Community Resource Management Framework Plan 1 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated I. Introduction The Community Resource Management Framework (CRMF) is a strategic plan of the community on how to manage and benefit from forest resources on a sustainable basis1. The plan serves asencompasses the community’s long term vision, aspirations, commitments and strategies for the protection, rehabilitation, development and utilization of forest resources. The CRMF is a part of the planning process concerning tenurial instruments which are the Community-Based Forest Management Agreement (CBFMA) for timberland areas, and the Protected Area Community-Based Resource Management Agreement (PACBRMA) for protected areas. These tenurial instruments are awarded by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) to the concerned People’s Organization (PO)2. Specifically, the PACBRMA is in accordance with the Protected Area Management Plan that provides the actions of the tenure holder relevant to the management, development, utilization, conservation and protection of resources in the subject area. The CRMF is prepared by the People’s Organization (PO)3 of the local community with the assistance of the Community Environment and Natural Resources Officer (CENRO), Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Officers (PENRO), and Regional Environment and Natural Resources Officer (RENRO). This framework shall serve as the basis for the 5-year detailed work plan which the PO should submit as a participant of the Community-Based Forest Management Program (CBFMP). The formulation of this framework plan is essential for the implementation of the CBFMA, and shall take place 30 days upon the approval of the CBFMA. The Calawis Upland Farmers Association Incorporated (CUFAI) is a People’s Organization duly recognized by the DENR and the Securities and Exchange Committee (SEC)4. The CRMF is prepared to meet the provisions contained in the PACBRMA. The succeeding sections will have an elaborate discussion regarding the aforementioned legal bases such as the agreements and administrative orders alongside the executive orders responsible for the awarding of PACBRMA and the creation of CUFAI. A. Legal Bases of the PACBRMA 1. National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) As part of the Marikina Watershed System buffer zone, Barangay Calawis is categorized under Comment [O1]: What is a buffer zone? the protected areas classification of the DENR. This implies that the security of tenure granted by the DENR, to the residents of the barangay, is subject to the implementing rules and regulations of the NIPAS Act. The NIPAS Act recognizes the need for controlled special development within buffer zones which are located adjacent to protected areas, in order to avoid or minimize harm to the protected area. This Act limits development to environmentally sound practices and prohibits the conversion of natural resources into industrialized areas. The DENR holds the right to relocate communities residing in protected areas as needed by the state. 1 DAO 2004-29 DENR Administrative Order No.2004-29 Article II Scope, Coverage and Key Program Participants Section 18 2 Article II, Section 5 Qualification of Participants of the DENR Administrative Order (DAO) No. 2004-29 states that participants in the CBFMP shall be embodied by the People’s Organization of the local community. 3 The People’s Organization is a legal entity composed of members of a community who are actively residing and tilling the area to be awarded in the CBFM 4 In accordance with Republic Act No. 7586 (NIPAS Law), Executive Order No.263 and DAO 2002-02 Community Resource Management Framework Plan 2 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated 2. Community Based Forest Management (CBFM) “Adopting the CBFM as the national strategy to ensure the sustainable development of the country’s forest land resources and providing mechanisms for its implementation”5 aims for an improved quality of life for upland dwellers and communities under an ecologically sound environment (MPFD, 1990). The DENR, being the primary institution tapped for this purpose, is responsible for assuring that the provisions of the CBFM are implemented. The foundation of the program is to enlist the aid of communities in preserving the ecological state of the environment. Specifically, the DENR shall provide security of tenure and technical assistance to these local communities. Comment [O2]: The connection among CBFM, NIPAS, and PACBRMA is not clear. What is needed is 3. Protected Area Community-Based Resource Management Agreement (PACBRMA) for us to establish the chronology of laws: - NIPAS: 1992 - CBFM Program: 1995 The PACBRMA is the tenurial instrument awarded to a rightful PO, whose members are - PACBRMA: 2000 qualified tenured migrants6 in a protected area. The PO is represented by its president, and is Sa discussion ng PACBRMA, number 3, there should legally referred to as the PACBRMA holder. The DENR recognizes the PO as a significant be reference to the NIPAS and that this gave way to the establishment of the buffer zone where the instrument for the development and management of forest lands due to the invaluable sense of PACBRMA can be acquired, following the CBFM ownership these communities feel for their land is vital in the sustainable development of the strategy. environment. In return, the DENR shall provide security of tenure and technical assistance to these local communities as contained in the PACBRMA. The PO is given the privilege to use areas, subjected to terms and conditions covered in the agreement. The PACBRMA holder is also given the right to allocate areas to members, and develop it along with the privilege of participating in decision-making processes that involves the development of the area and allocation of resources. The agreement also includes the rehabilitation and restoration, habitat protection, conservation of resources, and development of alternative livelihood opportunities, that are not necessarily dependent on forest resources. And The sustainability of renewable resources being developed and utilized is another provision in the PACBRMA. In addition, farming implements such as seeds and fertilizers are granted to the members of the People’s Organization. The responsibility to determine the worthy beneficiaries of these materials is placed upon officials of the People’s Organization. The grantees shall be determined among interested parties, depending on their eagerness to make extensive use of the grant in terms of livelihood purposes and their willingness to comply with the DENR‘s provisions regarding prohibiting from environmentally detrimental practices. Comment [O3]: ? The agreement shall take effect for a period of 25 years, and is renewable for another 25 years unless the PACBRMA-holder fails to comply with the agreed terms and conditions which would result to in the termination of the agreement. The termination of PACBRMA can occur based on various grounds including the reclassification of the area. Allowing settlers’ privileges greater Comment [O4]: What is meant by than what is offered under the program, such as when the agreed land becomes alienable and reclassification? You can put this in footnote. disposable, and/or failure to comply with the terms and conditions of the agreement, by performing activities harmful to the environment, and when the national interest so requires as determined by the DENR secretary are conditions that would what?.7 Comment [O5]: Ayusin pa ang paragraph. 5 Executive Order 263.(1995, July). ADOPTING COMMUNITY-BASED FOREST MANAGEMENT AS THE NATIONAL STRATEGY. Retrieved May 20, 2009 from http://www.lawphil.net/executive/execord/eo1995/eo_263_1995.html. 6 A tenured migrant has acquired residency of at least 5 years prior the awarding of PACBRMA in the area. Formatted: English (United States) 7 Protected Areas Community Based Resource Management Agreement (PACBRMA) Community Resource Management Framework Plan 3 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated B. CALAWIS UPLAND FARMERS ASSOCIATION INCORPORATED (CUFAI) In the 1980s motions for acquiring land security was driven by the Sangguniang Barangay and later on, through a group organized by the barangay officials. This initiated the formation of the Calawis Upland Farmers Association Incorporated (CUFAI) in December 1996, with Barangay Captain Guillermo Estanislao acting as the adviser. The organization applied for recognition through the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). By January 3, 1997 the organization was duly recognized as a People’s Organization by the SEC with the recommendation of the DENR8. However, the initial effort to acquire land security was unsuccessful due to the then president’s idle governance and the lack of familiarity regarding the acquisition of land security. In order for the PACBRMA to be awarded, the DENR called for the revival of the organization in the year 2000 during which the members of the Sangguniang Barangay, Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG), DENR, and the Office of the Mayor of Antipolo held a general assembly and a re-election of officers. In the same occasion, Barangay Kagawad Epitacio M. Coper, a migrant from Batangas, was elected president of the organization. In 2003, the PACBRMA was awarded to CUFAI, granting all the privileges and responsibilities outlined in the agreement. 1. Mission & Vision The CUFAI aims to help the people of Barangay Calawis in Antipolo City, Rizal to obtain land tenure. Contained in its articles of incorporation9 are the association’s functions; consisting of providing agricultural services, organizational experience, self-improvement, and opportunities concerning agricultural and/or industrial purposes. The organization’s functions also include; the promotion of cooperative production among members. The CUFAI performs the duties and responsibilities bestowed by CBFM and PACBRMA. More importantly, the association aims to attain legal rights of ownership of their farming and residential lands, and for the area to be classified as Alienable and Disposable. This would allow the residents to have land titles which in turn would allow the use of the land for any purpose in for an indefinite period of time. The organization envisions progress to the community’s quality of living to address the people’s primary needs. They seek local and national government intervention for the construction of basic infrastructures such as roads that provide easier access to all the areas in the barangay especially in the Apia region.(Insert CUFAI general reference map) Education from the primary, secondary, up to the tertiary level is another main priority. The association aims for better health services through the creation of a barangay hospital equipped with doctors and adequate medicine supplymedical facilities. In the late 1990s access to electricity through MERALCO was achieved with the continuous efforts of the CUFAI President Mr. Epitacio Coper. Access to electricity helped bring further improvements to the barangay. Finally, the association aims to empower the residents through sustainable livelihood projects that are not reliant on environmentally detrimental methods. 8 SEC Reg. No. A199112190 9 These guidelines are incorporated in the SEC document of CUFAI (Append to SEC) Community Resource Management Framework Plan 4 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated 2. Membership . The organization identifies the following requirements for membership: Must be land holders within the CUFAI area; Must register as a forest occupant in Brgy. Calawis and enlist as a CUFAI member and; Pay the designated membership fee amounting to Php 300.00. The membership fee funds the organization’s expenses such as transportation costs for travelling from Barangay Calawis to Manila, to attend meetings with the DENR, MERALCO, and other government and private institutions, who may help address the needs of the association. The membership fee varies, as in the case of weekend farmers or the Pajero families (named in reference to the type of vehicle they use when visiting the area) who are initially charged Php 500.00 with an additional Php 100.00 per hectare of land depending on the total number of hectares they own. These weekend farmers purchase large farm lots and employ Calawis locals to manage their land. Having purchased lots within CUFAI, Pajero Families also coordinate with the association in order to attain security of tenure on their respective lots as members of the association. Comment [O6]: Clarify: are all pajero families members? CUFAI members are given first priority in DENR programs since they are the registered grantees of the PACBRMA. They are also the recipients of land endowments such as in the Upland Development Program (UDP) of the DENR. Seedlings, fertilizer and land allocation are examples of what DENR has given the association. In return, the responsibility of CUFAI members is to comply with the governing rules of the PACBRMA.which states that Tthey may use the land for livelihood purposes such as upland farming but the DENR does not allow the use of implements that mayprovided that their means do not cause harm to the environment. Termination of membership is determined by incurring 3 absences in the annual CUFAI general assembly, held every 31st of January. The president shall notifiesy the absentee through a written warning after each absence. On the third offense, the person’s membership shall be revoked. To this day, no membership has been terminated. Within the CUFAI area are non-members who have little knowledge about the organization and the provisions of the PACBRMA agreement. In this situation, non-members within the CUFAI area are not included in the grants provided by the DENR and other institutions. The grants include land parcelling10, land endowments, and security of tenure. Although the whole CUFAI area is registered under the PACBRMA, non-members residing in the CUFAI area are at risk of eviction for a period less than what is stated in the agreement since they are not included in CUFAI’s security of tenure. The identified reason as to why some residents in the area have little interest in the CUFAI and PACBRMA is primarily due to the fact that they are satisfied with their current state of living, and 10 Land parcelling involves delineating