Organic Erosion Catastrophic Bee
By Jake Whitney Population Decline May
Be Related to Bt-Spliced
1 Note from Howard
3 No Room in the Whole Foods
Lifestyle for High Fructose Corn
By Dr. Kellie Lancaster A recent question from a member got plants, but it works much better when
me thinking about confusion that still mixed with seaweed, molasses and
4 Air Layering for Woody and Other exists about vinegars. Here’s the compost tea creating Garrett Juice.
Hard To Root Plants
question and the update.
6 Catastrophic Bee Population I no longer recommend 20% vinegar
Decline May Be Related to Bt- Can you please tell me why there is or stronger vinegars at all. They are far
Spliced GMO Crops vinegar in Garrett Juice? All of your too strong, cost too much and most of
books, etc. say that vinegar is what if is made by diluting 99% glacial acid
7 Are Mobile Phones Wiping out our you use to KILL plant-life – and it which is a petroleum derived product. I
Bees? being an anti-microbial, etc. I’m new have tried to talk suppliers of organic
By Geoffrey Lean and Harriet at using Garrett Juice and products to stop selling this stuff, but
Shawcross gardening, and really don’t wish to to date, it is still out there – so beware!
10 Organic Erosion injure or make it hard on any of my
By Jake Whitney new plants & seedlings. Thanks for Vinegar Herbicide
your help. I do love your books,
15 Recognizing Green List Pesticides your magazine & website. Take The vinegar herbicide mix can be
for Use in Texas Schools care… Julie sprayed on grassy and broadleaf
weeds, including those growing from
16 A Victorian Water Garden
Vinegars can be used to kill or to the bases of trees and other woody
By Matt Boring
stimulate life and help plants. They plants. It will not hurt the woody plants
also have many other uses. Vinegars at all. This technique was first learned
that are 10% (100 grain) or stronger about by spraying the suckers and
are used to kill pathogens (diseases weeds growing around the bases of
8 Creature Feature on plants) and even unwanted plants. grapevines.
They should be made from grain
19 Organics in the News
alcohol. Apple cider vinegar (5% or 50 Vinegar Herbicide Formula:
20 Organic Product & Services grain) on the other hand is used to
stimulate life, provide trace minerals 1 gallon of 10% (grain alcohol) vinegar.
23 Little Sprouts and improve health. Apple cider
vinegar functions as a mild fertilizer 1 ounce orange oil or d-limonene.
24 Question & Answers
and lowers pH slightly, helping foliar
1 teaspoon liquid soap or other
26 Monthly Calender spray ingredients enter plant tissue
surfactant such as Plant Wash.
and be more effective. It is one of the
27 Plant of the Month most important ingredients in Garrett 1 tablespoon molasses.
28 Give a Gift Membership Juice. This natural apple cider vinegar
can be used by itself at 1-2 Do not add water.
tablespoons per gallon of water when
Shake well before each spraying and
spot spray weeds. Keep the spray off Straight vinegar is also great for
desirable plants. This spray will injure cleaning the toilet rim. Just spray it on
any plants it touches. I used to say and wipe off. Spray on shower doors,
this natural spray works best on warm walls and floors and it doesn’t have to
to hot days. More recent tests indicate be wiped off.
that spraying done on overcast or
cooler days might work as well or
better to completely kill the weeds.
Other Uses for Vinegar
Vinegar is a mainstay of the old folk
recipes for cleaning and to kill
bacteria, mold, and germs.
Beautiful Skin Tip: Apple Cider
Excerpted from Anti-Wrinkle
Treatments for Perfect Skin, by Pierre
The use of vinegar with a variety of
Heinz company spokesperson Michael plants or essential oils for cosmetic
Mullen references numerous studies purposes can be traced back to the
to show that a straight 5 percent Romans and was fashionable during
solution of vinegar - such as you can the nineteenth century as vinegar de
buy in the supermarket - kills 99 toilette. Vinegar has a tonic action that
percent of bacteria, 82 percent of promotes blood circulation in the small
mold, and 80 percent of germs capillaries that irrigate the skin. It is
(viruses). He noted that Heinz can't also antiseptic, preventing the
claim on their packaging that vinegar proliferation of bacteria, viruses, or
is a disinfectant since the company yeast that triggers infection. It can
has not registered it as a pesticide dissolve excessive fatty deposits at
with the Environmental Protection the surface of the skin and reduce
Agency (EPA). However, it seems to scaly or peeling conditions. Lastly,
be common knowledge in the industry vinegar regulates the pH of the skin.
that vinegar is powerfully antibacterial. Vinegar is most effective when used
with lavender, rosemary, rose, or
Keep a clean spray bottle filled with elder flower. It is essential to use top-
straight 5 percent apple cider vinegar quality white wine or cider vinegar.
in your kitchen and your bathroom,
and use them for cleaning. Spray
vinegar on cutting boards before going To use, add 1 teaspoon of apple cider
to bed at night, and don't even rinse, to a cup of bottled or spring water to
but let it set overnight. The smell of wash your face or pour 3-4
vinegar dissipates within a few hours. tablespoons into a bath.
If that sounds like too much
trouble, just rinse with apple cider
after the shower. That’s what I do.
Vinegar is a wonderful organic
tool that was discovered by
accident ten thousand years ago In 1966 Americans consumed NO high responsible for glycosalation which is
when wine was accidentally fructose corn syrup (HFCS). By 1970 literally the sugar coating of proteins,
allowed to ferment too long and we consumed about 10 lbs. a year. In fats and other constituents of blood,
turned sour. It can be made from 2001, we consumed on average 62.6 making them “sticky” and resulting in
many products, including beer, lbs. per year! High fructose corn syrup malfunction. This leads to insulin
apples, berries, beets, corn, fruits, became a cheap alternative to cane resistance or Diabetes.
grains, honey, malt, maple syrup, sugar and sugar beets because corn
melons, molasses, potatoes, rice, was a subsidized crop and corn syrup Why do we do this to ourselves? Many
sorghum, and other foods was much sweeter than sugar. HFCS is people do this because they simply
containing sugar. Natural sugars manipulated to be about 80% fructose. don’t have the facts. They assume that
from these food products are In nature, most fruits split their glucose food production companies have their
fermented into alcohol, which is to fructose ratio. The shift in the ratios best interest at heart and would use
then fermented into vinegar. will cause (in moderate doses) liver and nothing that would harm them. This is
pancreas damage which can lead to totally untrue. Huge food production
Fruit vinegar is made from the bone loss, anemia, diabetes and heart companies and even some smaller
fermentation of a variety of fruits. problems to name a few. ones have one thing in their sights –
Apples are most commonly used, money. HFCS is cheap, addicting, and
but grapes, peaches, berries and Researchers from the University of readily available as a food additive. It is
other fruits also work. The Minnesota found that men with diets in many processed foods, all non diet
product label will identify the high in fructose raise their plasma soft drinks, many “juice drinks”
starting ingredients, such as triglycerides by 32%. Furthermore, marketed to children, salad dressings
“apple cider vinegar” or “wine fructose doesn’t stimulate insulin and even pasta sauce.
vinegar”. Malt vinegar is made secretion or increase leptin. Therefore,
from the fermentation of barley it is reasonable to assume that it will How do we avoid this insulting barrage
malt or other cereal grains. Sugar contribute to excessive accelerated on our health? By becoming a label
vinegar is made from sugar, weight gain. This has been proven over reader, you will find how much HFCS
syrup, or molasses. White, spirit, and over again as we see the Standard you are getting. If it is listed as an
or distilled vinegar is made by American Diet (SAD) high in HFCS and ingredient, just pass it by. Better yet,
fermenting distilled alcohol. more than half of the American quit eating processed foods all
Distilled white vinegar is made population is overweight. together. You will feel better, you will
from 190 proof alcohols that are loose weight and you will protect your
fermented by adding sugar and High fructose corn syrup is also most vital asset - your health.
living bacteria. Natural vinegar
contains at least fifty trace
minerals. Vinegar that is made
from the petroleum derivative,
99% acetic acid, is not acceptable
in an organic program.
1. For wounding woody plants such as
magnolia, gardenia, rose, fig and similar
plants make two parallel cuts about 1 1/2
inches apart around the stem and through
the bark and cambium layer. Connect the
two parallel cuts with one long cut (a) and
remove the ring of bark (b), leaving the
inner woody tissue exposed (c).
Air layering is a useful method of
reproducing plants by producing For wounding plants having less woody
roots on the stems of shrubs, stems: (a) make a long upward cut from 1
trees and indoor landscape 1/2 to 2 inches long, almost to the center of
plants. This method, developed the stem. and (b) Insert a wood sliver,
centuries ago by the Chinese, toothpick into the wound to hold it open and
has been used successfully as a prevent cut tissue from reuniting. Rooting
mean of propagating some of the compounds are unnecessary.
more difficult-to-root plants.
The procedure is to wound the
stem or branch of a plant and 2. Apply a handful of damp well broken
enclose the wounded area with a down compost so that it envelopes the
moist medium until roots develop wounded portion of the stem. Tying the
from the wound. Success is organic material in place with string helps
dependent upon keeping the keep it in position. The organic material
rooting medium moist until the should be soaked thoroughly to insure that it
roots are formed and large is completely moist. Squeeze out surplus
enough to support the new plant. water, since excessive moisture can result
in decay and deterioration of the plant tissue.
Woody plants frequently
propagated in this manner include
magnolia, holly, camellia, azalea, 3. Use a sheet of polyethylene (plastic) film
Japanese maple and many of the large enough to cover and wrap the ball of
fruit and nut bearing plants such organic material using the butchers fold
as citrus, apple, pears and (see insert) to secure a tight seal where the
pecans. two ends of the sheet are joined.
