Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                                           1
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

I. Introduction

The Community Resource Management Framework (CRMF) is a strategic plan of the
community on how to manage and benefit from forest resources on a sustainable basis1. The
plan serves asencompasses the community’s long term vision, aspirations, commitments and
strategies for the protection, rehabilitation, development and utilization of forest resources. The
CRMF is a part of the planning process concerning tenurial instruments which are the
Community-Based Forest Management Agreement (CBFMA) for timberland areas, and the
Protected Area Community-Based Resource Management Agreement (PACBRMA) for
protected areas. These tenurial instruments are awarded by the Department of Environment
and Natural Resources (DENR) to the concerned People’s Organization (PO)2. Specifically, the
PACBRMA is in accordance with the Protected Area Management Plan that provides the
actions of the tenure holder relevant to the management, development, utilization, conservation
and protection of resources in the subject area.

The CRMF is prepared by the People’s Organization (PO)3 of the local community with the
assistance of the Community Environment and Natural Resources Officer (CENRO), Provincial
Environment and Natural Resources Officers (PENRO), and Regional Environment and Natural
Resources Officer (RENRO). This framework shall serve as the basis for the 5-year detailed
work plan which the PO should submit as a participant of the Community-Based Forest
Management Program (CBFMP). The formulation of this framework plan is essential for the
implementation of the CBFMA, and shall take place 30 days upon the approval of the CBFMA.

The Calawis Upland Farmers Association Incorporated (CUFAI) is a People’s Organization duly
recognized by the DENR and the Securities and Exchange Committee (SEC)4. The CRMF is
prepared to meet the provisions contained in the PACBRMA. The succeeding sections will have
an elaborate discussion regarding the aforementioned legal bases such as the agreements and
administrative orders alongside the executive orders responsible for the awarding of PACBRMA
and the creation of CUFAI.

A. Legal Bases of the PACBRMA

1. National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS)

As part of the Marikina Watershed System buffer zone, Barangay Calawis is categorized under                                Comment [O1]: What is a buffer zone?
the protected areas classification of the DENR. This implies that the security of tenure granted
by the DENR, to the residents of the barangay, is subject to the implementing rules and
regulations of the NIPAS Act. The NIPAS Act recognizes the need for controlled special
development within buffer zones which are located adjacent to protected areas, in order to avoid
or minimize harm to the protected area. This Act limits development to environmentally sound
practices and prohibits the conversion of natural resources into industrialized areas. The DENR
holds the right to relocate communities residing in protected areas as needed by the state.

  DAO 2004-29 DENR Administrative Order No.2004-29 Article II Scope, Coverage and Key Program Participants
Section 18
  Article II, Section 5 Qualification of Participants of the DENR Administrative Order (DAO) No. 2004-29 states that
participants in the CBFMP shall be embodied by the People’s Organization of the local community.
  The People’s Organization is a legal entity composed of members of a community who are actively residing and
tilling the area to be awarded in the CBFM
  In accordance with Republic Act No. 7586 (NIPAS Law), Executive Order No.263 and DAO 2002-02
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                              2
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

2. Community Based Forest Management (CBFM)

“Adopting the CBFM as the national strategy to ensure the sustainable development of the
country’s forest land resources and providing mechanisms for its implementation”5 aims for an
improved quality of life for upland dwellers and communities under an ecologically sound
environment (MPFD, 1990). The DENR, being the primary institution tapped for this purpose, is
responsible for assuring that the provisions of the CBFM are implemented. The foundation of
the program is to enlist the aid of communities in preserving the ecological state of the
environment. Specifically, the DENR shall provide security of tenure and technical assistance to
these local communities.                                                                                      Comment [O2]: The connection among CBFM,
                                                                                                              NIPAS, and PACBRMA is not clear. What is needed is
3. Protected Area Community-Based Resource Management Agreement (PACBRMA)                                     for us to establish the chronology of laws:
                                                                                                              - NIPAS: 1992
                                                                                                              - CBFM Program: 1995
The PACBRMA is the tenurial instrument awarded to a rightful PO, whose members are                            - PACBRMA: 2000
qualified tenured migrants6 in a protected area. The PO is represented by its president, and is               Sa discussion ng PACBRMA, number 3, there should
legally referred to as the PACBRMA holder. The DENR recognizes the PO as a significant                        be reference to the NIPAS and that this gave way to
                                                                                                              the establishment of the buffer zone where the
instrument for the development and management of forest lands due to the invaluable sense of                  PACBRMA can be acquired, following the CBFM
ownership these communities feel for their land is vital in the sustainable development of the                strategy.
environment. In return, the DENR shall provide security of tenure and technical assistance to
these local communities as contained in the PACBRMA.

The PO is given the privilege to use areas, subjected to terms and conditions covered in the
agreement. The PACBRMA holder is also given the right to allocate areas to members, and
develop it along with the privilege of participating in decision-making processes that involves the
development of the area and allocation of resources. The agreement also includes the
rehabilitation and restoration, habitat protection, conservation of resources, and development of
alternative livelihood opportunities, that are not necessarily dependent on forest resources. And
The sustainability of renewable resources being developed and utilized is another provision in
the PACBRMA. In addition, farming implements such as seeds and fertilizers are granted to the
members of the People’s Organization. The responsibility to determine the worthy beneficiaries
of these materials is placed upon officials of the People’s Organization. The grantees shall be
determined among interested parties, depending on their eagerness to make extensive use of
the grant in terms of livelihood purposes and their willingness to comply with the DENR‘s
provisions regarding prohibiting from environmentally detrimental practices.                                  Comment [O3]: ?

The agreement shall take effect for a period of 25 years, and is renewable for another 25 years
unless the PACBRMA-holder fails to comply with the agreed terms and conditions which would
result to in the termination of the agreement. The termination of PACBRMA can occur based on
various grounds including the reclassification of the area. Allowing settlers’ privileges greater             Comment [O4]: What is meant by
than what is offered under the program, such as when the agreed land becomes alienable and                    reclassification? You can put this in footnote.
disposable, and/or failure to comply with the terms and conditions of the agreement, by
performing activities harmful to the environment, and when the national interest so requires as
determined by the DENR secretary are conditions that would what?.7                                            Comment [O5]: Ayusin pa ang paragraph.

STRATEGY. Retrieved May 20, 2009 from
 A tenured migrant has acquired residency of at least 5 years prior the awarding of PACBRMA in the
area.                                                                                                         Formatted: English (United States)

    Protected Areas Community Based Resource Management Agreement (PACBRMA)
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                       3
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated


In the 1980s motions for acquiring land security was driven by the Sangguniang Barangay and
later on, through a group organized by the barangay officials. This initiated the formation of the
Calawis Upland Farmers Association Incorporated (CUFAI) in December 1996, with Barangay
Captain Guillermo Estanislao acting as the adviser. The organization applied for recognition
through the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). By January 3, 1997 the organization
was duly recognized as a People’s Organization by the SEC with the recommendation of the

However, the initial effort to acquire land security was unsuccessful due to the then president’s
idle governance and the lack of familiarity regarding the acquisition of land security. In order for
the PACBRMA to be awarded, the DENR called for the revival of the organization in the year
2000 during which the members of the Sangguniang Barangay, Department of Interior and
Local Government (DILG), DENR, and the Office of the Mayor of Antipolo held a general
assembly and a re-election of officers. In the same occasion, Barangay Kagawad Epitacio M.
Coper, a migrant from Batangas, was elected president of the organization. In 2003, the
PACBRMA was awarded to CUFAI, granting all the privileges and responsibilities outlined in the

1. Mission & Vision

The CUFAI aims to help the people of Barangay Calawis in Antipolo City, Rizal to obtain land
tenure. Contained in its articles of incorporation9 are the association’s functions; consisting of
providing agricultural services, organizational experience, self-improvement, and opportunities
concerning agricultural and/or industrial purposes. The organization’s functions also include; the
promotion of cooperative production among members. The CUFAI performs the duties and
responsibilities bestowed by CBFM and PACBRMA. More importantly, the association aims to
attain legal rights of ownership of their farming and residential lands, and for the area to be
classified as Alienable and Disposable. This would allow the residents to have land titles which
in turn would allow the use of the land for any purpose in for an indefinite period of time.

The organization envisions progress to the community’s quality of living to address the people’s
primary needs. They seek local and national government intervention for the construction of
basic infrastructures such as roads that provide easier access to all the areas in the barangay
especially in the Apia region.(Insert CUFAI general reference map) Education from the primary,
secondary, up to the tertiary level is another main priority. The association aims for better health
services through the creation of a barangay hospital equipped with doctors and adequate
medicine supplymedical facilities. In the late 1990s access to electricity through MERALCO was
achieved with the continuous efforts of the CUFAI President Mr. Epitacio Coper. Access to
electricity helped bring further improvements to the barangay. Finally, the association aims to
empower the residents through sustainable livelihood projects that are not reliant on
environmentally detrimental methods.

    SEC Reg. No. A199112190
    These guidelines are incorporated in the SEC document of CUFAI (Append to SEC)
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                                      4
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

2. Membership

. The organization identifies the following requirements for membership:

              Must be land holders within the CUFAI area;
              Must register as a forest occupant in Brgy. Calawis and enlist as a CUFAI member
              Pay the designated membership fee amounting to Php 300.00.

The membership fee funds the organization’s expenses such as transportation costs for
travelling from Barangay Calawis to Manila, to attend meetings with the DENR, MERALCO, and
other government and private institutions, who may help address the needs of the association.
The membership fee varies, as in the case of weekend farmers or the Pajero families (named in
reference to the type of vehicle they use when visiting the area) who are initially charged Php
500.00 with an additional Php 100.00 per hectare of land depending on the total number of
hectares they own. These weekend farmers purchase large farm lots and employ Calawis locals
to manage their land. Having purchased lots within CUFAI, Pajero Families also coordinate with
the association in order to attain security of tenure on their respective lots as members of the
association.                                                                                                          Comment [O6]: Clarify: are all pajero families
CUFAI members are given first priority in DENR programs since they are the registered
grantees of the PACBRMA. They are also the recipients of land endowments such as in the
Upland Development Program (UDP) of the DENR. Seedlings, fertilizer and land allocation are
examples of what DENR has given the association. In return, the responsibility of CUFAI
members is to comply with the governing rules of the PACBRMA.which states that Tthey may
use the land for livelihood purposes such as upland farming but the DENR does not allow the
use of implements that mayprovided that their means do not cause harm to the environment.

Termination of membership is determined by incurring 3 absences in the annual CUFAI general
assembly, held every 31st of January. The president shall notifiesy the absentee through a
written warning after each absence. On the third offense, the person’s membership shall be
revoked. To this day, no membership has been terminated.

Within the CUFAI area are non-members who have little knowledge about the organization and
the provisions of the PACBRMA agreement. In this situation, non-members within the CUFAI
area are not included in the grants provided by the DENR and other institutions. The grants
include land parcelling10, land endowments, and security of tenure. Although the whole CUFAI
area is registered under the PACBRMA, non-members residing in the CUFAI area are at risk of
eviction for a period less than what is stated in the agreement since they are not included in
CUFAI’s security of tenure.

The identified reason as to why some residents in the area have little interest in the CUFAI and
PACBRMA is primarily due to the fact that they are satisfied with their current state of living, and

  Land parcelling involves delineating portions of land owned by a certain individual as proof of the extent of
his/her land.
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                 5
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

this is their only concern for the moment. There are efforts in educating the people of the
benefits of the PACBRMA and the detrimental effects of environmental degradation, but the fact
remains that the current mindset of the people is geared towards present day concerns. With
this being said CUFAI remains persistent in educating people about the PACBRMA and is
amenable to sharing the benefits of the agreement among the residents of the barangay.           Comment [O7]: Establish clearly that this
                                                                                                 paragraph is related to the previous because this
In May of 2009, an estimated 40 families from Apia are currently applying for membership with    explains reason for non-membership.
CUFAI. As previously stated, membership is limited to lot owners within the CUFAI area only.
The case was proposed to address the needs of the residents of Apia who are in need of
seedlings and other farming implements from the DENR. This is in accordance with the request
of PAMB to allocate grants of the DENR to non-members of the organization as a venue for the
reforestation of the area.