portions of land owned by a certain individual as proof of the extent of his/her land. Community Resource Management Framework Plan 5 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated this is their only concern for the moment. There are efforts in educating the people of the benefits of the PACBRMA and the detrimental effects of environmental degradation, but the fact remains that the current mindset of the people is geared towards present day concerns. With this being said CUFAI remains persistent in educating people about the PACBRMA and is amenable to sharing the benefits of the agreement among the residents of the barangay. Comment [O7]: Establish clearly that this paragraph is related to the previous because this In May of 2009, an estimated 40 families from Apia are currently applying for membership with explains reason for non-membership. CUFAI. As previously stated, membership is limited to lot owners within the CUFAI area only. The case was proposed to address the needs of the residents of Apia who are in need of seedlings and other farming implements from the DENR. This is in accordance with the request of PAMB to allocate grants of the DENR to non-members of the organization as a venue for the reforestation of the area. 3. Organizational Structure CUFAI as an organization is headed by a President or a Chairman, a Vice President, 8 members of the Board of Directors, an Auditor, a Treasurer, a Secretary, and an Adviser. Table 1.1 2009 Calawis Upland Farmers Association Inc. Officers PRESIDENT Epitacio M. Coper VICE-PRESIDENT Benedicto Sailog SECRETARY Mario Masagnay TREASURER Gemma Doroteo AUDITOR Nelson Hernandez Carlito Asiong Paterno Esto Narciso De Luna Jose Masagnay BOARD OF DIRECTORS Abondio Rantugan Lito Veric Florencio Villorente Vicente Villorente ADVISER Reynaldo O. Doroteo Community Resource Management Framework Plan 6 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated The general role of the organization’s officers, in accordance with its mission and vision, is represented by their organizational structure. The organizational chart was formulated in an assembly composed of the members of the organization along with NGOs, government agencies like DENR, DILG and the Office of the City Mayor. This organizational structure is approved by the DENR and is effective to this date. Members have undergone trainings and seminars in order to formulate the organizational structure. The General Assembly, Lupon ng Patnugutan, Ingat Yaman, Kalihim, together with the Lupon Tagasuri are the most active branches of the organization because of their respective functions in the association. (INSERT ORGANIZATIONAL CHART) Comment [O8]: Emman made the chart. As i also recall,may explanation ng tasks ang original In addition, the PACBRMA states that the PO President/Chairman has the authority to allocate copy ng draft 5. Di ba dito yun isasama? land and technical assistance from the DENR. In this regard, CUFAI officials have the power to address illegitimate and environmentally detrimental practices such as kaingin and pag-uuling, illegal logging, and selling of land referred to as “lipat karapatan”. Officials weigh the options on arresting residents involved in these activities in lieu of the PACBRMA. Considering the current status of living, most offenders remain non-reprimanded. Instead, CUFAI officials are persistent in conducting seminars regarding the ill- effects of these practices on the environment. Another responsibility of the CUFAI officials is to ensure that reforestation practices are kept functional in the area and that member beneficiaries are utilizing full use of the sponsored grants. In lieu of this, officials have formed patrol groups called “bantay-gubat” to note Criteria and Incentives (C&I) on farm lots of the members and to report the actions needed to be taken into consideration. II. CUFAI AREA OF TENURE Given the legal mandates, the PACBRMA delineates privileges of stewardship to CUFAI. The awarded land is located in Barangay Calawis, Antipolo and forms part of the Marikina Watershed Reservation (MWR) as a buffer zone. Hence, the use and development of the area is primarily guided by the legal bases as embodied by the PACBRMA. This section provides a discussion of the Physical Characteristics of the CUFAI, the Socio- Economic Profile of Barangay Calawis, the Natural Resources present in the area and its utilization, and the Existing General Land Use of the CUFAI. The discussion of the Physical Characteristics expounds on the location and land area, climate, and topography of the CUFAI. The next part would be a discussion on Natural Resources that would further explain about the Marikina Watershed Reservation & its biodiversity, is followed by a discussion on land and water resources that flourish in the area, and most importantly, the utilization of these resources. The Socio-economic profile will give further details about the people who live in the area regarded as CUFAI; the section will discuss the Demography, Education, Health Services and types of Livelihood that characterize the site. The last section focuses on the CUFAI area’s Land Use. A. Physical Characteristics a. Location and Land Area Community Resource Management Framework Plan 7 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated The CUFAI is located within Barangay Calawis of Antipolo City (insert location map) and comprises a land area of 542 hectares11. Originally, CUFAI has requested 2500 hectares to be included into the CUFAI. However, the request is still pending within the DENR. The total land area of Barangay Calawis is 9,144.30 hectares based on the barangay profile. According to the Facts and Figures, 2009 of Antipolo City the land area of Calawis is 5,581.12 hectares.12 The distance of Barangay Calawis from the Provincial Capitol is approximately 12 kilometers. Barangay Calawis can be accessed from Marcos Highway through the Kaysakat-Calawis Barangay Road. The northwest of the CUFAI area is bounded by Mt. Purro and the intersection of Boso-Boso and Payaguan Rivers to the west. To the northeast is Mount Caluwiran and to the southeast is Mount Taluto. CUFAI is 9.7% of the total land area of Barangay Calawis.13 Although this percentage is quite small, the built-up area of Barangay Calawis is situated inside the CUFAI area. In the 762 households inside Barangay Calawis, 560 households are within the CUFAI.14 Comment [O9]: Read again and improve b. Climate The climate of Antipolo is classified by the PAGASA (Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Service Administration) as a Type I climate. This is characterized by two distinct seasons—the wet and dry. The wet season is from May to December while the dry season is from January to April. The wet season allows a long cropping period, and the four months of the dry season make some areas agriculturally inactive. Comment [O10]: verify The monsoon wind system is the main climatic control in the area. The Southwest Monsoon or the Habagat brings rain to the area. The cool Northeast Monsoon or the Amihan, moves as a dry wind and becomes drier after crossing the Sierra Madre orographic barrier. The monsoons influence the rainfall in the area. The Southwest Monsoon accounts for the heavy seasonal rainfall whereas during the four dry months, the Northeast Monsoon is prevalent. The warmest month is May, and the coolest month is March. Due to its high elevation, the temperature in the area is lower compared to its neighbouring areas. Varieties of crops to be planted are determined by the climate condition of that area. The climate is an important factor for seedlings to root, grow, and produce crops. Different plant materials also have different requirements like climate and soil, before it is able to produce crops. This explains why farmers choose to perform crop rotation in the area, depending on the season and the availability of the crops. c. Topography and Geology CUFAI has slopes from 18-50%. Elevations in the CUFAI range between 150m and 475m. Flat lands characterize the central part of the area while hilly and steep areas surround the center. The area’s relatively flat central portion is where most of the residential, commercial, domestic, agricultural, administrative, and cultural activities of Barangay Calawis take place. Upland farming takes place on the hilly regions of the area. 11 As stated in the PACBRMA 12 This does not include the 2,935.34 hectares that is currently outside the political jurisdiction of Antipolo, but is historically a part of it. 13 The figure is based from the total CUFAI area divided by the total land area of Barangay Calawis multiplied by 100. 14 Based from the Philippine Bureau of Mines and Geo-Sciences. Community Resource Management Framework Plan 8 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated As per Bureau of Soils and Water Management (BSWM) records, the geology of the area includes a landscape of residual/volcanic hills with land forms of upper rounded hills and ridges. These formations are usually covered with vegetation. According to the Philippine Bureau of Mines and Geo-Sciences records, the stratigraphy of the area includes stratified rocks of the Comment [O11]: MGB? Kinabuan formation, which is mainly altered spillitic basalt flows with intercalated highly indulated sandstone, shale, and chert beds. These stratified rocks are identified by their unique basalt lithology, dated from the Cretaceous period15. Shale is the parent material of the soils in the area. Soil types include Pinugay clay that characterizes 45-65% slopes. The Pinugay clay’s horizon is 10 to 25 cm thick and its texture is a brown to dark brown, dark reddish brown or reddish brown clay loam or silty clay loam16. The Lumbangan Clay can be found on the 25-45% slope. This is moderately deep to deep, well- drained soils that occur on very steep, highly dissected volcanic hills. It has dark red, dark yellowish brown, dark graying brown clay horizon not more than 20 cm. This thin horizon, together with its steep topography makes it moderately affected by erosion and prone to slope failures. The Dystropept-Tropudalf-Tropudult association, is an extensive soil association that occurs in 45-65% slopes. This soil association is moderately deep to deep, well-drained and is derived from volcanic tuff or adobe. It occurs on the rolling steep, moderately dissected volcanic mountains marked by rounded crest. Another soil association present in the area is the Dystropept-Troporthent Association. This soil association is shallow to deep, well-drained, and occurs in very steep, highly dissected mountain ridges with sharp crests. The topographic characteristic of Barangay Calawis is ideal for growing fruit trees. Soil types in the area include well-drained loamy soils and clay soils, which can successfully support growth of fruit-bearing trees. In addition, the area also has places that are more elevated, whose soil drainage is most effective for growing fruit-bearing trees. The rivers and creeks that run through the CUFAI area include the Payaguan River; a tributary of the Boso-Boso River, Bulitinao Creek, Anono Creek, Calawis Creek and the Paikulan Creek. The creeks also serve as a marker for the boundaries of the purok within the Barangay. 15 Based from the Soil Map of the Province of Rizal from the Bureau of Soils and Water Management. Community Resource Management Framework Plan 9 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated B. Socio-Economic Profile The socio-economic profile describes the status of living of the residents in the barangay. This includes the discussion on the area’s demography, education, health services, and protective services existing in the area. This will help explain how various resources are utilized. The data used for this part covers the whole barangay of Calawis as deemed applicable, except for the livelihood section which covers the sources of income of those specifically residing in the CUFAI. 1. DEMOGRAPHY Barangay Calawis is originally inhabited by about 20 families of approximately 100 individuals belonging to the Dumagat indigenous group. At present, there are around 200 families, roughly 1000 Dumagat in the area who are concentrated mainly in the Dumagat Village in Sitio Paglitao. A number can also be found in Sitio Balon, Bantay and Malasia. (Annalisa Tugado, personal communication, May 14, 2009) (insert map of places in relation to calawis) Comment [O12]: Meron ba nito? As of 2007, barangay data accounts for 5,882 individuals living in the barangay (refer to table 2.1), in contrast with 3,978 as reflected in the 2007 National Statistics Office (NSO) census. The population distribution per purok of the families in the barangay is summarized in Table. On the other hand, the age-sex pyramid of the barangay indicates a steady increase of its population (figure). Population growth rate is given at 7.6% which means that by 2010, the population of the barangay is expected to be 4,956. The population is relatively young, and belonging to the working age category. In the case of the barangay, the labor force is primarily engaged in activities such as upland farming, pagkakaingin, pag-uuling, and pangangalakal which are labor intensive jobs. (Facts and Figures of Antipolo 2009) Table 2.1: POPULATION DISTRIBUTION BY AGE AND SEX (As of 2007-2008 Census) AGE GROUP MALE FEMALE TOTAL Under 1 90 150 245 1–9 401 378 779 10 – 14 301 290 591 15 – 19 311 326 637 20 – 24 388 432 820 25 – 29 211 245 456 30 – 34 254 294 548 35 – 39 125 190 315 40 – 44 350 300 650 45 – 49 200 95 295 50 – 54 160 190 350 55 – 59 19 29 48 60 – 64 15 72 87 65 – 69 20 15 35 70 – 74 6 11 17 75 – 79 6 5 11 90 and above 2 1 3 Community Resource Management Framework Plan 10 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated TOTAL POPULATION 2,859 3,023 5,882 Source: Barangay Profile Figure ___: Age Sex Pyramid Table 2.2: POPULATION & NUMBER OF FAMILIES PER PUROK (2006 Census) TOTAL NUMBER OF PUROK POPULATION FAMILIES Purok 1 650 200 Purok 2 669 128 Purok 3 853 321 Purok 4 652 130 Purok 5 660 118 Purok 6 998 331 Purok 7 1,200 300 Sitio Paglitaw 200 50 TOTAL 5,882 1,578 Source: Barangay Profile Barangay data notes Catholicism as the dominant religion in the barangay with 60% of the population being Roman Catholics. Residents ascribing to the Born Again religion are estimated at 20%, while the remaining consists of Iglesia ni Cristo and Seventh Day Adventist. In terms of