Chapter 3The Ancient Israelites by linxiaoqin


									                                                                              76–77 Anthony Pidgeon/Lonely Planet Images
The wall surrounding the
old city of Jerusalem

       2000 B.C.            1300 B.C.           600 B.C.     A.D. 100
                  c. 1800 B.C.   c. 1290 B.C.    722 B.C.       A.D. 66
                  Abraham        Moses leads     Assyrians      Jews revolt
                  leads his peo- Israelites      conquer        against
                  ple to Canaan from Egypt       Israel         Romans
Chapter Preview                                                                       Chapter Overview Visit
                                                                             for a preview
   Like the Sumerians, the ancient Israelites developed a society                     of Chapter 3.
based on ideas of justice and strict laws. The Israelites believed
that there was only one God.
       View the Chapter 3 video in the World History: Journey
       Across Time Video Program.

                     The First Israelites
                     The 12 tribes of Israel in the land of Canaan traced their
                     ancestry to Abraham. The Israelites believed in one God.

                     The Kingdom of Israel
                     Under David and Solomon, the people of Israel built a
                     powerful kingdom with a new capital in Jerusalem.

                     The Growth of Judaism
                     The Jews continued to keep their religion even though
                     other people ruled them. They settled in many places in
                     Asia, Europe, and Africa.

                             Summarizing Information Make this foldable and use it to organize note cards
                             with information about the Israelites.

 Step 1 Fold a horizontal    Step 2 Fold the bottom edge up two inches and            Reading and Writing
 sheet of paper (11”x17”)    crease well. Glue the outer edges of the tab to          As you read the chapter,
 into thirds.                create three pockets.                                    summarize key facts on
                                                                                      note cards or on quarter
                                                                                      sheets of paper about
                                                                              here.   Israel and the growth
                                                                                      and spread of Judaism.
                                 Glue                                                 Organize your notes
                                                                                      by placing them in
                                                                                      your pocket foldable
                                                                                      inside the appropriate
                 Step 3 Label the pockets
                 as shown. Use these
                 pockets to hold notes taken
                 on index cards or quarter         First            Judaism
                 sheets of paper.               Israelites Israel’s Spreads

Main Idea

                      Finding the Main Idea
                          Main ideas are the most important ideas in a paragraph,
                      section, or chapter. Supporting details are facts or examples
                      that explain the main idea. Read the following paragraph from
                      Section 1 and notice how the author explains the main idea.
                      The main idea is identified for you. The supporting details are
                      highlighted in color.

                Main idea                Through trade, the
                                      Phoenicians spread ideas
                                      and goods. One of their
                                      most important ideas was
                                      an alphabet, or a group of
                                      letters that stood for                        details
                                      sounds. The letters could
                                       be used to spell out the
                                        words in their language.
                     rst sente
      Ofte n, the fi      will con
                                    -                    —from page 85
      in a pa   ragraph
                        dea, and
              a main i
       tain                ails will
        suppor    ting det        en-
                         owing s
         com   e in foll           ain
                       wever, m
          te nces. Ho so appear
                      n al
           ideas ca             r at the
             in the  middle o         h.
               en d of a p

Create a Graphic                                           Read to Write
                                                            Choose one of the
Organizer                                                              listed on
                                                            page 93. Use it as a
    Read the following paragraph. Draw a graphic organ-     topic sentence, and add
izer like the one shown below. Write the main ideas in a    supporting details to
box and supporting details in circles around the box.       create a full paragraph.

         While in Babylon, small groups of
      Jews met on the Sabbath. This was
      their weekly day of worship and rest.
      The Jewish Sabbath goes from sun-
      down Friday to sundown Saturday.
      These weekly meetings took place at
      synagogues, or Jewish houses of wor-
      ship. The synagogue meetings gave
      the people hope.
                              —from page 94


    Supporting       Main Idea        Supporting
      Detail                            Detail


