris Evans, Dale H.
Vitt, and Lindsay Shupert, Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Southern Illinois University.
Jody.Shimp@Illinois.gov; dvitt@siu.edu. River to River Cooperative Weed Mangement.
rivertoriver@gmail.com. Jordan Charles Kiefer, 1721 W. Grandridge, Dunlap, IL 61525 (309)712-3800.
Kiefer044@hotmail.com

Potamogeton crispus is a non-native invasive perennial plant species of freshwater aquatic ecosystems
located in southern Illinois perennial lakes, ponds, and streams. Potamogeton crispus produces a seed-
like vegetative reproductive structure called a turion. Populations can expand rapidly and high amounts
can lead to oxygen and light depletion, and ultimately, to fish kills. An aggressive eradication program is
underway at Mermet Lake (Massac County, IL) with annual whole-lake herbicidal treatments using
Fluridone from 2008-2011. This research analysis estimates abundance of turions collected from 2009-
2011, viability of turions, fish transect data from 1998-2010, and species richness and evenness of the
aquatic flora to assess the effectiveness of the management program. Pre-determined sites will be re-
analyzed with pipe sieves and shifters to obtain numbers of turions at different levels of the benthic water
column.

DESCRIPTION: The objective of the study is to determine if the program for curly pondweed
management is being successful in terms of reducing the abundance of curly pondweed turions,
improving fish populations/quality back to pre-infestation levels, and maintaining a rich flora of native
aquatic plant species even in the midst of whole-lake herbicide treatments.
KEY WORDS: MANAGEMENT, CURLY PONDWEED, DENSITY ESTIMATES, VIABILITY
SESSION TOPICS: INVASIVE EXOTIC SPECIES MANAGEMENT


THE FLORIDA COOPERATIVE LAND COVER MAP: A STATEWIDE PARTNERSHIP TO IMPROVE
LAND COVER FOR CONSERVATION. Amy Knight, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee, FL,
USA, 32303 (850) 224-8207. aknight@fnai.org. Amy Knight, 1018 Thomasville Road, Suite 200-C,
Tallahassee, FL, 32303, 850-224-8207. aknight@fnai.org.

The Cooperative Land Cover Map was a project to develop an improved statewide land cover map from
existing sources, and expert review of aerial photography for focal communities. This work was funded
through the State Wildlife Grants program and addressed a specific goal of Florida’s State Wildlife Action
Plan for improved land cover mapping. The new statewide map (published August 2010) includes 189
land cover classes and consists of over 6 million acres derived from ecologically-based local, regional
and site-specific sources and 1.4 million acres classified during aerial photo review by FNAI scientists.
The remaining area (32 million acres) consists of Land Use Land Cover data developed by the Florida
Department of Environmental Protection and Florida's water management districts. All data were
crosswalked into the Florida Land Cover Classification System developed by the Florida Fish and Wildlife
Conservation Commission in 2009. This project resulted in substantial improvements to the statewide
mapping of nine priority natural communities: scrub, scrubby flatwoods, sandhill, dry prairie, pine
rockland, rockland hammock, upland glade, upland pine, and mesic flatwoods. The Cooperative Land
Cover Map is being used in statewide conservation GIS analyses such as the Florida Forever
Conservation Needs Assessment and the Critical Lands and Waters Identification Project (CLIP) as well
as habitat planning and management for rare species.

DESCRIPTION: This poster describes methods for developing the Florida Cooperative Land Cover Map
and shows the statewide distribution and acreage of nine priority natural communities.
KEY WORDS: LAND COVER, VEGETATION, NATURAL COMMUNITIES
SESSION TOPICS: Conservation Planning; Species and Communities Conservation
FORMAT: Poster Presentation
DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS TO INFORM PRIORITIES AND MEASURE PROGRESS OF THE
FLORIDA FOREVER PROGRAM. Amy Knight, Jon Oetting and Gary Knight. Florida Natural Areas
Inventory, Tallahassee, FL, USA, 32303 (850) 224-8207. aknight@fnai.org; joetting@fnai.org;
gknight@fnai.org. Amy Knight, 1018 Thomasville Road, Suite 200-C, Tallahassee, FL, 32303, 850-224-
8207. aknight@fnai.org.

The Florida Forever Conservation Needs Assessment is a statewide analysis of resources to help inform
the state’s Florida Forever environmental land acquisition program. The Assessment includes 14 GIS
data layers representing a diverse set of statewide natural resources. We have incorporated Assessment
data into an iterative site selection (ISS) model using MARXAN software which evaluates hexagonal
planning units to identify sites that efficiently contribute resources to the overall conservation portfolio.
We use ISS results in two primary ways: 1) The Florida Forever Tool for Efficient Resource Acquisition
and Conservation (F-TRAC) provides a concise comparison of resources for more than 100 projects.
This tool helps inform decision-makers in their ranking of projects proposed for acquisition. The model
confirms that many of the current Florida Forever projects are targeting important resources, and also
proactively identifies areas of the state where new acquisition projects should be considered. 2) The
Florida Forever Benchmarks report measures progress of the Florida Forever program in meeting
resource goals. The benchmarks analysis compares actual resources acquired against resource
benchmarks established with the ISS model. Recent benchmarks results show that the program has
been very effective in acquiring surface waters, wetlands and forestry resources but could improve
protection for species, natural communities and aquifer recharge. These tools, which were designed with
input from an expert technical working group, help improve accountability and effectiveness of the Florida
Forever program.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation will describe how decision support tools based on iterative site
selection models using MARXAN are used to inform acquisition priorities and help measure progress of
the Florida Forever environmental land acquisition program.
KEY WORDS: CONSERVATION, LAND ACQUISITION, NATURAL RESOURCES, MARXAN
SESSION TOPICS: Conservation Planning; Public Land Acquisition and Management
FORMAT: Oral Presentation


THE NATURE CONSERVANCY’S CENTRAL GULF COOPERATIVE STEWARDSHIP TEAM: A
CONCEPT FOR FIRE AND INVASIVE EXOTIC SPECIES MANAGEMENT Bryan Kreiter, Bill Rivers,
Brian Dugan, Alex Entrup, Brett Gianelloni, and Jodey Hall. Central Gulf Cooperative, MS and LA
Operating Units, The Nature Conservancy. bkreiter@tnc.org; brivers@tnc.org; bdugan@tnc.org;
aentrup@tnc.org; bgianelloni@tnc.org; jhall@tnc.org. Bryan Kreiter, 10910 Hwy. 57, Suite C., Vancleave,
MS 39565, 1-228-591-1116. bkreiter@tnc.org

The Central Gulf Cooperative (CGC) is the collaborative effort of The Nature Conservancy’s Louisianna
and Mississippi Operating Units (OU) to achieve common ecosystem management objectives through
resource and idea sharing. The CGC is involved in a broad spectrum of stewardship activities; however,
our work focuses primarily on restoring, enhancing, and maintaining longleaf pine communities through
the application of ecologically appropriate fire regimes and targeted control of invasive exotic species.
Sharing staff, equipment, and expertise helps each state achieve more than could be possible
individually.
The work of the CGC extends beyond TNC owned and operating lands, offering support to State,
Federal, and private stakeholders through prescribed fire implementation assistance, invasive exotic
species treatments, and support of the MS and LA Prescribed Fire Councils.
The structure of CGC is comprised of one RXB2 Burn Boss and two Stewardhip/Fire Technicians in each
Operating Unit. Additionally, each OU has two AD fire staff that can be called upon as needed. The crews
can work individually or join together for implementing prescribed burns or large projects. Our goal is to
continue to increase the capacity of each OU to the point where two prescribed burns can be
implemented separately on the same day or combine the crews to complete larger or more complex
burns.
Funding for the team is generated through a combination of private donation, State and Federal grants,
USDA Farm Bill cost share programs, and revenue generated from TNC operated mitigation banks.

DESCRIPTION:
KEY WORDS: FIRE MANAGEMENT, LONGLEAF PINE, INVASIVE EXOTIC SPECIES, RESTORATION
SESSION TOPICS: Fire Management, Invasive Exotic Species Management, Ecosystem and Habitat
Restoration
FORMAT: Poster Presentation


COLLABORATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR SPONSORING CUTTING EDGE RESEARCH AND EFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATION ON IMPORTANT LAND MANAGEMENT ISSUES IN FLORIDA. Melissa M. Kreye,
Taylor Stein and Nancy Peterson. Conserved Forest Ecosystems Outreach and Research, School of
Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida. mkreye@ufl.edu; tstine@ufl.edu; njp@ufl.edu.
Melissa M. Kreye, PO box 110410, Gainesville, FL 32611, 352-846-0546, mkreye@ufl.edu