language composition, 70% in the barangay speaks Bisaya while 30% are Tagalog speakers.17 17 Source barangay profile and barangay secretary Community Resource Management Framework Plan 11 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated This is because most of the people in the barangay are Aklanon. (Annalisa Tugado, personal communication, May 14, 2009) (INSERT CHURCH) 2. Education Barangay Calawis has three day care centers, one elementary school and one high school. The main day care center is located near the barangay hall. It has two extension facilities, one in Apia and another in Purok 2. Each day care center has one teacher. As of the school year 2008-2009, there is a combined number of 96 enrolees among the three day care centers. A commencement exercise is held annually at the end of each school year. (Annalisa Tugado, personal communication, May 14, 2009) & (Mellit Bayocarles, personal communication, May 27, 2009) The students of the day care center of Brgy. Calawis have two class schedules: morning and afternoon. The main day care center is located behind the covered gym. All in all, there are three day care centers within the barangay, Comment [O13]: Isama sa writeup, then just mention that this is one of the three day care centers in the whole of Calawis sa caption There are three elementary schools in the barangay; the Calawis Elementary School located in Calawis properPurok 3 and 4, the Apia Elementary School in Apia, and the Binayoyo Primary in Binayoyo. There are 649 students enrolled in the Calawis Elementary School (S.Y. 2008-2009). In addition, 195 students are enrolled in the Apia Elementary School, and 69 students in Binayoyo, with 83 elementary school graduates from all three schools. There are a total of 24 teachers in the barangay, of which six teachers are in Apia, two in Binayoyo and 16 in the Community Resource Management Framework Plan 12 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated Calawis Elementary School. (Facts and Figures of Antipolo 2009) and (Mellit Bayocarles, personal communication, May 27, 2009) As of the previous school year, 649 young residents of the barangay were enrolled in Calawis Elementary School to finish their elementary education. There are 24 elementary school teachers in the barangay, and 16 of them are in Calawis Elementary School. Comment [O14]: Incorporate in main text and make simpler caption. Calawis Elementary School is located in Puroks 2 and 4. The Apia Elementary School serves as its extension facility due to the lack of an administrative body. As a result, Ms. Gloria A. Benedicto supervises the operations for both the Calawis and Apia Elementary Schools. Plans for the Apia Elementary School to become a separate institution are being considered once the need for an administrative body is addressed. While On the other hand, Binayoyo Primary offers education from grades I to IV only. In the Ssecondary level, there are a total of 238 students enrolled in the Calawis National High School, with 60 students in the Calawis-Apia Extension. Both schools produced 72 high school graduates as offor the S.Y. 2008-2009. The Calawis National High School is located at the border of Puroks 5 and 6, while Calawis-Apia Extension is situated in Apia. There are eight teachers employed in Calawis National High School and three in Calawis-Apia Extension. Moreover, the barangay’s Committee on Education claims that only 10% of the total high school graduates pursue college mainly because of financial constraints. (Michelle Carabot, personal communication, May 14, 2009) Community Resource Management Framework Plan 13 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated Calawis National Highschool, which is located in Purok 6, is the main high school institution in Barangay Calawis. The teacher to student ratio of 1:50 for elementary students and 1:63 for high school is similar to the teacher-student ratios in other schools in the country. This implies that there is an adequate number of teachers in relation to students in the area. According to the barangay’s Committee Comment [O15]: On what basis? Who says so? on Education, 90% of the total population of school-aged children are currently enrolled in schools. In recent times there has been an increase in the number of residents with college degrees in the barangay. While most of these graduates seek employment outside the barangay, a number of them stay due to the inability difficulty of finding employment outside the area. In relation to this, the Committee on Education strongly recommend that high school graduates take education units and teach in the barangay as resident teachers in these schools. (Michelle Carabot, personal communication, May 14, 2009) and (Barangay Officials, Focus Group Discussion, May 7, 2009) The barangay is currently constructing a gymnasium in the Purok 2 side of Calawis Elementary School. Additional facilities such as comfort rooms, classrooms, and a covered court are being constructed for the Apia Elementary School. In Binayoyo, the construction of another elementary school building is in progress. (Barangay Officials, Focus Group Discussion, May 7, 2009) Community Resource Management Framework Plan 14 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated New classrooms are being constructed for Calawis Elementary School. The extensions in Apia and Binayoyo are also having new rooms and infrastructures. Teachers, classroom facilities and books are enough to provide the basic needs of the students according to the barangay officials. On the other hand, teachers say there is a shortage of computer units in these schools. The Calawis National High School only has 9 computer units shared by all levels. Teachers claim that this shortage of computers should be addressed by the school administration. (Michelle Carabot, personal communication, May 14, 2009 and) and (Barangay Officials, Focus Group Discussion, May 7, 2009) The barangay is determined to promote education among its youth in the hopes of becoming more competitive in terms of livelihood and income generation in the future. In line with this, scholarships have been granted by Congressman Angelito C. Gatlabayan and Mayor Danilo Leyble of Antipolo, as well as financial assistance given by the Christian Foundation for Children and the Aging (CFCA). (Barangay Officials, Focus Group Discussion, May 7, 2009) According to the Committee on Education the literacy rate in the entire barangay is at 90% functional literacy. This pertains to the capability of the residents to read and write. Most residents are more comfortable conversing in Tagalog, while a few others incorporate English in their conversations. However, approximately 25-30% of individuals can neither read nor write. Furthermore, an estimated 40% of senior residents, believed to be from the Dumagat tribe, do not have any formal educational attainment. (Barangay Officials, Focus Group Discussion, May 7, 2009) Community Resource Management Framework Plan 15 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated 3. Health Services and Nutrition The barangay has two health centers, one located near the barangay hall, and an extension facility located in Sitio Apia. Ms. Felissa L. Masaquel, a midwife from Boso-Boso, manages the health centers on a daily basis. There are 19 Barangay Health Workers (BHWs) in the main health center and three more in the extension facility in Apia. The health workersBHWs are headed by Mrs. Cleta Coper. A majority of the health workers are housewives required to undergo three months of health training organized by the city government of Antipolo, in collaboration with the University of the East Ramon Magsaysay (UERM). A health worker is given an allowance of Php 1,500.00 a month and works alternate shifts in handling the health center. The health center provides general check-ups to the residents of the barangay every Wednesday. In addition, a resident doctor from the City Health Office visits the center once a month. (Cleta Coper, personal communication, May 8, 2009) Comment [O16]: Caption? The Health Center provides treatments for common ailments such as coughs, colds, and fevers. Patients are mostly pregnant mothers who seek pre-natal care, as well as young children in need of vaccination. Malnutrition is also common in the barangay. Isolated cases of Tuberculosis have been identified in the past through the various medical missions conducted in the area, while some accounts have been attributed to pag-uuling. (Felissa Masaquel, personal communication, May 13, 2009) Community Resource Management Framework Plan 16 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated Comment [O17]: Caption? The health center is given a supply of generic medicine by the Department of Health to be distributed to the people. When delivery of supplies are delayed, herbal medicines are used as alternatives. The center hopes for more donations in the form of medicine and nebulizers, especially for residents with respiratory ailments, and other health facilities to provide the needs of the residents. Another source of medical supplies There is a the Botika ng Barangay in Purok 4 that sellsing generic and branded medicine located in Purok 4. This was initially funded by the Department of Health and the Local Government of Antipolo but is now financed by Ms. Cleta Coper, who is also in charge of managing the Botika. (Felissa Masaquel, personal communication, May 13, 2009) Medical missions take place twice a year in the barangay plaza. Various agencies such as the Philippine Army, the Office of the Mayor, UP-PGH, UERM, and NGOs like CFCA hold medical missions in the area. During such, people are given free medical and dental check-up, free haircut, and free medicine. There are also instances when birth certificates are were issued during medical missions; this service is made possible in coordination with the NSO. (Cleta Coper, personal communication, May 27, 2009) 4. Social Welfare Services and Programs A senior citizen’s association caters to the elderly in the Barangay. It was established about ten Comment [O18]: Make a mother statement to fifteen years ago. The Senior Citizen association has 100 members. Members are required to here about social welfare to justify the senior citizen and kabataan sectors’ inclusion here. pay Php 17 for the membership fee and Php 10 for the monthly dues. They conduct monthly meetings as well as attend flag ceremonies every first Monday of the month. Members are given free medicine when available. Aand a 20% discount on fare prices is also given to them. If one of the members passes away, funeral assistance is given to the family members of the deceased. An estimated Php 33,000 is allocated for the Senior Citizen from the barangay Community Resource Management Framework Plan 17 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated budget. The group conducts a Clean and Green program and participates in the barangay sports fest and hold Christmas parties. (Aquilina De Luna, personal communication, May 27, 2009) The Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) is headed by Marlon V. Esto along with seven councillors who were elected in November 2007. The budget allotted for the Sangguniang Kabataan is Php 300,000 which is 10% of the its source, the barangay’s budget. They organize sports fest during the summer to veer the youth from illegal drugs, as well as to promote camaraderie and sportsmanship. The efforts deem successful in encouraging the youth to participate in sports as seen through the number of participants in the various sports events conducted in the barangay covered court. This makes it easier for officials to monitor the activities of the youth when they are participating in these programs. Other projects of the SK include gift giving and tree planting during the second quarter of the year. The SK also conducts a Clean and Green activity within the vicinity of the barangay covered court. In December 2009, the SK plans to have a house numbering activity for the whole barangay to create the house addresses of the residents. Comment [O19]: Any other reason for the (Marlon Villorente, phone interview, May 28, 2009) activity? 5. Protective Services Comment [O20]: Put after army/cafgu paragraph, and select better picture if we are allowed to incorporate their pics. Peace and Order in the barangay is maintained through the Barangay Tanod who takes turns in roving the area. There is a total of 20 tanod, most of whom are volunteers. Two tanod patrol the Comment [O21]: Most or all? barangay daily from eight in the evening until the following morning. In lieu of a monthly salary, the tanod receive gifts and money from the barangay during the Christmas season. Topping the list of offenses in the barangay are minor fights and loitering beyond the curfew hour, which is at ten in the evening. Most offenders are brought to the Barangay Hall to be detained overnight. Cases unsettled in the barangay level are then brought to the Antipolo Police Station. (Marlon Esto, phone interview, May 29, 2008) Community Resource Management Framework Plan 18 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated The Philippine Army together with the Civilian Active Auxiliary (CAA, formerly CAFGU) helps maintain the peace and order in the barangay. The City of Antipolo is under the area of responsibility of the 16th Infantry Battalion of the Philippine Army. The Army’s temporary headquarters can be found beside the Barangay Hall. The squad is headed Sgt. Bernard Cantos. On the other hand, the CAA detachment, headed by SSg. Eddie Pardo, can be found in Purok 3. (2Lt. Cesar Canazares, phone interview, May 28, 2009) Comment [O22]: Bilang ng CAFGU and ARMY? Ano pa ang ibang serbisyo ng army/cafgu, like 4. Livelihood pagsasama sa mga researchers? The sources of income in the barangay will be discussed in this section. The types of livelihood present in the area reflect the ways by which the residents utilize the natural resources available in the barangay. Barangay Calawis has aA variety of livelihood venues exists in the CUFAI PACBRMA area. Upland farming is the main source of livelihood among residents of the barangay. Other opportunities for income generation include sari-sari store (retail), jeepney and tricycle driving, and to a minimal extent, animal domestication. Most residents are involved in two or more of these activities. The present economy demands greater inputs