For best results, make air layers
in the spring on shoots produced
during the previous season or in
mid-summer on mature shoots 4. Draw the upper end of the film snugly
from the current season's growth. around stem making sure that none of the
On woody plants, stems of pencil compost is exposed. Fasten it securely with
size or larger are best. Thicker electrician’s tape. Repeat the procedure on
stems on the more herbaceous the lower end, again making sure there is a
plants. snug fit. Moisture must not escape and
excess moisture must not enter from
watering or rain. Some gardeners cover
Steps for making a successful air everything with aluminum foil.
layer the Natural Way are as
5. After the new roots have penetrated
the compost and are visible on all
sides, the rooted branch may be
removed from the parent plant. The
rooting time will vary with plant variety
as well as the season in which it is
6. Remove the newly rooted plant from
the parent plant with a knife or pruning
shears, making the cut just below the
ball of compost and roots. Carefully
remove the polyethylene film. Without
disturbing the roots or removing the
organic material, plant in a container
using a good potting mixture or plant in
a well-prepared soil bed.
7. Place a plastic tent over the newly
potted plant for 4 to 8 days until the
root system is well established to help
in preventing excessive loss of
moisture. Keep the plant under a light
shade and avoid direct sunlight until
the new root system is well developed.
Many plants are lost in the final stage of the process because the root
system is not sufficiently developed to sustain the top of the new plant. By
using the plastic tent or by keeping the new plant in a humid environment,
it is possible to develop a good root system on rather large cuttings. Once
the roots are well established, it is best to harden off the foliage by
gradually exposing it to normal atmosphere. This can be done by cutting
a few holes every few days in the plastic tent to reduce the humidity until
it is similar to the external atmosphere.
with a particular GE tomato and GE
potato. Results showed damage to the
musocal cell lining of the gut in both cases
and abnormal development of body
organs in the latter case. Other
experiments on rats fed with GE peas that
contained a gene from beans showed
heightened allergenicity and
Genetic Scientist Warns of genetic engineering," continued Dr
Risks of GE Pesticide Action Steinbrecher. "Allergic reactions can be anything from
Network, Mar 28, 2007 rashes, sneezing and asthma to fatal
She cited a disturbing development shocks in some cases," warns Dr.
Dear Readers, This issue is so about honey bees in the U.S. Steinbrecher.
catastrophic and it looks more and "Millions of these insects have
more related to GE crops. Be sure disappeared over the last half year, Other possible impacts are gene silencing
to see the article at http://www. their hives are empty. Bees are - ie. the plant that is being genetically
used as pollinators for various crops engineered may 'silence' (turn off) that
and the value that they generate in particular gene permanently. Dr.
the U.S. is estimated at over USD14 Steinbrecher explains, "In 1992, a study
addition to the information below. was published about GE petunias in
Peace, Thomas billion per year". The problem is so
severe that it has been called the Germany. One summer, these GE
Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). petunias started to produce white and
28 March 2007 - Seoul A - pink flowers instead of the characteristic
"Nobody knows why the bees are
"Genetic engineering is far from red ones. Investigations revealed that the
dying. There is evidence though that
precise", warns Dr Ricarda plant had somehow shut off the gene
GE crops contribute to this, in
Steinbrecher, consultant genetic producing red flowers. Again, this was a
particular insect resistant crops
scientist of Pesticide Action totally unexpected effect. Gene silencing
producing the Bt-toxin. Though
Network Asia and the Pacific and in GE plants has been repeatedly
healthy bees do not seem to be
also director of EcoNexus. "There observed. We now know that
affected by Bt pollen, a scientist
are a number of steps in the environmental factors as well as
called Hans-Hinrich Kaatz in
genetic engineering process and homologies of the GE gene and the
Germany has found that bees
most of them are subject to plant's own genes can trigger gene
infested with parasites and fed with
various uncertainties. A single silencing."
Bt pollen were affected and died at
gene mutation can have serious
a high rate. Beekeepers have for
effects - yet genetic engineering is She goes on to cite another disturbing
years reported that honeybees
all about creating mutations. The case in the U.S."In the U.S., a case
suffer from high rates of parasites
outcome can be tremendous, and reported in 1999, GE soya (resistant to
and diseases. This resembles new
totally unpredictable and the Roundup Ready herbicide) was found
evidence that Bt pollen is a
unexpected." to have inexplicably produced 20% more
contributing factor in the death of
the bees. The areas where the bees lignin. This caused the stems to become
Dr Steinbrecher expressed her harder than normal. During one
have disappeared have a lot of Bt
disbelief that agri-business exceptionally hot summer, the stems
crops being grown there. We don' t
corporations could guarantee that cracked because they were too brittle and
think this is a coincidence. No one
genetically engineered (GE) food tough to expand in the heat. Fungus
would ever have thought that this
or crops are stable and safe when penetrated the cracks and this greatly
could have been an outcome of Bt
there are so many indications to affected the yield that summer."
and yet here we are. Not only do we
show they are not. "Besides
not know exactly how this
negative ecological, social and
interaction happened, we don't The final word from Dr. Steinbrecher is
economic effects of the genetic
know how to deal with it or stop it or one of extreme caution: "The moral of all
engineering of crops, from a
even if we can." these cases is that from the scientific
scientific perspective, there are
angle, genetic engineering of crops is still
health impacts, contamination
Dr. Steinbrecher also cited a technology full of risks. Any number of
effects and many scientific
experiments with rats and mice fed
uncertainties associated with
totally unexpected things can plants can and will contaminate
happen. Worse, once grown, GE natural varieties and this PESTICIDE ACTION NETWORK
crops can contaminate the food contamination is irrevocable. The Tel: 604-6570271 or 604-6560381
supplies as just seen for two only fact we can be sure of is that Fax: 604-6583960
varieties of herbicide resistant rice we simply don't know enough to risk E-mail: email@example.com
(LL601 & LL). Worse still, GE the consequences." Home Page: www.panap.net
when mobile phones are placed nearby.
Dr. Jochen Kuhn, who carried it out, said
this could provide a "hint" to a possible
cause. Dr. George Carlo, who headed a
massive study by the U.S. government
and mobile phone industry of hazards
from mobiles in the Nineties, said: "I am
convinced the possibility is real."
It seems like the plot of a never found, but thought to die
particularly far-fetched horror film. singly far from home. The Evidence of dangers to people from
But some scientists suggest that parasites, wildlife and other bees mobile phones is increasing. But proof is
our love of the mobile phone that normally raid the honey and still lacking, largely because many of the
could cause massive food pollen left behind when a colony biggest perils, such as cancer, take
shortages, as the world's harvests dies, refuse to go anywhere near decades to show up. Most research on
fail. the abandoned hives. cancer has so far proved inconclusive.
But an official Finnish study found that
They are putting forward the The alarm was first sounded last people who used the phones for more
theory that radiation given off by autumn, but has now hit half of all than 10 years were 40% more likely to
mobile phones and other hi-tech American states. The West Coast get a brain tumor on the same side as
gadgets is a possible answer to is thought to have lost 60% of its they held the handset.
one of the more bizarre mysteries commercial bee population, with
ever to happen in the natural 70% missing on the East Coast. Equally alarming, blue-chip Swedish
world - the abrupt disappearance CCD has since spread to Germany, research revealed that radiation from
of the bees that pollinate crops. Switzerland, Spain, Portugal, Italy mobile phones killed off brain cells,
Late last week, some bee- and Greece. And last week John suggesting that today's teenagers could
keepers claimed that the Chapple, one of London's biggest go senile in the prime of their lives.
phenomenon - which started in bee-keepers, announced that 23 of Professor Sir William Stewart, who has
the U.S., then spread to his 40 hives have been abruptly headed two official inquiries, warned that
continental Europe - was abandoned. Other apiarists have children under eight should not use
beginning to hit Britain as well. recorded losses in Scotland, Wales mobiles and made a series of safety
and north-west England. recommendations, largely ignored by
The theory is that radiation from ministers.
mobile phones interferes with The implications of the spread are
bees' navigation systems, alarming. Most of the world's crops
preventing the famously depend on pollination by bees.
homeloving species from finding Albert Einstein once said that if the
their way back to their hives. bees disappeared, "man would
Improbable as it may seem, there have only four years of life left".
is now evidence to back this up.
Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) German research has long shown
occurs when a hive's inhabitants that bees' behavior changes near
suddenly disappear, leaving only power lines. Now a limited study at
queens, eggs and a few immature Landau University has found that
workers, like so many apian Mary bees refuse to return to their hives
Celestes. The vanished bees are
They have become a seriously over
populated pest in Texas. The solution is
for wild game to become legal to serve in
Order Artiodactyla: Family species include live oak, hackberry
Cervidae: Cervus axix and sumac.
Axis deer is native to India,
where it is known as the "chital".
It was introduced into Texas
about 1932. In 1988, free-ranging
herds were established in 27
counties of central and southern
Texas. It now is found as a
confined animal on ranches in 67
other Texas counties. Axis deer
are the most abundant exotic
ungulate in Texas.