Florida’s forests are under increasing pressure from development, climate change, and fire suppression.
Therefore, land managers have an immense need for scientifically derived management strategies as
well as the effective communication of innovative ecological, economic, and sociological information
applicable to management needs and successful strategies for the sustained production of commodity
products and ecosystem services. However, as budgets continue to decrease, it is difficult for land
management organizations to independently develop research and outreach programs, which will allow
them to identify innovative and effective natural resource management strategies. Conserved Forest
Ecosystems: Outreach and Research (CFEOR) is a unique cooperative of land managers and the
University of Florida working together to facilitate integrative research and outreach activities with
particular interest in public and family forests. Research solutions brought about by collaboration include
the pooling of funds, intellectual resources and in-kind support for short and long term research projects
as well as increasing the chances of securing outside funding, such as federal grants, through
organizational influence. Outreach successes include the multi-award winning Updates newsletter with
articles written by major land managers and University of Florida faculty members, a diversity of
workshops from technical training to field tours of member projects, partnerships with professional land
management training programs and the University of Florida Extension. CFEOR’s ability to generate
collaboration among researchers and managers can catalyze major leaps forward in social and ecological
knowledge as well as the ability to share that information so that new practices can be quickly
implemented.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation will discuss the mission of the CFEOR cooperative and how
collaboration among CFEOR members provides creative solutions for sponsoring high quality research
and outreach in land management issues.
KEY WORDS: conservation, cooperative, research, outreach, land management
SESSION TOPICS: Conservation planning, Ecosystem and habitat restoration
FORMAT: Paper presentation


VALUING NUTRIENT POLLUTION PREVENTION IN WELL-CONSERVED AQUATIC SYSTEMS: A
                                  1                 1                      2,                 1
META-ANALYSIS. Melissa M. Kreye , Damian Adams and Tatiana Borisova Francisco Escobedo .
1                                                                                    2
 School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida. mkreye@ufl.edu. Food and
Resource Economics Department, University of Florida.
Melissa M. Kreye, PO box 110410, Gainesville, FL 32611, 352-846-0546, mkreye@ufl.edu

Nutrient pollution from anthropogenic sources is one of the top causes of impairment of water resources
in the US, and it is increasingly important to prevent deterioration of the water bodies that are still
relatively undisturbed. Forest ecosystems play a particularly significant role in reducing nutrient pollution
and protecting water quality. Most well conserved aquatic systems, designated as “good” or fully
provisioning according to the states and/or EPA classification, are located in forested and rural areas and
are under increasing pressure of urbanization and land use change. Information about the economic and
environmental benefits associated with preserving forested and rural areas is frequently lacking. The
focus of this study is to estimate the public’s willingness to pay (WTP) for water resource protection and
forest conservation programs. Estimating WTP to protect “good” systems provides a baseline for
understanding the potential benefits of preventing nutrient pollution in impaired aquatic systems, and may
inform modeling efforts for both impaired and non-impaired systems. The public’s WTP for various kinds
of water resource protection and forest conservation programs helps drive policy development, and
establishing these values can improve water resource policy effectiveness. We use a meta-analysis
approach to summarize WTP for water resource protection and related forest conservation programs.
Our analysis indicates several important drivers of WTP: type of conservation program, benefits
generated, aquatic resources and project scope influence WTP. These results suggest important policy
and program features that should be carefully considered by policy makers.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation will discuss the results of a meta-analysis identifying what drivers
influence the public’s willingness to pay to protect relatively unimpaired water resources.
KEY WORDS: nutrient pollution, conservation, willingness to pay, water
SESSION TOPICS: Conservation planning, Public Land Acquisition and Management
FORMAT: Poster presentation

                                                                                               1
PINES AND PARADIGMS: LONGLEAF PINE FOR A CHANGING CLIMATE. John S. Kush , Sharon
         1,2                1                  1 1
Hermann , John C. Gilbert , and Becky Barlow . Longleaf Pine Stand Dynamics Laboratory, School of
                                                   1                     2
Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University. kushjoh@auburn.edu; Department of Biological
                                                     1                     1
Sciences, Auburn University. hermasm@auburn.edu; gilbejo@auburn.edu; becky_barlow@auburn.edu.
John S. Kush, 3301 Forestry & Wildlife, Auburn University, AL 36849 334-844-1065.
kushjoh@auburn.edu

Longleaf pine once covered nearly 2/3 of the Southeast. Excessive utilization reduced longleaf acreage
to less than 3% of its original extent before concerns were raised about the loss. This species is deemed
so important to the region that all federal land holding agencies and state forestry commissions in the
range of longleaf currently have programs that promote planting the tree. One of the major reasons
federal agencies are interested in its restoration are that several threatened and endangered species are
associated with this ecosystem. Restoration efforts extend beyond public land to private properties. The
majority of forested land in the Southeast is privately owned, and so no restoration effort can be
successful without engaging the private landowner. Due to an incomplete knowledge of the ecology of
longleaf pine, the species has often been mismanaged. Education/extension programs are needed to
overcome numerous misconceptions about longleaf and to raise awareness of the public about the many
opportunities it offers as the species most-adapted to the Southeast uplands, the species most-suited to
cope with climate change, an ecosystem that may offer the best opportunity for long-term carbon storage,
and the species which may provide landowners the most diversified multiple-use opportunities to
generate value from their property. Data from several region-wide long-term studies and what was the
Flomaton Natural Area will be used to address longleaf pine for a changing climate.
DESCRIPTION: This presentation will focus on the ecology and management of longleaf pine, especially
as it relates to restoration. Real world examples will be presented to make the case for longleaf pine and
a changing climate.
KEY WORDS: LONGLEAF PINE, RESTORATION, EDUCATION, CLIMATE CHANGE
SESSION TOPICS: Conservation at the Landscape Level, Species and Communities Conservation,
Current Research and Land Management Techniques
FORMAT: Oral Presentation


HYDROLOGIC RESTORATION OF A GOPHER TORTOISE MITIGATION AREA (LAFAYETTE
FOREST WILDLIFE ENVIRONMENTAL AREA). Aric Larson, Frank Powell, Craig Cowdery.
WRS Infrastructure & Environment, Inc., DBA WRScompass. alarson@wrscompass.com;
fpowell@wrscompass.com; ccowdery@wrscompass.com. Aric Larson, 508-A Capital Circle SE,
Tallahassee, FL, 32301. (850) 531-9860. alarson@wrscompass.com. Frank Powell, 508-A Capital
Circle SE, Tallahassee, FL, 32301. (850) 531-9860. fpowell@wrscompass.com.

In the spring of 2010, WRS was tasked by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
(FFWCC) to perform a hydrology assessment and conceptual restoration plan for the 2,100-acre
Lafayette Forest Wildlife Environmental Area (WEA) in Lafayette County, Florida, acquired in 2009 to
serve as a gopher tortoise mitigation park. Over several decades prior to FFWCC’s acquisition, the
property’s mosaic of natural communities consisting of sandhill, mesic flatwoods, swamp, and marsh
habitats were severely degraded by the implementation of silviculture. A large ditch was also constructed
through the property to de-water adjacent wetlands and maximize usable land for silviculture.

To evaluate the impacts of the ditch on local hydrology, WRS conducted a series of discharge
measurements at multiple points on the ditch to determine net gains and losses. Additionally,
piezometers were installed and measured, and compared to ditch water and ditch bed elevations.
Resulting data showed that the ditch was intercepting groundwater and impeding surface water flow to
adjacent wetlands. A restoration plan was developed to minimize these problems. Consideration was
also given to possible impacts on gopher tortoises. Prior to implementing the restoration plan, WRS has
proposed to conduct burrow surveys and baseline vegetation analysis on gopher tortoise habitat that may
be adversely affected by hydrologic restoration. If necessary, identified tortoises will be relocated on-site
to habitat unaffected by the hydrological changes. Vegetation surveys will be conducted at regular
intervals and compared to the baseline data to determine how gopher tortoise habitat is being affected by
hydrologic changes.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation will provide the audience with an example of how to balance the
importance of restoring hydrology to a natural area and the needs of ecologically important species that
have already adapted to that area.
KEYWORDS: HYDROLOGY, NATURAL COMMUNITIES, RESTORATION, WILDLIFE
ENVIRONMENTAL AREA (WEA), GOPHER TORTOISE
SESSION TOPICS: Species and Communities Conservation, Monitoring and Tracking of Species and
Communities, Ecosystem and Habitat Restoration, Public Land Acquisition and Management
FORMAT: Oral Presentation



CAN REGIONAL CONSERVATION DESIGN ABATE THE EFFECTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE
CHANGE? Kaelin Larson and Vickie Larson, Ecospatial Analysts, Inc., vlarson@ecospatialanalysts.com
Vickie Larson, 102 Quinby Street, Summerville, SC 29483 vlarson@ecospatialanalysts.com

The global increasing in temperatures may result in an increasing sea level rise. As a result of sea level
change there may be detrimental effect on the natural communities and species in the coastal Florida
county of Brevard. Assuming that sea level rise may occur due to a constant increase in global
temperature; the natural communities may also be altered and subsequently affect species distribution in
Brevard County. A single IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change) sea level prediction scenario
(scenario 4) was used to represent regional change in sea levels. The sea level rise predictions were
modeled using GIS for 50, 100, and 200 years time periods. Analysis indicated that natural communities
will experience significant and growing change over the next 200 years. Results focused on natural
communities and animal adaptations and resulted in a regional conservation plan designed
to characterize change of specific habitats and animal species that would be impacted if sea level rise
occurred in the future. The conservation design encompassed both the coastal barrier islands and the
mainland. The regional conservation design emphasized target ecosystems and species that may be
significantly impacted. Results showed that effective conservation may be achieved through natural
species adaptation or may require assisted migration to relieve species from potentially slow habitat
transformation resulting in endangerment or extinction.