3. Organizational Structure

CUFAI as an organization is headed by a President or a Chairman, a Vice President, 8
members of the Board of Directors, an Auditor, a Treasurer, a Secretary, and an Adviser.

                                                   Table 1.1

                         2009 Calawis Upland Farmers Association Inc. Officers

                                      PRESIDENT          Epitacio M. Coper

                                  VICE-PRESIDENT         Benedicto Sailog

                                     SECRETARY           Mario Masagnay

                                     TREASURER           Gemma Doroteo

                                        AUDITOR         Nelson Hernandez

                                                           Carlito Asiong

                                                           Paterno Esto

                                                         Narciso De Luna

                                                          Jose Masagnay
                                      BOARD OF
                                                        Abondio Rantugan

                                                               Lito Veric

                                                        Florencio Villorente

                                                         Vicente Villorente

                                        ADVISER        Reynaldo O. Doroteo
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Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

The general role of the organization’s officers, in accordance with its mission and vision, is
represented by their organizational structure. The organizational chart was formulated in an
assembly composed of the members of the organization along with NGOs, government
agencies like DENR, DILG and the Office of the City Mayor. This organizational structure is
approved by the DENR and is effective to this date. Members have undergone trainings and
seminars in order to formulate the organizational structure. The General Assembly, Lupon ng
Patnugutan, Ingat Yaman, Kalihim, together with the Lupon Tagasuri are the most active
branches of the organization because of their respective functions in the association. (INSERT
ORGANIZATIONAL CHART)                                                                                    Comment [O8]: Emman made the chart. As i
                                                                                                         also recall,may explanation ng tasks ang original
In addition, the PACBRMA states that the PO President/Chairman has the authority to allocate             copy ng draft 5. Di ba dito yun isasama?
land and technical assistance from the DENR. In this regard, CUFAI officials have the power to
address illegitimate and environmentally detrimental practices such as kaingin and pag-uuling,
illegal logging, and selling of land referred to as “lipat karapatan”. Officials weigh the options on
arresting residents involved in these activities in lieu of the PACBRMA. Considering the current
status of living, most offenders remain non-reprimanded. Instead, CUFAI officials are persistent
in conducting seminars regarding the ill- effects of these practices on the environment. Another
responsibility of the CUFAI officials is to ensure that reforestation practices are kept functional in
the area and that member beneficiaries are utilizing full use of the sponsored grants. In lieu of
this, officials have formed patrol groups called “bantay-gubat” to note Criteria and Incentives
(C&I) on farm lots of the members and to report the actions needed to be taken into


Given the legal mandates, the PACBRMA delineates privileges of stewardship to CUFAI. The
awarded land is located in Barangay Calawis, Antipolo and forms part of the Marikina
Watershed Reservation (MWR) as a buffer zone. Hence, the use and development of the area
is primarily guided by the legal bases as embodied by the PACBRMA.

This section provides a discussion of the Physical Characteristics of the CUFAI, the Socio-
Economic Profile of Barangay Calawis, the Natural Resources present in the area and its
utilization, and the Existing General Land Use of the CUFAI. The discussion of the Physical
Characteristics expounds on the location and land area, climate, and topography of the CUFAI.
The next part would be a discussion on Natural Resources that would further explain about the
Marikina Watershed Reservation & its biodiversity, is followed by a discussion on land and
water resources that flourish in the area, and most importantly, the utilization of these
resources. The Socio-economic profile will give further details about the people who live in the
area regarded as CUFAI; the section will discuss the Demography, Education, Health Services
and types of Livelihood that characterize the site. The last section focuses on the CUFAI area’s
Land Use.

A. Physical Characteristics

a. Location and Land Area
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                                              7
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

The CUFAI is located within Barangay Calawis of Antipolo City (insert location map) and
comprises a land area of 542 hectares11. Originally, CUFAI has requested 2500 hectares to be
included into the CUFAI. However, the request is still pending within the DENR. The total land
area of Barangay Calawis is 9,144.30 hectares based on the barangay profile. According to the
Facts and Figures, 2009 of Antipolo City the land area of Calawis is 5,581.12 hectares.12 The
distance of Barangay Calawis from the Provincial Capitol is approximately 12 kilometers.
Barangay Calawis can be accessed from Marcos Highway through the Kaysakat-Calawis
Barangay Road.

The northwest of the CUFAI area is bounded by Mt. Purro and the intersection of Boso-Boso
and Payaguan Rivers to the west. To the northeast is Mount Caluwiran and to the southeast is
Mount Taluto. CUFAI is 9.7% of the total land area of Barangay Calawis.13 Although this
percentage is quite small, the built-up area of Barangay Calawis is situated inside the CUFAI
area. In the 762 households inside Barangay Calawis, 560 households are within the CUFAI.14                                   Comment [O9]: Read again and improve

b. Climate

The climate of Antipolo is classified by the PAGASA (Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and
Astronomical Service Administration) as a Type I climate. This is characterized by two distinct
seasons—the wet and dry. The wet season is from May to December while the dry season is
from January to April. The wet season allows a long cropping period, and the four months of the
dry season make some areas agriculturally inactive.                                                                           Comment [O10]: verify

The monsoon wind system is the main climatic control in the area. The Southwest Monsoon or
the Habagat brings rain to the area. The cool Northeast Monsoon or the Amihan, moves as a
dry wind and becomes drier after crossing the Sierra Madre orographic barrier. The monsoons
influence the rainfall in the area. The Southwest Monsoon accounts for the heavy seasonal
rainfall whereas during the four dry months, the Northeast Monsoon is prevalent. The warmest
month is May, and the coolest month is March. Due to its high elevation, the temperature in the
area is lower compared to its neighbouring areas.

Varieties of crops to be planted are determined by the climate condition of that area. The
climate is an important factor for seedlings to root, grow, and produce crops. Different plant
materials also have different requirements like climate and soil, before it is able to produce
crops. This explains why farmers choose to perform crop rotation in the area, depending on the
season and the availability of the crops.

c. Topography and Geology

CUFAI has slopes from 18-50%. Elevations in the CUFAI range between 150m and 475m. Flat
lands characterize the central part of the area while hilly and steep areas surround the center.
The area’s relatively flat central portion is where most of the residential, commercial, domestic,
agricultural, administrative, and cultural activities of Barangay Calawis take place. Upland
farming takes place on the hilly regions of the area.

   As stated in the PACBRMA
   This does not include the 2,935.34 hectares that is currently outside the political jurisdiction of Antipolo, but is
historically a part of it.
   The figure is based from the total CUFAI area divided by the total land area of Barangay Calawis multiplied by
   Based from the Philippine Bureau of Mines and Geo-Sciences.
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                           8
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

As per Bureau of Soils and Water Management (BSWM) records, the geology of the area
includes a landscape of residual/volcanic hills with land forms of upper rounded hills and ridges.
These formations are usually covered with vegetation. According to the Philippine Bureau of
Mines and Geo-Sciences records, the stratigraphy of the area includes stratified rocks of the              Comment [O11]: MGB?
Kinabuan formation, which is mainly altered spillitic basalt flows with intercalated highly
indulated sandstone, shale, and chert beds. These stratified rocks are identified by their unique
basalt lithology, dated from the Cretaceous period15.

Shale is the parent material of the soils in the area. Soil types include Pinugay clay that
characterizes 45-65% slopes. The Pinugay clay’s horizon is 10 to 25 cm thick and its texture is
a brown to dark brown, dark reddish brown or reddish brown clay loam or silty clay loam16. The
Lumbangan Clay can be found on the 25-45% slope. This is moderately deep to deep, well-
drained soils that occur on very steep, highly dissected volcanic hills. It has dark red, dark
yellowish brown, dark graying brown clay horizon not more than 20 cm. This thin horizon,
together with its steep topography makes it moderately affected by erosion and prone to slope
failures. The Dystropept-Tropudalf-Tropudult association, is an extensive soil association that
occurs in 45-65% slopes. This soil association is moderately deep to deep, well-drained and is
derived from volcanic tuff or adobe. It occurs on the rolling steep, moderately dissected volcanic
mountains marked by rounded crest. Another soil association present in the area is the
Dystropept-Troporthent Association. This soil association is shallow to deep, well-drained, and
occurs in very steep, highly dissected mountain ridges with sharp crests.

The topographic characteristic of Barangay Calawis is ideal for growing fruit trees. Soil types in
the area include well-drained loamy soils and clay soils, which can successfully support growth
of fruit-bearing trees. In addition, the area also has places that are more elevated, whose soil
drainage is most effective for growing fruit-bearing trees.

The rivers and creeks that run through the CUFAI area include the Payaguan River; a tributary
of the Boso-Boso River, Bulitinao Creek, Anono Creek, Calawis Creek and the Paikulan Creek.
The creeks also serve as a marker for the boundaries of the purok within the Barangay.

     Based from the Soil Map of the Province of Rizal from the Bureau of Soils and Water Management.
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                     9
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

B. Socio-Economic Profile

The socio-economic profile describes the status of living of the residents in the barangay. This
includes the discussion on the area’s demography, education, health services, and protective
services existing in the area. This will help explain how various resources are utilized. The data
used for this part covers the whole barangay of Calawis as deemed applicable, except for the
livelihood section which covers the sources of income of those specifically residing in the


Barangay Calawis is originally inhabited by about 20 families of approximately 100 individuals
belonging to the Dumagat indigenous group. At present, there are around 200 families, roughly
1000 Dumagat in the area who are concentrated mainly in the Dumagat Village in Sitio Paglitao.
A number can also be found in Sitio Balon, Bantay and Malasia. (Annalisa Tugado, personal
communication, May 14, 2009) (insert map of places in relation to calawis)                           Comment [O12]: Meron ba nito?

As of 2007, barangay data accounts for 5,882 individuals living in the barangay (refer to table
2.1), in contrast with 3,978 as reflected in the 2007 National Statistics Office (NSO) census. The
population distribution per purok of the families in the barangay is summarized in Table. On the
other hand, the age-sex pyramid of the barangay indicates a steady increase of its population
(figure). Population growth rate is given at 7.6% which means that by 2010, the population of
the barangay is expected to be 4,956. The population is relatively young, and belonging to the
working age category. In the case of the barangay, the labor force is primarily engaged in
activities such as upland farming, pagkakaingin, pag-uuling, and pangangalakal which are labor
intensive jobs. (Facts and Figures of Antipolo 2009)

                       Table 2.1: POPULATION DISTRIBUTION BY AGE AND SEX
                                       (As of 2007-2008 Census)

                              AGE GROUP            MALE   FEMALE       TOTAL
                                 Under 1             90     150         245
                                  1–9               401     378         779
                                 10 – 14            301     290         591
                                 15 – 19            311     326         637
                                 20 – 24            388     432         820
                                 25 – 29            211     245         456
                                 30 – 34            254     294         548
                                 35 – 39            125     190         315
                                 40 – 44            350     300         650
                                 45 – 49            200     95          295
                                 50 – 54            160     190         350
                                 55 – 59             19     29           48
                                 60 – 64             15     72           87
                                 65 – 69             20     15           35
                                 70 – 74             6      11           17
                                 75 – 79             6       5           11
                              90 and above           2       1            3
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Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

                 TOTAL POPULATION           2,859         3,023       5,882
                     Source: Barangay Profile
Figure ___: Age Sex Pyramid

                   Table 2.2: POPULATION & NUMBER OF FAMILIES PER PUROK
                                            (2006 Census)
                                               TOTAL      NUMBER OF
                                            POPULATION     FAMILIES
                               Purok 1           650          200
                               Purok 2           669          128
                               Purok 3           853          321
                               Purok 4           652          130
                               Purok 5           660          118
                               Purok 6           998          331
                               Purok 7          1,200         300
                           Sitio Paglitaw        200           50
                               TOTAL            5,882        1,578
                   Source: Barangay Profile

