Chapter 8 A New Nation
Why the S-shield?
“He who fights with monsters might take care
lest he thereby become a monster.
And if you gaze for
long into an abyss,
the abyss gazes also
► Friedrich Nietzsche (1844 - 1900)
Symbol 1. Something that
represents something else by
association, resemblance, or
convention, especially a material
object used to represent
Symbol 1. Something that
represents something else by
association, resemblance, or
convention, especially a material
object used to represent
: of, relating to, or constituting an emblem (an object or the figure of an
object symbolizing and suggesting another object or an idea) : symbolic,
representative <the dove is emblematic of the organization's mission to
bring some peace to a troubled world>
Chapter 8 A New Nation
The East Front ca. 1861
► Did You Know?
► The dome that visitors see
today on the United States Capital Dome Today
Capitol is actually the second
dome that topped it. The first
dome, designed by Boston
The East Front after the Removal of the Bulfinch Dome 1856
architect Charles Bulfinch,
image was finished in 1824. It
was wood covered by copper.
But by the 1850s, it was
thought to be too low and
unimpressive. It was removed in
1856 to make way for the new
dome that still graces the
George Washington—going home!?
► There was no popular vote in the
Now that the it my earnest War was won
► "I now make Revolutionaryprayer, that God would
have you, of the state over which you preside, in
election and 1789. Instead, the electoral
his holy protection, that a would incline
and the new nation facedhe multitude of the hearts
college chose from a group of
of the citizens success, his spirit citizens cast
obstacles to its to cultivate afellow of subordination
and obedience Each college member
candidates. the man from Mount
turned again to to government, to entertain a
brotherly affection the candidate receiving
two votes with and love for one another, for
fellow votes of the United
their most citizens becoming States at large,
the particularly toldtheir brethrenpresident and
Washington had for friends he had "nohave served
in the field, that of living and vice-president.
the runner-up becomingwould most
wish beyond and finally, that hedying an
George Washington was us all, to
graciously on my own farm." But his
honest manbe pleased to disposeelected do
justice, to love mercy, and to demean ourselves
colleagues among the Founders prevailed
unanimously receiving all sixty-nine
with that charity, And, Washington,
upon him to serve.humility and pacific temper of
mind, which were decided Adams came Divine
being Washington, the characteristicks of the in
electoral votes. John to serve as he
Author of our blessed religion, and without an
second and became the first Vice- things,
humble imitation of whose service to these
believed he could still be of example inhis
country. never hope to be a happy nation." --George
Washington, circular letter of farewell to the Army, 1783
First in war, first in peace, and first in
the hearts of his countrymen…
►Words from a eulogy for George Washington adopted by Congress
immediately after Washington's death. The eulogy was written by
Henry Lee, a soldier and political leader from Washington's home
One of the first congressional debates focused on what
state of Virginia.
to call the new leader. Some legislators favored, "His
Highness" or "His first in peace and first in the
► “First in war, Excellency" or "His Mightiness." Vice
hearts of his countrymen, he was second to
President John Adams had another idea: "His Highness,
none in the the United States and Protector of the
the President of humble and endearing scenes of
Rights of Same."Pious, just, humane, temperate
and sincere— the debate when he said "President"
Washington ended uniform, dignified and
commanding—his example was ever since.
was just fine, and "President" it has beenas edifying
the effects of that
to all around him as wereGreenough (1805-1852) to design a statue of
Washington for permanent . . in the recently completed Capitol Rotunda. Congress
example lasting. . displayCorrect throughout, thought
In 1832, Congress had commissioned Horatio
inhisof The Apotheosis president as and figure. Greenough,
vice shuddereda statue hisnation's first of Washingtonstanding virtue
it would be getting
however, chose to model
statue on Zeus.
The Rotunda. his fostering hand. The purity of
felttrue fresco technique eye of the Rotunda of the 1865. In the central
alwaysApotheosis of Washington in theby Constantino Brumidi inU.S. Capitol was
The statue, made of 12 tons of white marble, was so heavy that it began to crack the floor of the
group of the character gave effulgence to his
his privatefresco, Brumidi depicted George Washington rising to the heavens in shoulder
Few lawmakers welcomed a half-naked father of the country with well-developed
glory, flankedHis upraised . . arm, draped with
. as if Such wasand Incensed lawmakers demanded the
the man for
public virtues. lookright maidens preparingwhatbathe.Victory/Fame. A rainbow biceps,
muscles. by female figures representing Liberty appeared to be a towel across his
made Washington thirteen he were symbolizing the original states flank the three
work be nation mourns.”
whom our removed.