DESCRIPTION FOR PROGRAM: This presentation provides GIS models of natural community impacts
related to sea level rise and potential changes in species distribution for three time periods. A regional
conservation design was developed to reduce the potential effects of climate change in the coastal
region.
KEY WORDS: climate change, sea level rise, GIS, regional conservation, species distribution, spatial
modeling
SESSION TOPICS: Conservation Planning – Climate Change
FORMAT: Oral presentation



CAN RYE COVER CROPS LIMIT ALLIARIA PETIOLATA AND PROMOTE PRAIRIE RESTORATION
IN WESTERN WISCONSIN? Lucas Lee, Blia Yang, and Amanda Little. University of Wisconsin-Stout.
leelu@my.uwstout.edu; yangbl@my.uwstout.edu; littlea@uwstout.edu Lucas Lee, University of
Wisconsin-Stout Biology Department, 712 S Broadway, Menomonie, WI 54751, leelu@my.uwstout.edu

We are seeking to treat an area of a city trail in Menomonie, WI that is heavily overrun by Alliaria petiolata
(garlic mustard – GM) with the installation of a prairie restoration. The area was divided into eighteen
plots which were surveyed by student courses in spring of 2010. Groups estimated percent cover of GM
and other plants in five subplots within each of the larger plots. From the pre-treatment vegetation survey,
we found that when garlic mustard cover is high, then the cover of other vegetation is low. When GM
cover is low, the cover of other vegetation can range from high to low. At the end of spring 2010,
Roundup herbicide (glyphosate) was applied to prepare the site. In fall of 2010, we removed dead
vegetation and planted the site with a prairie seed mix and three different cover crop treatments to see
which will be most effective at suppressing GM: annual rye (Secale cereale), perennial rye (Lolium
perenne), and no cover crop. We hypothesize that annual rye may be more effective in suppressing
vegetation in the spring, so may be effective at outcompeting the GM. The perennial rye will be very
effective, but is also allelopathic so it may suppress the prairie vegetation as well as the GM. June 2011
survey results will be reported.

Description: Annual and perennial rye cover crops compete with garlic mustard in a prairie restoration.
Keywords: ALLIARIA PETIOLATA, PRAIRIE RESTORATION, COVER CROP
Session Topics: Invasive Exotic Species Management, Ecosystem and Habitat Restoration
Presentation format: Poster presentation


The Impact of Invasive Beachgrasses on the Flora of a Coastal Dune Complex within Pacific Rim
                                                                                      1
National Park Reserve, British Columbia and its Subsequent Restoration. Philip Lee ,Danielle
          3                 2              3                   4 1
Bellefleur , Ross Vennesland , Mike Collyer , and Sibylla Helms . Western and Northern Service Centre,
                                                                      2
Parks Canada Agency, philip.lee@pc.gc.ca, ross.vennesland@pc.gc.ca Pacific Rim National Park
Reserve, Parks Canada Agency, danielle.bellefleur@pc.gc.ca, mike.collyer@pc.gc.ca,
sibylla.helms@pc.gc.ca

Philip Lee, Western and Northern Service Centre, Parks Canada Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia,
V6B 6B4 philip.lee@pc.gc.ca

In the 1920's, non-native beachgrasses, Ammophila spp. were purposefully introduced to British
Columbia by Europeans settling along the coast. Since that time, it has spread through anthropogenic
and natural means to a number of dune systems. This study examines the impact of beachgrass invasion
on a coastal dune complex within Pacific Rim National Park Reserve, British Columbia. Through the
ecological integrity monitoring program and State of the Park reporting, management priority was give to
the restoration of coastal dune ecosystems. Using a series of historical aerial photographs and field
sampling, a retrospective record was constructed of the vegetation changes that have occurred. This
includes the 1). Development of a primary dune ridge, 2) Encroachment of Sitka spruce and other forest
species over the dunes, 3). Loss of native grasslands and associated species, and 4) Loss of rare and at
risk species including; yellow sand verbena, Abronia latifolia, grey peavine, Lathyrus latifolia, beach
morning glory, Convulvus soldana, and beach carrot, Glehnia littoralis. We also present results of the
current restoration program to remove Ammophila spp and spruce by hand and using heavy machinery.
As of the end of 2011, the dune complex is set to be restored to pre-1930 levels of Ammophila spp.
coverage. This sets the stage for the recovery of topographic features and native vegetation over the
ensuing years.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation will retrospectively examine the impact of invasive beachgrasses on
the flora and succession of a coastal dune complex. It also outlines the current restoration efforts through
the removal of Ammophila spp, and Spruce islands and recovery of native vegetation including rare and
at risk species.
KEY WORDS: coastal dunes, Ammophila, yellow sand verbena, grey peavine, beach ryegrass
SESSION TOPICS: Ecosystem and Habitat Restoration
FORMAT: Oral Presentation


PLANTS OF CONCERN: CITIZEN SCIENTISTS IN A REGIONAL RARE PLANT MONITORING
PROGRAM – RESULTS AND TRENDS AFTER 10 YEARS. Susanne Masi¹ and Greg Hitzroth¹.
¹Division of Plant Science and Conservation, Chicago Botanic Garden. smasi@chicagobotanic.org;
ghitzroth@chicagobotanic.org. Susanne Masi, 1000 Lake Cook Road, Glencoe, IL, 60022. 847-835-
8269. smasi@chicagobotanic.org.

Plants of Concern (POC), a citizen science-based rare plant monitoring program coordinated through the
                                                                  th
Chicago Botanic Garden for the Chicago region, completed its 10 year in 2010. Since 2001, POC has
trained over 540 dedicated volunteers, partnered with 91 public (federal, state, local) and private
landowners, and monitored 224 endangered, threatened and rare species at 273 sites in 12 counties. A
standardized monitoring protocol, approved by an Advisory Group of land managers, scientists and
volunteers, is used consistently throughout the region and makes comparisons across state and county
lines possible. A major program goal is to show changes in rare plant populations in response to
management over time in an adaptive management process. Results reported to land managers alert
them to potential threats to populations, aid in creating management plans, and indicate beneficial
practices.

The presentation describes the POC program’s structure and scope and presents examples of some
regional trends in selected rare species populations that are beginning to emerge from this long-term
dataset. It focuses on real benefits for rare plants through examples showing responses of stewards and
land managers to POC reports. Finally, the presentation emphasizes how trained citizen scientist
involvement contributes reliable scientific data and leverages scarce agency time and personnel
resources.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation discusses Plants of Concern, a long-term monitoring program, has
trained citizen scientists to use a standardized protocol to monitor rare plants throughout the Chicago
region since 2001. The presentation describes the program’s scope, select results from 10 years of data,
including population trends and adaptive management responses to reported threats, and the scientific
value of volunteer contributions.
KEY WORDS: ENDANGERED SPECIES, PLANT MONITORING, CITIZEN SCIENCE, CHICAGO
REGION
SESSION TOPIC: Monitoring and Tracking of Species and Communities
FORMAT: Oral Presentation


DETERMINING THE SUCCESS OF THE GENIUS PRESERVE CEDAR GROVE RESTORATION.
Stacey Matrazzo. Rollins College / Genius Preserve, Winter Park, FL. stacey@impactpress.com.
Stacey Matrazzo, 1100 Delaney Ave #F206, Orlando, FL 32806 407-590-5321.
stacey@impactpress.com.

A successful restoration project not only restores ecological health to a site, it also fosters landscape
coherence and is easily be understood by the observer. The Genius Preserve is a privately owned, 50-
acre tract situated between three lakes in urban Winter Park, FL. In a 2003 analysis, 2 acres of its
historically mesic habitat revealed stands of Southern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana), Southern
magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) and pignut hickory (Carya glabra) under a tangled canopy of exotic
invasives including earpod tree (Enterolobium contortisiliquum), Chinaberry (Melia azedarach), camphor
tree (Cinnamomum camphora) and Mexican flame vine (Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides). In 2004, a
comprehensive restoration and management plan was established to restore the natural aesthetic of the
"Cedar Grove" and create a coherent and ecologically functional habitat. The plan was determined by
conducting a detailed inventory using historical information such as aerial maps, photographic records
and documented landscape changes. FLUCFCS criteria and soil and moisture conditions were
considered to determine specific habitat structure as well as ecological and management needs; an
appropriate vegetation palette and design were selected including wild coffee (Psychotria nervosa),
coontie (Zamia pumila), American beautyberry (Callicarpa americana), Chickasaw plum (Prunus
angustifolia), saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) and yellow anise (Illicium parviflorum). Remnant natives
were also integrated into the plan. This presentation examines the project's success by documenting the
current species inventory, determining the growth of volunteer species, and contrasting this data to the
pre-restoration habitat.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation will examine the ecological health and coherence of a restored site by
comparing its current species inventory with historical, pre-restoration data.
KEY WORDS: RESTORATION, SPECIES INVENTORY, LANDSCAPE COHERENCE, INVASIVE
MANAGEMENT
SESSION TOPICS: Invasive Exotic Species Management; Monitoring and Tracking of Species and
Communities; Conservation at the Landscape Level; Ecosystem and Habitat Restoration
FORMAT: Poster Presentation.