from workers and as a result, residents have learned to diversify their sources of income. Comment [O23]: Try merging this and first paragraph the previous section A. Upland Farming Upland farming involves clearing of the land in higher elevations for planting rice and other fruit bearing trees. Agricultural products from upland farming consist of mango, pineapple, santol, avocado, banana, chico, rambutan, suha, papaya, and other fruit products. These cash crops are planted depending on the season. Mangoes are planted in the summer along with avocado; dalandan is planted during the cooler months December to February, while rambutan is planted during September. Bananas can be harvested all year round. Rice farming is also another agricultural product activity in the area, as well as vegetable production. Agricultural practices in the barangay are dependent on traditional practices such kaingin. Farmers do not rely on irrigation methods, and rely mostly on rainfall to water their crops. The use of fertilizer depends on each farmer’s means of purchasing either chemical or organic fertilizer. However, due to financial constraints and long term use, most farmers favor chemical- based fertilizers. Farmers sell their harvests in markets located in Antipolo Proper, Cogeo and, Marikina. These are harvested andFarm produce are transported from the farm lot to the main road by means of horses and carabaooas. In some cases, farmers themselves transport the products to the main roads and from there the products are transported by means of jeepeney to the markets in Cogeo, Marikina and Antipolo Proper. . Goods are transferred during night time to Comment [O24]: Where is the market? avoid traffic constraints. Some farmers sell their products in the aforementioned markets to what is locally called as ‘bagsakan The prices of the products depend on the prevailing market value. Mangoes are sold per kaing and sometimes per kilo, pineapples are sold per piece from Php 10- 20, and bananas are priced depending on the variety. Saba and Latundan is sold at 40-50 centavos per piece while Lacatan and Senorita are sold per kilo for Php 20-25. Corn is priced at Php 10-12 per kilo, while rice on the other hand is sold by the sack for Php 1500. Unmilled rice costs Php 700 per sack. However, prices get higher when the products are in season. Community Resource Management Framework Plan 19 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated Upland farming is a very common agricultural practice n the CUFAI area. Farm lots grow different crops, most of which are mangoes, bananas, citrus fruits and hardwood trees. In the photo above is a farm lot cultivating pineapples. The said farm lot is found in Purok 6. Agricultural practices in the barangay are dependent on traditional practices such kaingin. Farmers do not rely on irrigation methods, and rely mostly on rainfall to water their crops. The use of fertilizer depends on each farmer’s means of purchasing either chemical or organic fertilizer. However, due to financial constraints and long term use, most farmers favor chemical- based fertilizers. Farmers sell their harvests in markets located in Antipolo Proper, Cogeo and, Marikina. Goods are transferred during night time to avoid traffic constraints. Some farmers sell their products in the aforementioned markets to what is locally called as ‘bagsakan Merchants or middlemen usually purchase vegetables and other cash crops from farmers and transport these goods to the abovementioned markets. In doing so, middlemen reduce costs incurred from having to transport goods from the farms to markets and could take advantage of the higher prices of agricultural products outside the barangay or the sources of farm products. Middlemen may earn up to Php 70, 000 per month during peak crop production. This varies depending on the seasonal demand for fruit products. They buy and sell not only fruits and vegetables but also charcoal. Each sack of charcoal is sold for Php 120 per sack. Prices also Comment [O25]: Transfer to pag uuling. depend on the distance from where the fruits were harvested, the farther the distance from the center, the higher the price of the product. At present there are currently 20 middlemen in the barangay. (Ariel Arabis, personal communication, May 12, 2009) Community Resource Management Framework Plan 20 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated Jeepneys are very useful for merchants in transporting their products. Comment [O26]: Remove this and the picture too. B. Kaingin & Pag-uuling Kaingin and pag-uuling are closely connected to the practice of upland farming. Kaingin is the Comment [O27]: Please consult literature. From process that involves clearing of the whole area for.... This means plants will be extracted from what I know, kaingin is a method under upland farming. the area by means of burning or by pulling out the plants and weeds. The only difference between kKaingin and pPag-uuling is that the latter does not involve total clearing of the land. Pag-uuling involves cutting and burning of trees. While kKaingin is a process used to produce a natural fertilizing effect on the soil through burning the crops present in the area. Traditional farming methods also employ kaingin to clear the land in order to perform crop rotation immediately. However, frequent practice of kaingin causes the soil to lose most of its nutrients immediately and leaves the area unproductive for future use. (M. Masagnay Personal Communication, May ? ) Community Resource Management Framework Plan 21 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated Kaingin, or slash-and-burn farming, is still being practiced by farmers in the CUFAI area. Kaingin involves cutting off existing trees that may be used to make charcoal. The process of kaingin does not require specific slopes or land area; soil fertility is the primary consideration of kaingeros in apportioning land for this practice. Kaingeros choose a portion of fertile soil for this practice. This involves apportioning the area in which kaingin is to take place. After determining the suited site, kKaingeros then set fire to the area and begin clearing the land. Seedlings are then planted into the soil. Farmers continue to till the land, allocating at least two months for cleaning the area of stray weeds and grasses. Five months after the start of kaingin, farmers then begin to plant the crops and wait for them to grow and be harvested in a few more months. Comment [O28]: What is the difference Crops planted are usually rice, squash, sitaw, and cucumber, and are used as long term crops. between planting seedlings and planting crops? The kaingin area is used for a period of 2-3 years only, . After which, the soil is left to rejuvenate for another 3-5 years. Farmers recognize the good and bad effects of kainginThere are positive and negative sides to the process of kaingin. The good effectIt is beneficial in that it allows for is being able to clearing of unwanted plants in the area farmlots in order to plant new crops and achieve the fertilizing effect. But when kaingin is performed by planting fast-growing crops and leaving the land behind after the crops have been harvested, it becomes a detrimental practice. In several cases kaingin areas are used as temporary sites for farming until they become barren due to soil depletion. Moreover, some are solely used solely for charcoal making purposes, while others use the land as temporary farming implements. Kaingin is a form of environmentally destructive activity since setting fire to the soil causes nutrient depletion when done for a prolonged period of time. Another consequence of kaingin is that soils experience productivity loss in terms of the quality of trees and crops it produces in the succeeding harvest. Kaingeros then transfer from one area of land to another in order to sustain the practice. Instances wherein Community Resource Management Framework Plan 22 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated the kaingero has exhausted full use of his or her land for kaingin is common within the barangay. The kaingero has no other choice but to seek employment by practicing kaingin on another farmer’s land. Farmers may employ kaingeros to clear their farm lots. In this situation certain arrangements Comment [O29]: Farmers or land owners? are made between the farmer and the kaingero. The usual farming apportionment is 60:40 in favor of the lot owner. Nonetheless, kaingeros claim that the income generated from kaingin does not suffice for their daily needs. CUFAI officials attribute tThe persistence of kaingin practices in the area to the lack of Comment [O30]: Since this writeup should be in education of most kaingeros on the ill-effects on kaingin on the environment as well as the the perspective of CUFAI bod, we can remove citations involving them. health risks involved in practicing kaingin. Had intervention on the destructive effects of kaingin been preached during the earlier days of farming in the areas, then kaingeros would have refrained from engaging in kaingin as a source of income. Another reason for the continued kaingin and charcoal making processes is the lack of alternative venues for livelihood in which kaingeros and ulingeros can engage in. Furthermore, these practices have been accepted in the community and are considered to be conventional sources for livelihood. In connection, pag-uuling is an activity that engages cutting and burning of wood and turning them into charcoal. . The most common tree used in making charcoal is the Ipil-ipil, a type of tree that is easy to plant and grows abundantly in the area. Pag-uuling involves a tedious process of piling uniformly cut logs in a boxed fashion, which is then placed in holes dug in the soil. Once buried, fire is lit through smaller holes in the soil .Ulingeros constantly watch over the burning wood in a span of three days. Charcoals are prepared for sale in sacks, which sells at PhP 120.00 each in bagsakan areas and PhP 130-140 in sari-sari stores. Each sack of charcoal sold in “bagsakan” areas cost Php 120 while for sari-sari stores prices per sack range from Php 130-140. The most common tree used in making charcoal is the Ipil-ipil, a type of tree that is easy to plant and grows abundantly in the area. At a given time an ulingero maker may produce 5-100 sacks of charcoal per day depending on how many trees he is willing to turn into charcoal as well as the limits of his personal health. (Ariel Arabis, personal communication, May 12, 2009) Community Resource Management Framework Plan 23 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated Pag-uuling is a tedious process. One of which is depicted in the picture above where the tree branches are burned for several days before they can be used as charcoal. Interestingly, the most reported diseases in the area are closely related to respiratory tract infections. Ulingeros claim that the profit from charcoal making is not enough to sustain their daily needs. With the lack of other opportunities ulingeros remain complacent with the health risks involved with pag-uuling in order to make a living. C. Sari-Sari Store (Retail Stores) Barangay Calawis is approximately 30 minutes away by tricycle from the nearest wet and dry market located in Veterans (a popular landmark BLANK kilometres south of the CUFAI PACBRMA areasouth of the CUFAI). The presence of sari-sari stores has been beneficial for both residential consumers and retailers, as sari-sari stores provide practical solutions to the immediate needs of the residents. Retailers in Barangay Calawis offer meat and poultry products as well as fresh produce from local farms. A number of sari-sari store owners have their own farms or have arrangements with farmers to provide them with fresh produce daily. Other necessities such as canned goods, frozen meat products, and other food products not locally grown in Calawis are bought in bulk from the Antipolo Market. Aside from food products, sari-sari stores retail school supplies, home necessities such as plastic containers, and tableware, as well as toiletries. (Joy Carabot, personal communication, May 14, 2009) Community Resource Management Framework Plan 24 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated Comment [O31]: Caption? Sari-sari stores have become a desired source of income for most of the residents in the CUFAI area. This is seen through the number of sari-sari stores located along the CUFAI Calawis road. With this scenario it becomes necessary to ask whether business for the stores is doing well. It has been discovered, however, that a few of the latter established stores have already closed due to insufficient income. Others remain functional since they have regular customers who patronize the shop. The capital needed to start a sari-sari store is Php 5000. The capital is used to purchase goods from outside markets which are then transported into the barangay. The actual income of sari-sari stores is approximately 10% of the daily sales. The daily sales of a sari-sari store could reach up to Php 5000 when business is slow, and doubles when business Comment [O32]: Sa isang araw, ibig sabihin, is good. The average profit of a sari-sari store owner ranges from Php 50-200 daily. (Crisostomo yung puhunan na P5,000 ay bawi mo na? We think we can delete this info. Garcia, personal communication, May 27, 2009) (Annalyn Arabis, personal communication, May 27, 2009) D. Tricycle and Jeepney Driving Since the creation of the paved roads in (year), the demand for alternate modes of transportation came to rise in the barangay. At present there are two tricycle associations working in Barangay Calawis. Both tricycle terminals operate 24 hours, 7 days a week. The government-recognized tricycle association is named AVCS which stands for Antipolo Veterans Calawis San Jose. The association was founded in the 1980s and has 90 members in total. A majority of these members have their own tricycles. Minimum fare is priced at Php 25 and fare prices from Veterans to Calawis, are priced at Php 100 for regular tricycles. Each tricycle has a 4 passenger capacity. (Cicero Aragon, personal communication, May 11, 2009) The other tricycle organization is named the Calawis Apia Veterans Pangolorin Tricycle Drivers Association (CAVPTDA) which is headed by Ceciro Aragon. While fare prices are the same with Community Resource Management Framework Plan 25 