arches at his feet, and
1/28/2013 central figures. 9
To really poorly paraphrase
con·struct·ed, con·struct·ing, con·structs
1. To form by assembling or combining parts; build.
2. To create (an argument or a sentence, for example) by systematically arranging ideas or terms.
1. Something formedDeconstruct: to adapt or separate the elements of for use in
or constructed from parts.
an ironic or radically new way <uses his masterly tailoring skills
to deconstruct idea: a theoretical construct of the atom.
a. A concept, model, or schematicthe classics — Vogue>
or To construct again; rebuild.
b. A concrete image 1. idea:
2. To assemble or build again mentally; re-
create: reconstructed the sequence of events from the
To construct, Transformative
3. To cause to adopt a new attitude or outlook:
To deconstruct,…..a. The act or an instance of transforming.
b. The state of being transformed.
To reconstruct,… 2. A marked change, as in appearance or character, usually for the better.
Or, to let alone…
THOSE are the questions!
Transformative? Not to be confused with a
"StabilityA Nation’s Symbolsan based upon
Barack Obama’s Campaign Seal.
seal of the President of the United
Thethe Obama seal June include States of America
in USA. The Presidential seal pictures is American
government is essential to
► While Ken Wheaton Published:does23, 2008 the American bald eagle
the Great Seal of the
clutching arrows and an olive branch, the resemblance ends
bald eagle holding a ribbon in its beak; the ribbon has the motto of the
and to the advantages
national character 13 olives and 13 leaves) in one foot
USA, "E PLURIBUS UNUM," meaning "Out of many, one." The eagle is
Last week, Barack Obama Pluribus campaign seal -- and not the kind that swims,
clutching an olive branch (with
The Latin phrase "E unveiled a new Unum," which translates barks and balances balls on the end of its nose.
of many, one," big old says "Vero Possumus."
to "Out it was the kind that has a now eagle on it and some Latin (Vero possumus, which translates very loosely to "Yes we can"). It's
(symbolizing peace) and 13 arrows in the other (the 13 stands for the
annexed to and the arrows symbolize the acceptance and
original 13 coloniesit, as well as to that reposeof the
also seal that combined elements of Richard Nixon's White as "Truly, we
Pressareports translate the Latin words House police uniforms and George W. Bush's "Mission Accomplished
are able" — a rough translation of the Obama campaign
And it go to war to protect the country).
need to went over about as well. Andrew Malcolm at the L.A.
► shield is in front in the minds Kaus predicted it
confidence of with it. And Mickey of the people,
slogan, "Yes we can."
A Times had some funthe eagle; the shield has 13 red and white stripes
would be disappeared over colonies) with a exact words
(representing the original 13the weekend. His blue bar above it (it
The deletion of "E Pluribus Unum," long considered the
which eagleuniting of Axelrod is insane, thestars, will never tiny
symbolizes are among 13 colonies andblessings of civil
"But unless David the the chief represents many
de-facto motto of the United States, is not accidental for
were:the the are 13 white clouds, 13 white thing and congress).
multiculturalists, who have long denigrated the concept
that immigrants must strip away their old culture in
stars. 50 white stars surround the eagle in don't have fulldeep blue
society." --Kaus wasthe Presidentwe awhen asked if the surround
be seen again."
favor of the "oneness" of American civilization.
Madison, Federalist No. 37, 1788
field). The words, "Seal
details, someone at Obama's press center,
circle (on a
of the United States"
the 1990s, multiculturalists promoted the alternative
In the seal (on a tan field).
seal would be used going forward, said simply was There
The first President who used a presidential seal"No." Rutherford B.
► concept of the nation's ethnic "mosaic," rather than a
Hayes; still a metaphor of used the seal vaguely House invitations.
were in 1880, Hayes screen savers
single, overarchingnumberto describe American for Whitereminiscent of
society. Some have pointedly criticized the "E Pluribus
presidential reflecting the nation's the Obama website, though. (I'll
Unum" motto as notseals available atdiversity.
update this post if anyone from Team Obama calls me back
Other Obama changes to the seal include the removal of
hearing the same
thewith further details. ... Marc Ambinder's
shield over the eagle's breast, representing the
thing, oath to way.)
president'sby the defend the Constitution. The shield
has been replaced with the letter "O" — presumably for
Obama — and the image of a rising sun.