DESIGN FOR IMPLEMENTING LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL DESIGN IN SOUTH PORTUGUESE
URBAN SPACES WITH LOW POPULATION DENSITY Matos, Rute Sousa; Godinho, Sérgio.
CHAIA Research Group. University of Évora (Portugal) / Department of Landscape, Environment and
Planning / Largo dos Colegiais / Apartado 94 ( 7001 Évora Codex / Portugal.
sergio.f.godinho@gmail.com. Sérgio Godinho Rua António Passaporte, 1 RC Esq 7005-300 Évora
PORTUGAL +351967366053 sergio.f.godinho@gmail.com
When we think about landscape ecological knowledge in the urban development, what comes to our mind
are the huge, chaotic and continuous metropolitan areas in the contemporary cities. But nowadays, this
question should also be related to villages and other small urban spaces, most of them characterized by a
low population density, where is indispensable a coherent ecological structure, i.e., it is essential to
reconcile the ecological structure of a place with its inhabitants’ needs. In the Landscape Architecture
field, these circumstances are now creating new challenges.

With this paper we intend to explain how the landscape design can improve the ecological knowledge in
small urban areas. To achieve this goal, our research for landscape ecological knowledge was based
upon a study on a specific region in Alentejo, Portugal, and we used several indicators such as ecological
profiles, biophysical character, water conservation and rationalization, erosion control, slope stabilization,
native plants and plants that can be adapted to this climate region.

The goal for landscape ecological design in this case-study is defined from several points of view. It is not
only used an ecological or environmental approach, but also a social, cultural and economical one.

The study on this region in Alentejo resulted on a design approach for a specific open urban space which
began with a conceptual phase and a master plan and ended with a technical design and, with this, we
aimed to give an aesthetic look to the balance between man and nature.

DESCRIPTION: Ecological issues can offer us an aesthetic look to the balance between man and nature.
SESSION TOPICS: Conservation at the Landscape Level
FORMAT: Poster presentation.


STEEPHEADS, FLORIDA'S POCKET WILDERNESSES: DESCRIPTION, ECOLOGY, AND THREATS.
D. Bruce Means, Coastal Plains Institute and Land Conservancy, Tallahassee, FL 32303.
means@bio.fsu.edu. D. Bruce Means, 1313 Milton Street, Tallahassee, FL 32303, 850-681-6208.
means@bio.fsu.edu.

Steepheads are special ravine valleys formed by spring sapping from surficial aquifers in deep sands
underlain by a confining layer of clays and cemented sands. Normally, ravines are formed by rainwater
gullying the ground surface. Gully-eroded ravines are V-shaped in cross-section and their heads taper to
thin points near the top of the local drainage divide; they are dry unless it has recently rained.
Steepheads are amphitheater-shaped box canyons that have U-shaped valley cross-sections and
permanent spring flow at their source as well as along the valley sidewalls. Steephead ravines are
deeply incised into the landscape from 7-35 m down 45˚ slopes at their heads. Steepheads are found in
a narrow latitudinal band from Santa Rosa to Leon counties in the Florida panhandle and a few in Clay
and Putnam counties. Hydrologically, steepheads are thermally relatively constant with seepage waters
of about 21˚C. Panhandle Florida steepheads are dominated by Magnolia virginiana, Illicium floridanum,
and Ilex coriacea. Their litter and that which slides down the steep valley sidewall slopes supporting trees
of the Southern Temperate Hardwood Forest, forms substantial peat and muck beds along seepages of
the stream valley sidewalls. Because of their steep slopes, steephead ecosystems are pocket
wildernesses, many of which have received very little human disturbance. Steepheads are home to a
number of Florida endemic animals and plants as well as northern relict populations and may have
served as important refugia during Pleistocene climate fluctuations. Impoundments, feral hogs, and
wellfield effects on the surficial aquifers are their main threats.
DESCRIPTION FOR PROGRAM: This Powerpoint presentation will consist of illustrations describing the
physical/hydrological features and color images of steepheads, their plant communities, and unique
species.
KEY WORDS: STEEPHEAD, FLORIDA, WILDERNESS
SESSION TOPICS: Species and Communities Conservation, Monitoring and Tracking of Species and
Communities, Conservation at the Landscape Level
FORMAT: Oral presentation.

PYTHON PATROL: BRINGING A MODEL OF EARLY DETECTION RAPID RESPONSE TO THE
MAINLAND OF FLORIDA. Cheryl B. Millett1, Alison M. Higgins2, Skip Snow3, and Jennifer Ketterlin
Eckles4. 1The Nature Conservancy, Florida. cmillett@tnc.org . 2Florida Keys Cooperative Invasive
Species Management Area. Alison.Higgins@InTheKeys.org . 3Everglades National Park.
Skip_Snow@nps.gov . 4Exotic Species Coordination Section, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation
Commission. Jennifer.Ketterlin@MyFWC.com. Cheryl B. Millett, The Nature Conservancy, P.O. Box 630,
Babson Park, FL 33827; 863-635-7506. cmillett@tnc.org.

The non-native, invasive Burmese python (Pythonus molurus bivittatus) is breeding in the Everglades of
south Florida. Land managers are concerned about the impacts on Florida ecosystems and restoration
efforts, federal and state listed species, and human safety. Several governmental and non-governmental
agencies are working to prevent this invasive snake’s northward spread on mainland Florida and
southward into the Florida Keys. Early detection and rapid response (EDRR) efforts increase the
likelihood that range expansions will be addressed successfully while populations are still localized and
containment is possible. The costs associated with EDRR efforts are typically far less than those of long-
term invasive species control programs. Python Patrol trains detectors and responders, linking them with
telephone and online reporting systems, to respond to invasive snake sightings in a timely manner to stop
the spread of invasive snakes.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation will introduce Python Patrol, a model of Early Detection and Rapid
Response addressing the range expansion of Burmese pythons out of the Florida Everglades. This
program,which originated in the Florida Keys, is now being implemented on the mainland of Florida,
addressing key components, partners and progress.
KEY WORDS: PYTHON, INVASIVE, EARLY DETECTION, RAPID RESPONSE, PARTNERSHIP.
SESSION TOPICS: Invasive Exotic Species Management.
FORMAT: Oral Presentation



CONSTRUCTED GRAVEL HILL PRAIRIE: 16 YEARS OF VEGETATIVE MONITORING. Joan
               1                   1           1, 2             2 1
O’Shaughnessy , David Sollenberger , Dan Larkin , Byron Tsang . Chicago Botanic Garden.
joshaugh@chicagobotanic.org; dsollenberger@chicagobotanic.org; dlarkin@chicagobotanic.org.
2
 Northwestern University-Chicago Botanic Garden Plant Biology and Conservation.
byron.tsang@gmail.com. Joan O’Shaughnessy, Chicago Botanic Garden, 1000 Lake Cook Road,
Glencoe, IL 60022. joshaugh@chicagobotanic.org.

Historically, gravel hill prairies were locally common in the Chicago region. Created by glacial outwash,
they often occurred wherever glacial melt water influenced the local landscape. Numbers of these prairie
remnants have been destroyed through modern development; the sand and gravel beneath providing a
profitable natural resource. The Chicago Botanic Garden, in Glencoe, Illinois, constructed and planted a
gravel hill prairie (hectares: .55) in 1992 as one of several exhibits of common prairie habitats that
occurred in the region. Sixteen years (over a 19-year period) of vegetative monitoring, employing the
Floristic Quality Assessment methodology, has occurred on this site. Analysis of changes in vegetation
over time and its response to habitat management practices shall be presented.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation will present analysis of 16 years of vegetative monitoring of a
constructed gravel hill prairie.
KEY WORDS: gravel hill prairie, vegetation monitoring, constructed.
SESSION TOPICS: Constructed Gravel Hill Prairie: 16 Years of Vegetative Monitoring.
FORMAT: Poster Presentation.



A SPATIALLY EXPLICIT AND TIME EFFICIENT MONITORING METHOD FOR TRACKING SPECIES
AND NATURAL COMMUNITIES UTILIZING GPS. Beatriz Pace-Aldana. The Nature Conservancy.
bpace-aldana@tnc.org. Beatriz Pace-Aldana, Lake Wales Ridge Program, PO Box 630, Babson Park,
Florida 33827. bpace-aldana@tnc.org.

The Nature Conservancy has developed a GIS/GPS based monitoring protocol that has greatly improved
our ability to assess species status and habitat conditions across multiple sites totaling over 20,000 acres.
Because of limited staff, for decades we struggled to meet our monitoring needs until we acquired GIS
and GPS technology. In addition to mapping of rare species locations, fire boundaries, and monitoring
stations, we collect spatially explicit information within “virtual’ plots to capture habitat conditions and
frequency and abundance of rare species across our managed habitats. Monitoring grids and plots are
located using ArcPad on a GPS unit with sub-meter accuracy and real-time correction. Because we no
longer have to deal with locating posts marking plot corners or laying out tapes through dense vegetation
to define plot boundaries, we are able to collect data far more quickly and thus able to collect more
information across larger areas with the limited staff available.