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated AVCS, the CAVPTDA has 2 terminals, one in Calawis and another in Apia. Transportation from Apia to any point in Calawis costs Php 200. (Cicero Aragon, personal communication, May 11, 2009) Tricycle terminal in Purok BLANK. Formatted: Font: Italic Most members of the association are farmers or former farmers who have focused their time in Comment [O33]: shifted? tricycle driving. With the increasing number of members within both associations, drivers go out an average of 3 round trips per day. Boundary for tricycle drivers is priced at Php 120. The average daily income is Php 300. Each driver is allotted 6 days of work in a week because one day is prohibited due to coding restriction. For transporting goods, tricycles can be rented for Php 600 from Calawis to Veterans. (Cicero Aragon, personal communication, May 11, 2009) Jeepney driving is another source of livelihood in the barangay. The jeepneys are used for both trading purposes, such transporting goods from the barangay to markets in Antipolo and Marikina, and as public transportation modes. The daily income for driving is Php 1,500.00, Ffrom that amount, which Php 500 is spent on gasoline expenses. There are currently 9 jeepneys in Calawis. Drivers take daily turns in public transportation duties via rotation of nine days in which only one driver is allowed to render service in a day. in the area. The passenger route is from Calawis to Marikina and Calawis to Cogeo. Fare prices are from Php 40 to Php 50. Middleman duties, wherein drivers transport goods from the barangay to bagsakan areas cost Php 3000 per day. The goods usually consist of fruits, vegetables, and charcoal. A jeepney may load 100 sacks of products per trip. Dalandan costs Php 10 per bag. Mangoes can be transported from Calawis to the market for Php 1,500. Jeepneys can also be rented for Php 1,800 to Angono, Rizal and Php 1,300- 1,500 to other areas such as UP Diliman1,300-1,800.00 Community Resource Management Framework Plan 26 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated for transport to areas outside Calawis. The jeepney driver begins work at 1 am and returns to the barangay at approximately 7 am. It is the jeepney drivers’ decision as to which driver will be assigned to go out on specific days. (Aga Castillo, personal communication, May 14, 2009) Comment [O34]: Di ba association ang magdecide? E. Paghahayupan Paghahayupan comprises a relatively small portion of the income generation in the barangay. Most people involved in animal domestication raise animals for personal consumption while some sells them in markets. Animals are domesticated in their backyard and some are sold in markets. . Prices vary depending on the type of animal. Goats are sold for Php 2,000 each while cows are sold for Php 20,000-30,000 per head. Horses are sold for Php 12,000 each, while prices for caraboas range from Php 20,000- 30,000 each. Sheep are sold from Php 1,500-3,000 depending on the size. Live hogs sell for Php 60 per kilo. Wwhile slaughtered hogs sell for Php 120 per kilo. Most of these animals are brought in the markets in Antipolo, Cogeo and Marikina. (R. G, personal communication, May 15, 2009) Comment [O35]: Caption? A few residents have fish ponds containing dalag, hito, and tilapia in their own farm lots. Fish spawned here are sold, but are mostly for personal consumption. Some also catch fish in rivers and creeks. Community Resource Management Framework Plan 27 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated Comment [O36]: Caption? F. Group Interventions In lieu of the diversifying venues of income generation in the barangay, certain groups have taken interest in sponsoring livelihood activities such as the Christian Foundation for Children and the Aging (CFCA). The organization was is responsible for providing selected children from the elementary level with a fixed financial support of Php 1400 monthly from local and foreign benefactors. The donations are given in the form of 5-10 kg of rice per month and groceries for the beneficiaries. The children are also given school supplies while a portion from the Php 1,400 allowance is allotted for the children’s school activities such as field trips. On the other hand allowance for college students is Php 2000 per semester. There are 207 children in the Calawis Proper and more or less 70 children in Acacia, north of the Poblacion, who are sponsored by the foundation. To become members, residents are asked to submit photos of their children, which are sent to the group of beneficiaries for selection. CFCA also has a program for the aging. Senior citizens aged 60 years old or above who are members of CFCA, receive food subsidies from Php 700 -1,000 tuwing kalian?. The elderly can get Php 2,000 yearly for medical assistance yearly. Senior citizens have out of town activities and celebrate a day of recollection called Elderly Day. In May 2009, operations were put on hold due to the fact that most residents were seen by the CFCA, as capable of sustaining their own livelihood through assistance from the T3 fellowship (see succeeding discussions). Once a member of the CFCA, they are no longer allowed to apply in other financial assistance related groups. Only financial assistance for the children in Elementary Level and the Aging are on hold. Allowance for College students is still ongoing. (Melody Castillo, personal communication, May 27, 2009) Comment [O37]: Read paragraph again and improve Community Resource Management Framework Plan 28 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated The T3 is a money-lending institution that enlists members and offers a minimum of Php 5000 without interest to the residents of the barangay. T3 operations are found in Antipolo, Quezon, and Laguna. In order to become a member, applicants are required to form groups of 12 and must all attend the organization’s weekly meetings held at the T3 mini mart located in Purok 2 and pay a Php 500 membership fee. Upon receiving the money, the borrower is required to return at least Php 200 to the organization, per week within a maximum of 6 months upon initial lending. Residents make use of the money to start their own sari-sari stores, to purchase tricycles, or to pay off other debts. According to Barangay Captain Reynaldo O. Doroteo, although the T3 lending system is beneficial to most of the members, paying off the required weekly fees becomes difficult for borrowers whose chosen investments have not fully paid off. As a result, borrowers are left with little income after paying off their debts. At present the fellowship has a total of 1000 members from Barangay Calawis. (Reynaldo Doroteo, personal communication, May 7, 2009) Aside from the aforementioned groups, a women’s organization headed by Councillor Letecia Rantugan is also present in the barangay. The organization was is funded by Governor Jun Ynares III. Each member is given Php 2500 to be used for livelihood purposes. There are a total of 26 members in the group. Instead of using the money for personal needs, the organization invested Php 60,000 on a rice retail business. Profits are shared among members of the organization. Membership however, is by invitation only. (Letty Rantugan, personal communication, May 4, 2009) II. Natural Resources Introduction to natural resources Central to any Community-Based Resource Management Plan is a discussion of the natural resources which the PACBRMA grants legal environmental protection responsibilities and resource use permission to the tenure holder, the People’s Organization (PO). This section elaborates on the types of natural resources in the CUFAI as part of the Marikina Watershed Buffer Zone. These resources include land forms, water bodies, flora, fauna, minerals, and soils, including their manner of utilization. The Natural resources in CUFAI is categorized into land and water resources. The list of land resources 18 include terrestrial plants and animals, minerals, soils, and land forms like hills, peaks, and flat lands. A. Marikina Watershed Protection & Biodiversity The Marikina Watershed System, which includes CUFAI as a buffer zone, is classified as a watershed reserve under Executive Order No. 33 dated July 26, 1904. The area is home to a number of species of flora and fauna endemic to the watershed area. With forests mainly composed of dipterocarp species, it is considered as a tropical rainforest and mountain forest. Special features of the Marikina Watershed System include ecotourism and recreational activities. It is the closest forested area to Metro Manila and is a haven of biological diversity. Endemic species in the Marikina Watershed’s biodiversity include the following below (Refer to are summarized in Table 3): Table 3 18 These resources and their elaboration in the following sections are based on official records of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), and were sourced from local knowledge obtained from interviews and community mapping sessions, as well as from field observations. Community Resource Management Framework Plan 29 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated FLORA FAUNA Common Name Scientific Name Common Name Scientific Name Tanguile Shorea polysperma Philippine Eagle Pithecophaga jefferyi Mayapis Shorea palosapis Labuyo Gallus gallus Red Lauan Shorea negrosensis Quail Coturnix sp White Lauan Pentacme concorta Philippine Hawk Spizaetusphilippensis Bagtikan Parashorea Philippine Deer Cervus marinnus Akling Parang Albizea procera Wild pig Sus barbalani Molave Vitex parviflora Philippine Phython Phython reticulates Dungon Heritiera sp Monitor lizard Varianus salvator Balayong/Tindalo Philippine Monkey Macaca facicularis Raintree Samanea saman Philippine Macaque Macaca Philippine Mahogany Swetenia macrophylla Hawkbill Enethmochelys ambricata Kupang Parkia woxborgii Reticulated python Python reticulates Malapapaya Polyscias nodusa Crimeon back wood Chrysocolaptes lucidus pecher Banaba Lagerstroemia Black naped oriole Oriolis chinensis spectabilis Narra Pterocarpus indicus Stripped-headed cueper Tibig Ficus nota Yellow accented bulbul Pycnonotus goiavier Makaasim Syzyguim nitidum Brown shrike Lanius cristatus Alagau Prema odorata Striated canegrass Megalurus patustris warbler Tara tara Ephicaris cumingiara Philippine crow Malaruhat Christocalyt opesculator Schack shrike Lanuis schach Gmelina Gmelina arborea Philippine bulbul Hypsipetes philippinus Anabiong Tremma orientalis Mountain sunbird Aethopyga pulcherriuma Ilang- ilang Cananga odorata Mountain white eye Ipil Instia bijuga Brown fruit dove Phapitreron cinereiceps Ipil- ipil Leucaena leucocephala Pigmy swiftlet Collacalia troglodytes Bungbong Schizostachyum White –breasted wood Artamus leucorhynchus diffusum swallow Antipolo Artocarpus blancoi Indian Bamboo Bambusa arundinacea Kauayan Dendrocalamus merillanus Yemane Gmelina arborea Buho lumnapau Schistotachyum lamnapau Salai-salai Avendinella ciliata Marakauayan Brachiaria replans Kogon Imperata cylindrical Talahib Saccharum spontaneum Samon Themada trianda Tal-tal Paspalum longifolium Elephant grass Penniselum propareum Carabao grass Axonopus compressus Marahauayan Brashiaria replano Community Resource Management Framework Plan 30 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated SOURCE: . The CUFAI area lies within the Marikina Watershed, so one would expect that biodiversity within the area is very rich. Comment [O38]: Palitan ang picture. B. Yamang Lupa Multiple peaks serve as boundaries to the CUFAI. These peaks include Mount Taluto on the southeast, Mount Caluwiran on the northeast, Mount Bulitinao on the southwest, and Mount Purro on the northwest. (PEAKS AND ELEVATION TABLE, PICTURES) Relatively flatter lands occupy the central part of the area, which is the location of most of the area’s concrete roads and residences. However, houses are generally found on relatively steep slopes. On these steep slopes is where kaingin, production of palay and other crops, and tending of fruit-bearing trees, are done. Comment [O39]: Include in topography discussion Community Resource Management Framework Plan 31 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated The topography of Brgy. Calawis is a mix of sloppy, elevated areas and flatlands. This enables the area Comment [O40]: READ: [slapi]! Baka “variable to be used in many different uses. slopes”. Comment [O41]: Wag ito yung picture, palitan. Community Resource Management Framework Plan 32 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated Soil resources in the area foster grass and tree vegetation and fruit-bearing trees. In addition to soil resources, mineral resources that can be obtained from creeks and rivers are present in the CUFAI. Barangay Calawis has large deposits of limestone, dacite, basalt, cement aggregates, andesite, and iron ore. Below is a table of estimated amounts of mineral deposits in the barangay. Table #. [Title] Mineral deposit estimated volume (in million tons) Limestone 7354 Dacite 1500 Basalt 10023 Cement Aggregates 65050 Andesite 5565 Iron ore 15610 SOURCE: Barangay Calawis Profile The extraction of minerals within the CUFAI-PACBRMA area is prohibited by law. Such practice undermines the protected area’s environmental sustainability and opens the area for industrialization, which is prohibited in protected areas by the NIPAS law. Comment [O42]: Add more effects of mining from literature. Coexisting with the minerals mentioned and growing on the area’s soils are terrestrial flora species which include tree, shrub, and other plant species. The abundance of each species varies within the CUFAI area and specific uses exist for each of them. Species of hardwood trees in the CUFAI area include ipil-ipil, mahogany, acacia, narra, and gimelina. Included in the list of fruit-bearing trees are mango, banana, santol, rambutan, lanzones, dalandan, avocado, kaymito, jackfruit, guyabano, makopa, chesa, aratilis, coconut, and calamansi. Other plants include cogon, bamboo, buho, pineapple, cassava, ginger, rice, napier, corn, sweet potato, malunggay, and gabi. Plant species extinct in the area are Mulawin and Kamagong. Endemic orchids can also be found in CUFAI. (J. Ferrera Personal Communication, May 12, 2009) Mango trees, commonly found on the upper half of the area, are the most abundant of all the tree species in CUFAI. A good majority of dalandan and banana trees are also present. There is a