                                          As you read Chapter 3, create your
                                          own graphic organizer to show the
                                          main idea and supporting details
                                          from at least one paragraph.                   79
                             The First
                    What’s the Connection?                      Meeting People
                         You have read how the Egyptians        Abraham
                    built a great civilization. At about        Jacob
                    the same time, another nation was           Moses
                    forming. The Egyptians called the           Deborah
                    people of this nation habiru, or            Phoenician (fih • NEE • shuhn)
                    foreigners. The people called
                    themselves Israelites or the Children
                    of Israel.
                                                                Building Your Vocabulary
                                                                    (MAH • nuh • thee • IH • zuhm)
                    Focusing on the                             tribe
                    • The Israelites believed in one God
                        who set down moral laws for his         Torah (TOHR • UH)
                        people. They recorded their history     covenant (KUHV • nuhnt)
                        in the Hebrew Bible. (page 81)          alphabet
                    • The Israelites had to fight the
                        Canaanites to return to their           Reading Strategy
                        promised land. (page 84)                Sequencing Information Create
                                                                a sequence chart to help trace the
                                                                movement of the Israelites.
                    Locating Places
                    Canaan (KAY • nuhn)
                    Mount Sinai (SY • NY)

                                  1400 B.C.                   1200 B.C.                     1000 B.C.
                                          c. 1290 B.C.         c. 1125 B.C.         c. 1000 B.C.
                                          Moses leads          Deborah defeats      David makes
                                          Israelites from      Canaanites           Jerusalem the
     Jerusalem                            Egypt                                     capital of Israel

80          CHAPTER 3     The Ancient Israelites
The Early Israelites
              The Israelites believed in one God who
set down moral laws for his people. They recorded
their history in the Hebrew Bible.
Reading Focus Where do your ideas about right
and wrong come from? Read on to find out how the
Israelites developed their ideas about right and wrong.

    About 1200 B.C., great changes took
place around the Mediterranean Sea.
Empires fell and new people entered the
region. Many set up small kingdoms.
Around 1000 B.C., a people called Israelites
(IHZ • ruh • LYTS) built a kingdom in Canaan
                                                            This painting shows Abraham leading the
(KAY • nuhn). Canaan lies along the                         Israelites from Mesopotamia to Canaan. Why
Mediterranean Sea in southwest Asia.                        did the Israelites eventually leave Canaan?

Who Were the Israelites?        Although the              Canaan. Today, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan
Israelite population was small, the religion              occupy the land that was once Canaan.
they practiced would one day affect most                      The Israelites believed they were
of the world. Most people at this time                    descended from a man named Abraham.
worshiped many gods and goddesses. The                    The Hebrew Bible says that God told
Israelite religion focused on only one God.               Abraham and his followers to leave
The belief in one God is called monotheism                Mesopotamia and go to Canaan. There,
(MAH • nuh • thee • IH • zuhm).                           they were to worship the one true God. In
    The Israelite faith became the religion               return, God promised that the land of
known today as Judaism (JOO • dee • IH •                  Canaan would belong to Abraham and his
zuhm). The followers of Judaism were even-                descendants. According to the Hebrew
tually known as Jews. Judaism influenced                  Bible, this is the reason that the Israelites
Christianity and Islam, and also helped                   settled in Canaan.
shape the beliefs and practices of societies                  Abraham had a grandson named Jacob.
in Europe and America.                                    Jacob was also called Israel, which means
    The Israelites spoke a language called                “one who struggles with God.” Later this
Hebrew. They wrote down much of their                     name was given to Jacob’s descendants.
history and many of their religious beliefs                   According to the Hebrew Bible, Jacob
in what later became the Hebrew Bible. In                 raised 12 sons in Canaan. His family was
general, the Hebrew Bible is what                         divided into tribes, or separate family
Christians call the Old Testament. Through                groups. These groups later became known
this book, Jewish values and religion later               as the 12 tribes of Israel. The Israelites lived
spread to Europe.                                         in Caanan for about 100 years. Then a long
    The earliest Israelites were herders and              drought began. Crops withered and live-
traders. According to the Hebrew Bible,                   stock died. To survive, some Israelites went
they came from Mesopotamia and settled in                 to Egypt.

                                                            CHAPTER 3    The Ancient Israelites                                   81
                                                                                Tom Lovell/National Geographic Society Image Collection
Moses and the Ten Commandments

                                                                                                           Jews celebrating
                                                                                                           Passover today

     In this painting, Moses watches as the Red Sea closes in on the
     Egyptian soldiers who were pursuing the Israelites. What is the
     Israelites’ escape from Egypt called?