This spatially explicit approach to monitoring has also greatly improved our ability to convey habitat
information to others. Maps of the monitored areas are made with symbology depicting the results of the
data collection. Such presentations of data have been far more informative than providing only means
and other statistical parameters summarizing results across an entire area. The maps illustrate where and
to what extent species or habitats are within or outside of target conditions so that appropriate
management strategies can be developed.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation will describe a time efficient approach to monitoring rare species
abundance and frequency and habitat composition and structure. Using GPS units to define plot locations
and boundaries and utilizing ocular estimations as much as possible, we are able to collect more data
across larger areas than with previous methods.
KEY WORDS: MONITORING, GIS, GPS
SESSION TOPICS: Monitoring and Tracking of Species and Communities
FORMAT: Oral Presentation


BUILDING A DYNAMIC REFERENCE MODEL: DEVELOPING TOOLS FOR MANAGING A
                                            1                  1            2              3
CHANGING ECOSYSTEM. Scott Pokswinski , Katherine Kirkman , Kevin Hiers , Analie Barnett , Robert
        1 1
Mitchell . Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center. spokswin@jonesctr.org,
                                              2
kkirkman@jonesctr.org, rmitchel@jonesctr.org. Eglin Air Force Base Natural Resources, Jackson Guard.
                        3
john.hiers@eglin.af.mil. The Nature Conservancy, Southern Resource Office. abarnett@tnc.org. Scott
Pokswinski, 420 E Williams Ave, Crestview, FL 32539 850-398-7394 spokswin@jonesctr.org.

Development of reference models that can withstand the dynamism of ecosystems with increasing
challenges from climate change and invasive species will become an important part of future
conservation research. The objective of this study is to define a resilient reference model for managing
sandhill ecosystems to aid in the recovery of the Red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW) on military bases. To
develop a dynamic reference model that gauges the impact of common forest restoration and
management practices (herbicides, fire and timber harvests) and predict the direction and rate of recovery
with respect to ecosystem management objectives, we resampled six reference and 20 restoration plots
that were studied in a landscape restoration experiment led by The Nature Conservancy from 1993-1998,
and resampled 1-ha high quality reference sandhill sites in an existing monitoring program at Eglin AFB.
Our preliminary multivariate analyses of vegetation composition change shows that forest structure of
experimental plots shift towards reference condition most in mechanical and herbicide treatments, and
there is only a minimal difference between all treatments when only understory is examined. While
providing insight into the impact of specific management practices, these results highlight the complexity
of identifying elements of reference conditions should be used to assess ecological recovery. Ultimately,
these data will be used to build forest dynamics modeling tools that can simulate RCW population
response to landscape-scale habitat changes through time and create a Decision Support Framework
that will automate statistical analysis on monitoring efforts to assess trends in condition relative to
trajectories in reference conditions.

DESCRIPTION: This poster highlights the importance of managing landscapes for change rather than a
desired state. Using methods and data from a TNC study, we are creating a multi-decadal dataset to help
build a Decision Support Framework for managing longleaf forests on military bases.
KEY WORDS: DYNAMIC REFERENCE CONCEPT, RESTORATION, LONGLEAF PINE, REFERENCE
CONDITIONS, FIRE
SESSION TOPICS: Species and Communities Conservation, Conservation Planning, Ecosystem and
Habitat Restoration, Current Research and Land Management Techniques
FORMAT: Poster presentation


LESSONS FROM TRANSITIONING TO ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT ON CONSERVATION LAND.
Aubrey L. Phillips and Deborah L. Blanco. Natural Resources, Sarasota County Government.
aphillip@scgov.net; dblanco@scgov.net. Aubrey L. Phillips, 1001 Sarasota Center Boulevard, Sarasota,
Florida 34240 941-650-3343. aphillip@scgov.net

Since the late 1990’s, land protection efforts by state and local governments have increased the number
of acres under conservation management. While community support of land protection efforts remains
high in Sarasota County, our citizens and local governments are challenged to maintain such services
during the economic recession. Diminished revenues to support the gamut of public programs require
government leaders make difficult choices relative to allocation of funds. As such, land managers are
challenged with accomplishing management objectives and ensuring ecosystem function and quality
while balancing ecological considerations with other community values and optimizing their operations to
mitigate the impact of diminished resources. A robust adaptive management approach may help address
these issues by facilitating accountability, efficiency, and informed decision making. This type of
comprehensive land management planning can provide a science-based framework to identify goals,
prioritize strategies, and analyze the effectiveness of conservation actions. Nevertheless, technical,
operational and institutional factors can present challenges when shifting to an adaptive approach. For
Sarasota County, this transition has depended upon the organization's ability to shift cultural norms,
address communication gaps, mitigate costs and risks and navigate uncertainty. By pursuing an organic,
staged implementation of the Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation, a peer-developed
approach, Sarasota County has been successful in managing these challenges.

DESCRIPTION: Adaptive management has the potential to provide substantial benefits for public land
management but there are significant impediments to implementing such a transition. In this presentation,
Sarasota County Government will share its experience navigating obstacles while initiating an adaptive
management approach to land management planning at the local level.
KEY WORDS: ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT, TRANSITION MANAGEMENT, LOCAL CONSERVATION,
PUBLIC LAND MANAGEMENT PLANNING
SESSION TOPICS: Conservation Planning; Public Land Acquisition and Management
FORMAT: Oral Presentation


ANALYSIS AND MAINTENANCE OF THE FLORIDA INVASIVE PLANTS GEODATABASE. Frank
Price. Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Florida State University. fprice@fnai.org. Frank Price, 1018
Thomasville Rd., Tallahassee, FL 32301. (850) 224-8201 x210. fprice@fnai.org
The Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI) has developed a system to standardize the mapping of
invasive plant infestations in Florida. With the assistance of land managing agencies around the state,
FNAI staff has used this system to compile a baseline invasive plant data set for each of the state’s
1,700+ public conservation lands. These data, describing over 200,000 exotic plant occurrences are
stored in the Florida Invasive Plants Geodatabase, an unparalleled resource for planning large scale
management of these species. This presentation will focus on summary and analysis of this data set and
discuss the management implications of findings. An overview of the use of the iMapInvasives online
invasive species mapping tool, in the maintenance of this database, will also be presented.

DESCRIPTION: The Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI) has recently completed the initial data
compilation and survey effort for a project to track invasive plant occurrences on all of the state’s 1,700+
public conservation lands. This presentation will focus on summary and analysis of the data collected,
discuss the management implications of findings and provide an overview of plans to use the
iMapInvasives online invasive species mapping tool to keep the database up to date.
KEYWORDS: INVASIVE, EXOTIC, PLANT, MANAGEMENT, GIS, IMAPINVASIVES
SESSION TOPICS: Invasive Exotic Species Management, Monitoring and Tracking of Species and
Communities
FORMAT: Oral presentation


A FIRST STUDENT PILOT CHAPTER OF THE NAA AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-STOUT.
Jake Pulfer, Travis Jones, and Amanda Little. University of Wisconsin-Stout. pulferj@my.uwstout.edu;
                                                                         th
jonestrav@my.uwstout.edu; littlea@uwstout.edu Jake Allen Pulfer 500 12 Ave West Apt #19,
Menomonie, Wisconsin 5475 608-354-7297. pulferj@my.uwstout.edu

The UW-Stout Natural Areas Club (a pilot student chapter of the Natural Areas Association) was created
to provide UW-Stout Environmental Science students with hands on experience in resource
management. After considering other national organizations, we approached the Natural Areas
Association because their main focus is on land restoration and management. Becoming a recognized
student organization at UW-Stout was relatively easy; the process involved submitting an electronic form
showing interested members and officers for the group. During the 2010 Natural Areas Conference we
discussed expectations with the NAA board members. These expectations were later formalized in a
Memorandum of Understanding, including a yearly organizational fee, access to speakers, and a reduced
Natural Areas Conference fee. During our first year we had a total of twenty weekly meetings and four
workshops including tree identification, chainsaw safety, and using GPS technology. We also had
numerous work days with The Prairie Enthusiasts collecting and spreading prairie seed, and removing
shrubs. Three work days were held in the UW-Stout Outdoor Classroom to remove large amounts
buckthorn and honeysuckle. Over spring break four students visited the University of Illinois-Carbondale
pilot student chapter of the NAA and explore the surrounding landscape. In the future the members of the
Natural Areas Club are looking forward to enhancing the Outdoor Classroom, and forming a professional
working relationship with the NAA members that will last for years to come.

Description: The UW-Stout Natural Areas Club, (a first pilot chapter of NAA), held meetings, workdays,
and field trips throughout our successful first year.
Keywords: Student chapter, Natural Areas Association
Session Topics: Ecosystem and Habitat Restoration, Conservation Planning
Format: Poster presentation


EVIDENCE FOR A DISTINCT SHORTLEAF PINE-OAK-HICKORY PLANT COMMUNITY IN THE
SOUTHEASTERN U.S. COASTAL PLAIN. Kevin M. Robertson and Angela M. Reid. Tall Timbers
Research Station and Land Conservancy. krobertson@ttrs.org; areid@ttrs.org. Kevin M. Robertson,
13093 Henry Beadel Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32312, 850-893-4153 ext. 254. krobertson@ttrs.org.