bamboo formation covering the elevated area near Bunsuran Falls. Natural growth covers areas on high elevations, wherein upland farming is absent. Vegetables, located mostly on the northwest, are planted on relatively flat lands. On the other hand, planted hardwood thrives on the northern portion and higher elevations in the area. Cogon fields are found on steep slopes especially on areas where kaingin was previously done. Grasslands and wooded grasslands are also vegetated with cogon and with other grasses as well. Other shrubs and low plants are found throughout CUFAI. For the estimated location and extent of the dominant types of flora in the area, see GLU MAP FIGURE ?. Observations on the biodiversity of the area’s flora is reflected on the transect diagrams in the land use section. Comment [O43]: Pictures? And also transect diagram where it best fits. Ipil-ipil among other trees is mostly used for charcoal making. Crops like corn, sweet potato, rice, and fruits like mango, dalandan, and banana are commonly produced by upland farmers for market and domestic consumption. Hardwood and cogon are used for domestic construction purposes. In addition, firewood is also sourced from forest trees in the area. Medicinal plants include sambong (for coughs and Community Resource Management Framework Plan 33 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated fevers), oregano (for coughs and colds of children), neem tree (for high blood pressure), anonang (for fevers of infants), lagundi, katakataka, bayabas. In addition to terrestrial flora, endemic animals include turtles, monkeys, cobras, mountain deer, and wild pigs. These species can still be found in the mountainous areas of Calawis. Some of these animals are hunted from within and outside the barangay. A certain number of monkeys have been used as pets 19 in some households. Also found in the area are labuyo , mosquitoes, crickets, beetles, fireflies, and different species of birds. Domesticated animals include horses, cows, carabaos, chickens, pigs, cats, sheep, and dogs. C. Yamang Tubig The Payaguan River runs through the southern portion of the CUFAI. Creeks include Paikulan, Calawis, Anono, and Bulitinao. These creeks, along with the Boso-Boso River from which the Payaguan River branches out are the tributaries to the Payaguan River. The existing river system is depicted in figure ?. Comment [O44]: Please verify,mappers, kase The Anono Creek periodically experiences overflow, thus the construction of for which the Calawis magkaiba ata ng headwater ang boso-boso at Overflow Bridge was constructed. More water bodies comprise of natural springs located in Purok 3 and payaguan. Purok 6 of Barangay Calawis. Found in the rivers and creeks within CUFAI are tilapia, hito, dalag, palos, biya, susugi, janitor fish, and shrimp. Water striders, leeches, and frogs are also present in the area. Kangkong, ferns flowers, and other low plants are common beside rivers and creeks. Algae cling onto wet rocks. (SPECIES PICTURES WITH CAPTION) Rivers and creeks in the CUFAI PACBRMA area are utilized by people in a variety of ways. People bathe in rivers and creeks as well as do their laundry and cleaning They bathe and draw water for their household needs aside from fishing for nourishment . Some electrify the water to catch fish. More people used to draw water from the area’s natural springs . In the past, the river system was characterized by Comment [O45]: Revise. deeper waters when fewer people resided in the area. At present water bodies in the area have become shallow. Comment [O46]: Why? 19 Smaller species of chicken Community Resource Management Framework Plan 34 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated Comment [O47]: Caption: mention that rivers are also used for recreation. D. Government Interventions Different interventions regarding the natural resource and resource use within the CUFAI-PACBRMA area include the Upland Development Program (UDP), Community-Based Forest Management - Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CBFM-CARP), seedling distribution, and the appointment of local “Bantay-gubat” deputies, which is composed of the members of the CUFAI Board of Directors. D.1 Upland Development Program (UDP) The Upland Development Program (UDP) of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) is an annual government funded project that is in support of the Comprehensive Livelihood and Emergency Employment Program (CLEEP) of the national government. The UDP is pursuant to DENR Memorandum Circular 2008-04, entitled “The 2009 Upland Development Program (Reforestation and Agroforestry).” This program is geared towards helping the poor upland farmers to help preserve and maintain protected areas. Through this program, the government will be givingallocates 100 hectares of land to a community qualified site, which will be distributed to 100 families in that community. Forty hectares is allocated for forestry, another 40 hectares for agro-forestry and the remaining 20 hectares will be dedicated to Assisted Natural Regeneration (ANR). This involves stream bank re-vegetation and Comment [O48]: Explain in footnote. enrichment planting of the area. Active members of a partner People's Organization (PO) of the given area shall be provided with financial and technical assistance for their individual hectare of land. This financial and technical assistance are also given to non-members of the partner People’s Organization. Comment [O49]: Clarify if priority ba ang Maintenance of the crops will be provided for by the farmers. Along with this, there will beis a monetary members and pano apportionment between assistance for each land owner of Php 21, 000 for forestry, Php 32,000 for agro forestry, and Php 11,000 members/non-members. for ANR. From each allotment, 15% of each budget is allottedis allocated for mobilization and 50% will be Comment [O50]: Mobilization of what? used to purchase seedlings. The remaining 25% is reserved for the completion of the second activity and 10% for other activities such as replanting are to be released after tasks are completed. Monthly reports are expected from the beneficiaries along with site visits from members of the concerned departments. Comment [O51]: Of? Socio-economic surveys are also used to monitor the progress of the area. This survey is held every three years. Community Resource Management Framework Plan 35 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated Basis for termination of theThe UDP may be terminated by the DENR on the following grounds: are below. Basis for termination of the program are: o Fraud, misrepresentation or omission by the implementor of material facts in obtaining the LOA which otherwise would have disqualified the PO or implementing organization; o Failure to start the project on the date specified in the LOA without just and reasonable cause; o Abandonment of the project area, or of the work stipulated in the LOA, for a period of at least one month from the date of discovery by DENR of such fact; or o Violation of, or failure to comply with, the terms and conditions of the agreement, the pertinent provisions of these Guidelines which guidelines, pa check naman nito and other DENR rules and regulations Citations please Last November 2008, the DENR conducted an Information and Education Campaign (IEC) where they introduced the UDP to the farmers in Barangay Calawis. This program was made possible with the suggestion of the PAMB to allocate the UDP in to the CUFAI PACBRMA. In April 2009, the DENR 20 gathered letters of intent from the locals of Barangay Calawis. In the UDP, a letter of intent expresses the desire of a local applicant to be awarded a parcel of land from the Upland Development Program. In addition to that, the letter implies that land survey of the requested parcel will be done by DENR surveyors with the locals. Finally, the DENR and the recipients of the UDP/UDP Regular signed their 21 Letter of Agreement last May 27, 2009. D.2 Community Based Forest Management – CARP (CBFM-CARP) Comment [O52]: Spell out CBFM CARP is a one-year project created by the DENR that is granted to People’s Organizations after an approved project proposal. The proposal is derived with the technical assistance by the DENR. They consult the PO of what they need in the area and the plants that is suited in the characteristics of their landPOs are consulted with regard to their livelihood needs and the potential plants may be granted through the program. The proposal is then submitted to the regional office. After which, it is then passed to the central office where a committee will decide whether the project is approved or needs revision. CUFAI is a recipient of the CBFM-CARP project. The implementation started on April 2009. The said project is funded by the central office of DENR which amounted to Php 1,225,625. The DENR is in charge Comment [O53]: For CUFAIlang? of monitoring, procurement of the needed materials, supervision, and validation of the project. The Initial release of fund for mobilization is 15% of the budget. In return, CUFAI serves asmust provide the labor counterpart. Their responsibility concerns the maintenance and protection of the crops. 22 Within the CUFAI, fifty hectares of land is under the CBFM-CARP project . Mahogany and/or nNarra would comprise 25 hectares of the whole land area while 10 hectares are apportioned for rambutan, five hectares for banana, and another five hectares for pomelo. The remaining five hectares is allotted for agricultural crops such as cassava with two hectares, one hectare intended for eggplant, and ampalaya with two hectares. 20 A letter of intent expresses the desire of a local applicant to be awarded a parcel of land from the Upland Development Program Formatted: English (United States) 21 Letter of intent and Letter of Agreement (LOA) samples are on annex blah (see DMC document). 22 Verify source Community Resource Management Framework Plan 36 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated D.3 Bantay-Gubat Finally, reforestation efforts by the DENR and CUFAI are currently active through seedling distribution efforts by the former, and by the deputy “bantay-gubat” members of CUFAI. These groups are tasked to Criteria and Incentives (C&I) areas and farm lots that need to be reported for improper management. Comment [O54]: Verify CI, and restructure sentence. E. Land Use As defined by Ernesto Serote in 2004, land use refers to the actual land utilized by people wherein different forms of human activities take place. Land is very much susceptible to change given that people would decide to use land in a different manner in time. With that being said, land use classifications are based on the modes of activities on a particular patch of land while the allocation of the area per land classification varies accordingly with the flow of culture and Comment [O55]: Flow? livelihood in the community. The CUFAI’s land extent comprises 542 hectares. Land use classification is identified among three main classifications: House lots (residential), farm lots (agricultural, agro-forestry) institutions, and infrastructures. E. 1. Existing Land Use Below is the general land use map of the CUFAI area showing the different sub-categories of agricultural areas as well as the residential, forest, and institutional areas. (Insert general land use map here) On the northern portion of the area lies the land allocated for the Upland Development Plan (UDP), a project of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. The plant species within the area of the UDP are mostly hardwood. A small number of agricultural plots are also seen here. The northern part of the CUFAI is mostly composed of woodlands. It can be noted that in the northwest corner of the area is grassland. Also found in the north western part of the CUFAI is a wide patch of land where mahogany and rambutan trees are planted. Mango plantations compose most of the eastern central, northeast and western central areas of the area. Banana plantations are mostly found in the eastern part of CUFAI, but are generally found all over the area. Citrus plantations are mostly found in the central part of CUFAI area near the Payaguan River and its tributaries. The southern part of the CUFAI area is generally composed of plantations catering to the cultivation of mixed crops. These mixed crops are combinations of mango, banana, citrus fruits, and vegetable plantations. E. 2. House Lots The areas of CUFAI where the house lots are located are considered as the residential areas. House lots are mostly located along roads and streets, while the concentration of the residential areas is situated near the activity center of Barangay Calawis. Other house lots are structured near or within the farm lots of house lot owners. A majority of the house lots are found in the streets of Ipil-ipil, E. Doroteo, S. Doroteo, Narra, Sampalok, Dalandan, Mangga, Bayabas, and along the sides of Calawis Road. Below is a map of all the occupants inside the CUFAI area FIGURE?. (Insert forest occupants map here) House lots are also used for different purposes aside from being residential areas. They are also used for commercial purposes as sari-sari stores and ulingan. Most of these sari-sari stores Community Resource Management Framework Plan 37 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated are located on the barangay’s activity center. Other sari-sari stores are found along the barangay’s streets and along Calawis Road. There is an auto mechanic’s shop in the area, as well as food stalls, a general merchandise store, and a mini-grocery. These are located in proximity to the Barangay Hall. One house lot is noted for its use as a tourist area. Camp Explore, an eco-tourism camping facility owned by businessman Antonio Malvar, is used as a commercial recreation area where tourists, mostly coming from Metro Manila, spend their weekends and vacation time in. E.3. Farm Lots A large percentage of the CUFAI is used for agriculture through the different plantations in the farm lots within the area. The farm lots are land used for the cultivation of crops or the domestication of animals for purposes such as food consumption or commercial production. A large percentage of the CUFAI area is used for agriculture through the different plantations in the farm lots within the area. These farm lots are owned by individuals ranging from the natives, the