No people can be bound to acknowledge and adore the Invisible
I. President Washington “Father of the Nation” (Pages 258-260)
Hand which conducts the affairs of men more than those of the
United States. Every step by which they have advanced to the
character of an independent nation seems to have been
► Although Washington thought he was going to
distinguished by some token of providential agency.” retire after
the George Washington, First Inaugural Address
President war, he was elected the first president of the United
States under the federal Constitution in 1789
►“ I walk on untrodden ground. There is scarcely
any part of my conduct that may not be drawn into
precedent.” excerpt from a Letter to Catherine
► Washington was aware of the difficulties and
decisions he had to face. He would establish
precedents that would shape the future of the
► The Federalist Era 1789-1800
Run Time: [21:14] The Almost Painless Guide to the Branches of the Government: The Executive Branch
Congress set up a cabinet with three
Article Two, Section two of the U.S. Constitution says that the President
“shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall
► the State Department to and Consuls, Judges of the
appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministershandle relations with
other nations, headed by Thomas Jefferson
supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments
are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law:
but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior
► Treasury think proper, in to President alone, in the
Officers, as theyDepartment the deal with financial Courts
of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.
matters, headed by Alexander Hamilton
► War Department to provide for the national
Secretary headed Knox, Secretary of the Treasury
defense, of War Henry by Henry Knox Henry Knox
Washington and his cabinet: left to right, President Washington,
Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, and
1/28/2013 Attorney General Edmund Randolph 14
► Congress created the office of attorney general to handle the
government's legal affairs. Edmund Randolph was the first
Washington met regularly with the three department heads, or
secretaries, and the attorney general, which together became known as
► Congress was divided as to how much power the president should
hold over the executive departments.
► The Judiciary Act of 1789 was actually a compromise act. One
group in Congress favored a national legal system, and a second favored
state courts. The act established a federal court system with 13 district courts and 3
circuit courts. State laws would remain, but federal courts would have the power to
reverse state decisions.
► The Supreme
The Roberts Court, 2010 Court buildingsof various locations was to be the highest court
Back row (left to right): Sonia Sotomayor, Stephen G. Breyer, Samuel A. Alito, and Elena Kagan. Front row
was G. Roberts, Anthony Kennedy, and Ruth
with final authority. Antonin Scalia, Chief Justice Johnappointed chief justice.
(left to right): Clarence Thomas,
► Many people felt the Constitution needed a guarantee of personal liberties.
In fact, some states supported the Constitution because a bill of rights was
1/28/2013 be added to it. 17
► James Madison presented a list of
amendments to Congress.
►Congress passed 12 amendments.
►The states ratified 10 of them.
►These 10 amendments became known
as the Bill of Rights and were added to
the Constitution in December 1791.
Here is a list of the Bill of Rights:
First Amendment: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment
of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of
speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble,
and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
Second Amendment: A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security
of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be
Third Amendment: No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any
house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner
to be prescribed by law.
Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons,
houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures,
shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause,
supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be
searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise
infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury,
except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual
service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for
the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be
compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be
deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall
private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
Sixth Amendment: In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the
right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State
and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which
district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of
the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the
witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining
witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his
Seventh Amendment: In suits at common law, where the value in
controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be
preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any
Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
Eighth Amendment: Excessive bail shall not be required, nor
excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments
Ninth Amendment: The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights,
shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the
Tenth Amendment: The powers not delegated to the United States by the
Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States
respectively, or to the people.
Amending the Constitution Article V of the Constitution provides two
processes by which amendments can be proposed and approved
1 Congress proposes amendments.
As is the case with the flag burning amendment, both houses of Congress
approve by two-thirds votes a resolution calling for the amendment. The
resolution does not require the president's signature. To become
effective, the proposed amendment must then be "ratified" or approved by the
legislatures of three-fourths of the states. Congress typically
places a time limit of seven years for ratification by the states.
2 The states propose amendments.
The legislatures of two-thirds of the states vote to call for a convention at which
constitutional amendments can be proposed. Amendments proposed by the
convention would again require ratification by the legislatures of three-
fourths of the states.
All twenty-seven amendments, including the Bill of Rights have been added through
the first method. The Constitution has never been amended using the second
While over 10,000 have been proposed, only seventeen amendments to the
Constitution have been adopted since final ratification of the Bill of Rights in 1791.
May 2007 Quick Review #1
Quick Review #2
Quick Review #3. What do you think was
the most important decision of the early
government: creating a cabinet, passing
the Judiciary Act, or adding the Bill of
Rights to the Constitution? Explain your
Answer needs to include reasons. Most will
probably say the Bill of Rights because it
guarantees personal liberties, and that is what the
country represents; however, the Judiciary Act
created the court system, and the cabinet helps
the executive office function
II. Financial Problems
► Hamilton, as secretary of the treasury, tried
to find a way to strengthen the country's
financial problems. He proposed the
The nation should pay for the cost of their
Further, by the federal government
assuming the states' debts, this would
give the states a strong interest in the
success of the new government.