We investigated the hypothesis that the upland shortleaf pine-oak-hickory (Pinus echinata., Quercus and
Carya spp.) community type is a natural plant community that occurred on the pre-settlement landscape
of the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain in association and is distinct from upland longleaf pine-wiregrass
(Pinus palustris, Aristida stricta) and old-field shortleaf and loblolly (Pinus taeda) communities. We
                                                         2                                          2
compared understory species composition in 100 m plots, tree species composition in 1256 m plots,
and soil characteristics at 21 locations within upland longleaf pine-wiregrass communities, 24 locations
within proposed shortleaf pine-oak-hickory communities, and 28 locations in old-field shortleaf-loblolly
pine communities known to be post-agricultural, all managed with frequent fire (1-2 year intervals).
Multivariate analysis (NMS) showed the three community types to be floristically distinct. Of the total 225
plant species identified, indicator species analysis identified 54 species associated with longleaf pine-
wiregrass, 15 species associated with shortleaf pine-oak-hickory, and 25 species associated with old-field
community types. Longleaf pine-wiregrass and shortleaf pine-oak-hickory communities showed greater
depth of the A horizon than old-field communities, suggesting less erosion as expected for a native (never
plowed) community. However, shortleaf pine-oak-hickory communities had a shallower depth to the Bt
horizon and higher overall nutrient levels than longleaf pine-wiregrass, providing a possible or partial
explanation for the spatial segregation for these community types on the landscape. These results
should assist in identifying native shortleaf pine-oak-hickory forests for conservation.

DESCRIPTION: We conducted total plant species censuses and measured soil variables to test the
hypothesis that the Shortleaf pine-oak-hickory community type is floristically distinct and represents a
native community in northern Florida and southern Georgia. The results support our hypothesis and
provide a list of indicator species for native longleaf pine-wiregrass, native shortleaf pine-oak hickory, and
old-field shortleaf-loblolly pine community types.
KEY WORDS: NATURAL COMMUNITY, PINUS PALUSTRIS, MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS, LAND USE
HISTORY, OLD-FIELD FOREST, NATIVE GROUNDCOVER, SOIL DISTURBANCE, SOIL QUALITY
SESSION TOPICS: Species and Communities Conservation, Monitoring and Tracking of Species and
Communities, Conservation at the Landscape Level
FORMAT: Oral Presentation

                                                                                  1             2
METHOD FOR AMERICAN LOTUS CULTURE AND GROWTH Michael Ryon , Adam Riazi , Nick
     1                1 1
Goins , and Trent Jett . Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
                   2
ryonmg@ornl.gov. Lincoln County High School, West Virginia. ariazi@access.k12.wv.us. Michael G.
Ryon, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (865)574-7430.
ryonmg@ornl.gov

A technique for increasing the establishment rate of American lotus (Nelumbo lutea) was developed as
part of a pond remediation project. One of the goals of the remediation was to establish wetland plants in
the pond in order to bind PCB-contaminated sediments and limit bioavailability. The American lotus is a
plant that develops a dense rhizome network in sediments and can grow in water up to 2 meters in depth.
Thus, it offered a perfect species to use in the pond remediation, especially in the areas of the pond that
transition from shallow flats to deeper areas. Typical propagation techniques require scarification of the
seed, germination in heated water, and a variety of planting approaches are used, usually either mature
(~ 1 yr) nursery-grown stock or scarified seed application. Mature plants should grow quicker, but can be
sensitive to handling; scarified seeds are easier to plant but have a lag time in growth and can fail to
germinate. We developed an intermediate technique using small burlap bags that makes planting easier,
provides greater germination success, and avoids lag time in growth. Data on survival and growth from
experiments using mature stock, scarified seeds, and bagged lotus will be presented.

DESCRIPTION: A new technique for germinating and distributing seedlings of American lotus will be
presented which can be useful for restoration efforts in wetlands, lakes, and ponds.
KEYWORDS: PCB, WETLAND, RESTORATION, LOTUS
SESSION TOPICS: Ecosystem and Habitat Restoration (Wetland)
FORMAT: Poster Presentation


DOCUMENTING INVASIVENESS IN MISCANTHUS SINENSIS: SHOULD THE BIONERGY INDUSTRY
                                         1            1               1                 2              2 1
BE CONCERNED? Lauren D. Quinn , Tom Voigt , Ryan Stewart , David Matlaga , Adam Davis , Energy
Biosciences Institute, University of Illinois, ldquinn@illinois.edu, tvoigt@illinois.edu, rstewart@illinois.edu,
2
 USDA Agricultural Research Service, dmatlaga@illinois.edu, asdavis1@illinois.edu Lauren D. Quinn,
Energy Biosciences Institute, University of Illinois, 1206 W. Gregory St., Urbana, IL 61801. 708-753-3709.
ldquinn@illinois.edu

Miscanthus sinensis (Anderss.) is an ornamental grass species that has been present in the U.S. since
the late 1800’s. Recently, it has attracted the attention of some in the bioenergy industry who are
interested in breeding seeded lines of Miscanthus feedstocks. With its ability to set viable seed and
tolerate a wide range of adverse conditions, M. sinesis has been invading natural areas since its
introduction. It is now present in natural and disturbed areas across much of the southeastern U.S.
However, little research has been done to document and quantify these invasions. Therefore, we set out
to provide some of the first empirical data to describe the invasion behavior of this species. Through field
surveys and experimental studies, we show that M. sinensis can tolerate a wide range of environmental
conditions, attain high population densities, and disperse anemochorously over long distances. Our
results, along with ongoing research, suggest that this species has the capacity to spread beyond its
current distribution. This is of particular concern if M. sinensis or fertile (seed or pollen) relatives are
planted on a large scale for bionenergy production. Therefore, we urge the bioenergy industry to avoid or
plan for stringent containment of fertile pollen, seeds, and rhizome fragments in further development of M.
sinensis or other seeded Miscanthus varieties.

DESCRIPTION: Miscanthus sinensis, an invasive ornamental grass, is closely related to other
Miscanthus species used for bioenergy. Using M. sinensis as a proxy, we show that fertile varieties of
Miscanthus may spread and become invasive if produced on large scales for bioenergy.
KEY WORDS: BIOFUEL, DISPERSAL, ORNAMENTAL, PERENNIAL GRASS
SESSION TOPICS: This talk was invited by Jacob Barney to fit into the following session: Invasive Exotic
Species Management


BELOW GROUND CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN LONGLEAF PINE ECOSYSTEMS. Lisa
            1                     2 1
Samuelson , and William Whitaker . Center for Longleaf Pine Ecosystems, School of Forestry and
                                                           2
Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, samuelj@auburn.edu; Weyerhaeuser Co.,
wbwhitaker@gmail.com. Lisa Samuelson, Center for Longleaf Pine Ecosystems, School of Forestry and
Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849; 334-844-1040; samuelj@auburn.edu.

Interest in restoration of longleaf pine in the southern U.S. offers opportunities for carbon sequestration.
Belowground carbon pools and soil carbon fluxes are significant in forest carbon sequestration but not
well understood in longleaf pine. Therefore, belowground carbon sequestration and soil respiration were
measured in 50-year-old longleaf pine stands varying in basal area in the Escambia Experimental Forest
near Brewton, AL. Total standing carbon, which included longleaf pine aboveground and below-stump
biomass, forest floor litter, soil, live and dead fine and coarse roots, down deadwood and buried coarse
                                              -1      2   -1                             -1      2    -1
woody debris, ranged from 63.8 Mg C ha at 7 m ha basal area to 176.8 Mg C ha at 31 m ha basal
area. The majority of carbon was stored in longleaf pine aboveground biomass followed by carbon in soil,
below-stump biomass, and litter. Approximately 15% of total carbon was stored in roots. Monthly
variation in soil respiration was dominated by changes in temperature. On an annual scale, litter depth,
ground cover and longleaf pine biomass explained 75% of the variation in soil respiration with litter depth
accounting for 42%. Heterotrophic respiration was similar across basal areas, but low net primary
productivity in low basal area stands indicates those stands were carbon sources. Results suggest that
prescribed fire may significantly impact forest carbon balance through effects on root biomass, forest floor
litter and soil respiration. Repeated removal of litter for pine straw production, a common practice in
longleaf pine forests, may also influence soil carbon fluxes and forest carbon budgets.

DESCRIPTION: Information on belowground carbon fluxes and carbon storage in longleaf pine
ecosystems will be presented and the importance of soil respiration in determining forest carbon balance
will be discussed.
KEY WORDS: LONGLEAF PINE, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, SOIL RESPIRATION
SESSION TOPIC: Longleaf pine
FORMAT: Oral presentation


POPULATION STATUS OF THE AMERICAN BLACK BEAR (Ursus americanus) IN
                                               1                2 1
NORTHEASTERN ALABAMA. W. David Seals and Robert Carter . Department of Biology,
                                                 2
Jacksonville State University. jsu1206n@jsu.edu. Department of Biology, Jacksonville State University.
rcarter@jsu.edu. W. David Seals, Department of Biology, Jacksonville State University, 700 Pelham
Road North, Jacksonville, AL 36265, 256-782-5144. jsu1206n@jsu.edu.

A population survey for the American black bear (Ursus americanus) was conducted on the Shoal Creek
Ranger District, Talladega National Forest in northeast Alabama. Monitoring of individuals using non-
invasive genetic sampling (NGS) of physical evidence such as hair is an economical method which does
not reduce animal health due to stress. The population was estimated by collecting hair with hair snares
baited with an attractant. Although evidence indicates the presence of American black bears, the
population appears to be small and likely is transient. Long-term monitoring is recommended to detect
changes in population status.