These animals are gregarious and
usually are found in herds ranging
Axis deer are found in secondary
from a few animals to 100 or more.
forests, broken by glades, with an
In each herd the leader is usually
understory of grasses and forbs,
an old, experienced doe. Unlike
which supply adequate drinking
native deer, adult male axis deer
water and shade. Usually
normally are found living with herds
avoiding rugged terrain, they feed
of young and old animals of both
on grasses at all seasons,
sexes. Axis deer are more closely
augmented with browsing. In
allied to the North American elk
Texas, they graze on grasses
than to our native deer. Like some
such as paspalum, switchgrass,
elk, rutting male axis deer emit
and little bluestem. Sedges are a
bugle-like bellows, and both sexes
favorite spring food. Browse
have alarm calls or barks.
www.russellfeedandsupply.com Plant Shed Nursery
Plant Shed Nursery Mansfield:
817-244-2109 Plant Shed Nursery
www.russellfeedandsupply.com Classic Gardens
Athens Organic Supply
Plant Shed Nursery
817-283-5681 Wichita Falls:
Smith’s Gardentown Farms
D & L Farm and Home
Plant Shed Nursery
Designs in Nature
Lantana Gardens www.thetreeplace.com
Marshall Grain Company
Plant Shed Nursery
more than 150 growers on 30,000 organic
acres under its control.
Evans worries that the influx of these big
companies - with their industrial
production methods, profit obsession and
political muscle - will dilute organic
Will the term organic still mean eye toward becoming entirely
standards and, potentially, render the
anything when it's adopted organic.
USDA stamp irrelevant. "If big business
whole hog by behemoths such
kills the name," Evans said, "why go
as Wal-Mart? Lately, however, Evans has begun organic?"
to wonder if the USDA "Certified
AGRIBUSINESS Organic" stamp will be worth the He's not alone. Many critics foresee
annual fee, which could run more erosion not only of organic standards but
than $1,000. His pastures - the also of the movement's true ideals -
Marin Sun Farms, in Point Reyes,
largest certified organic acreage in which include localism and sustainability
is a collection of ranches on more
Marin County - may seem large, but as much as eschewing chemical
than 2,000 acres of rolling,
they are dwarfed by their corporate pesticides and synthetic fertilizers.
certified organic pasture. All year
counterparts. Indeed, a battle is raging in organic food
long, cattle and chickens speckle
the hills, free to roam and graze at production, and it has already split the
their leisure. As Evans knows, organic food has industry: between those willing to
become big business. According to sacrifice ideals for growth and those who
the Organic Consumer's think organic should remain small, local
The Hereford and Angus cows, in
Association, sales could hit $18 and transparent.
fact, are never confined. They are
billion this year, with half coming
grass-fed, except during winter,
from conventional supermarkets. The 2006 Agriculture Appropriations Bill
when they also eat hay and silage.
Though still only about 2.5 percent hacked the split between these groups
The chickens' typical diet of plants
of the agricultural market, demand into a chasm. A rider on the bill legalized,
and insects is supplemented with
for organic has grown 20 percent for the first time, the use of synthetic
organic grains, which they eat at
annually in recent years, and most substances in the processing and post-
night, in the winter and in
of the top-selling brands are now harvest handling of organic foods.
otherwise foul weather when kept
owned by agribusiness behemoths.
in their portable coops. When you
imagine an organic cattle ranch, What particularly worries purists is that
Marin Sun Farms is probably Dean Foods, for example, owns the rider was sponsored by the Organic
pretty close to what you picture — White Wave (maker of Silk soymilk) Trade Association, a lobbying group that
though maybe not exactly. and Horizon Organic, the No. 1- represents the interests of big
selling organic brand across the corporations. And, though virtually all of
country. Unilever owns Ben & the 38 synthetics are considered
No synthetic fertilizers or chemical
Jerry's Organic. Groupe Danone, a harmless — and in fact were already
pesticides are used on the
French corporation, recently bought being widely used — some believe that
pasture, and the animals are
Stonyfield Farm. Even Wal-Mart is codifying their use may pave the way for
hormone- and antibiotic-free. But
plunging deeper into the market, others that may not be so harmless.
even though most of the land is
announcing it would dramatically
certified organic, the cows and
increase its organic offerings.
chickens raised there are not. Jim Riddle, former chairman of the
USDA's National Organic Standards
And if you think Evans' 2,000-plus Board, which advises the USDA in setting
One reason is because the owner,
organic acres is a lot, take a look at organic standards, said that what was
David Evans, obtains cows from
Earthbound Farm, which grew from most alarming about the rider was the
partner ranchers who use
a 2 1/2 acre raspberry and lettuce secretive method used to attach it.
synthetic "wormers" to control
farm to the largest organic produce According to Riddle, the rider (which is an
parasites - a violation of organic
operation in North America, with amendment to the 1990 Organic Foods
standards. But Evans has been
$350 million in annual sales and Production
slowly accumulating a base herd
Act) was snuck into the bill - decision. At issue is a category of
inserted after an appropriation's synthetics known as "food contact a synthetic pectin he'd been using as a
conference committee had substances." The USDA is currently thickening agent. It took some
adjourned, in order for the allowing more than 600 of these in the experimentation, but eventually he
corporations pushing the processing of organic foods - in discovered that apple pomace would
amendment (Kraft Foods was a addition to the 38 synthetics legalized do the trick.
leader) to avoid debate. This way, by the rider.
Riddle said, "There's no author, no "I think any manufacturer of organic
one to be held accountable." Not only would these FCSs be exempt products is terrified they won't be able
from listing on ingredient labels, they to use synthetics," he said. "Because
Brian Baker, research director for would not be required to be on the they are cheaper, and easier to handle.
the Organic Materials Review national list - thus they'd be exempt If you're using pomace, as we are,
Institute, described the rider issue from review or approval by the NOSB. well, every batch is a little bit different.
as a "volatile situation" because of And, according to Riddle, some are So it can be a headache. But it is a
organic consumers' dedication to toxins, such as dimethyl dicarbonate, natural, organic product, and I feel
purity. He pointed out that after the an antimicrobial added to fruit juices much better about making jam this
first set of organic standards were (even those that say "100 percent way."
set in 1997, allowing for sewage juice"); and a substance containing
sludge, irradiation and genetically methyl chloride, a flammable gas once Wal-Mart's burgeoning market
modified organisms, the USDA used as a refrigerant. presence is another divisive issue. At a
received more than 300,000 shareholder's meeting in early 2006,
letters of protest from furious "There's no language in the Organic Chief Executive Officer Lee Scott
consumers. Foods Production Act, the regulation declared that Wal-Mart would
or the court ruling to empower this significantly increase its organic
When asked about the long-term invisible allowance of substances that offerings. (These already make up a
ramifications of the rider, Baker don't even appear on the national list," wide array, from milk and produce to
said he wouldn't "take sides," said Riddle, "which never have been breakfast cereal and salsa.) The
though he acknowledged it "could reviewed by the NOSB, and have announcement panicked critics who
open the door" to other synthetics. never gone through a rule-making feared that Wal-Mart's business model
process or even a public comment of low prices - Wal-Mart has said its
The very existence of any period." goal is to sell organics for only 10
synthetics in organic food remains percent above conventional prices -
unfathomable to some - perhaps Caren Wilcox, executive director of the would pressure organic suppliers to cut
no one more so than Arthur OTA, would not comment on the rider corners, thereby diluting the label.
Harvey, a 74-year-old blueberry because she was not with the
farmer from Maine. A purist, organization when it was attached. In September, the Cornucopia Institute,
Harvey believed that the organic She also declined to comment on the a Wisconsin watchdog group,
standards of 2002, and their issue of "food contact substances" published an analysis of Wal-Mart's
inclusion of a national list of because of Harvey's suit. She early influence on the organic market.
allowable synthetics, violated the asserted, however, that "there has The study found that not only was Wal-
original 1990 law, which he always been a place for synthetics" in Mart "cheapening the value of the
believed banned all synthetics. In organic foods. She added that it would organic label" by sourcing most of its
January 2005, a federal appellate "be impossible to produce" organics products from "industrial-scale factory
court agreed with him. The court's without synthetics such as ozone, to farms and Third World countries," but
ruling would have banned all resist bacteria; chlorine, a disinfectant; also - on multiple occasions and in
synthetics had it not been for the and bleached lecithin and ascorbic multiple stores - labeling non-organic
OTA rider. But Harvey didn't give acid. food as organic with misleading in-
up; he found fault with the rider, store signs.
too, and is back in court. Harvey disagrees. A producer of his
own blueberry jams, Harvey was The study even discovered Wal-Mart
Though a Maine district court motivated (during the brief period selling "organic" baby formulas
dismissed his latest case in when it appeared synthetics would be containing synthetic ingredients
November, Harvey is appealing banned) to find an organic alternative prohibited by U.S. organic standards.
"This is disturbing and a serious standards to confine thousands of
Currently, there are 40 accredited
problem," Mark Kastel, co-founder cows in feedlot-like conditions with
foreign certifying agents (and 55
of the institute, said in a little time spent grazing on pasture.
domestic). But serious questions
November news release (The law says cows must have
remain about the integrity of the
accompanying a legal complaint "access to pasture," but doesn't say
process in some countries - especially
to the USDA. "Consumers, who how much or how often.)
China. The USDA, in fact, has yet to
are paying premium prices in the
make an inspection tour of what Kastel
marketplace for organic food,
"Wal-Mart's dependence on factory described as China's "government-
deserve to get what they are
farms," the study concluded, is a controlled certification system," even
typical example of its "philosophy of though the United States is already
sourcing products from the least importing huge amounts of Chinese
In a recent interview, Kastel expensive supplier regardless of the organic products.
speculated that the labeling impact on product quality, the
problems, which he and his staff environment or our nation's workers."
photographed, probably stemmed (When asked for comment, Joan
more from detachment and a lack Shaffer, a spokeswoman for the
of dedication to organics than Ronnie Cummins, executive director USDA, said that the associate deputy
from purposeful deception. of the Organic Consumer's administrator of the NOP, Mark
Association, echoed these criticisms. Bradley, would be flying to China later
(Karen Burk, a Wal-Mart this year to conduct reviews.)
spokeswoman, replied to the "When you get into bed with Wal-Mart, Proponents of small-scale organic say
charges by saying, "we believe it you forget your ethics because of the foreign sourcing is a key factor in the
to be an isolated incident should a money involved," Cummins said. "But dilution of the label, because
green organic identifying tag be you simply cannot act in organic the transparency, another important
inadvertently placed by or same way you did in conventional organic ideal, is lost. Knowing your
accidentally shift in front of the because consumers are looking for farmer, visiting his ranch and seeing
wrong item." She did not comment more than just low prices." how the food is grown - gathering any
on the infant formula.) kind of story behind the food -
becomes virtually impossible when
Cummins added that even if the organics are obtained from overseas.