Hamilton’s Plan Cont.
► There was opposition to Hamilton's plan. Congress agreed to pay
money to other nations, but they could not agree to payoff the debt
to American citizens
► When the government borrowed money during the war, it issued
bonds, or paper notes, promising to repay the money in a given
period of time. Opponents said this would make the speculators rich.
► The original bond Hamilton blackmailed (Maria Reynolds) explanation owners were also opposed
because they had lost money on their bonds and the new bond
owners had made money, only to make more if Hamilton's plan was
► The Southern states also presented opposition because their state
debt was less than the Northern states, and they would have to pay
more than their share under Hamilton's plan.
► Hamilton proposed a compromise plan. He agreed to a proposal by
Southern leaders to move the nation's capital from New York City to
a special district in the South between Virginia and Maryland. This
became Washington, D.C. The Southerners then agreed to support his
plan to payoff the state debts.
It proposed to pay off the growing debt from the war by
paying foreign countries money that was borrowed, by
paying off the state debts, and by paying American
citizens money borrowed from them. By paying the
debt, Hamilton believed that he could rebuild the
country’s financial reputation and strengthen the nation.
Without such a large debt, the nation would be able to
use its money to grow instead of towards interest
payments on the debt.
Quick Reviw #4. How did Hamilton's
plan propose to strengthen the
III. Building the Economy
An excise tax is a tax on use or consumption of certain products. Excise taxes
are sometimes included in the price of a product, such as motor fuels,
cigarettes, and alcohol. Excise taxes may also be imposed on some activities,
like gambling. Excise taxes may be imposed by the federal government or by a
state. Hamilton also proposed the creation of a national bank , the Bank of
the United States; a tariff, or tax, on imports; and national taxes
(excise taxes)Powers the the Constitution (See slides
Hamilton, Jefferson and the Bank)
Delegated powers--those powers specifically granted to the
national government. These powers are primarily in Article I,
► Before the bill to create a national bank was proposed, only state
banks 8, clauses
Sectionexisted. 1 through 17 of the Constitution.
Inherent powers are those powers that the national government
gets because of being sovereign. Inherent powers allow the
► Hamilton proposed a protective tariff on imports. He hoped this
national government to conduct foreign relations with other
would protect American industry from foreign competition and
encourage people to buy American goods.
Reserved—kept by the states or the people
The South opposed this tax and state governments
Concurrent—shared by federalbecause they had little industry to
►Implied—indirect, oblique, roundabout: The Necessary-
and-Proper win support in Congress for some low tariffs
Hamilton did Clause (also known as the Elastic Clause, ) is to
the provision in Article One of the United States
Hamilton's economic program also called for creating national
Constitution, section 8, clause 18:
Hamilton's economic program gave the country new financial
powers, but it split Congress and the nation. 29
“The cause of Section
Chapter 8, France is 2
The years 1793 and 1794 had seen an incredible number of
Hamilton: guillotine executions under the "Terror". It is estimated that
compared with that of America during its
over 10,000 people lost their heads to the slanted blade in those
► Did You Know?
two years. Lesser and lesser crimes became punishable by death as
The revolution. Would to heaven
the Revolution of
late Frenchstruggling Revolutionary Governmentother European nations.
attempted to quell internal
1789 was partly inspireda by against all the
unrest while fighting war
The Revolutionary Tribunals around France first sentenced Royalists
ideas from the earlier American death, then rebellious and rioting.
and counter-revolutionaries to
How the ideas included
Revolution. These French Revolution was viewed in America
largely right to upon
the (1)people's depended take which of the two political
against individual supported.
up arms parties antyranny, the
Jefferson “…In the struggle which was
concept that there should (2)be
necessary, many guilty persons fell
no taxation without
representation, that all men trial,…” (1793)
without the forms of
should have (3)liberal freedoms,
and that a republic is superior
to a monarchy.
Hamilton, Jefferson“To takethe Bank and a and step
Jefferson was a believer frugality in government
beyond the boundaries
state’s rights. Federal taxation was normally not
► The Necessary-and-Proper thus specially drawn
something he was in favor of.