DESCRIPTION: A population survey for American black bear (Ursus americanus) was conducted on the
Shoal Creek Ranger District, Talladega National Forest in northeast Alabama. Although evidence
indicates the presence of American black bears, the population appears to be small and likely is transient.
KEY WORDS: ALABAMA, AMERICAN BLACK BEAR, HAIR SNARE
SESSION TOPICS: Species and Community Conservation
FORMAT: Poster

                                                                                         1
FIRE FOLLOWED BY FLOODING KILLS HARDWOOD SHRUBS. James R. Snyder and William T.
       2 1                                                              2
Hilton . USGS, Southeast Ecological Science Center. jim_snyder@usgs.gov. Jacobs Technology.
wtjhilton@gmail.com. James R. Snyder, USGS, Southeast Ecological Science Center, Big Cypress Field
Station, 33100 Tamiami Trail E., Ochopee, FL 34141. jim_snyder@usgs.gov

Wax myrtle, like other hardwood shrubs, is often topkilled by fire, but generally resprouts from
belowground parts. It occurs sparingly in south Florida marl prairies, but may be abundant on disturbed
sites. In 2009 we observed that there appeared to be few live wax myrtles in a prairie that had been
prescribed burned on June 3, 2008. Subsequent examination showed that more than 99% of the burned
shrubs were dead. At three nearby burned sites mortality ranged from 1 to 7%. We checked a prairie
site that was burned by wildfire during an extreme drought in April 2009 to see if severe burning
conditions could explain high mortality, but only 24% of the wax myrtles died there. We suspected that
postburn flooding was responsible for the high mortality after the June 3 burn. Water level data from the
Everglades Depth Estimation Network database confirmed that the site was flooded within 2.5 weeks
after burning, about how long it takes for wax myrtles to begin sprouting after being topkilled. At all other
sites flooding did not occur for at least a month after burning. The most plausible explanation for the high
mortality of shrubs was that the plants were drowned in the same manner that herbaceous plants have
been shown to be killed by flooding after fire. On seasonally flooded sites in which reducing hardwoods
is an objective, prescribed burning before expected flooding is a possible management strategy.

DESCRIPTION: A single prescribed fire can kill hardwood shrubs if followed shortly by flooding.
KEY WORDS: FIRE EFFECTS, HARDWOOD CONTROL, PRESCRIBED FIRE, WAX MYRTLE
SESSION TOPICS: Ecosystem and Habitat Restoration, Current Research and Land Management
Techniques, Fire Management
FORMAT: Poster presentation


SOIL FACTORS IN THREE POPULATIONS OF ENDANGERED GOLDEN SEDGE (CAREX LUTEA
                         1                    2 1
LEBLOND). John Taggart and Zachary Long . Department of Environmental Studies, UNCW,
                   2
taggartj@uncw.edu; Department of Biology, UNCW, longz@uncw.edu. John Taggart, Department of
Environmental Studies, University of North Carolina at Wilmington, 601 South College Road, Wilmington,
North Carolina 28403-5949

Three sites with populations of federally endangered golden sedge (Carex lutea LeBlond) were sampled
to investigate whether circumneutral soil conditions were associated with a restricted species distribution
of eight locations in two adjacent counties of the lower North Carolina Coastal Plain. Populations were
chosen in different soil series within a state-owned natural area. Observed golden sedge rhizome and
root depths among three specimens, one per site, ranged from 6 to 8cm below the soil surface which
suggested only topsoil influence. A total of 96 samples, 48 topsoil and 48 subsoil, were collected in
transects and analyzed. Mean pH values were strongly (4.7) to moderately (5.7) acidic for topsoils and
moderately (5.7) to slightly (6.5) acidic for subsoils. These values did not differ significantly inside versus
immediately outside each population, but varied among topsoils and subsoils between populations. Other
soil parameters associated with marl and limestone parent material influence (i.e., cation exchange
capacity, base saturation, calcium, magnesium) did not exhibit any significant correlations either inside
versus outside or between populations. These results generally agreed with established soil series
descriptions, but were in contrast to prior sampling of a population used in this study -- mean soil pH of
6.7 inside versus 6.3 immediately outside. Other environmental variables and potential habitats for
populations in other southeastern states should be investigated to better understand and protect this
species.

DESCRIPTION: Previous literature correlated circumnetural soils with strict endemism of golden sedge
(Carex lutea LeBlond) in two North Carolina counties. However, results from this research did not confirm
the original hypothesis and suggest that other factors are involved with this limited species distribution.
KEY WORDS: endangered species, golden sedge, endemic, soil parameters, species distribution
SESSION TOPICS: Species and Communities Conservation
FORMAT: oral presentation


RECONSTRUCTION OF THE FIRE HISTORY OF WASSAW NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE,
                                      1            1               2 1
SAVANNAH, GA Brenda L. Thomas , Leda Kobziar , Chuck Hayes . School of Forest Resources and
                                                                             2
Conservation, University of Florida. brendalthomas@ufl.edu; lkobziar@ufl.edu; US Fish and Wildlife
Service Savannah Coastal Refuges Complex. Chuck_Hayes@fws.gov. Brenda L. Thomas; University of
Florida, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, PO Box 110410, Gainesville, FL 32611-0410; 740-
424-3690; brendalthomas@ufl.edu

Wassaw National Wildlife Refuge is a barrier island located along the Atlantic Coast in the US Fish and
Wildlife Service’s Savannah Coastal Refuges Complex. The diverse ecosystems of the refuge include
maritime and slash pine forests, salt and freshwater marshes, beaches, and tidal creeks. The Refuge lies
along the Atlantic Flyway and was established primarily as a sanctuary for migratory birds, as well as
nesting habitat for endangered sea turtles. Primary management objectives for Wassaw NWR include
maintaining the maritime forest and beach communities, providing habitat and protection for migratory
birds, and protecting threatened and endangered plant and animal species. Questions regarding what
form management should take remain unanswered, particularly regarding the use of prescribed fire and
the appropriate management response to wildfire.

Fire scars located in the annual growth rings of trees provide direct evidence of fire return intervals and
seasonal timing of fires. The patterns of wide and narrow rings in tree cores evaluate a species’
response to changing climate over time. To increase understanding of the historical fire and climate
patterns on Wassaw NWR, we are conducting dendrochronological analysis of fire history and climate
response on Wassaw’s virgin slash pine. This precise knowledge will be used by managers to develop
management plans which mimic historical disturbance processes, thereby better restoring and
maintaining the natural integrity of preserved forest ecosystems.

DESCRIPTION: This study uses dendrochronological analysis of annual growth rings and fire scars of
slash pine trees on Wassaw National Wildlife Refuge to determine fire history and climate patterns on this
barrier island.
KEY WORDS: FIRE SCARS, GROWTH RINGS, FIRE RETURN INTERVALS,
DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
SESSION TOPICS: Fire Management, Species and Communities Conservation
FORMAT: Poster Presentation


LANDOWNER ENGAGEMENT IN THE LONGLEAF ECOSYSTEM – NEW APPROACHES TO REACH
FAMILY FOREST OWNERS. Paul Trianosky. Director, Southern Forest Conservation, American Forest
Foundation. Paul Trianosky, American Forest Foundation, 199 Stonebridge Lane, Mountain City, TN
37683, 423-727-7270, ptrianosky@forestfoundation.org

Future protection and restoration of Southern forests will require attention to the South’s nearly 190
million acres of private forests, the majority of which are family-owned. These forests provide income,
recreation, aesthetics, cultural heritage, and a tremendous array of uncompensated ecosystem services.
However, family forest landowners are underserved by existing mechanisms for education, professional
engagement, or technical assistance, often resulting in poor or unsustainable practices, lost income or
ecological damage. Increasing the consistency and quality of management of family-owned forestland
will be essential to ensure forest and ecosystem health, and indeed the very ability of landowners to
retain their forestland.

Recent major storms have confirmed the wind-firmness and resiliency of longleaf forests, resulting in new
opportunities for landowner engagement where the purposes of habitat restoration and economic forest
management converge. To address this opportunity, American Forest Foundation is developing a pilot
project in the South to reach more landowners to engage actively in sustainable management and
conservation of their forest land. Working cooperatively with landowners, foresters, agencies and various
partners, AFF is exploring ways to relieve bottlenecks in providing technical services and professional
engagement, building from the experiences and capacity already in place. We are also seeking new
ways to convey information, and fine-tuning approaches to targeting landowners to motivate action,
deepen engagement, and achieve measurable conservation results. This presentation will review the
premise, the approach, and progress to date for this pilot project, as well as implications for future
longleaf conservation in the region.