The study also found that
aforementioned practices by Wal-
because of its stringent price
Mart, Horizon and Aurora technically
demands, Wal-Mart obtained little "I'd rather spend $5 on some locally
fulfilled organic standards, they
organic food from U.S. family- grown, organic strawberries than $2.50
nevertheless violated organic ideals
scale farms, but most from major for some Chilean farmer's strawberries
like animal rights and the preservation
agribusiness companies, at Wal-Mart," David Evans said. "Why
of fossil fuels. "How organic can food
industrial-scale farms and foreign would I want to save $2.50 on those
really be that is shipped halfway
countries. Chilean strawberries when I don't really
around the world?" he said.
know how they were grown, under
Kastel illustrated how Wal-Mart's what conditions or if they were really
low-price-only policy has hurt Which brings up another concern: how grown organically?"
small farmers and "cheapened" to insure that organic products grown
the organic label. outside U.S. borders are actually
organic. But, as even the most vehement critics
After one of Wal-Mart's original of industrial organic concede, there are
organic milk suppliers, Organic benefits to Wal-Mart's - and other big
The USDA's National Organic corporations' - market presence.
Valley - a co-operative of small Program is ultimately responsible for
organic dairy farmers - refused to Perhaps the most significant is the
the integrity of all organic food sold in removal of toxic pesticides and
acquiesce to Wal-Mart's the United States, but it does not
demands, the giant retailer turned chemical fertilizers from the
conduct inspections. Instead, it ecosystem: As demand rises and huge
to Horizon Organic (owned by accredits third-party agencies to
Dean Foods) and Aurora Dairy, retailers like Wal-Mart seek to meet it,
inspect the farms, processors and conventional acres will transition to
both of which have been accused retailers that seek certification.
of exploiting ambiguities in the organic, and
whether those are in the United said, "they may investigate more,
States, Chile or China, it will be maybe even stop by a farmers' may have its place - for supplying
good for the environment. market. This would increase demand populations in less agriculturally
and the end result is it would be good sustainable areas, such as Las Vegas
for organic." or Albuquerque, for example.
Drew and Myra Goodman, the
owners of Earthbound Farm (one
Hellberg, however, believes local,
of Wal-Mart's top suppliers), But others maintain that even in the
small-scale organics should be the
estimate that their business alone best industrial organic models, there
aim. He said he's seen "the most arid
has been responsible for are aspects that mirror conventional
and horrible soils turned around," and
eliminating almost 10 million agriculture and conflict with organic
he pointed to Marin's movement as an
pounds of synthetic fertilizer and ideals - such as the use of migrant
example he believed could be
313,000 pounds of chemical farm workers, aggressive business
replicated in other places - if not
pesticides. This is a significant practices designed to crush
practically, than at least the "mind-set."
boon to the environment and to competition, reliance on monocrop at
He said Prince Charles' November
national health, not only for the the expense of diversity and mass
2005 visit was due to the innovation,
removal of pesticide residues expenditures of fossil fuels in
tradition and dedication to ideals of the
from food, but also by preserving distribution and production.
area's organic farmers.
petroleum, which is used to
create synthetic fertilizer. "There's a long list of benefits of small-
The biodiversity of Peter Martinelli's
scale organic that you don't get with
Fresh Run Farm in Bolinas, where
A study by the Rodale Institute industrial," said Helge Hellberg, the
more than 40 crops are grown on 5
found that organic farms fight executive director of Marin Organic,
acres; Dennis and Sandy Dierks'
global warming by removing an association of organic producers
Paradise Valley Produce, where
carbon from the atmosphere by dedicated to "creating the first all-
unique fertilization methods such as
sequestering it in the earth at a organic county in the nation."
fermenting seaweed and other
rate of 3,670 pounds per acre.
microbes to enhance soil fertility are
With the Goodmans' 30,000 Like Hellberg, most of Marin's organic used, and where the coho salmon are
acres, that would mean community does not view Big Organic making a comeback because of a
Earthbound Farm alone has as a direct threat to their own farms or healthier watershed; and Warren
removed the equivalent of more way of life - "we're far removed from Weber's Star Route Farms, the
than 7,500 cars from the road. the Wal-Marts of the world," is how longest continuously certified organic
Evans put it - but they remain an farm in California, are all examples of
Peggy Miars, executive director of advocate for the preservation of the the sustainable model - and were all
California Certified Organic nation's small farms, yet another ideal "certainly a draw" for His Royal
Farmers in Santa Cruz, one of the not addressed by the industrial model. Highness.
nation's largest organic certifiers,
believes the benefits of big "We're still losing 400 family farms in When asked if he thought some ideals
businesses' market presence the U.S. every week to development," needed to be sacrificed to meet rising
outweigh the potential negatives. Hellberg said. "The industrial model, demand, Hellberg said: "No, I think the
even if it's organic, will not stop that. opposite is true. Smaller scale
Miars said the USDA standards We're still shipping food an average of agriculture, artisan food production,
are strict enough (though she about 2,000 miles from where it's true relationships, integrating
acknowledged ambiguities grown to where it's consumed. The agriculture in your local region and
existed) that the label would industrial organic model will not building upon it: That is the model that
remain strong, and, in addition to address that." shows the most benefits. It is the
the environmental benefits, she closest to the heart and there's no
said big corporations would But will the local model address place on earth where you can't apply
create greater awareness, boost skyrocketing demand? While much of it."
demand and create more agribusiness's market presence can
markets. "If consumers who never be chalked up to profit seeking, even Evans agrees. "The most conscious
thought much about organic some proponents of small-scale way to buy food is straight from the
foods see them at their local Wal- organics think the industrial model farmer," he said. "There's a lot of room
for growth in this country for that
kind of relationship. Even better
than organic is local organic, and
that's a niche that the big guy just
can't get in on."
The good news is -- organics is on
the rise. The dramatic increase in
interest is gratifying. The crities
who said and continue to say that
“it’s a fad” must be bashing their
heads against the wall, and then
taking some drug to mask the pain
of the injury. The bad news is that
organics is getting sloppy. All we
can do is continue to try to spread
the word and help people practice
“Buyer Beware!” Hopefully our
information will help.
Originally published in the San
Francisco Chronicle January 28,
- In one year, an average tree
produces enough oxygen for
a family of four.
- One tree will absorb the
CO2 from 4 cars, ever year.
- Shade trees can reduce
utility bills for air conditioning
by 15 to 50%.
- Trees add curb appeal to
your home and can add 15%
to your property's value.
distributors and sales personnel are often
unfamiliar with which products fall under
Texas Green List designation.
For this reason we have developed the
following list of common pesticides that fall
into the Green List. The listing here does
not include all Green List products, but is
Southwest Technical Resource approval must first be obtained and intended as a guide to the most commonly
Center for Schools and Childcare kept on file for at least three years. used active ingredients, and some current
Facilities, Texas Cooperative Also, certain Green List products trade names associated with these active
Extension, Dallas, Texas may have less restrictive reentry ingredients.
requirements than other pesticides.
In 1991, the Texas Legislature These requirements are designed Trade names change frequently. For this
amended the Structural Pest to encourage schools to use least reason, schools and pest management
Control Act (SPCA) to require hazardous materials necessary to professionals should focus on learning the
public school districts to have an effectively do the job. qualifying criteria for Green List products,
Integrated Pest Management rather than depending on a listing of trade
(IPM) program. Since 1995, all It is important that IPM names.
public school districts in Texas Coordinators and all pesticide
must have a written pest applicators working on school Response
management policy, designate facilities be able to identify Green Controlling the "looseness" of this green
and train a district IPM List products. According to Section list, my advice is to simply follow the
Coordinator, and ensure that all 595.11 (h) of the Texas Structural acceptable products list established by the
pesticide applications be made Pest Control Regulations, Green Texas Organic Research Center (TORC).
only by licensed applicators. The List products must be from at least These people are at least marring in the
IPM Coordinator is required to one of the following categories: right direction, but we can really shorten
keep detailed records of all their learning curve if they will just let us.
pesticide applications and to 1. Inorganic pesticides containing
ensure that the district, or its boric acid, disodium octoborate
designated pest control provider, tetrahydrate, silica gel or
uses the least hazardous diatomaceous earth.
methods to control pests.
2. Insect growth regulators.
According to Texas school 3. Insect and rodent baits in tamper-
pesticide regulations, all resistant containers, or for crack-
pesticides are classified as either and-crevice use only.
Green, Yellow or Red List
products. Green List products are 4. Microbe-based insecticides.
those pesticides which are
5. Botanical insecticides (not
considered to carry the least
including synthetic pyrethroids)
potential hazard to people and
containing no more than 5%
the environment. Red List
pesticides carry EPA signal words
(WARNING and DANGER) which 6. Biological (living) control agents.
indicate the highest potential risks
to applicators or the environment.
