Darwinism versus Endemic Flora and Fauna by mjain3391


Summary: Darwinism is the leading theory about mechanism of Biological Evolution. However facts of geographical distribution of species and varieties do not support such a view point.

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									Darwinism versus Endemic Flora and Fauna
Summary: Darwinism is the leading theory about mechanism of Biological
Evolution. However facts of geographical distribution of species and varieties do
not support such a view point.

Darwinism says that evolution advances by accumulation of random variations
having a bearing on struggle for survival. Evolutionary divergence of populations
into species and varieties is facilitated by dispersal of parental stock into large
geographical area from the point of origin and subsequent isolation. According to
Darwinism isolation facilitates divergence of variations along different phyletic
lines leading to speciation. Therefore according to Darwinism Allopatric
Speciation is the commonest mode of speciation.

Species and varieties may have cosmopolitan distribution or endemic distribution.
For the cosmopolitan species and varieties it can be easily said that they
originated at some point and then spread to the entire geographical area
occupied by them. But generally cosmopolitan species are naturally divided into a
large number of geography specific varieties on the basis of large number of
definitive and deterministic variations. Variations between two different varieties
of the same species can’t always be accounted for due to natural selection and
struggle for survival. For example color of human skin has no bearing on human
survival in different geographies, yet there are profound geography related
variations. It is possible to differentiate 9 subspecies of Giraffe endemic to
different areas in geographically continuous African Continent. All the variations
among different varieties can’t be explained on the basis of
Darwinism. http://www.wickedgiraffe.com/category/types-of-giraffe/. Most of
the subspecies can be differentiated on the basis of their coat color. But it is not
possible to link variations in coat color to survival of various subspecies in
geographically continuous but sharply demarcated territories. If Darwinism is true
then gradual variations should have occurred in accordance with some
geographically identifiable gradient and should have contributed to
adaptedness/adaptability of the species/variety to its ecosystem and

This is true of almost all the cosmopolitan species having large number of
varieties. Geographical Indication varieties of large number of species of flora and
fauna are well known. For example Darjeeling tea has its famous, naturally
occurring quality and flavor only if grown in Darjeeling. Neither Darjeeling tea
grown elsewhere has the same quality and flavor nor does any other tea variety
grown in Darjeeling have the renowned quality and flavor. How can one relate
quality and flavor of Darjeeling tea to Darwinian struggle for survival? Therefore it
is self evident that all the traits of any species or variety of flora and fauna can’t to
be attributed to Darwinian struggle for survival. This includes definitive and
deterministic characters which are immune from statistical variations. Hence
population genetics or genetic drift can’t explain differentiating or distinctive
variations among species and varieties.

Endemism is the ecological state of being unique to a defined geographic location,
such as an island, nation or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that
are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
Endemic types or species are especially likely to develop on biologically isolated
areas such as islands because of their geographical isolation. But endemic species
with restricted geographical distribution are known to occur without any
geographical isolation from the main land.

According to the World Wildlife Fund, the following ecoregions have the highest
percentage of endemic plants:

   ·     Fynbos (South Africa)

   ·     Hawaiian tropical dry forests (United States)

   ·     Hawaiian tropical rainforests (United States)

   ·     Kwongan heathlands (Australia)

   ·     Madagascar dry deciduous forests (Madagascar)

   ·     Madagascar lowland forests (Madagascar)

   ·     New Caledonia dry forests (New Caledonia)

   ·     New Caledonia rain forests (New Caledonia)

   ·     Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests (Mexico)

   ·     Sierra Madre del Sur pine-oak forests (Mexico)
   ·     Luzon montane rainforests (Philippines)

   ·     Luzon rainforests (Philippines)

   ·     Luzon tropical pine forests (Philippines)

   ·     Mindanao montane rain forests (Philippines)

   ·     Mindanao-Eastern Visayas rain forests (Philippines)

   ·     Palawan rain forests (Philippines)

Occurrence of various endemic species in sharply defined geographical areas with
or without isolation is against Darwinian gradualism over an immense period of
time. In the case of unique species endemic to various islands Darwinism raises
the question of source of ancestral species. No amount of dispersal, migration
and isolation can explain evolution of species endemic to various islands in the

Hence Darwinism is unable to explain place related discontinuous, discrete,
deterministic variations in flora and fauna across the globe. Organisms generally
do not vary across some geographically determined gradients to which notions
of continuity over immense period of time and gradualism can be applied.

 Author: Dr Mahesh C. Jain is a practicing medical doctor and has written the
book “Encounter of Science with Philosophy – A synthetic view”. The book begins
with first chapter devoted to scientifically valid concept of God and then explains
cosmic phenomena right from origin of nature and universe up to origin of life
and evolution of man. The book includes several chapters devoted to auxiliary
concepts and social sciences as corollaries to the concept of God. This is the only
book which deals with origin of nature and universe from null or Zero or
nothing. Chapter 30 of the book is about Evolution of Life wherein author has
worked out a new theory about evolution of life.

Visit:http:// www.sciencengod.com


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