Clause (also known as the Elastic
Clause, ) is the provision in Article One of around the powers of
the United States Constitution, section 8,
"Taxes should be continued by annual or biennial
clause 18: Congress is to take
hold, by the a boundless
reeactments, because a constantpossession ofnation, of
a salutary restraint
the strings of the public purse is field of power no longer
capable not wish,
from which an honest government oughtof being nor a
corrupt one to be permitted, to be free." --Thomas
Jefferson, letter to John Wayles Eppes, 1813Constitution
allows only the means
which are “nececesary,”
not those which are
Hamilton, Jefferson and the Bank
► …“It is essential
to the being of
so mistaken an
idea of the
meaning of the
QR 5. In the debate over nationalism versus
states’ rights, why did nationalists point to the
“elastic clause” in the Constitution to support
their point of view?
a. It stated that the power of government comes
from the people.
b. It established that the Constitution and federal
laws, not state laws, were supreme.
c. It stated that powers not delegated to the
national government or denied to the states
belonged to the states or to the people.
d. It allowed the national government to use any
reasonable means to carry out its duties. 33
He probably did want to protect the wealthy
citizens because they had the money to
invest in helping the country grow. Over
time there has been a struggle over whether
or not, and how much, the government
should protect the investments and
interests of the wealthy
QR 6. Do you think Hamilton planned to
protect the interests of the wealthy, or was
this just a by-product of his economic
IV. The Whiskey Rebellion
► Farmers resisted paying a tax on the whiskey they
made. They usually exchanged whiskey and other
items for goods they needed rather than buy
goods with cash. They did not have money to pay a
► In July 1794, federal officers came into western
Pennsylvania to collect a tax. The resistance turned into
an armed protest that was called the Whiskey
Rebellion. first shots fired A large mob of people,
believing they could resist the federal
government, attacked tax collectors and burned
► President Washington sent an army A PROCLAMATION
to quiet the rebellion. His actions showed people
1/28/2013 that the government would use force to maintain35
Quick Review 7. Give two reasons why the
western Pennsylvania farmers were so resistant
to a tax on whiskey?
These farmers (1)were not rich. Their lives were
different from Easterners living in cities or towns.
They were proud of their ability to (2)exist by
bartering their whiskey for goods they needed. They
did not have money to pay a tax and (3)thought they
could rebel against the new government instead of
paying a tax. They saw that they could not and that
they would not be excluded from paying the whiskey
tax that was levied on all citizens
Josiah Harmer & Arthur St. Clair
► The Native Americans who
lived between the
and the Mississippi River
had troubles with the new
government over this land.
► American settlers ignored
the treaties and moved
onto the lands that were
promised to the Native
VI. Struggle over the West
► The Native Americans
demanded that all settlers
north of the Ohio River
leave. Washington sent in
another army led by
Anthony Wayne. At the
Battle of Fallen Timbers in
August 1794, Wayne's
army defeated over 1,000
Native American including
Little Turtle Little Turtle
► The Treaty of Greenville
was signed in 1795 to
settle the issue. Native
Americans agreed to
surrender most of the land
in present-day Ohio for
20,000 dollars worth of
Must include a comparison. Because the treaty
required native Americans to give up most of
present-day Ohio in return for $20,000 worth of
goods, they lost land but gained money that
they did not have. Because the American
settlers gained more land on which to settle,
they probably fared better.
Quick Review #8 . Which group fared better from
the Treaty of Greenville, the Native Americans or
the American settlers? Give reasons for your answer.
VIII. Problems with Europe
► The French Revolution began in 1789, just after Washington
took office, and in 1793, Britain and France went to war.
► The French tried to involve the United States. In April 1793,
the French diplomat Edmond Genet came to the United States
to recruit American volunteers to attack British shipping.
► Washington announced a Proclamation of Neutrality
on April 22 that prohibited Americans from fighting in the war
and prohibited British warships from American ports.
► The British began capturing American ships that traded with
the French. They also stopped American merchant ships, took
their crews, and forced them into the British navy, or
► Washington, so as to avoid war with Britain, sent John Jay to
negotiate a peaceful solution.
► Jay's Treaty said that Britain shall withdraw from
American soil, pay damages for ships they seize
allow some American ships to trade with British
colonies in the Caribbean Jay's treaty also provided
for settlements of debts from before 1776.
► Jay's Treaty was controversial. Many Americans
disapproved of it because it did not deal with British
impressment or the British interference with
► To settle their differences with the United States, Spain
also signed a treaty. Thomas Pinckney went to Spain
in 1795. The Pinckney Treaty gave Americans the
right to freely navigate the Mississippi River and
also the right to trade at the port of New Orleans.