migrants, members of CUFAI and non-residents in the area who were able to procure farm lands from their former owners. These farm lots are located throughout the entire area. (Insert transect diagram here) Different agricultural crops are grown and cultivated within these areas depending on the preferences of the owner of the farm lots. Agricultural crops such as vegetables, citrus fruits, rambutan, pineapple, corn, and others are useful for commercial production. The most dominant of these agricultural products are mangoes and bananas. Farmers employ dual crop farming in order to maximize the products that they can sell from their farm lands. The farm lands are one of the most important resources for elements of the CUFAI, since the residents derive their livelihoods from these areas they are the foundation of the existence of the area. elements of the CUFAI, since they are the foundation of the existence of the area. Community Resource Management Framework Plan 38 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated The most common agricultural crop being grown in the CUFAI area is mango. Mango plantations are present in all the purok in CUFAI. The agricultural areas in CUFAI are classified based on the type of crops grown. In the case of CUFAI, agricultural lands were classified into: mango, banana, citrus, ipil-ipil, mahogany or rambutan, grassland, brush land, kaingin, vegetable lots and mixed crops. Lands are classified as mixed crops when there are two or more crops being cultivated in a single area. It can also be noted that CUFAI’s topography is a mix of flatlands and elevated areas. CUFAI’s forest areas are mostly situated in the farm lots in elevated areas. Farmlots have undergone some changes in terms of the kinds of crops farmers cultivate. Because of the low market value of Indian mangoes and dalandan, most farm lot owners have decided to clear their current farm lots of mango and citrus trees in favor of higher priced crops. Rambutan, pomelo and coconut are currently replacing mangoes and dalandan in their current farm lots toas farmers take advantage of market trends.this scenario. E. 4. Institutions and Infrastructures Infrastructures and institutions such as roads, schools, churches and government offices are important towards realizing development in a community and securing the welfare of people.in order to ensure that the area is undergoing development and that the area is organized. There are a number of institutional infrastructures inside the CUFAI boundaries, each with key roles in maintaining order and organization in the area as well as in providing for the basic needs of the community . Community Resource Management Framework Plan 39 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated The barangay hall is the seat of power in the barangay. This is where the leader of the barangay or the barangay captain, holds office. It also serves as a venue of meetings for the different organizations in the community. The barangay hall can be easily found in the barangay’s center. The barangay hall serves as the baranagay’s political center. The leader of the barangay, or the barangay captain, holds office in the barangay hall.It is located in Purok _, the center of commercial and other cultural activities in Barangay Calawis. Beside the barangay hall is the barangay’s covered gym. Different activities such as dance rehearsals, seminars and basketball games are held here. The residents who live in CUFAI and in nearby areas have the opportunity to interact with one another in the barangay gym. Behind the covered gym, to the west is the barangay health center where the residents’ health concerns are addressed. Churches of different denominations are also present in the barangay. The churches in CUFAI include a Roman Catholic Church, a Born Again Church, a Protestant Church as well as an Adventist Church. The churches are located in different places all over the CUFAI area. Regarding educational infrastructures, there are three educational infrastructures within CUFAI’s boundaries. There is a day care school located beside the covered gym and it stands beside the barangay health center. There is also an elementary school, Calawis Elementary School that caters to students from the first to sixth grade. The Calawis National High School is located in Purok 6. There is no college or university inside the CUFAI boundaries. Schools are important institutions as they serve as a venue where the young members of the community become learned and educated. Community Resource Management Framework Plan 40 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated The water system in the CUFAI area is managed by the Cabisig Multipurpose Cooperative. The cooperative started in 2005 and it is in charge of the maintenance of water pipelines in the area. There is a membership fee of Php 3000 which already includes the installation of the pumps. Water is priced at Php 18 per cubic meter and the monthly bill for the water supply is paid at the barangay hall. The water tanks are concentrated mostly in purok 2, 3, 4 and 5. The bulk of the residential areas in CUFAI are located in the mentioned purok. Purok 2, 3 and 4, comprise the CUFAI area’s activity center. The main water tanks of the cooperative are located in Purok 5 and Purok 6 with very close distances from the Calawis Creek. The main road in the CUFAI area is the Calawis Road. The road system inside the area starts with the main road and the smaller roads are either cemented or just rough roads. The area’s Comment [O56]: Nasaan ang smaller roads? transportation and movement activities Saan-saan papunta? Comment [O57]: Are? E. 5. Proposed Land Use Plan As stated in the DENR Administrative Order No. 2004-29, Article 3, Section 21, a Five-Year Work Plan should be prepared by the People’s Organization, in cooperation with the CENRO and the LGU. The said plan should include the detailed strategies, target projects, and annual activities of the organization regarding the protection of the area, utilization and development of resources, and organizational strengthening, among others, for five years. This plan must be prepared three months before the expiration of the existing plan, and should then be affirmed by CENRO. Community Resource Management Framework Plan 41 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated Banana plantations are almost present in all the purok within the CUFAI area. Land use is a key component to an area’s progress for it clearly illustrates the means of people in utilizing their land and their resources. Furthermore, it serves as a basis on how the area can be planned, improved, and developed. Comment [O58]: Elaborate: if this is required, bakit wala pa nito ang CUFAI? Wala ba silang III. ISSUES AND NEEDS ASSESSMENT nagawa in the past na proposal? Bakit daw hindi sila nakapaghanda nito? The information in this section was formulated based on the Issues, Concerns, Needs, and Opportunities of the existing CUFAI Community-Based Forest Management Plan, as well as information gathered from the studyfor this document. The governing laws on protected areas such as the NIPAS, Executive Order 263, DAOs 96-29 and 2004-29, and the PACBRMA were also reviewed . Data was collected through Focus Group Discussions (FGD) with concerned Comment [O59]: To what? Para saan? officials and Key Informant Interviews (KII) with: the CUFAI officers, Barangay officials, and other persons who have considerable knowledgeare knowledgeable about the subject. Transect mapping and other observations were also employed to acquire supplementary information. The succeeding discussion will focus on the issues and concerns that were raised in the study. A. Issues A.1. Protected Areas and Alienable & Disposable Land Community Resource Management Framework Plan 42 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated The PACBRMA grants the security of tenure to communities residing in protected areas. This provides CUFAI with a venue for the continued use of natural resources for sustained livelihood in the area. The NIPAS, which determines the use of protected areas, clearly prohibits the use of natural resources within protected areas. As such the PACBRMA is assigned to regulate the sustained development of communities which has been granted security of tenure. The CENRO is assigned to monitor these actions accordingly.23 The PACBRMA prohibits “the serious and continued violation of natural resources, laws, rules and regulation”. This vague clause stated in part 6: Termination and Amendment of PACBRMA, offers no guidelines distinguishing which Comment [O60]: Of? violations are prerequisites to the cancellation of the agreement. Furthermore, the community Comment [O61]: Thus? residing in the CUFAI area is dependent on kaingin and pag-uuling as primary sources of livelihood. Among other venues for income kaingin has always been a traditional method employed in upland farming. Likewise pag-uuling, as a by-product of kaingin, is another industry Comment [O62]: Statete again ano ba ang in the barangay. They have become stable sources of income in the barangay, and it becomes kinokontra ng kaingin, ano ang nilalabag nya. difficult to remove. These practices are also employed by the indigenous group of Dumagat, Comment [O63]: What is meant by stable? who are the original settlers of Barangay Calawis, in which CUFAI is located. Executive Order 263 mandates the State to consider the rituals, customs, and beliefs of the indigenous group in the formulation of laws and policies. This implies that the PACBRMA should also comply with this decree, hence providing a loophole which allows the settlers to continue the practice of these activities. The CUFAI mission proclaims the desire to convert the area into an Alienable and Disposable land. This is to address the needs of the people - to have land titles that signify ownership of their residential and farming lots. However, their mission is a specific ground for the cancellation of the PACBRMA. Given this knowledge, CUFAI members continue to persist in the realization of their A&D goal. Nevertheless, the association sees the agreement as a stepping stone in Comment [O64]: Reword, make statement motioning for the reclassification of the CUFAI area. Historically, there have been several cases clear. motioning for theof reclassification of the area from a protected area to alienable and disposable land such as . However, the area shall remain to be considered as a protected area unless a Comment [O65]: Provide example.Meron nito succeeding Presidential Decree regards it otherwise24. sa Mindoro pero from forestland to AnD, not exactly PA to AnD. Saka remember the option: PA to Timberland, so that the area stays as a Considering the DENR permits the re-classification of the CUFAI area as A&D through the PD, FORESTLAND. FORESTLAND TO this poses the question of whether or not the areas surrounding CUFAI shall be granted A&D status as well. At present, non-CUFAI members residing in the CUFAI area are granted by the IPRA, permission to utilize the natural resources in the protected area provided they are members of the indigenous group of who consider the area as part of their ancestral domain. and And are current holders of a Certificate of Stewardship in the area. The present conditions Comment [O66]: Are they? in Barangay Calawis show that a majority of the residents in the area comprise of migrants from different regions of the country. The legality of their residency is based solely on land sharing agreements with the Dumagat. With the absence of legal titles, land grabbing is still an issue among the residents of the area. In this regard, the present officials of Barangay Calawis have also voiced the community’s desire to be re-classified from protected area to A&D. As stated by Barangay Captain Reynaldo O. Doroteo, the barangay wishes to be considered as A&D in order to assure the tenure of community members in the area. Furthermore, barangay officials claim that lifting the tax exemptions of the barangay will help to accelerate the development of needed infrastructures through theand would lead to the creation of a barangay fund. A.2. CUFAI as a People’s Organization 23 DAO 2004-29 24 In reference to the IRR of EO 263 Community Resource Management Framework Plan 43 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated The existence of CUFAI as a People’s Organization in Barangay Calawis grants its members with security of tenure in the area through led to achieving tenure through the PACBRMA. Ideally, people residing within the CUFAI area should be members of the People’s Organization, but that is not the case in CUFAI. It can be said that non-members residing in the CUFAI area are at risk of being evicted from the area because they are not formally associated with CUFAI . The informal settlers are residing in tenured land which re-directs attention to CUFAI which has a certificate of security of tenure. In reality, however, even without legal claims to the area, they are still permitted to reside in the watershed buffer zone without legal claims. A majority of the residents in the barangay are migrants from different regions of the country. Under the NIPAS, human activities, including settlements, are prohibited in protected areas. Exemptions were made through the IPRA and the PACBRMA, to allow the tenure of people in the area, provided they comply with the prohibitions of these laws (footnote to law discussion). Comment [O67]: Include this in the PACBRMA This issue evolved from the fact a majority of barangay residents are not familiar with the discussion existence of CUFAI, including the laws governing the use of protected areas. The essence of a People’s Organization is to represent the needs and desires of a general consensus of people in the community. However, it proves to show that a meagre 290 members cannot be considered as a fair majority in the area. This questions the credibility of CUFAI as a People’s Organization capable of delivering a consensus of the needs and desires of the community in the area. One way of addressing the need for improved membership in the organization is to enjoin non- member residents in the area. Yet a majority of barangay residents seem not to be familiar with the existence of CUFAI, including the laws governing the use of protected areas. This may explain their apparent disinterest in the organization, more so in becoming