DESCRIPTION: The American Forest Foundation’s Southern Pilot Project is building on the momentum
of longleaf conservation interests to accelerate and deepen landowner engagement in management of
family-owned forests. This program will review progress to date on this project, including the use of
creative approaches for targeting landowners, and maximizing conservation impact on the landscape.
KEY WORDS: FAMILY FORESTS, SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT, LONGLEAF CONSERVATION,
PRIVATE FORESTLAND
SESSION TOPICS: Invited Speaker, Longleaf Session
FORMAT: Oral presentation with Powerpoint


EDDMAPS NATIONAL INVASIVE PLANT DISTRIBUTION PROJECT. Rebekah D. Wallace, Charles T.
Bargeron, David J. Moorhead and Karan A. Rawlins. Center for Invasive Species & Ecosystem Health,
University of Georgia. bekahwal@uga.edu; cbargero@uga.edu; moorhead@uga.edu; krawlins@uga.edu
Rebekah D. Wallace, 2360 Rainwater Road, Tifton, Georgia 31794 229-386-3379. bekahwal@uga.edu

Invasive plant species are increasingly becoming a priority in environmental monitoring programs due to
the high economic and ecologic cost. EDDMapS’ primary goal is to discover the existing range and
leading edge of invasive species while documenting vital information about the species and habitat using
standardized data collection protocols. Publications by the National Invasive Species Council state that
management and research should be directed towards prevention, early detection and rapid response,
control and management, restoration, and organization collaboration. EDDMapS allows for data from
many organizations and groups to be combined into one database to show a better map of the range of
an invasive species. Goals of the current project include: identification and integration of existing state
and regional datasets, increase search and filtering options on EDDMapS website, develop data
dictionary, data collection standards and protocols, update NAWMA Invasive Plant Mapping Standards,
and coordinate with state and regionals to develop an early detection networks. At the culmination of the
project many of the goals set forth by the National Invasive Species Council will be achieved.

DESCRIPTION: This presentation will cover efforts to recruit data into a national database, update
existing reporting and collection technology, and developing regional early detection networks.
KEYWORDS: EARLY DETECTION, PLANT MAPPING, INVASIVE SPECIES
SESSION TOPICS: Invasive Exotic Species Management, Monitoring and Tracking of Species and
Communities
FORMAT: Oral Presentation


USING PRESCRIBED FIRE AND HERBICIDES TO MANAGE THE INVASION OF NATIVE PRAIRIE
BY INDIGENOUS TREES, SHRUBS, AND THE EXOTIC INVASIVE GRASS, SMOOTH BROME,
(BROMUS INERMIS), IN SASKATCHEWAN, CANADA. Rob Wright. Landscape Protection and Planning
Unit, Saskatchewan Parks Service (Canada) rob.wright@gov.sk.ca Dr. Rob Wright, 3211 Albert Street,
Regina, SK, Canada, S4S 5W6; 306-787-2914. rob.wright@gov.sk.ca

A long-term study to develop a best management practice (BMP) for controlling the invasion of
indigenous trees (trembling aspen, balsam poplar, and white spruce) and snowberry, and an exotic
invasive grass (smooth brome) into remnant native grasslands was initiated in three provincial parks in
Saskatchewan in the early 1990s. Suppression of the natural fire regime has allowed the encroachment
of indigenous trees and shrubs into native grasslands in these parks. Several prescribed fires were
undertaken between 1994 and 2008, to control woody species invasion into these remnant grasslands.
The application of glyphosate was incorporated into the control program for smooth brome in 2008.
Prescribed fires are successfully controlling native tree and shrub invasion and the combination of
burning and glyphosate wicking seems to be more effective for brome control than either fire or
glyphosate alone. Height differentials between the invasive exotic grass and native plants is essential for
effective, low-risk wicking with herbicide but three years of monitoring indicates that sufficient height
differentials may only occur early in the first summer following prescribed burning. Multiple disturbance
types and a long time frame are essential for the development of the best management practices (BMPs)
needed to restore these native grasslands.

DESCRIPTION: Our results show that long-time frames and multiple disturbance types are essential for
the integrated management of native woody and exotic grass species invasion of natural grasslands on
the northern extreme of the Great Plains. Four year experiment results, from three sites, show that fire
and glyphosate treatments interact and will both be required to maintain these prairies.
KEY WORDS: NATIVE GRASSLAND, INVASIVE SMOOTH BROME, WOODY INVASION,
PRESCRIBED FIRE, GLYPHOSATE
SESSION TOPICS: Species and Communities Conservation, Invasive Exotic Species Management, Fire
Management
FORMAT: Oral Presentation


POPULATION STATUS OF BACHMAN’S SPARROW IN THE COLEMAN LAKE REGION OF THE
                                            1               2              3                    4
TALLADEGA NATIONAL. Daniel E. Wright , Robert Carter , Robert Adams , and Matthew Smith .
1                                                                        2
 Department of Biology, Jacksonville State University. dwright4@jsu.edu. Department of Biology,
                                                3
Jacksonville State University. rcarter@jsu.edu. Department of Biology, Jacksonville State University.
                    4
radams1@jsu.edu. Department of Biology, Jacksonville State University. jsu1496n@jsu.edu. Daniel E.
Wright, Department of Biology, Jacksonville State University, 700 Pelham Road North, Jacksonville, AL
36265, 256-782-5144. dwright4@jsu.edu

The purpose of this research is to determine the population status of Bachman’s sparrow (Aimophila
aestivalis) and grassland dependent species on the Talladega National Forest in northeastern Alabama.
The study area consisted of 24 sites with burn treatments of 1 year, 2 year, 5 year and 15+ year control
sites. Point surveys for breeding birds were conducted at each site in late May when breeding males are
most active. Species common in the 1 and 2 year burn areas were prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor),
yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens), and indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea). Present but uncommon was
Bachman’s sparrow. In the 5 and 15+ treatment sites, common species included yellow-throated vireo
(Dendroica dominica), summer tanager (Piranga rubra), and Eastern wood peewee (Contopus
sordidulus). The open grassy habitat in the 1 and 2 year burn treatments should support larger
populations of Bachman’s sparrow. The study area is surrounded by closed canopy forest possibly
reducing the likelihood of Bachman’s sparrow recruitment.

DESCRIPTION: The purpose of this research is to determine the population status of Bachman’s
sparrow (Aimophila aestivalis) and grassland dependent species on the Talladega National Forest in
northeastern Alabama. Present but uncommon was Bachman’s sparrow.
KEY WORDS: BACHMAN’S SPARROW, LONGLEAF PINE, GRASSLAND, ALABAMA
SESSION TOPICS: Species and Community Conservation
FORMAT: Oral presenation


SPECIES COMPOSITION OF A FREQUENTLY BURNED MOUNTAIN LONGLEAF PINE FOREST ON
                                                 1               2                    3 1
THE TALLADEGA NATIONAL. Daniel E. Wright , Robert Carter , and Robert Adams . Department of
                                                          2
Biology, Jacksonville State University. dwright4@jsu.edu. Department of Biology, Jacksonville State
                             3
University. rcarter@jsu.edu. Department of Biology, Jacksonville State University. radams1@jsu.edu.
Daniel E. Wright, Department of Biology, Jacksonville State University, 700 Pelham Road North,
Jacksonville, AL 36265, 256-782-5144. dwright4@jsu.edu
Portions of the Talladega National Forest near Coleman Lake are frequently burned to restore longleaf
pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystems. The study area was inventoried to determine the understory species
composition. Members of the Poaceae, Asteraceae, and Fabaceae dominated the understory. The
understory shared species in common with Coastal Plain longleaf pine ecosystems including Coreopsis
major, Pityopsis graminifolia, Solidago odora, Sorghastrum nutans, and Tephrosia virginiana. Species
typically absent from Coastal Plain ecosystems include Vaccinium pallidum, Krigia biflora, Euphorbia
corollata, and Piptochaetium avenaceum. This study will provide baseline data needed for the restoration
of mountain longleaf pine ecosystems.

DESCRIPTION: The Coleman Lake region of the Talladega National Forest near Coleman Lake was
inventoried to determine the understory species composition of mountain longleaf pine ecosystems. This
study will provide baseline data needed for the restoration of mountain longleaf pine ecosystems.
KEY WORDS: UNDERSTORY, LONGLEAF PINE, FIRE, ALABAMA
SESSION TOPICS: Species and Community Conservation
FORMAT: Poster


THE ONCE AND FUTURE LONG-LEAF PINE FOREST. Wayne C. Zipperer, USDA Forest Service.
Wayne C. Zipperer. USDA Forest Service, P.O Box 110806, Bldg 164 Mowry Rd, Gainesville, FL 32611.
wzipperer@fs.fed.us.

Long-leaf pine restoration efforts have made great strides over the past decades. Future restoration
efforts, however, could be affected by two major factors: 1) human population growth and 2) bio-fuel
production. The human population of the Coastal Plain Physiographic Region, the primary range for long-
leaf pine, is projected to increase by 59 percent by 2060. The forecasted population growth will increase
urban land use from 5 million to over 10 million hectares in the region. Land-use conversions will
significantly fragment existing forest cover, and the increased population growth will further parcelize
present forest ownership. Current average size of ownership is 11.7 hectares. Based on recent
settlement patterns, 30-60 percent of this growth could occur in the wildland-urban interface. Population
growth in the interface will alter disturbance regimes and possibly preclude certain management options
such as prescribed fires. Concomitantly, energy demands may create a need for bio-fuel production
potentially resulting in the conversion of forest lands into agricultural production or short-rotation
plantations. Although woody biomass production (primarily pulpwood) may lead to price increases for
merchantable timber, thus favoring long-leaf pine, private forest land owners may select faster growing
softwoods to capitalize on existing energy markets. These changes point to the importance of long-leaf
restoration on public lands. In fact, public lands may be the last refugia of large contiguous long-leaf pine
forests in the future.

DESCRIPTION: Future long-leaf pine restoration efforts could be affected by human population growth
and bio-fuel production.
KEY WORDS: Long-leaf pine, urban land use, energy demands, public lands
SESSION TOPICS: Long-Leaf Pine Session
FORMAT: Oral presentation

				
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