Barangay data notes Catholicism as the dominant religion in the barangay with 60% of the
population being Roman Catholics. Residents ascribing to the Born Again religion are estimated
at 20%, while the remaining consists of Iglesia ni Cristo and Seventh Day Adventist. In terms of
language composition, 70% in the barangay speaks Bisaya while 30% are Tagalog speakers.17

     Source barangay profile and barangay secretary
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Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

This is because most of the people in the barangay are Aklanon. (Annalisa Tugado, personal
communication, May 14, 2009)


2. Education

Barangay Calawis has three day care centers, one elementary school and one high school. The
main day care center is located near the barangay hall. It has two extension facilities, one in
Apia and another in Purok 2. Each day care center has one teacher. As of the school year
2008-2009, there is a combined number of 96 enrolees among the three day care centers. A
commencement exercise is held annually at the end of each school year. (Annalisa Tugado,
personal communication, May 14, 2009) & (Mellit Bayocarles, personal communication, May 27,

       The students of the day care center of Brgy. Calawis have two class schedules: morning
and afternoon. The main day care center is located behind the covered gym. All in all, there are
three day care centers within the barangay,                                                        Comment [O13]: Isama sa writeup, then just
                                                                                                   mention that this is one of the three day care
                                                                                                   centers in the whole of Calawis sa caption

There are three elementary schools in the barangay; the Calawis Elementary School located in
Calawis properPurok 3 and 4, the Apia Elementary School in Apia, and the Binayoyo Primary in
Binayoyo. There are 649 students enrolled in the Calawis Elementary School (S.Y. 2008-2009).
In addition, 195 students are enrolled in the Apia Elementary School, and 69 students in
Binayoyo, with 83 elementary school graduates from all three schools. There are a total of 24
teachers in the barangay, of which six teachers are in Apia, two in Binayoyo and 16 in the
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                  12
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

Calawis Elementary School. (Facts and Figures of Antipolo 2009) and (Mellit Bayocarles,
personal communication, May 27, 2009)

As of the previous school year, 649 young residents of the barangay were enrolled in Calawis
Elementary School to finish their elementary education. There are 24 elementary school
teachers in the barangay, and 16 of them are in Calawis Elementary School.                         Comment [O14]: Incorporate in main text and
                                                                                                   make simpler caption.
Calawis Elementary School is located in Puroks 2 and 4. The Apia Elementary School serves as
its extension facility due to the lack of an administrative body. As a result, Ms. Gloria A.
Benedicto supervises the operations for both the Calawis and Apia Elementary Schools. Plans
for the Apia Elementary School to become a separate institution are being considered once the
need for an administrative body is addressed. While On the other hand, Binayoyo Primary offers
education from grades I to IV only.

In the Ssecondary level, there are a total of 238 students enrolled in the Calawis National High
School, with 60 students in the Calawis-Apia Extension. Both schools produced 72 high school
graduates as offor the S.Y. 2008-2009. The Calawis National High School is located at the
border of Puroks 5 and 6, while Calawis-Apia Extension is situated in Apia. There are eight
teachers employed in Calawis National High School and three in Calawis-Apia Extension.
Moreover, the barangay’s Committee on Education claims that only 10% of the total high school
graduates pursue college mainly because of financial constraints. (Michelle Carabot, personal
communication, May 14, 2009)
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                     13
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

Calawis National Highschool, which is located in Purok 6, is the main high school institution in
Barangay Calawis.

The teacher to student ratio of 1:50 for elementary students and 1:63 for high school is similar to
the teacher-student ratios in other schools in the country. This implies that there is an adequate
number of teachers in relation to students in the area. According to the barangay’s Committee         Comment [O15]: On what basis? Who says so?
on Education, 90% of the total population of school-aged children are currently enrolled in
schools. In recent times there has been an increase in the number of residents with college
degrees in the barangay. While most of these graduates seek employment outside the
barangay, a number of them stay due to the inability difficulty of finding employment outside the
area. In relation to this, the Committee on Education strongly recommend that high school
graduates take education units and teach in the barangay as resident teachers in these schools.
(Michelle Carabot, personal communication, May 14, 2009) and (Barangay Officials, Focus
Group Discussion, May 7, 2009)

The barangay is currently constructing a gymnasium in the Purok 2 side of Calawis Elementary
School. Additional facilities such as comfort rooms, classrooms, and a covered court are being
constructed for the Apia Elementary School. In Binayoyo, the construction of another
elementary school building is in progress. (Barangay Officials, Focus Group Discussion, May 7,
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                    14
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

New classrooms are being constructed for Calawis Elementary School. The extensions in Apia
and Binayoyo are also having new rooms and infrastructures.

Teachers, classroom facilities and books are enough to provide the basic needs of the students
according to the barangay officials. On the other hand, teachers say there is a shortage of
computer units in these schools. The Calawis National High School only has 9 computer units
shared by all levels. Teachers claim that this shortage of computers should be addressed by the
school administration. (Michelle Carabot, personal communication, May 14, 2009 and) and
(Barangay Officials, Focus Group Discussion, May 7, 2009)

 The barangay is determined to promote education among its youth in the hopes of becoming
more competitive in terms of livelihood and income generation in the future. In line with this,
scholarships have been granted by Congressman Angelito C. Gatlabayan and Mayor Danilo
Leyble of Antipolo, as well as financial assistance given by the Christian Foundation for Children
and the Aging (CFCA). (Barangay Officials, Focus Group Discussion, May 7, 2009)

According to the Committee on Education the literacy rate in the entire barangay is at 90%
functional literacy. This pertains to the capability of the residents to read and write. Most
residents are more comfortable conversing in Tagalog, while a few others incorporate English in
their conversations. However, approximately 25-30% of individuals can neither read nor write.
Furthermore, an estimated 40% of senior residents, believed to be from the Dumagat tribe, do
not have any formal educational attainment. (Barangay Officials, Focus Group Discussion, May
7, 2009)
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                 15
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

3. Health Services and Nutrition

The barangay has two health centers, one located near the barangay hall, and an extension
facility located in Sitio Apia. Ms. Felissa L. Masaquel, a midwife from Boso-Boso, manages the
health centers on a daily basis. There are 19 Barangay Health Workers (BHWs) in the main
health center and three more in the extension facility in Apia. The health workersBHWs are
headed by Mrs. Cleta Coper. A majority of the health workers are housewives required to
undergo three months of health training organized by the city government of Antipolo, in
collaboration with the University of the East Ramon Magsaysay (UERM). A health worker is
given an allowance of Php 1,500.00 a month and works alternate shifts in handling the health
center. The health center provides general check-ups to the residents of the barangay every
Wednesday. In addition, a resident doctor from the City Health Office visits the center once a
month. (Cleta Coper, personal communication, May 8, 2009)

                                                                                                  Comment [O16]: Caption?

The Health Center provides treatments for common ailments such as coughs, colds, and fevers.
Patients are mostly pregnant mothers who seek pre-natal care, as well as young children in
need of vaccination. Malnutrition is also common in the barangay. Isolated cases of
Tuberculosis have been identified in the past through the various medical missions conducted in
the area, while some accounts have been attributed to pag-uuling. (Felissa Masaquel, personal
communication, May 13, 2009)
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                      16
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

                                                                                                       Comment [O17]: Caption?

The health center is given a supply of generic medicine by the Department of Health to be
distributed to the people. When delivery of supplies are delayed, herbal medicines are used as
alternatives. The center hopes for more donations in the form of medicine and nebulizers,
especially for residents with respiratory ailments, and other health facilities to provide the needs
of the residents. Another source of medical supplies There is a the Botika ng Barangay in Purok
4 that sellsing generic and branded medicine located in Purok 4. This was initially funded by the
Department of Health and the Local Government of Antipolo but is now financed by Ms. Cleta
Coper, who is also in charge of managing the Botika. (Felissa Masaquel, personal
communication, May 13, 2009)

Medical missions take place twice a year in the barangay plaza. Various agencies such as the
Philippine Army, the Office of the Mayor, UP-PGH, UERM, and NGOs like CFCA hold medical
missions in the area. During such, people are given free medical and dental check-up, free
haircut, and free medicine. There are also instances when birth certificates are were issued
during medical missions; this service is made possible in coordination with the NSO. (Cleta
Coper, personal communication, May 27, 2009)

4. Social Welfare Services and Programs

A senior citizen’s association caters to the elderly in the Barangay. It was established about ten     Comment [O18]: Make a mother statement
to fifteen years ago. The Senior Citizen association has 100 members. Members are required to          here about social welfare to justify the senior citizen
                                                                                                       and kabataan sectors’ inclusion here.
pay Php 17 for the membership fee and Php 10 for the monthly dues. They conduct monthly
meetings as well as attend flag ceremonies every first Monday of the month. Members are
given free medicine when available. Aand a 20% discount on fare prices is also given to them.
If one of the members passes away, funeral assistance is given to the family members of the
deceased. An estimated Php 33,000 is allocated for the Senior Citizen from the barangay
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                     17
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

budget. The group conducts a Clean and Green program and participates in the barangay
sports fest and hold Christmas parties. (Aquilina De Luna, personal communication, May 27,

The Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) is headed by Marlon V. Esto along with seven councillors who
were elected in November 2007. The budget allotted for the Sangguniang Kabataan is Php
300,000 which is 10% of the its source, the barangay’s budget. They organize sports fest during
the summer to veer the youth from illegal drugs, as well as to promote camaraderie and
sportsmanship. The efforts deem successful in encouraging the youth to participate in sports as
seen through the number of participants in the various sports events conducted in the barangay
covered court. This makes it easier for officials to monitor the activities of the youth when they
are participating in these programs. Other projects of the SK include gift giving and tree planting
during the second quarter of the year. The SK also conducts a Clean and Green activity within
the vicinity of the barangay covered court. In December 2009, the SK plans to have a house
numbering activity for the whole barangay to create the house addresses of the residents.             Comment [O19]: Any other reason for the
(Marlon Villorente, phone interview, May 28, 2009)                                                    activity?

5. Protective Services

                                                                                                      Comment [O20]: Put after army/cafgu
                                                                                                      paragraph, and select better picture if we are
                                                                                                      allowed to incorporate their pics.

Peace and Order in the barangay is maintained through the Barangay Tanod who takes turns in
roving the area. There is a total of 20 tanod, most of whom are volunteers. Two tanod patrol the      Comment [O21]: Most or all?
barangay daily from eight in the evening until the following morning. In lieu of a monthly salary,
the tanod receive gifts and money from the barangay during the Christmas season. Topping the
list of offenses in the barangay are minor fights and loitering beyond the curfew hour, which is at
ten in the evening. Most offenders are brought to the Barangay Hall to be detained overnight.
Cases unsettled in the barangay level are then brought to the Antipolo Police Station. (Marlon
Esto, phone interview, May 29, 2008)
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                     18
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

The Philippine Army together with the Civilian Active Auxiliary (CAA, formerly CAFGU) helps
maintain the peace and order in the barangay. The City of Antipolo is under the area of
responsibility of the 16th Infantry Battalion of the Philippine Army. The Army’s temporary
headquarters can be found beside the Barangay Hall. The squad is headed Sgt. Bernard
Cantos. On the other hand, the CAA detachment, headed by SSg. Eddie Pardo, can be found in
Purok 3. (2Lt. Cesar Canazares, phone interview, May 28, 2009)                                        Comment [O22]: Bilang ng CAFGU and ARMY?
                                                                                                      Ano pa ang ibang serbisyo ng army/cafgu, like
4. Livelihood                                                                                         pagsasama sa mga researchers?

The sources of income in the barangay will be discussed in this section. The types of livelihood
present in the area reflect the ways by which the residents utilize the natural resources available
in the barangay.