From Slavery to Freedom          Life was not                                       As Israelites headed east out of Egypt,
good in Egypt. The Egyptian pharaoh                                              the pharaoh changed his mind and sent his
needed men to build his pyramids, so he                                          army after the Israelites. According to the
enslaved the Israelites. To prevent a rebel-                                     Hebrew Bible, God parted the Red Sea to let
lion he ordered all baby boys born to                                            his people pass. When the Egyptians fol-
Israelites thrown into the Nile River.                                           lowed, the water flowed back and drowned
    The Hebrew Bible says that one desper-                                       the soldiers. The Israelite escape from
ate mother put her baby in a basket and hid                                      Egyptian slavery is known as the Exodus.
                                                                                 Jews today celebrate a holy day called
it on the riverbank. The pharaoh’s daughter
                                                                                 Passover to remember these events.
found the baby and named him Moses.
    When Moses grew up, he tended sheep                                          What Are the Ten Commandments?            On
outside Egypt. Around 1290 B.C., he saw a                                        their way back to Canaan, the Israelites
burning bush and heard a voice. He                                               had to travel through the Sinai desert. The
believed that God was telling him to lead                                        Hebrew Bible says that during this jour-
the Israelites out of Egypt to freedom.                                          ney, Moses went to the top of Mount Sinai
    To get the pharaoh to let the Israelites                                     (SY • NY). There, he received laws from God.
go, the Hebrew Bible says that God sent 10                                       These laws were known as the Torah
plagues to trouble Egypt. The last plague                                        (TOHR • uh). They later became the first part
God sent killed all first-born children,                                         of the Hebrew Bible. The Torah described a
except for those of Israelites who marked                                        covenant (KUHV • nuhnt), or agreement,
their doorway with lamb’s blood. This                                            with God in which God promised to return
plague convinced the pharaoh to let the                                          the Israelites to Canaan if they followed
Israelites leave.                                                                his laws.
82                          CHAPTER 3                   The Ancient Israelites
(l)North Wind Picture Archives, (r)Leland Bobbe/Getty Images
                                                                                      The Ten
                                                 According to the Hebrew Bible, Moses
                                                 received the Ten Commandments and other
                                                 laws from God on Mount Sinai. Moses and
                                                 the Israelites promised to follow these laws.
                                                   1. Do not worship any god except me.
                                                   2. Do not . . . bow down and worship idols.
                                                   3. Do not misuse my name.
                                                   4. Remember the Sabbath Day and keep it
                                                   5. Honor your father and your mother.
  The Ark of the Covenant was a                                     6. Do not murder.
  wooden chest, which, according to                                 7. Be faithful in marriage.
  Jewish beliefs, held the Ten                                      8. Do not steal.
  Commandments.                                                     9. Do not tell lies about others.
  How did the Ten Commandments
  help shape the basic moral laws of                              10. Do not want anything that
  many European nations?                                               belongs to someone else.
                                                                        —Paraphrased from Exodus 20:3-17
    The Torah explained what
God considered to be right and
wrong. One important part of the                                       Moses with the
                                                                       Ten Commandments
Torah is the Ten Commandments.
They are summarized in the feature to
the right. The Ten Commandments
told the Israelites to be loyal only to
God, whose name was never to be
spoken. They must never worship any
other gods or images. The belief that there
should be only one God became the founda-
tion for both Christianity and Islam.
    The Ten Commandments helped shape
the basic moral laws of many nations. The
                                                                        Mount Sinai
Ten Commandments told people not to
steal, murder, or tell lies about others. They
told people to avoid jealousy and to honor         1. How many of the commandments
their parents. The Ten Commandments also              tell people how to interact with other
helped develop a belief in the “rule of law.”         people?
This is the idea that laws should apply to         2. How many tell them how to worship
everyone equally.                                     and show respect for God?
                    Explain What covenant was
described in the Torah?