Identifying Green List Products
Although school IPM Distinguishing Green List products
Coordinators may use any is not always easy. There is no
pesticide, Structural Pest Control packaging designation to show
Board regulations require that which pesticides are Green List
when a Yellow or Red List under Texas law. Even pesticide
pesticide is used, written
best-educated gardeners in their
respective areas, with their knowledge
far exceeding most others’, including
professional landscapers, in those areas.
In front of the old officer’s club was a
swimming pool that had been filled in
and was uncovered as part of an effort
There was a chill in the air that January 29, 2007 when each of to show the history of the base. It didn’t
Monday morning in March with the three companies received a fit in with the new purpose of the
the mercury dipping just south of call from Pat Plowman of the property and provided a gaping hole
freezing before sunrise. Members Victoria County Master Gardeners where educational space might be. They
of three different Texas pond- Association. For Pat, the story had decided that the swimming pool could
building companies were yawning begun a couple of years before somehow be converted into a large
and stretching their muscles while when a piece of land and a water garden. Since they wanted to
loading up their respective trucks building that had long before been promote organic practices even within
and trailers for what was planned the Officer’s Club at historic Foster their new water feature, they aimed their
to be a large two-day pond build. Airfield were provided to the sights on putting together an ecosystem
John and Mychal Cenicola and Master Gardeners. They would pond. Before leaving to pursue a
John Garcia from ‘The Pond use these accommodations to business opportunity, a professional
Crew’ in San Antonio, Steve create a Community Education irrigator that had been working with the
Parker and Brandon Tucker from Garden to show interested citizens group told Pat about the Aquascape
Alpine Aquascapes in Katy, and of the area examples of different philosophy of pondering that said, “Work
Matt Boring and Armando kinds of plants and designs that do with Nature, not against her.” Knowing
Sanchez from TexasPonds.com well in the area. The building and that a balanced aquatic ecosystem
in Rosenberg showed up at the surrounding grounds would be pretty much takes care of itself with just
jobsite at roughly the same time used to host speakers and present a little help from its human friends, Pat
to inspect the canvas on which educational seminars to coincide and the others decided that this was the
they would try to quickly create a with the gardening theme. best path to take. But how to get there
beautiful piece of the pond- from here?
builders’ art. The reason for the All of Texas’ Master Gardeners
hurry was that this is peak work Associations emphasize using
season for these companies and native plants and organic
they had gathered here today to gardening practices such as
donate a couple of days worth of composting, and try to steer
free labor to make something people away from invasive plants
special happen for some special or non-native species that may
people who give much more than beg for the use of herbicides,
two days free labor each year in pesticides or extra water to survive
their community. in an area to which they’re not
native. Master Gardeners are
good stewards of the planet and
they reach beyond what they do in
their own homes and yards to try
to educate others in the Pat put on her thinking cap and set off
community about why they do on the information superhighway on her
what they do and live the way they way to researching Aquascape, Inc.
live. Becoming a Master Gardener There she learned of the Certified
requires 50 hours of classroom Aquascape Contractor program, a group
work and 50 hours of community of professional pond-builders who have
service with additional hours gone the extra mile to be the best of the
required each year after their best in their industry. Like the Master
This story began for the pond -
certification. For this reason, Gardeners, a Certified Aquascape
builders on the afternoon of
Master Gardeners are some of the
Contractor must have classroom that would block a good portion of the
as well as hands-on training in the view that was being created, John the initial excavation to create shelves
field. They must continue to suggested a land bridge across the within the pond. The hole for the
receive training each year in order same part of the pond. This is a skimmer had to be dug through
to keep their certification. Their feature that hides large culvert tubes asphalt, but was soon ready to go.
work is reviewed by their peers in the pond and then seems to close Twenty five tons of rocks and fifteen
and their customers are surveyed up the ground above them so that you yards of gravel were delivered right on
to make sure that only the walk at pretty much existing ground schedule. Once the pond had the
companies who are tops in design level from one side of the pond to the shape they wanted, a protective
and building techniques as well as other with the water and fish passing underlayment of fabric was laid down
tops in customer service are through the tubes below your feet. It’s inside the empty shell and covered by
allowed to remain in the program. a beautiful piece of the pond-builders’ a 45-mil EPDM liner.
In fact, the program is so elite that art when it’s done correctly, effectively
a lesser-educated group of pond- creating two separate ponds from
builders who don’t subscribe to one.
the organic philosophy by which
all Aquascape water gardens are
built has created a website to try
to skim pond customers away by
simply adding an ‘s’ to the real
program’s web address! Using the
‘Find A CAC’ link on the website,
Pat called the three closest
companies and hoped that one of
them would ride in to her rescue.
Since all three companies build ponds
What she didn’t know was that
by the same philosophy and have had
these three contractors were all
similar training and experience, each
friends who had worked together A water garden this large would need
team member was able to glide
in some capacity or other before to be filtered by a constructed
effortlessly between the many different
this project came up. They were wetlands filter, sometimes referred to
little projects that make a big project
already on the phone to each as a ‘bog filter’. Feeding the large
like this come together. A couple of
other figuring out a way to work waterfall and constructed wetlands
guys were installing the rocks along
together on this project. They filter would be two pumps housed in a
the vertical walls of the pond while a
knew that the group wouldn’t have ‘Grande’ skimmer. Since a skimmer
couple were bringing the rock to them
much money but everyone that large isn’t the most easily-
with machines. When the machines
involved wanted to make sure this disguised feature, John decided to
were needed to help lift and install the
pond was done right and that create an underground stream to a
larger boulders, other people worked
these Master Gardeners were third pond that would hold the
on the land bridge or the underground
treated right. A couple of weeks skimmer, rather than just sticking it on
stream. Before long the project had
later, John, Steve, and Matt made the side of the pond. This would
really begun to take shape. The team
the trek to Victoria to meet with effectively create what looks on the
members returned to a local motel to
Pat and scope out the scene of surface like another land bridge,
rest up for what promised to be
the soon-to-be water garden. opening up more views and allowing
another hard day that would start all
more human interaction with the
too early the next morning.
The swimming pool had been water feature.
filled with dirt years ago so the
volunteers dug the pond out, The second day of the project wasn’t
On the chilly morning of March 5, just
piling the dirt where they wanted five weeks after the initial phone calls quite as cold and everyone wanted to
the waterfall to be placed. They were made, seven people showed up get started early. By the time lunch
had the idea of a large bridge ready to work hard. As they waited for was served, it looked like things were
going across the middle of the the pond components to be delivered on schedule. The Fire Marshall came
pond to link two pathways from the county property where it had by and was able to quickly fill the pond
together. Since been safely stored, the guys tweaked
with a fire hose in about 45
minutes while the underwater tropical-themed paradise around the new water garden. I have a feeling that a lot
lights were being installed and the of those community service hours will have been earned by the day of the Grand
finishing touches were being put Opening celebration. But the completed result will be an area that is beautiful,
on the waterfall. The constructed educational and enjoyable to all the people in Victoria county and the surrounding
wetlands filter was finished and areas.
turned on first. Around 5:00pm,
the waterfall sealing foam was dry Victoria County Master Gardeners www.vcmga.org
and the second 7500 gph pump
was plugged in.
Victoria County Pond Project
Pond Installation Pictures www.vcmga.org
Certified Aquascape Contractor
The Pond Crew www.thepondcrew.com
Alpine Aquascapes www.backyardcreations.org
As the waterfall flowed for the first
time, a loud cheer went up from
the assembled Master Gardeners. Texas Ponds and Water Gardens www.TexasPonds.com
Flash bulbs began to twinkle and
soon the three groups of Certified
Aquascape Contractors had
gathered around the waterfall for
the familiar Aquascape’s ‘thumbs-
up’ picture around their completed
project. A little while later, with just
enough adrenaline still in their
systems to make the drives home,
they each went back the way they
came, heading off into, and away
from, the approaching sunset.
While Matt would return a few
weeks later to install an automatic-
fill valve and plant the aquatic
plants, the pond-builders’ work
here was done.
But not so for the Master
Gardeners. With a grand opening
date of May 20th looming large on
the approaching horizon, stone
pathways had to be completed,
gazebos built, and a fence
erected. Then, finally, last but
certainly not least, landscaping
will be installed. There is a local
artist who’s also a Master
Gardener who is going to create a
But don't start gobbling up chocolate
bars just yet, wrote study author Dirk General Assembly through the South
Taubert of the University Hospital of Carolina Agriculture and Forestry
Cologne, Germany. Research System based at Clemson.
Treats such as dark chocolate might Birrenkott's research found that it took
be substituted for other high-calorie about three weeks for the garlic to
CHICAGO (Reuters) - Some may desserts, based on the study's reduce the poultry house odor
see a cup of tea as soothing but findings, but "we believe that any compared to the odor from a control
chocolate is more likely to lower dietary advice must account for the group of laying hens. The researchers
one's blood pressure, German high sugar, fat and calorie intake with have already conducted taste tests
researchers reported on Monday. most cocoa products. and found that people preferred the
eggs produced by the garlic-eating
Foods rich in cocoa appear to "Rationally applied, cocoa products hens.
reduce blood pressure but might be considered part of dietary
drinking green and black tea may approaches to lower hypertension "The tasters said the eggs were
not, according to an analysis of risk," he wrote. milder from the chickens eating garlic
previously published research in than from the control hens," Birrenkott
the Archives of Internal Medicine, said. "We think it might reduce the
published by the American sulfur content of the eggs."