members. Thus, CUFAI resorted to admitting In regard to the lack of members, CUFAI suggests the need to increase the number of members of the association. They have begun to admit weekend farmers or Pajero Families as members of the association. Nonetheless, this option would be ineffectual as it contradicts the regulations governing PACBRMA areas, specifically the provision on allowing tenure for migrants who have acquired residency in the PACBRMA area for at least five years (source). Assuming the Pajero Families are recent addition to the barangay, they should not be permitted to become members of the People’s Organization. If CUFAI insists the need to increase the number of members, they have no choice but to encourage membership among the tenured migrants of the barangay. In the scenario that the A&D classification will be given to CUFAI, the weekend farmers will be given freedom to develop the area as they please. Furthermore, the DENR requires tenured Comment [O68]: What is the consequence of migrants to be granted the right to apply for the PACBRMA. A tenured migrant has acquired this? Malay natin mas conservationist pa sila kaysa residents? On grounds of equity and rights ba kaya residency of at least 5 years prior the awarding of PACBRMA in the area. Assuming the Pajero dapat wary towards this? Families are recent additions to the barangay as a result of the improved accessibility of the area, they are not permitted to become members of the People’s Organization. If CUFAI insists the need to increase the number of members, they have no choice but to encourage membership among the tenured migrants of the barangay. Another issue is the existence of a recreation-themed resort privately owned by Antonio Malvar. The resort functions as a tourist accommodation in Barangay Calawis, the PACBRMA does not clearly prohibit the development of land in the protected areas as a tourist destination. However, Community Resource Management Framework Plan 44 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated Antonio Malvar is not a member of the People’s Organization. CUFAI officials have made efforts to encourage the resort owner to participate in the association. But to this day, their efforts have deemed unsuccessful. Comment [O69]: What is the consequence of this? Kung hindi sya member, hindi sya legal. On Moreover, there is a strained relationship between the leaders of the barangay and CUFAI that grounds alone, hindi sya dapat nandyan sa area. UNLESS of course, he acquired formal consent officials. Before the establishment of CUFAI, the persons responsible for its creation were also from barangay. Meron kaya nito? serving as the leaders of the barangay. As a result, coordination with the barangay, CUFAI, and the DENR went remarkably well. The present scenario seems to imply the opposite-, the current Barangay Captain Reynaldo O. Doroteo claims that projects undertaken by CUFAI in the area were not properly consulted with his office. The Barangay Captain attributes the loss of communication with the two legal entities with the political tension between himself and the Comment [O70]: Revise. CUFAI president. Furthermore, the barangay official proclaims that the DENR no longer orients his office regarding projects to be implemented in the CUFAI area. Instead these projects are directly consulted with the CUFAI president alone. In CUFAI’s defense the President claims that there have been efforts to orient the barangay officials regarding the goals, purpose, and projects of the organization. However their calls have fallen on deaf ears. Comment [O71]: Isama sa previous paragraph. Again, what is the consequence of not talking to A.3. CUFAI as an Association each other? We can mention here that in planning, LGU has mandate so dapat magcoordinate ang CUFAI and LGU. Please cull from Felcris’ assigned A closer look at the CUFAI membership process proves to be another issue that needs to be put writeup on the roles of players. forward. There are inconsistencies regarding the amount of membership fee charged for each member of the association. According to CUFAI officials, upon completing the registration requirements, members are obliged to pay Php 300.00 as their membership fee. However, Pajero Families and other ‘well-off’ members are charged Php 500.00 as the starting fee with and additional Php 50.00 per hectar owned. A look at the membership fee charges per member shows that aside from the standard Php 300.00 fee, some members residing in the barangay were charged with fees that ranged from Php 350.00 or more. Since the founding of the association in 2003, there have been minor changes in the line-up of officers in the association. The PACBRMA was granted 7 years ago with Epitacio M. Coper as the CUFAI President. To this day Mr. Coper has remained to be the President of the association. According to the Securities Exchange Committee (SEC document), the organization shall elect yearly, a set of officers to lead the association. Due to the lack of able and willing successors, the association is left with the decision to retain its current set of officers year after year. CUFAI attribute this ‘lack of interest’ in leading the organization to the multitude of priorities common farmers have. Instead of working to push forth the A&D classification of the area, they would rather involve themselves in daily farming activities. Another hindrance to the coming of new officers is the limited educational attainment most members have. This causes them to become intimidated by the responsibilities of becoming officials in the association. Comment [O72]: Ano uli ang consequence ng hindi nagpapalit ng officers? Sa intindi ko bentahe Although CUFAI officials recognize the lack of successors a problemFurthermore, there have sa kanila yan kase gamay nila. Ano yung mga sinabi nilang rason kung bakit ito problematic? been no initiatives on their the part of CUFAI officials to train and involve other members in order for them to experience the processes involved in leading the association. A.4. Government Implementation of Laws CUFAI officials proclaim that efforts concerning the proper education of farmers involved in kaingin and pag-uuling practices have resulted in the regulated occurrence of these practices. They also suggest that these actions will no longer be completely removed from the protected area. The social acceptance of these practices is quite strong in the area. In this regard, officials Community Resource Management Framework Plan 45 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated seek the intervention of government officials regarding the removal prohibition of these activities. CUFAI officials proclaim government regulation efforts too lax and unconcerned in these cases. , especially in the case of illegal logging. Residents claim that Another issue brought to the table is the existence of wide-scale illegal logging in the area. Residents claim illegal logging is rampant in the protected area. Furthermore, these perpetrators roam free due to the weak implementation authorities employ in the area. Comment [O73]: Of what? Mining exploration is another issue present in the protected area. Having proclaimed the existence of several mineral amounts, the T3 foundation, a company responsible for issuing no- interest loans to the residents of Barangay Calawis, is rumoured to have begun exploration in the mountainous regions of the protected area. The prevalence of these issues is attributed to the lenient monitoring of government authorities in the protected area. B. Needs CUFAI recognizes the importance of infrastructural, educational, and livelihood development as part of uplifting the quality of living in the barangay. The association feels it is necessary to include the barangay in this discussion due to the fact that the CUFAI area is located within Barangay Calawis and the members are also part of the community. Several needs and opportunities have been identified by the community. These serve to reflect the proposed land use plan in the area as well as suggest certain reforms that the community deems needed to further the sustainable development in the protected area. B.1. Infrastructures The construction of a farm to market road is one of the major needs of the barangay. Farming is the primary source of livelihood in the area, thus the need for better roads and bridges is of utmost importance. Farmers may then be able to transport their goods from the farm to markets with ease and. And ensure that their products reach the areas in at their best quality. Another venue for farmers to sell their harvests is through the creation of a Barangay Market. This would lessen the need for residents to travel outside the barangay for their daily needs. At present, most residents need to travel from the barangaygo to markets in Boso-Boso and Veterans in order to sell or purchase products. With a Barangay Market, residents will have a wider variety of products easily accessible to them. The barangay also needs their own hospital with resident doctors. At present the barangay has only 1 ambulance which transports patients from the barangay to the nearest hospitals in Veterans. To ensure the safety of the patient and the well-being of the residents, there is a need to establish a hospital that can answer to the health needs of the residents. To ensure a sound ecology, proper waste management such as the creation of a community waste processing area, must also be employed There have been instances wherein pollution has taken the better of two rivers in the area. In order to improve the state of these rivers, a Comment [O74]: Ano ang evidences of proper compost pit must be established to lessen the health risks of the people living in pollution? May nakuha ba tayo sa interviews, like pagkawala ng isda, pagtambak ng basura sa ilog proximity to these polluted areas. Also, the association realizes the need of a CUFAI headquarters as a venue for gatherings and general assembly in order to discuss further the issues and needs of the people. Comment [O75]: Saan ba ginagawa ngayon ang meetings? B.2. Education Community Resource Management Framework Plan 46 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated With the growing population of children in the barangay, there is a need for better educational venues and equipment for the children to develop their full learning capacity. The barangay considers children as the answer to the nation’s future. As such, the barangay aims for their holistic growth through scholarships, proper educational materials, and good schools. Not only does the association wish to educate the students, but the older population as well. Through better Information Education Campaigns (IECs), CUFAI aims to educate the residents of the proper ways in of taking care of the environment, as well as to avoid the practice of environmentally destructive activities such as kaingin, illegal logging, and pag-uuling. The association plans to conduct training programs to discuss ecologically sound practices in farming and to promote the continuous planting of trees to push forth reforestation programs. CUFAI plans to educate the residents of the importance of having good leaders capable of making important decisions in ensuring the development of the community. B.3. Government Support CUFAI recognizes the importance of government support in helping the community realize its development goals. Firstly, the association proposes the need for a communal nursery to provide seedlings that will help in ensuring the reforestation efforts of the people. Second, more technical support from the Department of Agriculture in terms of livelihood seminars and projects are needed to provide the residents will alternative sources of livelihood. There is also a need for the association to develop good relations with the barangay officials to form a unified consensus on addressing the needs of the residents in the barangay. This is to ensure that the actions undertaken by the People’s Organization are suitable to the needs of the barangay are met in regards to the actions to be undertaken by the People’s Organization. The implementing rules of the PACBRMA employ the cooperation of Local Government Units, including the barangay in the development of the area. Finally the association pushes for the re-classification of the area as an alienable and disposable land. There is also the need to continue the land parcelling of land properties in the barangay. This will be instrumental in stopping addressing the issues of land grabbing in the community. The re-classification of the area will also help the people realize the true value of owning the land and taking care of it. The association believes that through this, the people will be encouraged to work harder for their living and take into consideration the sustainable development in the area. The residents will no longer be plagued with the risk of being evicted from their homes. The move for having land titles will create better opportunities for the barangay in terms of infrastructural developments in education, tourism, and other forms of livelihood. Surely the realization of this dream will serve to improve the quality of life in the barangay. General Comments: 1. This corrections incorporate inputs from both Emman and I. Formatted: Numbered + Level: 1 + Numbering Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Start at: 1 + 2. Be consistent: PhP1,300.00 Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 0.25" + Indent at: 0.5" Community Resource Management Framework Plan 47 Calawis Upland Farmers Association, Incorporated 3. In terms of tone, I guess it’s safe to play the third person: no “we”, just “the association...” when referring to CUFAI. 4. Having consulted colleagues, magulo raw kung sa footnotes ilalagay ang sources. So I suggest, as before, all explanations in footnotes. Citations would follow APA. Dapat may list of references pa rin at the end of the writeup, pero ang interviews ay hindi na kasama sa reference list. See APA citation samples. 5. Pwede sa footnotes ang explanation na “as stated in DENR DAO 2004-** [“title”], tapos nasa list of references din ang complete citation nito, i.e. including date, website saan kinuha, publisher, etc. Do not forget DENR at the beginning, just to distinguish the department. 6. Figures and tables should have numbers and titles.
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