Barangay Calawis has aA variety of livelihood venues exists in the CUFAI PACBRMA area.
Upland farming is the main source of livelihood among residents of the barangay. Other
opportunities for income generation include sari-sari store (retail), jeepney and tricycle driving,
and to a minimal extent, animal domestication. Most residents are involved in two or more of
these activities. The present economy demands greater inputs from workers and as a result,
residents have learned to diversify their sources of income.                                          Comment [O23]: Try merging this and first
                                                                                                      paragraph the previous section
A. Upland Farming

Upland farming involves clearing of the land in higher elevations for planting rice and other fruit
bearing trees. Agricultural products from upland farming consist of mango, pineapple, santol,
avocado, banana, chico, rambutan, suha, papaya, and other fruit products. These cash crops
are planted depending on the season. Mangoes are planted in the summer along with avocado;
dalandan is planted during the cooler months December to February, while rambutan is planted
during September. Bananas can be harvested all year round. Rice farming is also another
agricultural product activity in the area, as well as vegetable production.

Agricultural practices in the barangay are dependent on traditional practices such kaingin.
Farmers do not rely on irrigation methods, and rely mostly on rainfall to water their crops. The
use of fertilizer depends on each farmer’s means of purchasing either chemical or organic
fertilizer. However, due to financial constraints and long term use, most farmers favor chemical-
based fertilizers.

Farmers sell their harvests in markets located in Antipolo Proper, Cogeo and, Marikina.

These are harvested andFarm produce are transported from the farm lot to the main road by
means of horses and carabaooas. In some cases, farmers themselves transport the products to
the main roads and from there the products are transported by means of jeepeney to the
markets in Cogeo, Marikina and Antipolo Proper. . Goods are transferred during night time to          Comment [O24]: Where is the market?
avoid traffic constraints. Some farmers sell their products in the aforementioned markets to what
is locally called as ‘bagsakan

The prices of the products depend on the prevailing market value. Mangoes are sold per kaing
and sometimes per kilo, pineapples are sold per piece from Php 10- 20, and bananas are priced
depending on the variety. Saba and Latundan is sold at 40-50 centavos per piece while Lacatan
and Senorita are sold per kilo for Php 20-25. Corn is priced at Php 10-12 per kilo, while rice on
the other hand is sold by the sack for Php 1500. Unmilled rice costs Php 700 per sack.
However, prices get higher when the products are in season.
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Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

Upland farming is a very common agricultural practice n the CUFAI area. Farm lots grow
different crops, most of which are mangoes, bananas, citrus fruits and hardwood trees. In the
photo above is a farm lot cultivating pineapples. The said farm lot is found in Purok 6.

Agricultural practices in the barangay are dependent on traditional practices such kaingin.
Farmers do not rely on irrigation methods, and rely mostly on rainfall to water their crops. The
use of fertilizer depends on each farmer’s means of purchasing either chemical or organic
fertilizer. However, due to financial constraints and long term use, most farmers favor chemical-
based fertilizers. Farmers sell their harvests in markets located in Antipolo Proper, Cogeo and,
Marikina. Goods are transferred during night time to avoid traffic constraints. Some farmers sell
their products in the aforementioned markets to what is locally called as ‘bagsakan

Merchants or middlemen usually purchase vegetables and other cash crops from farmers and
transport these goods to the abovementioned markets. In doing so, middlemen reduce costs
incurred from having to transport goods from the farms to markets and could take advantage of
the higher prices of agricultural products outside the barangay or the sources of farm products.
Middlemen may earn up to Php 70, 000 per month during peak crop production. This varies
depending on the seasonal demand for fruit products. They buy and sell not only fruits and
vegetables but also charcoal. Each sack of charcoal is sold for Php 120 per sack. Prices also       Comment [O25]: Transfer to pag uuling.
depend on the distance from where the fruits were harvested, the farther the distance from the
center, the higher the price of the product. At present there are currently 20 middlemen in the
barangay. (Ariel Arabis, personal communication, May 12, 2009)
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                   20
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

                  Jeepneys are very useful for merchants in transporting their products.            Comment [O26]: Remove this and the picture
B. Kaingin & Pag-uuling

Kaingin and pag-uuling are closely connected to the practice of upland farming. Kaingin is the      Comment [O27]: Please consult literature. From
process that involves clearing of the whole area for.... This means plants will be extracted from   what I know, kaingin is a method under upland
the area by means of burning or by pulling out the plants and weeds. The only difference
between kKaingin and pPag-uuling is that the latter does not involve total clearing of the land.
Pag-uuling involves cutting and burning of trees. While kKaingin is a process used to produce a
natural fertilizing effect on the soil through burning the crops present in the area. Traditional
farming methods also employ kaingin to clear the land in order to perform crop rotation
immediately. However, frequent practice of kaingin causes the soil to lose most of its nutrients
immediately and leaves the area unproductive for future use. (M. Masagnay Personal
Communication, May ? )
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Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

     Kaingin, or slash-and-burn farming, is still being practiced by farmers in the CUFAI area.

Kaingin involves cutting off existing trees that may be used to make charcoal. The process of
kaingin does not require specific slopes or land area; soil fertility is the primary consideration of
kaingeros in apportioning land for this practice. Kaingeros choose a portion of fertile soil for this
practice. This involves apportioning the area in which kaingin is to take place. After determining
the suited site, kKaingeros then set fire to the area and begin clearing the land. Seedlings are
then planted into the soil. Farmers continue to till the land, allocating at least two months for
cleaning the area of stray weeds and grasses. Five months after the start of kaingin, farmers
then begin to plant the crops and wait for them to grow and be harvested in a few more months.           Comment [O28]: What is the difference
Crops planted are usually rice, squash, sitaw, and cucumber, and are used as long term crops.            between planting seedlings and planting crops?
The kaingin area is used for a period of 2-3 years only, . After which, the soil is left to rejuvenate
for another 3-5 years.

Farmers recognize the good and bad effects of kainginThere are positive and negative sides to
the process of kaingin. The good effectIt is beneficial in that it allows for is being able to
clearing of unwanted plants in the area farmlots in order to plant new crops and achieve the
fertilizing effect. But when kaingin is performed by planting fast-growing crops and leaving the
land behind after the crops have been harvested, it becomes a detrimental practice. In several
cases kaingin areas are used as temporary sites for farming until they become barren due to
soil depletion. Moreover, some are solely used solely for charcoal making purposes, while
others use the land as temporary farming implements. Kaingin is a form of environmentally
destructive activity since setting fire to the soil causes nutrient depletion when done for a
prolonged period of time. Another consequence of kaingin is that soils experience productivity
loss in terms of the quality of trees and crops it produces in the succeeding harvest. Kaingeros
then transfer from one area of land to another in order to sustain the practice. Instances wherein
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                       22
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

the kaingero has exhausted full use of his or her land for kaingin is common within the
barangay. The kaingero has no other choice but to seek employment by practicing kaingin on
another farmer’s land.

Farmers may employ kaingeros to clear their farm lots. In this situation certain arrangements           Comment [O29]: Farmers or land owners?
are made between the farmer and the kaingero. The usual farming apportionment is 60:40 in
favor of the lot owner. Nonetheless, kaingeros claim that the income generated from kaingin
does not suffice for their daily needs.

CUFAI officials attribute tThe persistence of kaingin practices in the area to the lack of              Comment [O30]: Since this writeup should be in
education of most kaingeros on the ill-effects on kaingin on the environment as well as the             the perspective of CUFAI bod, we can remove
                                                                                                        citations involving them.
health risks involved in practicing kaingin. Had intervention on the destructive effects of kaingin
been preached during the earlier days of farming in the areas, then kaingeros would have
refrained from engaging in kaingin as a source of income. Another reason for the continued
kaingin and charcoal making processes is the lack of alternative venues for livelihood in which
kaingeros and ulingeros can engage in. Furthermore, these practices have been accepted in the
community and are considered to be conventional sources for livelihood.

In connection, pag-uuling is an activity that engages cutting and burning of wood and turning
them into charcoal. . The most common tree used in making charcoal is the Ipil-ipil, a type of
tree that is easy to plant and grows abundantly in the area. Pag-uuling involves a tedious
process of piling uniformly cut logs in a boxed fashion, which is then placed in holes dug in the
soil. Once buried, fire is lit through smaller holes in the soil .Ulingeros constantly watch over the
burning wood in a span of three days. Charcoals are prepared for sale in sacks, which sells at
PhP 120.00 each in bagsakan areas and PhP 130-140 in sari-sari stores. Each sack of charcoal
sold in “bagsakan” areas cost Php 120 while for sari-sari stores prices per sack range from Php
130-140. The most common tree used in making charcoal is the Ipil-ipil, a type of tree that is
easy to plant and grows abundantly in the area. At a given time an ulingero maker may produce
5-100 sacks of charcoal per day depending on how many trees he is willing to turn into charcoal
as well as the limits of his personal health. (Ariel Arabis, personal communication, May 12,
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                  23
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

  Pag-uuling is a tedious process. One of which is depicted in the picture above where the tree
          branches are burned for several days before they can be used as charcoal.

Interestingly, the most reported diseases in the area are closely related to respiratory tract
infections. Ulingeros claim that the profit from charcoal making is not enough to sustain their
daily needs. With the lack of other opportunities ulingeros remain complacent with the health
risks involved with pag-uuling in order to make a living.

C. Sari-Sari Store (Retail Stores)

Barangay Calawis is approximately 30 minutes away by tricycle from the nearest wet and dry
market located in Veterans (a popular landmark BLANK kilometres south of the CUFAI
PACBRMA areasouth of the CUFAI). The presence of sari-sari stores has been beneficial for
both residential consumers and retailers, as sari-sari stores provide practical solutions to the
immediate needs of the residents. Retailers in Barangay Calawis offer meat and poultry
products as well as fresh produce from local farms. A number of sari-sari store owners have
their own farms or have arrangements with farmers to provide them with fresh produce daily.
Other necessities such as canned goods, frozen meat products, and other food products not
locally grown in Calawis are bought in bulk from the Antipolo Market. Aside from food products,
sari-sari stores retail school supplies, home necessities such as plastic containers, and
tableware, as well as toiletries. (Joy Carabot, personal communication, May 14, 2009)
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                    24
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

                                                                                                     Comment [O31]: Caption?

Sari-sari stores have become a desired source of income for most of the residents in the CUFAI
area. This is seen through the number of sari-sari stores located along the CUFAI Calawis road.
With this scenario it becomes necessary to ask whether business for the stores is doing well. It
has been discovered, however, that a few of the latter established stores have already closed
due to insufficient income. Others remain functional since they have regular customers who
patronize the shop. The capital needed to start a sari-sari store is Php 5000. The capital is used
to purchase goods from outside markets which are then transported into the barangay. The
actual income of sari-sari stores is approximately 10% of the daily sales. The daily sales of a
sari-sari store could reach up to Php 5000 when business is slow, and doubles when business          Comment [O32]: Sa isang araw, ibig sabihin,
is good. The average profit of a sari-sari store owner ranges from Php 50-200 daily. (Crisostomo     yung puhunan na P5,000 ay bawi mo na? We think
                                                                                                     we can delete this info.
Garcia, personal communication, May 27, 2009) (Annalyn Arabis, personal communication, May
27, 2009)

D. Tricycle and Jeepney Driving

 Since the creation of the paved roads in (year), the demand for alternate modes of
transportation came to rise in the barangay. At present there are two tricycle associations
working in Barangay Calawis. Both tricycle terminals operate 24 hours, 7 days a week. The
government-recognized tricycle association is named AVCS which stands for Antipolo Veterans
Calawis San Jose. The association was founded in the 1980s and has 90 members in total. A
majority of these members have their own tricycles. Minimum fare is priced at Php 25 and fare
prices from Veterans to Calawis, are priced at Php 100 for regular tricycles. Each tricycle has a
4 passenger capacity. (Cicero Aragon, personal communication, May 11, 2009)

The other tricycle organization is named the Calawis Apia Veterans Pangolorin Tricycle Drivers
Association (CAVPTDA) which is headed by Ceciro Aragon. While fare prices are the same with
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                    25
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

AVCS, the CAVPTDA has 2 terminals, one in Calawis and another in Apia. Transportation from
Apia to any point in Calawis costs Php 200. (Cicero Aragon, personal communication, May 11,