While the chickens adapted to eating
The drop in blood pressure
garlic right away, hogs in a
among participants who
companion test were more reluctant
consumed cocoa products for at
to accept the new feed.
least two weeks was in the same Science Daily — CLEMSON - Garlic
range as achieved by someone may not be the first thing that comes to
taking drugs commonly mind when you think of air fresheners, "Hogs have a very sensitive sense of
prescribed to control high blood but Clemson University scientists are smell. That's why they're used in
pressure. finding that it works like a charm in France to find truffles," Birrenkott
poultry houses ... and may lower the said. After a day or so of boycotting
The fall in blood pressure credited cholesterol in eggs, to boot. the feed, however, the hogs did
to cocoa could be expected to cooperate in the study, with similar
reduce the risk of strokes and "We're feeding the chickens about 3 promising results on odor control.
heart attacks by 10-20 percent, percent of their diet in garlic powder to Chemical analyses of the cholesterol
the report said. mask the odor of the waste," said content of the eggs and pork are also
Glenn Birrenkott, Clemson animal and being conducted.
Both cocoa and tea contain veterinary science professor. "It makes
polyphenols, a class of chemicals the poultry house smell like a pizzeria While the garlic is effective in
known to help prevent instead of manure." controlling odor, it is more expensive
cardiovascular disease that are than basic chicken or hog feed. This
present in most fruits and As urban populations expand into rural means the eggs and pork may require
vegetables. But cocoa has a areas, the potential increases for a premium price to be cost effective
different type than tea -- conflict between neighborhood for commercial producers. However, if
procyanids -- that appear to be sensibilities and farm necessities. As a the products prove to contain a lower
more active. result, farmers must find creative cholesterol level, they could qualify as
solutions to produce the meat and specialty items because of the health
Currently, patients with high blood eggs suburbanites want in their benefit.
pressure are urged to eat more grocery stores but not in their
fruits and vegetables, although backyards. Clemson scientists are
cocoa and tea products account Note: This story has been adapted
conducting a variety of studies to
for the bulk of total polyphenol from a news release issued by
address livestock waste management
consumption in Western Clemson University.
as part of an initiative funded by the
countries, the study said. South Carolina
CANTON, TX North Haven Gardens
Turner's Organic Store 7700 Northaven Rd.
401 N Hwy 19 Dallas, TX 75230
903/567-2321 214 363-5316
CHANDLER, TX Redenta's Garden
Blue Moon Gardens 2001 Skillman St.
13062 FM 279 Dallas, TX 75206
ABILENE, TX 903.852.3897 www.redentas.com
Jackson Bros Feed & Seed www.bluemoongardens.com
3818 Treadaway Blvd. Soil Building Systems
915.691.1110 CLEBURNE, TX 1770 Y Street
In the Garden Dallas, TX 75229
ARLINGTON, TX 972 831.8181
1411 North Main
Moore Rental Service, Inc. www.SoilBuildingSystems.com
1010 West Division
3601 Garden Brook Dr.
Organicare Foreman’s Dallas, TX 75234
Daniel Wright, Certified Arborist 3800 Colleyville Blvd. 800.274.8930
Serving the Metroplex 817.281.7252 www.agsciinc.com
COPPELL, TX Moore Tree Care - Root Flare Services
Blooming Colors Nursery 6333 Denton Drive, Suite 100
1701 East Beltline Rd. Dallas, TX 75235
5111 West Arkansas Lane
CRESSON, TX DENTON, TX
ATHENS, TX Alliance Milling
Athens Organic Supply Cresson Feed & Vet Supply 319 E. Prairie St.
6187 Highway 19 N Hwy. 377 Denton, TX 76201
903.286.0383 817.396.4316 www.alliancemilling.com
ARLINGTON HEIGHTS, IL DALLAS, TX Twin Oaks Landscaping
Maxicrop USA Abrock Pest Management 2701 Highway 691
P.O. Box 964 2842 Mark Twain Drive 903.463.2205
Arlington Heights, IL 60006 972.484.1174
847.956.8828 Herb Mart Owens Organics
www.maxicrop.com 6434 E. Mockingbird Ln. Ste. 113 9705 Highway 183 N.
BOYD, TX 214.370.8120 Early, TX 76802
www.herbmarttx.com 915 641-2814
1706+ CR 4757 John Silk Feed EDINBURG, TX
940.433.5039 11415 Harry Hines Texas Plant & Soil Lab
firstname.lastname@example.org 972.247.2681 5115 W. Monte Cristo Rd.
Edinburg, TX 78541
BOWIE, TX Living Earth Technology 956 383-0739
Nature’s Way 1901 California Crossing Rd. www.txplant-soillab.com
305 E. London Dallas, TX 75220
940.872.4796 972 869-4332 FARMERSVILLE, TX
email@example.com www.livingearth.net Truth Hill Farm
17953 Country Road 618
CELESTE, TX Nicholson-Hardie Farmersville, TX 75442
Good Earth Organic Farm 5060 W. Lovers Ln. 903-776-2173 or 214-491-9441
903.496.2070 Dallas, TX 75209 firstname.lastname@example.org
www.goodearthorganicfarm.com 214 357-4348
Dirt Doctor's DIRT | May 2007
FORT WORTH, TX GRANBURY, TX Soil Therapy
AJ Southwest Arrow Feed & Ranch P.O. Box 387
4310 Village Creek Rd. 2031 E. Highway 377 Lufkin, TX 75902
Fort Worth, TX 76119 817 573-8808 800-282-5634
817 232-2785 or Toll Free 1-877- GRAND PRAIRIE, TX www.soiltherapy.org
810-0064 Grand Prairie Feed MCKINNEY, TX
www.ajsw.com & Garden Supply Trinity Tree Farms
Marshall Grain Company 1229 E. Main Street 4402 W University Dr.
2224 E. Lancaster Ave. 972 263-6522 469/742-0600
Fort Worth, TX 76103 GRAPEVINE, TX MEXIA, TX
817 536.5636 Blooming Colors Texas Organic Nursery &
www.marshallgrain.com 2221 Ira E. Woods Avenue Christmas Tree Farm
817 416.6669 Highway 84
Ferrier Custom Homes
11255 Camp Bowie West, Suite 115
Fort Worth, TX 76008-3692 GREENVILLE, TX MESQUITE, TX
817-237-6262 Steve's Nursery Herb Mart
www.ferrierbuilders.com Hwy 34 South 3330 N. Galloway, Ste 150
903 883-2911 972 270-6521
Silver Creek Materials www.herbmarttx.com
2251 Silver Creek Road HUBBARD, TX
Sam's Nursery MINEOLA,TX
Fort Worth, TX 76108
236 SH 171 Aunt Cindi’s Organic Market Center
254 576-1555 6134 FM 49 aka Hwy 49
Weston Gardens IRVING, TX
8101 Anglin Dr. Gibson Garden Center
Fort Worth, TX 76140 500 North O'Conner Road
401 W. FM 544
817 478-7220 972 254-3989
www.westongardens.com Nonnie's House of Organics & Gifts www.classicgardensnursery.com
Whiz-Q-Stone 2440 W. Irving Blvd. #150 MUENSTER, TX
4501 East Loop 820 South (214) 596-9009 Muenster Milling Co.
Fort Worth, TX www.nonnieshouseoforganics.com 202 S. Main
817-429-0822 LANCASTER, TX Muenster, TX 76252
FOUKE, AR Living Earth Technology Co 1-800-772-7178
3150 S. Beckley (1-35) www.muenstermilling.com
Enoch's Berry Farm
1230 W. Spring Valley Rd., Apt 222 972.869.4332 NOLANVILLE, TX
Richardson, TX 75080 LEONARD, TX Nolan Creek Nursery
877 772-2806 Access Organic Supply Nolanville, TX 76559
www.berryfarm.com 448 CR 5030 254 698-8622
FRISCO, TX 903-587-0898 / 972-658-7609 NORTH RICHLAND HILLS, TX
Shades of Green McKinney, Bonham, Greenville Green Mama's
8801 Coit Road LEWISVILLE, TX 5324 Davis Blvd.
Frisco, TX Hartwells Nursery 817 514-7336
972-335-9095 1570 N. Stemmons Expressway www.greenmamas.com
GARLAND, TX 972 436-3612 PLANO, TX
Roach Feed and Seed LUFKIN, TX Herb Mart Plano
409 Main St. Angelina & Neches River Authority 4120 W 15 St Ste 101
Garland, TX 75040 P.O. Box 387 972 758-1805
972 276-3217 Lufkin, TX 75902 www.herbmarttx.com
GRAHAM, TX 800-282-5634 Living Earth Technology Co.
Totally Organic www.anra.org 5032 Split Trail
1519 E. 4th Street 972.869.4332
file:///D|/dirt_doctor/May2007/magzaine/07May_21_p.htm5/1/2007 2:06:01 PM
The Pest Shop WACO, TX AUSTIN
2231 W. 15th St., Ste B Storm's Nursery Jim Grahs
Plano, TX 75075 9605 China Springs Rd RR I, Box 444
972 519-0355 254/836-0022 Red Rock, TX 78662
512/303-5190 or 512/303-4653
Dillard Feed & Seed DALLAS
Good Earth Soil & Material
319 N. Main Dallas Organic Gardening Club
220 Highway 1-20
817/596-8271 Meetings held 4th Thursday each month
7:00 pm Fretz Park Recreation Center
Peacock's Farm Contact number 214.676.4326
ROCKWALL, TX 122 W. Water St.