(1)Britain sold its goods mainly to the United States
and needed to maintain a good relationship. Britain
also saw that the (2)Americans would fight if
pressured. So Britain accepted the fact that they had to
give up their positions in the United States and agree to
the terms of Jay’s Treaty. (3)The United States’
victories in the West made Spain realize that it also
needed to make peace. (4) Spain did not want the
United States and Britain to work against their empire
in North America, so Spain signed the Pinckney Treaty.
Quick Review #9. Why did Britain and
Spain sign treaties with the United
In his Fifth Annual Address to Congress, given in Philadelphia on December 3, 1793, Washington said:
VI. Washington's Farewell
On is a rank due toInthe United public among nations,
"Therestable public credit.his address Washington: credit. One method of
Extollswill beit is toof theifas sparingly as possible...avoiding
preserving withheld, not absolutely lost, by the
which the benefits use it federal government. "The unity of
accumulation of debt....it is essential that we
likewise theweakness. Ifin the edifice ofavoidreal
government...is a main pillar we desire to your insult,
you...bear in mind, that towards the payments of debts there
independence...of repeltranquility at home, your peace abroad; of
able to your it; if we desire to secure the peace,
must bebe Revenue, that to have Revenue there must be taxes;
► Washington powerful instruments of our rising you
prosperity; of that terms as which
your safety; of yourhad served two very liberty presidentso
that no most
highly thetaxes can be devised, which are not...inconvenient and
unpleasant..."not to seek a third term.
prosperity, it must be known that we are at all times ready
Warns against party system. "It serves to distract the Public
Warns against thepermanent foreign alliances. "It is our true
►policy tofarewell address, he spoke any portion
In his steer clear of Public Administration....agitates the
Councils, and enfeeble thepermanent alliances with about the of
Community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms; kindles
the foreign world..." parties and the problems of
evils of political
the animosity of one....against another....it opens the door to
foreign affairs. His parting words influenced the
On influence and corruption...thus the policy and the the
foreign an over-powerful military establishment. "...avoid will of
nation'sof subjected to the military establishments, which,
country foreign policy for more will of another."
onenecessityarethose overgrown policy andthan 100 years.
under any form of government, are inauspicious to liberty, and
Stresses are to be regardedreligion and morality. "Where is the
which the importance of as particularly hostile to Republican
Washington's for reputation, for life, if in sense of
security for property,speech is read aloud the the Senate
religious obligation desert the oaths, which are the instruments of
each year on his birthday.
investigation to Courts of Justice?"
In saying farewell in the new nation he helped create Washington pointed out that
".......the name of American, which belongs to you, in your national capacity, must
always exalt the just pride of Patriotism..."
Should include a discussion of the problems she
encountered as president that influenced him to
say the the Unites States should avoid “permanent
alliances” and remain neutral. He wanted the
country to focus on running itself and growing. By
avoiding entanglements the nation could focus on
growing and establishing a strong government
Quick Review #10. Why do you think Washington
was so concerned about avoiding "permanent
alliances" with foreign nations?
Washington’s grave Mt. Vernon
…Item Upon the decease of my wife, it is my
Will and desire, that all the slaves which I
hold in my own right, shall receive their
In 1799,freedom. To emancipate them during her free all the
Washington made a new secret will without his family's knowledge, that would
slaves he owned after his wife, Martha, died. The younger freedmen were to be taught to read and
life, would,were to be earnestly wished by allowed to be compelled me, be
write and "brought up to sometho'occupation", while the elderly were to be taken care of by his
remaining family. His slaves allowed to remain in Virginia and not
to leave,attended with such insuperable difficulties
"under any pretense whatsoever." According to historians, his death in
on account of in essence condemned by
1799 under his new will their intermixtureMt. Vernon to ruin
and was in effect an act of atonement for Washington's lifetime
Marriages with the Dower Negroes, as to
involvement in human exploitation. Martha voluntarily freed
excite slaves in 1800, sixteen months prior if not
Washington'sthe most painful sensations, to her own
death.[8 disagreeable consequences from the latter,
while both descriptions are in the occupancy or the same Proprietor; it
not being in my power, under the tenure by which the Dower Negroes
Historical Notes: Jefferson placed two busts, a likeness of
to present-day opponent Alexander
► According himself and his politicalwriter George F.
Hamilton, opposite one ideas the still
Will, Alexander Hamilton'sanother inareEntrance Hall.
Both were modeled by the Italian sculptor Giuseppe
"There is an
affecting Americans today.in 1793 and 1794. One of
Ceracchi in Philadelphia
Jefferson's grandchildren said:
"the eye settled with a deeper interest on to
elegant memorial in Washington busts of
pedestals on each to Hamilton.