          Tricycle terminal in Purok BLANK.                                                          Formatted: Font: Italic

Most members of the association are farmers or former farmers who have focused their time in         Comment [O33]: shifted?
tricycle driving. With the increasing number of members within both associations, drivers go out
an average of 3 round trips per day. Boundary for tricycle drivers is priced at Php 120. The
average daily income is Php 300. Each driver is allotted 6 days of work in a week because one
day is prohibited due to coding restriction. For transporting goods, tricycles can be rented for
Php 600 from Calawis to Veterans. (Cicero Aragon, personal communication, May 11, 2009)

Jeepney driving is another source of livelihood in the barangay. The jeepneys are used for both
trading purposes, such transporting goods from the barangay to markets in Antipolo and
Marikina, and as public transportation modes. The daily income for driving is Php 1,500.00,
Ffrom that amount, which Php 500 is spent on gasoline expenses. There are currently 9
jeepneys in Calawis. Drivers take daily turns in public transportation duties via rotation of nine
days in which only one driver is allowed to render service in a day. in the area. The passenger
route is from Calawis to Marikina and Calawis to Cogeo. Fare prices are from Php 40 to Php 50.
Middleman duties, wherein drivers transport goods from the barangay to bagsakan areas cost
Php 3000 per day. The goods usually consist of fruits, vegetables, and charcoal. A jeepney may
load 100 sacks of products per trip. Dalandan costs Php 10 per bag. Mangoes can be
transported from Calawis to the market for Php 1,500. Jeepneys can also be rented for Php
1,800 to Angono, Rizal and Php 1,300- 1,500 to other areas such as UP Diliman1,300-1,800.00
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                    26
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

for transport to areas outside Calawis. The jeepney driver begins work at 1 am and returns to
the barangay at approximately 7 am. It is the jeepney drivers’ decision as to which driver will be
assigned to go out on specific days. (Aga Castillo, personal communication, May 14, 2009)            Comment [O34]: Di ba association ang
E. Paghahayupan

Paghahayupan comprises a relatively small portion of the income generation in the barangay.
Most people involved in animal domestication raise animals for personal consumption while
some sells them in markets. Animals are domesticated in their backyard and some are sold in
markets. . Prices vary depending on the type of animal. Goats are sold for Php 2,000 each while
cows are sold for Php 20,000-30,000 per head. Horses are sold for Php 12,000 each, while
prices for caraboas range from Php 20,000- 30,000 each. Sheep are sold from Php 1,500-3,000
depending on the size. Live hogs sell for Php 60 per kilo. Wwhile slaughtered hogs sell for Php
120 per kilo. Most of these animals are brought in the markets in Antipolo, Cogeo and Marikina.
(R. G, personal communication, May 15, 2009)

                                                                                                     Comment [O35]: Caption?

A few residents have fish ponds containing dalag, hito, and tilapia in their own farm lots. Fish
spawned here are sold, but are mostly for personal consumption. Some also catch fish in rivers
and creeks.
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                   27
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

                                                                                                    Comment [O36]: Caption?

F. Group Interventions

In lieu of the diversifying venues of income generation in the barangay, certain groups have
taken interest in sponsoring livelihood activities such as the Christian Foundation for Children
and the Aging (CFCA). The organization was is responsible for providing selected children from
the elementary level with a fixed financial support of Php 1400 monthly from local and foreign
benefactors. The donations are given in the form of 5-10 kg of rice per month and groceries for
the beneficiaries. The children are also given school supplies while a portion from the Php 1,400
allowance is allotted for the children’s school activities such as field trips. On the other hand
allowance for college students is Php 2000 per semester. There are 207 children in the Calawis
Proper and more or less 70 children in Acacia, north of the Poblacion, who are sponsored by
the foundation. To become members, residents are asked to submit photos of their children,
which are sent to the group of beneficiaries for selection.

CFCA also has a program for the aging. Senior citizens aged 60 years old or above who are
members of CFCA, receive food subsidies from Php 700 -1,000 tuwing kalian?. The elderly can
get Php 2,000 yearly for medical assistance yearly. Senior citizens have out of town activities
and celebrate a day of recollection called Elderly Day.

 In May 2009, operations were put on hold due to the fact that most residents were seen by the
CFCA, as capable of sustaining their own livelihood through assistance from the T3 fellowship
(see succeeding discussions). Once a member of the CFCA, they are no longer allowed to
apply in other financial assistance related groups. Only financial assistance for the children in
Elementary Level and the Aging are on hold. Allowance for College students is still ongoing.
(Melody Castillo, personal communication, May 27, 2009)                                             Comment [O37]: Read paragraph again and
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                                                    28
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

The T3 is a money-lending institution that enlists members and offers a minimum of Php 5000
without interest to the residents of the barangay. T3 operations are found in Antipolo, Quezon,
and Laguna. In order to become a member, applicants are required to form groups of 12 and
must all attend the organization’s weekly meetings held at the T3 mini mart located in Purok 2
and pay a Php 500 membership fee. Upon receiving the money, the borrower is required to
return at least Php 200 to the organization, per week within a maximum of 6 months upon initial
lending. Residents make use of the money to start their own sari-sari stores, to purchase
tricycles, or to pay off other debts. According to Barangay Captain Reynaldo O. Doroteo,
although the T3 lending system is beneficial to most of the members, paying off the required
weekly fees becomes difficult for borrowers whose chosen investments have not fully paid off.
As a result, borrowers are left with little income after paying off their debts. At present the
fellowship has a total of 1000 members from Barangay Calawis. (Reynaldo Doroteo, personal
communication, May 7, 2009)

Aside from the aforementioned groups, a women’s organization headed by Councillor Letecia
Rantugan is also present in the barangay. The organization was is funded by Governor Jun
Ynares III. Each member is given Php 2500 to be used for livelihood purposes. There are a total
of 26 members in the group. Instead of using the money for personal needs, the organization
invested Php 60,000 on a rice retail business. Profits are shared among members of the
organization. Membership however, is by invitation only. (Letty Rantugan, personal
communication, May 4, 2009)

II. Natural Resources
Introduction to natural resources

Central to any Community-Based Resource Management Plan is a discussion of the natural resources
which the PACBRMA grants legal environmental protection responsibilities and resource use permission
to the tenure holder, the People’s Organization (PO). This section elaborates on the types of natural
resources in the CUFAI as part of the Marikina Watershed Buffer Zone. These resources include land
forms, water bodies, flora, fauna, minerals, and soils, including their manner of utilization. The
Natural resources in CUFAI is categorized into land and water resources. The list of land resources
include terrestrial plants and animals, minerals, soils, and land forms like hills, peaks, and flat lands.

A. Marikina Watershed Protection & Biodiversity

The Marikina Watershed System, which includes CUFAI as a buffer zone, is classified as a watershed
reserve under Executive Order No. 33 dated July 26, 1904. The area is home to a number of species of
flora and fauna endemic to the watershed area. With forests mainly composed of dipterocarp species, it
is considered as a tropical rainforest and mountain forest.

Special features of the Marikina Watershed System include ecotourism and recreational activities. It is
the closest forested area to Metro Manila and is a haven of biological diversity. Endemic species in the
Marikina Watershed’s biodiversity include the following below (Refer to are summarized in Table 3):

                                                             Table 3

     These resources and their elaboration in the following sections are based on official records of the Department of Environment
and Natural Resources (DENR), and were sourced from local knowledge obtained from interviews and community mapping
sessions, as well as from field observations.
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                           FLORA                                               FAUNA
Common Name                   Scientific Name               Common Name           Scientific Name
Tanguile                      Shorea polysperma             Philippine Eagle      Pithecophaga jefferyi
Mayapis                       Shorea palosapis              Labuyo                Gallus gallus
Red Lauan                     Shorea negrosensis            Quail                 Coturnix sp
White Lauan                   Pentacme concorta             Philippine Hawk       Spizaetusphilippensis
Bagtikan                      Parashorea                    Philippine Deer       Cervus marinnus
Akling Parang                 Albizea procera               Wild pig              Sus barbalani
Molave                        Vitex parviflora              Philippine Phython    Phython reticulates
Dungon                        Heritiera sp                  Monitor lizard        Varianus salvator
Balayong/Tindalo                                            Philippine Monkey     Macaca facicularis
Raintree                         Samanea saman              Philippine Macaque    Macaca Philippine
Mahogany                         Swetenia macrophylla       Hawkbill              Enethmochelys
Kupang                           Parkia woxborgii           Reticulated python    Python reticulates
Malapapaya                       Polyscias nodusa           Crimeon back wood     Chrysocolaptes lucidus
Banaba                           Lagerstroemia              Black naped oriole    Oriolis chinensis
Narra                            Pterocarpus indicus        Stripped-headed cueper
Tibig                            Ficus nota                 Yellow accented bulbul   Pycnonotus goiavier
Makaasim                         Syzyguim nitidum           Brown shrike             Lanius cristatus
Alagau                           Prema odorata              Striated canegrass       Megalurus patustris
Tara tara                        Ephicaris cumingiara       Philippine crow
Malaruhat                        Christocalyt opesculator   Schack shrike            Lanuis schach
Gmelina                          Gmelina arborea            Philippine bulbul        Hypsipetes philippinus
Anabiong                         Tremma orientalis          Mountain sunbird         Aethopyga pulcherriuma
Ilang- ilang                     Cananga odorata            Mountain white eye
Ipil                             Instia bijuga              Brown fruit dove         Phapitreron cinereiceps
Ipil- ipil                       Leucaena leucocephala      Pigmy swiftlet           Collacalia troglodytes
Bungbong                         Schizostachyum             White –breasted wood     Artamus leucorhynchus
                                 diffusum                   swallow
Antipolo                         Artocarpus blancoi
Indian Bamboo                    Bambusa arundinacea
Kauayan                          Dendrocalamus
Yemane                           Gmelina arborea
Buho lumnapau                    Schistotachyum
Salai-salai                      Avendinella ciliata
Marakauayan                      Brachiaria replans
Kogon                            Imperata cylindrical
Talahib                          Saccharum spontaneum
Samon                            Themada trianda
Tal-tal                          Paspalum longifolium
Elephant grass                   Penniselum propareum
Carabao grass                    Axonopus compressus
Marahauayan                      Brashiaria replano
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The CUFAI area lies within the Marikina Watershed, so one would expect that biodiversity within the area
is very rich.                                                                                              Comment [O38]: Palitan ang picture.

B. Yamang Lupa

Multiple peaks serve as boundaries to the CUFAI. These peaks include Mount Taluto on the southeast,
Mount Caluwiran on the northeast, Mount Bulitinao on the southwest, and Mount Purro on the northwest.
(PEAKS AND ELEVATION TABLE, PICTURES) Relatively flatter lands occupy the central part of the
area, which is the location of most of the area’s concrete roads and residences. However, houses are
generally found on relatively steep slopes. On these steep slopes is where kaingin, production of palay
and other crops, and tending of fruit-bearing trees, are done.                                             Comment [O39]: Include in topography
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Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

The topography of Brgy. Calawis is a mix of sloppy, elevated areas and flatlands. This enables the area   Comment [O40]: READ: [slapi]! Baka “variable
to be used in many different uses.                                                                        slopes”.
                                                                                                          Comment [O41]: Wag ito yung picture, palitan.
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Soil resources in the area foster grass and tree vegetation and fruit-bearing trees. In addition to soil
resources, mineral resources that can be obtained from creeks and rivers are present in the CUFAI.
Barangay Calawis has large deposits of limestone, dacite, basalt, cement aggregates, andesite, and iron
ore. Below is a table of estimated amounts of mineral deposits in the barangay.