Living Earth Technology Co 817 594-5424 DENTON
1520 E 130 Denton Organic Society
972.869.4332 Weatherford Gardens Mike Mizell
2106 Fort Worth Highway 509 N. Bell Ave.
Tropical John's Garden Metro 817/341-0152 Denton, TX 76201
Shop & Landscape Co. 940/382-8551
302 Williams St. Willow Park Feed & Organic
972-117-2449 Garden Supply FORT WORTH
3187 Fort Worth Hwy.(Exit. 415) Norma Miller
SULPHUR SPRINGS, TX Weatherford, TX 76087 Po Box 9204
East Texas Landscaping 817/ 596 – 8844 Ft. Worth, TX 76147
& Fencing 817/292-2022
450 Main St. Wildflower Soaps
903 439-4648 1800 Oak Country Est. GARLAND
Weatherford, TX 76085 Lakeside Organic
SWEETWATER, TX 817-946-9847 Gardening Club
Nature's Way of Sweetwater www.wildflowersoaps.com Meetings are held at Rohde's Nursery,
316 Oak St. the first Sunday of the month at 2:00
915 235-2274 email@example.com
Old Thyme Gardens
Old Towne Joshua
950 CR 365
Organic Garden Club
Metting are held the 2nd and 4th
Sunday of every month from 3:00 to
TOOL, TX 5:00
Sticks & Stones Garden 817/517-6100
620 N. Tool Dr. (Hwy274)
Renate Snyder In The Garden
TYLER, TX ABILENE 272 South Belknap
Al H. Horaney’s, Inc. Carolyn Wiggins Stephenville, TX 76401
5520 Old Jacksonville Hwy. Jeannette St. Abilene 254/965-3710
903/939.1046 915/673-3338 or 915/673-2802
Aunt Cindi’s Organic ARLINGTON Charles Whitehead
Market Center Arlington Organic Garden Club 207 Atlanta Ave. Tyler, TX 75703
6134 FM 49 aka Hwy 49 Dorothy Beard 903/509-4416
903.857.2418 Po Box 173954 firstname.lastname@example.org
Arlington, TX 76003
growing and produce the beautiful scarified bluebonnets seeds
blue flowers. germinate without any problems.
Plant bluebonnet plants in a sunny If you cannot find bluebonnet plants to
location either in the ground or a plant in your garden now, check back
Dear Big Sprout,
flowerpot. Plant bluebonnets where with the garden centers and nurseries
I want to grow bluebonnets like I
they will grow undisturbed by next fall around the first of September.
saw this spring along the
cultivation and mowing. No soil
highway. Please explain how I
amendments are necessary.
can do this. If many winter weeds grow in the area
Bluebonnets are a native Texas
where the bluebonnets are growing,
wildflower and the plants do not
Dear Little Sprout. mow down the winter weeds before
require much water once established,
The beautiful bluebonnets we so the bluebonnets start growing in the
but water will be necessary for at
enjoy along the Texas Highways spring. Mowing in the winter will not
least the first week after
are available to plant in the harm the ground-hugging rosette
transplanting. Most plants planted in
landscape or in a container from seedlings.
flowerpots during the summer will
transplants in the spring. Check require more water than the
right away to see if there are any bluebonnet planted in the ground. Other wildflowers that grow in this
bluebonnet plants available at the area and will extend your wildflower
garden center near your home or enjoyment are Indian paintbrush and
If you want the bluebonnets to return
call other garden centers to see if coreopsis. Plant Indian paintbrush and
from seeds next spring, plant the
any plants are available. You coreopsis seeds in the fall
seedlings in the ground where you
cannot plant bluebonnets from
will not mind waiting for the seeds to
seed now even if the seeds are Big Sprout is written by Dotty
mature (ripen). The bluebonnet
available. Bluebonnet seeds must Woodson, Horticulture County
seeds take several weeks of growing
be planted in the late summer or Extension Agent, Texas Cooperative
after the flowers fade to mature.
early fall so the seedlings that Extension, Tarrant County. Dotty
Once you see the seedpods opening,
germinates from the seed will coordinates a large Junior Master
you can either collect the seeds to
enjoy the wonderful cold Texas Gardener program. Address questions
plant in the late summer or allow the
winter. The bluebonnet seedling to Dotty Woodson, 401 East Eighth
seeds to fall to the ground. Seeds
require the chilling of the Texas Street, Fort Worth, Texas 76102 or
allowed to fall to the ground will not
winter to grow the flowers in the call 817-884-1945 or e-mail,
germinate until late summer or early
spring. The bluebonnet seed email@example.com.
fall. If you plant bluebonnet
germinates naturally in field in
transplants in a flowerpot, collect the
early fall even through the seeds
seeds to plant in the fall.
are grown and dropped by the
plant in late April or early May.
The Texas highway department If you collect the seeds to plant next
and many volunteer fall, treat the seeds with a mild
organizations planted bluebonnet solution of vinegar and water to
seeds for many years to create soften the seed coat. Bluebonnet
the beautiful field of bluebonnets seeds are very hard. The hard seed
everyone enjoys so much every coat in nature is softened by months
spring. and years of weathering. Over time,
rainwater and wind will soften the
seed so water can enter the seed to
The bluebonnet plant available at
germinate the seed. The Texas
garden centers were planted by
highway department dispersed
plant growers in last fall so the
bluebonnets seeds in some areas for
seedlings are chilled during the
six years to establish a good planting.
winter just like the wildflower
Seeds purchased in seed packets or
bluebonnets planted along the
in bulk are treated by the seed
highways. When the weather
company with an acid and are
warms in the spring, the
labeled acid scarified seeds. The acid
bluebonnets seedlings start
well in the spring. For the past four yrs, A: Products with the OMRI seal are
it has been puny and is thinly leafed. usually good products and acceptable
Other maples in the area are just thick for the organic program. It would be a
with foliage and look really good. Ours good idea to cross reference the TORC
is just a shadow of its former self. (Texas Organic Research Center) list
What do you think and what can we do which you can find in the research area
to thicken up its foliage? A.D., Dallas of DirtDoctor.com. That list is the one
Q: I would like to know if Texas we abide by.
greensand would have an effect A: Unfortunately you need to get a
on cotton root rot. I'm a central new arborist. Of course the cutting of Q: I am writing you as a very
Texas cotton farmer with this the roots hurt the tree. I can give you concerned dog owner. We recently lost
problem. K.P., Kingsbury more advice if you send photos but the our Scottish terrier dog to bladder
Sick Tree Treatment is definitely in cancer and our other Scottie has just
A: Yes, it will help. Anything order. It is explained in detail on the been diagnosed with cancer. I did some
added to the soil that helps the DirtDoctor.com. If additional soil was research on the internet and discovered
balance will help disease control. added to this area, it needs to be that Scotties are at high risk for bladder
Greensand is loaded with removed because it would be as cancer already, but are seven times
available trace minerals for the damaging as the cut roots. more likely to get it from being exposed
plants and will help with the to pesticides used in yards. We have
building of life in the soil. On the Q: There is very effective way of lived in different apartment complexes,
other hand, it probably won’t cure getting rid of mole crickets. Pour a as well as having our yard at a previous
the disease completely by itself. mixture of dishwashing liquid and home sprayed by one of the local lawn
By the way, I have never seen a water over the lawn, within seconds services in the past. We are about to
product green up chlorotic plants they come out of the ground. Any buy a new home and look forward to
faster than greensand - even comment on this method? M.B., Dallas getting another dog. How can I get all
before organics when I was still the chemicals out of the yard and soil?
using synthetic products. A: Not a bad idea for a one time How long does it take to change a yard
treatment. When they are on the from one where chemicals were used
Q: I am starting roots in water. surface, they could be easily killed with to a totally organic lawn? We also have
Please tell me if I need to change a spray of orange oil. However, a 19 month old baby that will be playing
the water daily or if I replenish it, applying any kind of soap or detergent in the yard. Thanks in advance for any
when I am trying to encourage a to the soil on a regular basis will hurt advice you can give me. K.W., Dallas
flower stem to develop roots. M. the beneficial microbes in the soil.
M., Austin A: Excellent decision. There are
Q: I would like to know how to get rid basically two ways to go: #1 - just go
A: You shouldn't be using water of wild onions. I have heard that you cold turkey. Quit the lawn drugs and
at all. All cuttings including roses can mow them down in spring. N.G., begin the organic program. Put out
should be placed in organic Fort Worth zeolite at 50 lbs. per 1000 sq. ft., then
potting soil. Cuttings rooted in dry molasses at 20 lbs. per 1000 sq. ft.
water have a hard time adjusting A: What I recommend is to kill them and then the first organic fertilizer
to soil later. with kindness. Apply dry molasses at 2- application, unless you have already
3 lbs. per 100 sq. ft., and then add 1/2" done that. The second major feeding
Q: About 4 yrs. ago we decided of quality compost. They are also will be in early June and the third and
to put a tree-surround around our edible but make sure they are onions last in the fall. The beneficial microbes
old maple tree in the back yard. and not crow poison which is a from the organic inputs will slowly
We hired an arborist who poisonous plant. You'll find more neutralize the toxic chemicals. #2
constructed a stone tree details on both plants in my book choice - apply the activated carbon
surround. While he was building it Plants for Texas. product Grow Safe from the NORIT
he did some rather extensive Company. It is an extremely fine
chopping on the roots of the tree Q: When I find a product with the textured material that is mixed with
in order to place the stones. He (OMRI) Organic Materials Review water and sprayed. It immediately ties
assured us that this would in no Institute symbol on it, is this reassuring up the toxins, then the same organic
way damage the tree. Prior to his that it is a good organic product for my amendments are applied that break
construction, the tree always garden? R.B., Tyler down the tied up chemicals.
came out really
It's a hard product to find. Not A: They haven't bothered to send me Pesticides are also killing the bees
enough, but some of the organic a sample yet. I assume that if it is truly directly. This is another great reason to
maintenance contractors will apply an organic fertilizer, it will be fine - but stick with beneficial insects, nematodes
the product for you, which is a Scott’s is mainly in the chemical and other biological pest control
good idea because it is messy. business. The organic materials that techniques.