Jefferson, but noneside ofby Ceracchi, placed on massive
Jefferson and Hamilton,
the main entrance—"opposed
in death as life," as Hamilton's sometimes
However, if youinseek the smile, as he observed the
remarked, with a pensive
monument, look around. You are living
notice they attracted."
in it. We honor Jefferson, but we live
in Hamilton's country, a mighty
industrial nation with a strong central
government." -George F. Will, Restoration, 1992.
IX. Opposing Views
"The great desideratum (Something that is needed or wanted) in
Government is, so to modify the sovereignty as that it may be
sufficiently neutral between different parts of the Society to controul
► Most Americans in the late 1700s considered
one part from invading the rights of another, and at the same time
political parties harmful setting up an interest adverse to
sufficiently controuled itself, from and to be avoided.
that Political parties were not mentioned in the
of the entire Society."
Constitution. Washington 1787
--James Madison, letter to Thomas Jefferson, also denounced them
(all spellings are original to the document)
► By 1796 Americans were beginning to divide
into opposing groups and form political
► Two distinct political parties emerged-the
Federalists and the Republicans, also called
OAT Question: 2007 Social Skills and Methods
Quick Review #11
16. Jamal, Louisa and Martin are working in a group in their
social studies classroom. Their task is to report information on
political parties to the class. Jamal and Louisa disagree on how
they should present the information. Jamal suggests that they
create an overhead presentation. Louisa wants to have a talk
show where guest speakers are interviewed. Jamal and Louisa
cannot seem to agree on the form of the presentation.
In your Answer Document, explain a method this group could
use to make a decision on the
(2 points) 10 minutes to write
► The Federalists generally supported policies of
Alexander Hamilton. Its policies favored
1. a strong federal government
2. in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania within
Landmark located banking and shipping interests
The First Bank of the United States is a National Historic
Independence National Historical Park. The First Bank was a bank
the rule by the February 25, 1791.
chartered by3.United States Congress on wealthy
4. a national bank
► representative government in which elected officials ruled in
the people's name
► a loose interpretation of the Constitution or
► a British alliance
► protective tariffs
► The Republicans, or Democratic-Republicans Democratic-
Republicans, led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
► Madison favored:
strong state governments and limited federal government
emphasis on agricultural products
rule by the people
government in which people participate
a strict interpretation of the Constitution
a French alliance
► By 1793 Jefferson resigned as secretary of state and in 1795
Hamilton resigned as secretary of the treasury because of their
The Washington Cabinet
Office Name Term
President George Washington 1789–1797
Vice President John Adams 1789–1797
Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson 1790–1793
Edmund Randolph 1794–1795
Timothy Pickering 1795–1797
Secretary of Treasury
Alexander Hamilton 1789–1795
Oliver Wolcott, Jr. 1795–1797
Secretary of War Henry Knox 1789–1794
Timothy Pickering 1795–1795
James McHenry 1796–1797
Attorney General Edmund Randolph 1789–1794
William Bradford 1794–1795
Charles Lee 1795–1797
Twelfth Amendment (Amendment XII) to the United States Constitution provides the procedure for electing the President
and Vice President. It replaced Article II, Section 1, Clause 3, ratified on June 15, 1804.
“The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall
► In the 1796 presidential election, candidates were
members of a political party. At caucuses, or the person
not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots political-
party as President, and of distinct and other person
voted formeetings, members in Congressballots the leaders
chose their party's candidates.
voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists
of all persons voted for as President,nominated asJohn Adams offorforpresidentshall
The Federalists government of thevoted forStates, directed to the President of the Senate. each, which lists they
and all persons Vice-President and of the number votes
and Charles Pinckney for vice president.
sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the United
The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted.
The person having the greatest Number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no
person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of
The Republicans nominated Thomas Jefferson for
president and Aaron Burr Aaron Burr for vice
► Adams won the election with 71 electoral votes. Jefferson
received 68 votes. Jefferson became the vice president,
because at the time, the person with the second-highest
number of electoral votes became vice president. Jefferson
and Adams were of different political parties.
The Adams Cabinet
Office Name Term
President John Adams 1797–1801
Vice President Thomas Jefferson 1797–1801
Secretary of State Timothy Pickering 1797–1800
John Marshall 1800–1801
Secretary of Treasury Oliver Wolcott, Jr. 1797–1801
Samuel Dexter 1801
Secretary of War James McHenry 1796–1800
Samuel Dexter 1800–1801
Attorney General Charles Lee 1797–1801
Secretary of the Navy Benjamin Stoddert 1798–1801
is hard enough to
Answers should include the idea that it
get consensus, or agreement, within a party
and even more difficult to get people from
different parties to agree when they hold the
offices of president and vice president
concurrently. The electoral process was later
changed so that people elected a slate, not
Quick Review #12 Why do you think the
electoral process was changed so that results
like the 1796 election with people from
different parties holding office together would
not occur again?