                    Table #. [Title]

                                 Mineral deposit estimated
                                 volume (in million tons)
                                 Limestone                       7354
                                 Dacite                          1500
                                 Basalt                          10023
                                 Cement Aggregates               65050
                                 Andesite                        5565
                                 Iron ore                        15610

                              SOURCE: Barangay Calawis Profile

The extraction of minerals within the CUFAI-PACBRMA area is prohibited by law. Such practice
undermines the protected area’s environmental sustainability and opens the area for industrialization,
which is prohibited in protected areas by the NIPAS law.                                                     Comment [O42]: Add more effects of mining
                                                                                                             from literature.
Coexisting with the minerals mentioned and growing on the area’s soils are terrestrial flora species which
include tree, shrub, and other plant species. The abundance of each species varies within the CUFAI
area and specific uses exist for each of them.

Species of hardwood trees in the CUFAI area include ipil-ipil, mahogany, acacia, narra, and gimelina.
Included in the list of fruit-bearing trees are mango, banana, santol, rambutan, lanzones, dalandan,
avocado, kaymito, jackfruit, guyabano, makopa, chesa, aratilis, coconut, and calamansi. Other plants
include cogon, bamboo, buho, pineapple, cassava, ginger, rice, napier, corn, sweet potato, malunggay,
and gabi. Plant species extinct in the area are Mulawin and Kamagong. Endemic orchids can also be
found in CUFAI. (J. Ferrera Personal Communication, May 12, 2009)

Mango trees, commonly found on the upper half of the area, are the most abundant of all the tree species
in CUFAI. A good majority of dalandan and banana trees are also present. There is a bamboo formation
covering the elevated area near Bunsuran Falls. Natural growth covers areas on high elevations,
wherein upland farming is absent. Vegetables, located mostly on the northwest, are planted on relatively
flat lands. On the other hand, planted hardwood thrives on the northern portion and higher elevations in
the area. Cogon fields are found on steep slopes especially on areas where kaingin was previously done.
Grasslands and wooded grasslands are also vegetated with cogon and with other grasses as well.
Other shrubs and low plants are found throughout CUFAI. For the estimated location and extent of the
dominant types of flora in the area, see GLU MAP FIGURE ?. Observations on the biodiversity of the
area’s flora is reflected on the transect diagrams in the land use section.                                  Comment [O43]: Pictures? And also transect
                                                                                                             diagram where it best fits.
Ipil-ipil among other trees is mostly used for charcoal making. Crops like corn, sweet potato, rice, and
fruits like mango, dalandan, and banana are commonly produced by upland farmers for market and
domestic consumption. Hardwood and cogon are used for domestic construction purposes. In addition,
firewood is also sourced from forest trees in the area. Medicinal plants include sambong (for coughs and
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Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

fevers), oregano (for coughs and colds of children), neem tree (for high blood pressure), anonang (for
fevers of infants), lagundi, katakataka, bayabas.

In addition to terrestrial flora, endemic animals include turtles, monkeys, cobras, mountain deer, and
wild pigs. These species can still be found in the mountainous areas of Calawis. Some of these animals
are hunted from within and outside the barangay. A certain number of monkeys have been used as pets
in some households. Also found in the area are labuyo , mosquitoes, crickets, beetles, fireflies, and
different species of birds. Domesticated animals include horses, cows, carabaos, chickens, pigs, cats,
sheep, and dogs.

C. Yamang Tubig

The Payaguan River runs through the southern portion of the CUFAI. Creeks include Paikulan, Calawis,
Anono, and Bulitinao. These creeks, along with the Boso-Boso River from which the Payaguan River
branches out are the tributaries to the Payaguan River. The existing river system is depicted in figure ?.     Comment [O44]: Please verify,mappers, kase
The Anono Creek periodically experiences overflow, thus the construction of for which the Calawis              magkaiba ata ng headwater ang boso-boso at
Overflow Bridge was constructed. More water bodies comprise of natural springs located in Purok 3 and          payaguan.
Purok 6 of Barangay Calawis.

Found in the rivers and creeks within CUFAI are tilapia, hito, dalag, palos, biya, susugi, janitor fish, and
shrimp. Water striders, leeches, and frogs are also present in the area. Kangkong, ferns flowers, and
other low plants are common beside rivers and creeks. Algae cling onto wet rocks. (SPECIES PICTURES

Rivers and creeks in the CUFAI PACBRMA area are utilized by people in a variety of ways. People bathe
in rivers and creeks as well as do their laundry and cleaning They bathe and draw water for their
household needs aside from fishing for nourishment . Some electrify the water to catch fish. More people
used to draw water from the area’s natural springs . In the past, the river system was characterized by        Comment [O45]: Revise.
deeper waters when fewer people resided in the area. At present water bodies in the area have become
shallow.                                                                                                       Comment [O46]: Why?

     Smaller species of chicken
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                                                                                                               Comment [O47]: Caption: mention that rivers
                                                                                                               are also used for recreation.

D. Government Interventions

Different interventions regarding the natural resource and resource use within the CUFAI-PACBRMA area
include the Upland Development Program (UDP), Community-Based Forest Management -
Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CBFM-CARP), seedling distribution, and the appointment of
local “Bantay-gubat” deputies, which is composed of the members of the CUFAI Board of Directors.

D.1       Upland Development Program (UDP)

The Upland Development Program (UDP) of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources
(DENR) is an annual government funded project that is in support of the Comprehensive Livelihood and
Emergency Employment Program (CLEEP) of the national government. The UDP is pursuant to DENR
Memorandum Circular 2008-04, entitled “The 2009 Upland Development Program (Reforestation and
Agroforestry).” This program is geared towards helping the poor upland farmers to help preserve and
maintain protected areas. Through this program, the government will be givingallocates 100 hectares of
land to a community qualified site, which will be distributed to 100 families in that community. Forty
hectares is allocated for forestry, another 40 hectares for agro-forestry and the remaining 20 hectares will
be dedicated to Assisted Natural Regeneration (ANR). This involves stream bank re-vegetation and               Comment [O48]: Explain in footnote.
enrichment planting of the area. Active members of a partner People's Organization (PO) of the given
area shall be provided with financial and technical assistance for their individual hectare of land. This
financial and technical assistance are also given to non-members of the partner People’s Organization.         Comment [O49]: Clarify if priority ba ang
Maintenance of the crops will be provided for by the farmers. Along with this, there will beis a monetary      members and pano apportionment between
assistance for each land owner of Php 21, 000 for forestry, Php 32,000 for agro forestry, and Php 11,000       members/non-members.
for ANR. From each allotment, 15% of each budget is allottedis allocated for mobilization and 50% will be      Comment [O50]: Mobilization of what?
used to purchase seedlings. The remaining 25% is reserved for the completion of the second activity and
10% for other activities such as replanting are to be released after tasks are completed. Monthly reports
are expected from the beneficiaries along with site visits from members of the concerned departments.          Comment [O51]: Of?
Socio-economic surveys are also used to monitor the progress of the area. This survey is held every
three years.
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Basis for termination of theThe UDP may be terminated by the DENR on the following grounds: are

Basis for termination of the program are:

               o    Fraud, misrepresentation or omission by the implementor of material facts in obtaining
                    the LOA which otherwise would have disqualified the PO or implementing organization;

               o    Failure to start the project on the date specified in the LOA without just and reasonable

               o    Abandonment of the project area, or of the work stipulated in the LOA, for a period of at
                    least one month from the date of discovery by DENR of such fact; or

               o    Violation of, or failure to comply with, the terms and conditions of the agreement, the
                    pertinent provisions of these Guidelines which guidelines, pa check naman nito and other
                    DENR rules and regulations

                    Citations please

Last November 2008, the DENR conducted an Information and Education Campaign (IEC) where they
introduced the UDP to the farmers in Barangay Calawis. This program was made possible with the
suggestion of the PAMB to allocate the UDP in to the CUFAI PACBRMA. In April 2009, the DENR
gathered letters of intent from the locals of Barangay Calawis. In the UDP, a letter of intent expresses
the desire of a local applicant to be awarded a parcel of land from the Upland Development Program. In
addition to that, the letter implies that land survey of the requested parcel will be done by DENR
surveyors with the locals. Finally, the DENR and the recipients of the UDP/UDP Regular signed their
Letter of Agreement last May 27, 2009.

D.2 Community Based Forest Management – CARP (CBFM-CARP)                                                             Comment [O52]: Spell out

CBFM CARP is a one-year project created by the DENR that is granted to People’s Organizations after
an approved project proposal. The proposal is derived with the technical assistance by the DENR. They
consult the PO of what they need in the area and the plants that is suited in the characteristics of their
landPOs are consulted with regard to their livelihood needs and the potential plants may be granted
through the program. The proposal is then submitted to the regional office. After which, it is then passed
to the central office where a committee will decide whether the project is approved or needs revision.

CUFAI is a recipient of the CBFM-CARP project. The implementation started on April 2009. The said
project is funded by the central office of DENR which amounted to Php 1,225,625. The DENR is in charge               Comment [O53]: For CUFAIlang?
of monitoring, procurement of the needed materials, supervision, and validation of the project. The Initial
release of fund for mobilization is 15% of the budget. In return, CUFAI serves asmust provide the labor
counterpart. Their responsibility concerns the maintenance and protection of the crops.
Within the CUFAI, fifty hectares of land is under the CBFM-CARP project . Mahogany and/or nNarra
would comprise 25 hectares of the whole land area while 10 hectares are apportioned for rambutan, five
hectares for banana, and another five hectares for pomelo. The remaining five hectares is allotted for
agricultural crops such as cassava with two hectares, one hectare intended for eggplant, and ampalaya
with two hectares.

   A letter of intent expresses the desire of a local applicant to be awarded a parcel of land from the
Upland Development Program                                                                                           Formatted: English (United States)
   Letter of intent and Letter of Agreement (LOA) samples are on annex blah (see DMC document).
   Verify source
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Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

D.3 Bantay-Gubat

Finally, reforestation efforts by the DENR and CUFAI are currently active through seedling distribution
efforts by the former, and by the deputy “bantay-gubat” members of CUFAI. These groups are tasked to
Criteria and Incentives (C&I) areas and farm lots that need to be reported for improper management.       Comment [O54]: Verify CI, and restructure
E. Land Use

 As defined by Ernesto Serote in 2004, land use refers to the actual land utilized by people
wherein different forms of human activities take place. Land is very much susceptible to change
given that people would decide to use land in a different manner in time. With that being said,
land use classifications are based on the modes of activities on a particular patch of land while
the allocation of the area per land classification varies accordingly with the flow of culture and        Comment [O55]: Flow?
livelihood in the community.

The CUFAI’s land extent comprises 542 hectares. Land use classification is identified among
three main classifications: House lots (residential), farm lots (agricultural, agro-forestry)
institutions, and infrastructures.

E. 1. Existing Land Use

Below is the general land use map of the CUFAI area showing the different sub-categories of
agricultural areas as well as the residential, forest, and institutional areas.

                                          (Insert general land use map here)

On the northern portion of the area lies the land allocated for the Upland Development Plan
(UDP), a project of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. The plant species
within the area of the UDP are mostly hardwood. A small number of agricultural plots are also
seen here. The northern part of the CUFAI is mostly composed of woodlands. It can be noted
that in the northwest corner of the area is grassland. Also found in the north western part of the
CUFAI is a wide patch of land where mahogany and rambutan trees are planted. Mango
plantations compose most of the eastern central, northeast and western central areas of the
area. Banana plantations are mostly found in the eastern part of CUFAI, but are generally found
all over the area. Citrus plantations are mostly found in the central part of CUFAI area near the
Payaguan River and its tributaries. The southern part of the CUFAI area is generally composed
of plantations catering to the cultivation of mixed crops. These mixed crops are combinations of
mango, banana, citrus fruits, and vegetable plantations.