are acceptable to the Texas Organic
Q: Recently on one of your radio Research Center (TORC) are on our Q: The raspberries in my garden have
shows I heard a listener mention a web site at http://www.dirtdoctor.com/
not started to grow so is it okay to
plant that could be used to view_org_research.php?id=5 apply corn gluten on the row? R.B.,
substitute for sugar - I think he Frisco
called it stevie. Can you please Q: How short should I cut my
help me? M.W., Dallas Bermuda grass? I have been told to A: Yes, corn gluten meal only prevents
scalp it in the spring. I thought I would small seed from growing. It's only a pre-
A: Stevia is the herb we ask an expert. J.S., Dallas emergent effect. Perennials like
discussed. It is easy to grow and raspberries will love the natural food.
extremely sweet. Everyone should A: Scalping in the spring is a very
cut back on regular sugar. I use a bad idea. It's hard on the equipment Q: Is the root system of my Bradford
lot of honey, but stevia is another and you, it wastes time, it removes pear tree damaging my foundation?
good way to go. It is covered valuable organic material, and it The trees were planted by the builder. I
pretty well in my Herbs for Texas exposes bare soil to sunlight and wind think they are too close to the house,
book. Can be used fresh or dried. which causes loss of moisture, loss of but do provide shade. Should we have
Most users cook it into a sweet carbon and loss of beneficial living them removed? T.M., Dallas
liquid. organisms. The bare soil allows weed
seed to germinate and the loss of A: I have trees planted close all
Q: We had maple trees cut down organic matter and microbes reduces around my house and am not
and ground up. The shavings from the fertility of the soil and turf. concerned. That worry is overblown.
the tree sat for a few weeks and
then we threw them on our shrubs Q: There is a new problem with honey Reader Feedback
to use as mulch. Someone said bees and it is not related to mites.
the natural acids of the tree may There is mass die off happening and Howard - your Bradford Pears article
kill our shrubs. Do we rake it off the symptoms are new and the experts was spot on! These trees, while
immediately or put something on have now figured out what it going on. attractive, are messy and regularly
to neutralize it, or do nothing? P. We are talking about bee pollination misused in the landscape. The concept
C., Beltsville, MD companies having 60 to 75 percent of "ornamental" is not widely
loss in a short period of time. The understood, and in my neighborhood
A: Whoever told you that is current best guess is systemic (Brook Meadows, Colleyville) these
goofy. Tilling fresh wood chips into pesticides. It is normal for an trees draw the centerpiece position, as
the soil would tie up the nitrogen, occasional hive to leave and quickly be though they are oaks.
but used on the surface they don't taken over by wax moths or honey
pose the same problem. If you beetles. A hive that is dead by CCD Even worse, we bought an
toss a little compost on with the (colony collapse disorder) will not get undervalued house for which every bad
chips, the plants will do even attacked. Nothing will eat the honey tree decision possible had been made,
better. until it is removed from the hive and including the placement of three tightly
aired out for a while, except probably packed Bradfords right by the pool,
Q: Scott's is making an "organic" people. Albert Einstein said "if honey shading a portion of it. They are now
fertilizer that is available at my bees disappeared from the face of the gone, but not without consternation
local Home Depot. I moved from earth, within 4 years, all life would be and the breaking of an axiom you know
the Dallas area two years ago and gone. There is a good article at www. so well - never remove a tree.
have been searching for an earthfiles.com . R.S., Dallas
available quality organic fertilizer Imagine the Park Cities with Bradford
here in Mississippi. Any Pears rather than all the oaks that were
A: It’s a good possibility pesticides fortuitously planted years ago! Thanks
information on this product? L.H.,
are the culprit. Pesticides are stressing B. F. Colleyville
the bees and causing mites to attack.
diatomaceous earth in-dry weather and
beneficial nematodes anytime. For
chiggers apply clemental sulfur at 4 lbs.
per 1000 sq. ft. or less or spray with
mound drench products or other plant oil
• Cabbage loopers and other
PLANT*: FERTILIZE: caterpillars: release trichogramma wasps
and as a last resort spray Bacillus
thuringiensis (Bt) or the fire ant control
• All warm season lawn grasses • All annual flowers and potted
formula. Add one ounce of molasses per
from plugs, sod, seed, or sprigs plants with organic fertilizers such
gallon of Bt spray.
or by hydromulching. Zoysia as Yum Yum mix. Spray Garrett
should only be planted in solid Juice or aerated compost on all
soil. Also the tall prairie grasses foliage every two weeks, or as time • Aphids on tender, new growth: strong
from seed including big and little and budget allows. Drench root water blast and release ladybugs.
bluestem, Indiangrass, zones of plants for root stimulation
switchgrass, sideoats gramma, with Garrett Juice. Add liquid fish • Release green lacewings and ladybugs
eastern gamma, etc. for more fertilizer value. for general control.
• Tropical color in beds or pot PRUNE: • Lacebugs on azaleas, sycamores:
including bougainvillea, Spray garlic-pepper tea or one of the
mandevilla, allamanda, ixora, • Climbing roses, after their bloom. mound drench products such as Anti
penta, hibiscus, and others. Fuego.
• Spring-flowering shrubs, vines,
• All trees and shrubs from and trees after they have bloomed. • Mosquitoes: mist or spray plant oil
containers. Hardened off balled
products and apply minced or granulated
and burlapped plants also. • “Pinch” away the growing tips of garlic to site and potted plants. Treat skin
Always remove the burlap, soil mums weekly. and/or clothes with diluted vanilla.
and ropes from the top of the root
balls. • Dead and misshapen growth. • Brown patch or other fungal
diseases: apply horticultural or whole
• Warm-season annual color
WATER: ground cornmeal at 10-20 lbs. per 1,000
plants: lantana, begonias, zinnia,
sq. ft. spray and/or drench soil with garlic
periwinkle, cosmos, caladiums,
• All planting areas deeply but tea.
impatiens, verbena, and others.
infrequently during dry periods.
• Perennials including cannas, • Bacterial and viral diseases: spray
glads, summer bulbs, mums, • Potted plants regularly. Add 3% hydrogen peroxide.
asters and other fall perennials. Garrett Juice or aerated compost
tea. • Weeds: hand remove or use
• Ground covers including mechanical devices. Spot spray with
horseherb, Asian jasmine, • Add lava sand and living mulch to vinegar based products. Add 1 oz. of
English ivy, Persian ivy, purple help conserve water. orange oil and 1 teaspoon of soap and 1
wintercreeper, liriope and tablespoon molasses per gallon of vinegar.
ophiopogan from 1 ¼” or 4” pots. PEST CONTROL:
• Hot-weather vegetables • Continue to release trichogramma
including southern peas, peppers, wasps for pecan case bearer and • Mow weekly and leave clippings on the
squash, okra, melons and other troublesome caterpillars. lawn. Never catch the clippings. They
warm season crops. don’t belong in the compost pile unless
• Fleas and ticks: apply natural there is a super abundance of them.
• Any and all of the herbs.
• Turn compost pile and continue slightly acidic soil in partial sun, but will
to add new ingredients. tolerate poor soils, various soil pHs,
heat, drought, and various sun or
• Mulch all bare soil with shredded shade conditions. Propagated
tree trimmings from your own primarily by rooted stem cuttings, but
property or shredded cedar. Living also by separation of the rooted
mulch has become my favorite. It Kerria japonica
suckers. Few disease or pest
contains shredded tree trimmings problems, although death of the older,
and compost. (Rosaceae - Rose Family) usually central stems in the winter is
fairly common with mature shrubs.
• Don’t forget to feed and water Tolerant of heavy pruning, which can
the birds! be used to rejuvenate old plants.
Stems are very thin, somewhat zigzag,
* Planting recommendations based and have small brown conical winter
on North Texas climate. Check buds, dead stems are white-brown,
with your local nurseries and noticeable, and often in the center of
extension service for specific mature shrubs, and should be annually
varieties and timing in your area. removed every late winter or early
USES: Foundation, specimen, group
HABIT: Small ornamental shrub, planting, or mass planting shrub, good
maturing at up to 5' tall by 6' wide, for naturalizing in the border or in
arching clump growth habit, becoming erosion control situations. Good winter
rounded with age. Rapid growth rate stem contrast against red brick or
from its basal shoots, but slow growth white stone walls.
rate from the established stems.
PROBLEMS: Spreads underground
Foliage emerging as a bright medium- beyond its original space and is
green color and changing to dark invasive by peripheral suckers, except
green as the season progresses. in a root-restricted site (such as in a
Deciduous, alternate, ovate to raised bed, or between a sidewalk and
lanceolate, doubly serrated, with a foundation). Central stems on
impressed veins and an acuminate mature plants often dieback during
apex, green to chartreuse fall color winter (especially when sited in poorly
that is persistent into November. drained soils) and turn off-white, and
result in necessary maintenance for
Flowers are bright golden-yellow in their selective removal in early spring.
April and May and sporadically
throughout the summer, 1.5" diameter NOTES: Kerria is named after William
solitary flowers can be very dense on Kerr, who introduced the cultivar
the stems if sited in full sun each 'Pleniflora'. Japonica translates as
golden-yellow flower is effective for "from Japan," where it is also grown.
two to three weeks and has a good
contrast against the green foliage
Fruit is small, brown, and rnamentally
CULTURE: Full sun to full shade and
prefers a moist, rich, well-drained,
15 A Little Extra
14 AJ Southwest
27 Classic Gardens
08 Expo 2007
05 Moore Tree Care
18 Muenster Natural Pet Food
09 Nature's Guide
05 Rehoboth Ranch
27 Silver Creek Materials
14 Soil Mender
05 Whiz-Q Stone
03 Wildflower Soaps