VIII. President John Adams (Pages 270-272)
► John Adams served as vice president under Washington for two terms before
becoming the Second president of the United States. He spent most of his life in
► A dispute with France over the terms of Jay's Treaty ended in an
incident known as the XYZ affair.
The French saw the treaty as the United States helping the British in the war
with France, so they seized American ships carrying cargo to Britain.
To avoid war with France, Adams sent a delegation to Paris to resolve the
► Charles de Talleyrand, the French foreign minister, refused to
meet with the Americans and sent three agents who demanded a
bribe and a United States loan for France.
The Americans refused the terms, and when Adams heard about the incident,
he referred to the three agents as X, Y, and Z.
► Adams urged Congress to prepare for war. Congress strengthened the armed
forces, established the Navy Department in April 1798, and allotted money to
build warships. George Washington was appointed commanding general.
► This undeclared sea war between American and French naval forces between
1798 and 1800 saw more than 90 French armed ships seized. France now
became the enemy for many Americans.
In Congress, Lyon’s Federalist colleagues mocked his ethnicity and(holding tongs) brawling with Roger Griswold.
Political cartoon of Lyon
Irish accent during House debates, and in social life treated him as
“a meer [sic] beast and the fool of the play.”
► In 1798 Congress passed a group of measures called the Alien and
Sedition Acts Alien and Sedition Acts. These laws were passed to
On Jan. 30, 1798, after weeks of ridicule, Lyon lost his temper and spat
protect the nation's security.
in the face of Connecticut Congressman Roger Griswold after he
1. Americans became more suspicious of aliens, or people living in
made a disparaging remark about Lyon’s military record during the
Revolutionary War. After this incident, the Federalist majority in Congress
to have Lyon removed from who were not citizens, especially Europeans who
attemptedthe United States the House, but failed to acquire the
came necessary 1790s and who supported
two-thirds majority in the for expulsion. Griswold then retaliated, the ideals of the French
attacking Lyon directly in front of the Speaker’s chair, savagely
beating him with a hickory walking stick as Federalists members
Lyon wrote his own paper called Scourge of Aristocracy and Repository of
of Congress looked on with approval.
Important Political Truths. Lyon wrote a vigorous reply to his Federalist
Sedition refers to activities aimed at weakening established
opponents, suggesting that President Adams was engaged in a
government. power,” the people arrested under
“continual grasp forOne of having “an unbounded thirst for the Sedition Act was
ridiculous pomp, foolish adulation, and selfish avarice.” He was
congressman Matthew “spitting lion” Lyon.
indicted for sedition on Oct. 5, 1798 and arrested the next day,
fined $1,000 and sentenced to four months in prison.
► The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798 and 1799 were
resolutions written by Madison and Jefferson on states' rights. The
resolution said that the Alien and Sedition Acts could not become
effective because they violated the Constitution.
They also said that the people of each state had the right to
nullify, or cancel, a federal law within that state.
They showed that many Americans feared a strong central
government that could interfere with their rights. The issue of
states' rights would continue, and in time lead to civil war.
CONVENTION OF 1800
(TREATY OF MORTEFONTAINE)
► 1. undeclared war with
TheThe Quasi-War was to end. France needed
resolution. to return captured American ships.
2. France agreedFederalists urged Adams to step up the
war agreed to compensate its citizens for to benefit politically
3. U.S. with France. They hoped damages inflicted by France
war. Adams refused 1915). and
from ato heirs of original claimants into rush a warpaid $3.9
on American shipping (damages totaled $20 million; U.S.
appointed a commission to seek peace with
4. The Franco-American Alliance was terminated.
France. In 1800 the French agreed to a status.
5. U.S. and France granted each other most-favored-nationtreaty and
stopped attacks on American ships.
6. U.S. and France reestablished commercial relations on terms similar to
those outlined in Franco-American Alliance.
► This agreement hurt Adams's chance for
reelection. Hamilton and his supporters now
opposed their own president. Because of this rift
in the Federalist Party, the Republicans now had a
good chance to win the 1800 presidential election.
Pick one essay to answer.
► Who was involved in the Whiskey Rebellion
and why were they protesting? What action
did the government take and why was this
► How did the administration that took office
in 1797 come to have a Federalist president
and a Republican vice president?