E. 2. House Lots

The areas of CUFAI where the house lots are located are considered as the residential areas.
House lots are mostly located along roads and streets, while the concentration of the residential
areas is situated near the activity center of Barangay Calawis. Other house lots are structured
near or within the farm lots of house lot owners. A majority of the house lots are found in the
streets of Ipil-ipil, E. Doroteo, S. Doroteo, Narra, Sampalok, Dalandan, Mangga, Bayabas, and
along the sides of Calawis Road. Below is a map of all the occupants inside the CUFAI area

                                          (Insert forest occupants map here)

House lots are also used for different purposes aside from being residential areas. They are
also used for commercial purposes as sari-sari stores and ulingan. Most of these sari-sari stores
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Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

are located on the barangay’s activity center. Other sari-sari stores are found along the
barangay’s streets and along Calawis Road. There is an auto mechanic’s shop in the area, as
well as food stalls, a general merchandise store, and a mini-grocery. These are located in
proximity to the Barangay Hall.

One house lot is noted for its use as a tourist area. Camp Explore, an eco-tourism camping
facility owned by businessman Antonio Malvar, is used as a commercial recreation area where
tourists, mostly coming from Metro Manila, spend their weekends and vacation time in.

E.3. Farm Lots

A large percentage of the CUFAI is used for agriculture through the different plantations in the
farm lots within the area. The farm lots are land used for the cultivation of crops or the
domestication of animals for purposes such as food consumption or commercial production. A
large percentage of the CUFAI area is used for agriculture through the different plantations in
the farm lots within the area. These farm lots are owned by individuals ranging from the natives,
the migrants, members of CUFAI and non-residents in the area who were able to procure farm
lands from their former owners. These farm lots are located throughout the entire area.

                                                   (Insert transect diagram here)

Different agricultural crops are grown and cultivated within these areas depending on the
preferences of the owner of the farm lots. Agricultural crops such as vegetables, citrus fruits,
rambutan, pineapple, corn, and others are useful for commercial production. The most dominant
of these agricultural products are mangoes and bananas. Farmers employ dual crop farming in
order to maximize the products that they can sell from their farm lands. The farm lands are one
of the most important resources for elements of the CUFAI, since the residents derive their
livelihoods from these areas they are the foundation of the existence of the area.

         elements of the CUFAI, since they are the foundation of the existence of the area.
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The most common agricultural crop being grown in the CUFAI area is mango. Mango
plantations are present in all the purok in CUFAI.

The agricultural areas in CUFAI are classified based on the type of crops grown. In the case of
CUFAI, agricultural lands were classified into: mango, banana, citrus, ipil-ipil, mahogany or
rambutan, grassland, brush land, kaingin, vegetable lots and mixed crops. Lands are classified
as mixed crops when there are two or more crops being cultivated in a single area. It can also
be noted that CUFAI’s topography is a mix of flatlands and elevated areas. CUFAI’s forest areas
are mostly situated in the farm lots in elevated areas.

Farmlots have undergone some changes in terms of the kinds of crops farmers cultivate.
Because of the low market value of Indian mangoes and dalandan, most farm lot owners have
decided to clear their current farm lots of mango and citrus trees in favor of higher priced crops.
Rambutan, pomelo and coconut are currently replacing mangoes and dalandan in their current
farm lots toas farmers take advantage of market trends.this scenario.

E. 4. Institutions and Infrastructures

Infrastructures and institutions such as roads, schools, churches and government offices are
important towards realizing development in a community and securing the welfare of
order to ensure that the area is undergoing development and that the area is organized. There
are a number of institutional infrastructures inside the CUFAI boundaries, each with key roles in
maintaining order and organization in the area as well as in providing for the basic needs of the
community .
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The barangay hall is the seat of power in the barangay. This is where the leader of the barangay
or the barangay captain, holds office. It also serves as a venue of meetings for the different
organizations in the community. The barangay hall can be easily found in the barangay’s center.

The barangay hall serves as the baranagay’s political center. The leader of the barangay, or the
barangay captain, holds office in the barangay hall.It is located in Purok _, the center of
commercial and other cultural activities in Barangay Calawis.

Beside the barangay hall is the barangay’s covered gym. Different activities such as dance
rehearsals, seminars and basketball games are held here. The residents who live in CUFAI and
in nearby areas have the opportunity to interact with one another in the barangay gym. Behind
the covered gym, to the west is the barangay health center where the residents’ health concerns
are addressed.

Churches of different denominations are also present in the barangay. The churches in CUFAI
include a Roman Catholic Church, a Born Again Church, a Protestant Church as well as an
Adventist Church. The churches are located in different places all over the CUFAI area.

Regarding educational infrastructures, there are three educational infrastructures within
CUFAI’s boundaries. There is a day care school located beside the covered gym and it stands
beside the barangay health center. There is also an elementary school, Calawis Elementary
School that caters to students from the first to sixth grade. The Calawis National High School is
located in Purok 6. There is no college or university inside the CUFAI boundaries. Schools are
important institutions as they serve as a venue where the young members of the community
become learned and educated.
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Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

The water system in the CUFAI area is managed by the Cabisig Multipurpose Cooperative. The
cooperative started in 2005 and it is in charge of the maintenance of water pipelines in the area.
There is a membership fee of Php 3000 which already includes the installation of the pumps.
Water is priced at Php 18 per cubic meter and the monthly bill for the water supply is paid at the
barangay hall. The water tanks are concentrated mostly in purok 2, 3, 4 and 5. The bulk of the
residential areas in CUFAI are located in the mentioned purok. Purok 2, 3 and 4, comprise the
CUFAI area’s activity center. The main water tanks of the cooperative are located in Purok 5
and Purok 6 with very close distances from the Calawis Creek.

The main road in the CUFAI area is the Calawis Road. The road system inside the area starts
with the main road and the smaller roads are either cemented or just rough roads. The area’s          Comment [O56]: Nasaan ang smaller roads?
transportation and movement activities                                                                Saan-saan papunta?
                                                                                                      Comment [O57]: Are?
E. 5. Proposed Land Use Plan

As stated in the DENR Administrative Order No. 2004-29, Article 3, Section 21, a Five-Year
Work Plan should be prepared by the People’s Organization, in cooperation with the CENRO
and the LGU. The said plan should include the detailed strategies, target projects, and annual
activities of the organization regarding the protection of the area, utilization and development of
resources, and organizational strengthening, among others, for five years. This plan must be
prepared three months before the expiration of the existing plan, and should then be affirmed by
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Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

            Banana plantations are almost present in all the purok within the CUFAI area.

Land use is a key component to an area’s progress for it clearly illustrates the means of people
in utilizing their land and their resources. Furthermore, it serves as a basis on how the area can
be planned, improved, and developed.                                                                 Comment [O58]: Elaborate: if this is required,
                                                                                                     bakit wala pa nito ang CUFAI? Wala ba silang
III. ISSUES AND NEEDS ASSESSMENT                                                                     nagawa in the past na proposal? Bakit daw hindi sila
                                                                                                     nakapaghanda nito?
The information in this section was formulated based on the Issues, Concerns, Needs, and
Opportunities of the existing CUFAI Community-Based Forest Management Plan, as well as
information gathered from the studyfor this document. The governing laws on protected areas
such as the NIPAS, Executive Order 263, DAOs 96-29 and 2004-29, and the PACBRMA were
also reviewed . Data was collected through Focus Group Discussions (FGD) with concerned              Comment [O59]: To what? Para saan?
officials and Key Informant Interviews (KII) with: the CUFAI officers, Barangay officials, and
other persons who have considerable knowledgeare knowledgeable about the subject. Transect
mapping and other observations were also employed to acquire supplementary information.

The succeeding discussion will focus on the issues and concerns that were raised in the study.

A. Issues

A.1. Protected Areas and Alienable & Disposable Land
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Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

The PACBRMA grants the security of tenure to communities residing in protected areas. This
provides CUFAI with a venue for the continued use of natural resources for sustained livelihood
in the area. The NIPAS, which determines the use of protected areas, clearly prohibits the use
of natural resources within protected areas. As such the PACBRMA is assigned to regulate the
sustained development of communities which has been granted security of tenure. The CENRO
is assigned to monitor these actions accordingly.23 The PACBRMA prohibits “the serious and
continued violation of natural resources, laws, rules and regulation”. This vague clause stated in
part 6: Termination and Amendment of PACBRMA, offers no guidelines distinguishing which                Comment [O60]: Of?
violations are prerequisites to the cancellation of the agreement. Furthermore, the community          Comment [O61]: Thus?
residing in the CUFAI area is dependent on kaingin and pag-uuling as primary sources of
livelihood. Among other venues for income kaingin has always been a traditional method
employed in upland farming. Likewise pag-uuling, as a by-product of kaingin, is another industry       Comment [O62]: Statete again ano ba ang
in the barangay. They have become stable sources of income in the barangay, and it becomes             kinokontra ng kaingin, ano ang nilalabag nya.
difficult to remove. These practices are also employed by the indigenous group of Dumagat,             Comment [O63]: What is meant by stable?
who are the original settlers of Barangay Calawis, in which CUFAI is located. Executive Order
263 mandates the State to consider the rituals, customs, and beliefs of the indigenous group in
the formulation of laws and policies. This implies that the PACBRMA should also comply with
this decree, hence providing a loophole which allows the settlers to continue the practice of
these activities.

The CUFAI mission proclaims the desire to convert the area into an Alienable and Disposable
land. This is to address the needs of the people - to have land titles that signify ownership of
their residential and farming lots. However, their mission is a specific ground for the cancellation
of the PACBRMA. Given this knowledge, CUFAI members continue to persist in the realization
of their A&D goal. Nevertheless, the association sees the agreement as a stepping stone in             Comment [O64]: Reword, make statement
motioning for the reclassification of the CUFAI area. Historically, there have been several cases      clear.
motioning for theof reclassification of the area from a protected area to alienable and disposable
land such as . However, the area shall remain to be considered as a protected area unless a            Comment [O65]: Provide example.Meron nito
succeeding Presidential Decree regards it otherwise24.                                                 sa Mindoro pero from forestland to AnD, not exactly
                                                                                                       PA to AnD. Saka remember the option: PA to
                                                                                                       Timberland, so that the area stays as a
Considering the DENR permits the re-classification of the CUFAI area as A&D through the PD,            FORESTLAND. FORESTLAND TO
this poses the question of whether or not the areas surrounding CUFAI shall be granted A&D
status as well. At present, non-CUFAI members residing in the CUFAI area are granted by the
IPRA, permission to utilize the natural resources in the protected area provided they are
members of the indigenous group of who consider the area as part of their ancestral domain.
and And are current holders of a Certificate of Stewardship in the area. The present conditions        Comment [O66]: Are they?
in Barangay Calawis show that a majority of the residents in the area comprise of migrants from
different regions of the country. The legality of their residency is based solely on land sharing
agreements with the Dumagat. With the absence of legal titles, land grabbing is still an issue
among the residents of the area. In this regard, the present officials of Barangay Calawis have
also voiced the community’s desire to be re-classified from protected area to A&D. As stated by
Barangay Captain Reynaldo O. Doroteo, the barangay wishes to be considered as A&D in order
to assure the tenure of community members in the area. Furthermore, barangay officials claim
that lifting the tax exemptions of the barangay will help to accelerate the development of needed
infrastructures through theand would lead to the creation of a barangay fund.

A.2. CUFAI as a People’s Organization

     DAO 2004-29
     In reference to the IRR of EO 263
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                       43
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

The existence of CUFAI as a People’s Organization in Barangay Calawis grants its members
with security of tenure in the area through led to achieving tenure through the PACBRMA.
Ideally, people residing within the CUFAI area should be members of the People’s Organization,
but that is not the case in CUFAI. It can be said that non-members residing in the CUFAI area
are at risk of being evicted from the area because they are not formally associated with CUFAI .
The informal settlers are residing in tenured land which re-directs attention to CUFAI which has
a certificate of security of tenure. In reality, however, even without legal claims to the area, they
are still permitted to reside in the watershed buffer zone without legal claims.

A majority of the residents in the barangay are migrants from different regions of the country.
Under the NIPAS, human activities, including settlements, are prohibited in protected areas.
Exemptions were made through the IPRA and the PACBRMA, to allow the tenure of people in
the area, provided they comply with the prohibitions of these laws (footnote to law discussion).        Comment [O67]: Include this in the PACBRMA
This issue evolved from the fact a majority of barangay residents are not familiar with the             discussion
existence of CUFAI, including the laws governing the use of protected areas. The essence of a
People’s Organization is to represent the needs and desires of a general consensus of people
in the community. However, it proves to show that a meagre 290 members cannot be
considered as a fair majority in the area. This questions the credibility of CUFAI as a People’s
Organization capable of delivering a consensus of the needs and desires of the community in
the area.

One way of addressing the need for improved membership in the organization is to enjoin non-
member residents in the area. Yet a majority of barangay residents seem not to be familiar with
the existence of CUFAI, including the laws governing the use of protected areas. This may
explain their apparent disinterest in the organization, more so in becoming members. Thus,
CUFAI resorted to admitting

In regard to the lack of members, CUFAI suggests the need to increase the number of members
of the association. They have begun to admit weekend farmers or Pajero Families as members
of the association. Nonetheless, this option would be ineffectual as it contradicts the regulations
governing PACBRMA areas, specifically the provision on allowing tenure for migrants who have
acquired residency in the PACBRMA area for at least five years (source). Assuming the Pajero
Families are recent addition to the barangay, they should not be permitted to become members
of the People’s Organization. If CUFAI insists the need to increase the number of members,
they have no choice but to encourage membership among the tenured migrants of the

In the scenario that the A&D classification will be given to CUFAI, the weekend farmers will be
given freedom to develop the area as they please. Furthermore, the DENR requires tenured                Comment [O68]: What is the consequence of
migrants to be granted the right to apply for the PACBRMA. A tenured migrant has acquired               this? Malay natin mas conservationist pa sila kaysa
                                                                                                        residents? On grounds of equity and rights ba kaya
residency of at least 5 years prior the awarding of PACBRMA in the area. Assuming the Pajero            dapat wary towards this?
Families are recent additions to the barangay as a result of the improved accessibility of the
area, they are not permitted to become members of the People’s Organization. If CUFAI insists
the need to increase the number of members, they have no choice but to encourage
membership among the tenured migrants of the barangay.

Another issue is the existence of a recreation-themed resort privately owned by Antonio Malvar.
The resort functions as a tourist accommodation in Barangay Calawis, the PACBRMA does not
clearly prohibit the development of land in the protected areas as a tourist destination. However,
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                         44
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

Antonio Malvar is not a member of the People’s Organization. CUFAI officials have made efforts
to encourage the resort owner to participate in the association. But to this day, their efforts have
deemed unsuccessful.                                                                                      Comment [O69]: What is the consequence of
                                                                                                          this? Kung hindi sya member, hindi sya legal. On
Moreover, there is a strained relationship between the leaders of the barangay and CUFAI                  that grounds alone, hindi sya dapat nandyan sa
                                                                                                          area. UNLESS of course, he acquired formal consent
officials. Before the establishment of CUFAI, the persons responsible for its creation were also          from barangay. Meron kaya nito?
serving as the leaders of the barangay. As a result, coordination with the barangay, CUFAI, and
the DENR went remarkably well. The present scenario seems to imply the opposite-, the current
Barangay Captain Reynaldo O. Doroteo claims that projects undertaken by CUFAI in the area
were not properly consulted with his office. The Barangay Captain attributes the loss of
communication with the two legal entities with the political tension between himself and the              Comment [O70]: Revise.
CUFAI president. Furthermore, the barangay official proclaims that the DENR no longer orients
his office regarding projects to be implemented in the CUFAI area. Instead these projects are
directly consulted with the CUFAI president alone.

In CUFAI’s defense the President claims that there have been efforts to orient the barangay
officials regarding the goals, purpose, and projects of the organization. However their calls have
fallen on deaf ears.                                                                                      Comment [O71]: Isama sa previous paragraph.
                                                                                                          Again, what is the consequence of not talking to
A.3. CUFAI as an Association                                                                              each other? We can mention here that in planning,
                                                                                                          LGU has mandate so dapat magcoordinate ang
                                                                                                          CUFAI and LGU. Please cull from Felcris’ assigned
A closer look at the CUFAI membership process proves to be another issue that needs to be put             writeup on the roles of players.
forward. There are inconsistencies regarding the amount of membership fee charged for each
member of the association. According to CUFAI officials, upon completing the registration
requirements, members are obliged to pay Php 300.00 as their membership fee. However,
Pajero Families and other ‘well-off’ members are charged Php 500.00 as the starting fee with
and additional Php 50.00 per hectar owned. A look at the membership fee charges per member
shows that aside from the standard Php 300.00 fee, some members residing in the barangay
were charged with fees that ranged from Php 350.00 or more.

Since the founding of the association in 2003, there have been minor changes in the line-up of
officers in the association. The PACBRMA was granted 7 years ago with Epitacio M. Coper as
the CUFAI President. To this day Mr. Coper has remained to be the President of the
association. According to the Securities Exchange Committee (SEC document), the
organization shall elect yearly, a set of officers to lead the association. Due to the lack of able
and willing successors, the association is left with the decision to retain its current set of officers
year after year. CUFAI attribute this ‘lack of interest’ in leading the organization to the multitude
of priorities common farmers have. Instead of working to push forth the A&D classification of the
area, they would rather involve themselves in daily farming activities. Another hindrance to the
coming of new officers is the limited educational attainment most members have. This causes
them to become intimidated by the responsibilities of becoming officials in the association.              Comment [O72]: Ano uli ang consequence ng
                                                                                                          hindi nagpapalit ng officers? Sa intindi ko bentahe
Although CUFAI officials recognize the lack of successors a problemFurthermore, there have                sa kanila yan kase gamay nila. Ano yung mga sinabi
                                                                                                          nilang rason kung bakit ito problematic?
been no initiatives on their the part of CUFAI officials to train and involve other members in
order for them to experience the processes involved in leading the association.

A.4. Government Implementation of Laws

CUFAI officials proclaim that efforts concerning the proper education of farmers involved in
kaingin and pag-uuling practices have resulted in the regulated occurrence of these practices.
They also suggest that these actions will no longer be completely removed from the protected
area. The social acceptance of these practices is quite strong in the area. In this regard, officials
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                    45
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

seek the intervention of government officials regarding the removal prohibition of these
activities. CUFAI officials proclaim government regulation efforts too lax and unconcerned in
these cases. , especially in the case of illegal logging. Residents claim that

Another issue brought to the table is the existence of wide-scale illegal logging in the area.
Residents claim illegal logging is rampant in the protected area. Furthermore, these perpetrators
roam free due to the weak implementation authorities employ in the area.                             Comment [O73]: Of what?

Mining exploration is another issue present in the protected area. Having proclaimed the
existence of several mineral amounts, the T3 foundation, a company responsible for issuing no-
interest loans to the residents of Barangay Calawis, is rumoured to have begun exploration in
the mountainous regions of the protected area. The prevalence of these issues is attributed to
the lenient monitoring of government authorities in the protected area.

B. Needs

CUFAI recognizes the importance of infrastructural, educational, and livelihood development as
part of uplifting the quality of living in the barangay. The association feels it is necessary to
include the barangay in this discussion due to the fact that the CUFAI area is located within
Barangay Calawis and the members are also part of the community. Several needs and
opportunities have been identified by the community. These serve to reflect the proposed land
use plan in the area as well as suggest certain reforms that the community deems needed to
further the sustainable development in the protected area.

B.1. Infrastructures

The construction of a farm to market road is one of the major needs of the barangay. Farming is
the primary source of livelihood in the area, thus the need for better roads and bridges is of
utmost importance. Farmers may then be able to transport their goods from the farm to markets
with ease and. And ensure that their products reach the areas in at their best quality. Another
venue for farmers to sell their harvests is through the creation of a Barangay Market. This would
lessen the need for residents to travel outside the barangay for their daily needs. At present,
most residents need to travel from the barangaygo to markets in Boso-Boso and Veterans in
order to sell or purchase products. With a Barangay Market, residents will have a wider variety
of products easily accessible to them.

The barangay also needs their own hospital with resident doctors. At present the barangay has
only 1 ambulance which transports patients from the barangay to the nearest hospitals in
Veterans. To ensure the safety of the patient and the well-being of the residents, there is a need
to establish a hospital that can answer to the health needs of the residents.

To ensure a sound ecology, proper waste management such as the creation of a community
waste processing area, must also be employed There have been instances wherein pollution
has taken the better of two rivers in the area. In order to improve the state of these rivers, a     Comment [O74]: Ano ang evidences of
proper compost pit must be established to lessen the health risks of the people living in            pollution? May nakuha ba tayo sa interviews, like
                                                                                                     pagkawala ng isda, pagtambak ng basura sa ilog
proximity to these polluted areas.

Also, the association realizes the need of a CUFAI headquarters as a venue for gatherings and
general assembly in order to discuss further the issues and needs of the people.                     Comment [O75]: Saan ba ginagawa ngayon ang
B.2. Education
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                    46
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

With the growing population of children in the barangay, there is a need for better educational
venues and equipment for the children to develop their full learning capacity. The barangay
considers children as the answer to the nation’s future. As such, the barangay aims for their
holistic growth through scholarships, proper educational materials, and good schools.

Not only does the association wish to educate the students, but the older population as well.
Through better Information Education Campaigns (IECs), CUFAI aims to educate the residents
of the proper ways in of taking care of the environment, as well as to avoid the practice of
environmentally destructive activities such as kaingin, illegal logging, and pag-uuling. The
association plans to conduct training programs to discuss ecologically sound practices in
farming and to promote the continuous planting of trees to push forth reforestation programs.
CUFAI plans to educate the residents of the importance of having good leaders capable of
making important decisions in ensuring the development of the community.

B.3. Government Support

CUFAI recognizes the importance of government support in helping the community realize its
development goals. Firstly, the association proposes the need for a communal nursery to
provide seedlings that will help in ensuring the reforestation efforts of the people. Second, more
technical support from the Department of Agriculture in terms of livelihood seminars and
projects are needed to provide the residents will alternative sources of livelihood.

There is also a need for the association to develop good relations with the barangay officials to
form a unified consensus on addressing the needs of the residents in the barangay. This is to
ensure that the actions undertaken by the People’s Organization are suitable to the needs of the
barangay are met in regards to the actions to be undertaken by the People’s Organization. The
implementing rules of the PACBRMA employ the cooperation of Local Government Units,
including the barangay in the development of the area.

Finally the association pushes for the re-classification of the area as an alienable and
disposable land. There is also the need to continue the land parcelling of land properties in the
barangay. This will be instrumental in stopping addressing the issues of land grabbing in the
community. The re-classification of the area will also help the people realize the true value of
owning the land and taking care of it. The association believes that through this, the people will
be encouraged to work harder for their living and take into consideration the sustainable
development in the area. The residents will no longer be plagued with the risk of being evicted
from their homes. The move for having land titles will create better opportunities for the
barangay in terms of infrastructural developments in education, tourism, and other forms of
livelihood. Surely the realization of this dream will serve to improve the quality of life in the

General Comments:

     1. This corrections incorporate inputs from both Emman and I.                                   Formatted: Numbered + Level: 1 +
                                                                                                     Numbering Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Start at: 1 +
     2. Be consistent: PhP1,300.00                                                                   Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 0.25" + Indent
                                                                                                     at: 0.5"
Community Resource Management Framework Plan                                                     47
Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated

     3. In terms of tone, I guess it’s safe to play the third person: no “we”, just “the
        association...” when referring to CUFAI.

     4. Having consulted colleagues, magulo raw kung sa footnotes ilalagay ang sources. So I
        suggest, as before, all explanations in footnotes. Citations would follow APA. Dapat may
        list of references pa rin at the end of the writeup, pero ang interviews ay hindi na kasama
        sa reference list. See APA citation samples.

     5. Pwede sa footnotes ang explanation na “as stated in DENR DAO 2004-** [“title”], tapos
        nasa list of references din ang complete citation nito, i.e. including date, website saan
        kinuha, publisher, etc. Do not forget DENR at the beginning, just to distinguish the

     6. Figures and tables should have numbers and titles.

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