                                                 CHAPTER 3                 The Ancient Israelites                                        83
                                                 (t)The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, (c)Stock Montage/SuperStock, (b)Laura Zito/Photo Researchers
The Promised Land                                                                to the story, the walls of Jericho crumbled,
                                                                                 and the Israelites overran the city.
               The Israelites had to fight the Canaanites                            Joshua led the Israelites in three more
to return to their promised land.                                                wars. The land they seized was divided
Reading Focus What qualities do you think a good                                 among the 12 tribes.
leader should have? Read on to find out about the lead-
ers of the Israelites.                                                           Who Were the Judges?       After Joshua died,
                                                                                 the Israelites looked to judges for leader-
    It probably took the Israelites about                                        ship. A judge was usually a military leader.
40 years to reach Canaan. Moses never                                            Generally, he or she commanded 1 or 2
lived to see the Promised Land. After Moses                                      tribes, but seldom all 12. The Hebrew Bible
died, a leader named Joshua took over and                                        tells about Barak, Gideon, Samuel, Eli,
brought the Israelites into Canaan. When                                         Samson, and others, including a woman
they arrived, however, they found other                                          judge. Her name was Deborah.
people living there. Most were Canaanites                                            Deborah told Barak to attack the army
(KAY • nuh • NYTS). The Israelites believed it                                   of the Canaanite king Jabin. She went along
was God’s will that they conquer the                                             to the battlefield as an adviser. With
Canaanites, so Joshua led them into battle.                                      Deborah’s help, Barak and 10,000 Israelites
    The story of the campaign is told in the                                     destroyed King Jabin and his army in about
Hebrew Bible. Joshua led the Israelites to                                       1125 B.C.
the city of Jericho and told them to march                                           Over time, the Israelites won control
around the city’s walls. For six days, they                                      of the hilly region in central Canaan. The
marched while seven priests blew their                                           Canaanites kept the flat, coastal areas. To
trumpets. On the seventh day, the trumpets                                       protect themselves, the Israelites built
sounded one last time, and Joshua told the                                       walled towns. They also created an alphabet
Israelites to raise a great shout. According                                     and a calendar based on Canaanite ideas.

                                                                                 The Phoenician Alphabet One group of
                                                                                 Canaanites, the Phoenicians (fih • NEE •
                                                                                 shuhns), lived in cities along the Mediterranean

     According to the Hebrew Bible story, the
     walls of Jericho came down as the trumpets
     of the Israelites sounded. Who led the
     Israelites in their return to Canaan?                                                 The town of Jericho today

84                           CHAPTER 3                  The Ancient Israelites
(l)Mary Evans Picture Library, (r)Charles & Josette Lenars/CORBIS
Sea. The Phoenicians were skilled                         Alphabets
sailors and traders. Their ships
                                       Modern        Ancient      Ancient Ancient Early
carried    goods     across    the    Characters Phoenician Hebrew Greek Roman
Mediterranean to Greece, Spain,            A
and even western Africa.
    Through trade, the Phoenicians
spread ideas and goods. One of             G
their most important ideas was             D
an alphabet, or a group of letters
that stood for sounds. The letters
could be used to spell out the             F
words in their language.                   Z
    The alphabet made writing             TH
simpler and helped people keep
records. The Phoenicians brought
the idea of an alphabet to the
Greeks. They, in turn, passed it on to the      The Phoenician idea of an alphabet was
                                                passed on to the Greeks and then the Romans.
Romans. Most Western alphabets are based        It is the basis for the English alphabet today.
on the Roman alphabet.                          Which modern letter most closely resembles
                       Identify Who led the                 its Phoenician character?
Israelites into Canaan, and what city did they
conquer under his leadership?

                                                             Study Central™ Need help with the
                                                             material in this section? Visit

                                       What Did You Learn?
Reading Summary                        1. Why was the religion of Israel
                                          unique in the ancient world?
                                                                             4. Analyze What was the
                                                                                importance of the Phoenician
Review the
                                       2. What is the Torah, and how did        alphabet?
• Led by Abraham, the Israelites          the Israelites obtain it?          5. Summarize What problems
  settled in Canaan. They later
                                                                                did the Israelites face when
  moved to Egypt and were              Critical Thinking
                                                                                they returned to Canaan?
  enslaved, but then escaped.          3. Summarizing Information
  The Israelites used the Ten             Use a web diagram like the one     6. Expository Writing Which
  Commandments as rules to                below to list the parts of            one of the Ten Commandments
  live by.                                Jewish religion that are still        do you think is most important
                                          important in our society.             today? Write a short essay to
                                                                                explain your selection.
• Joshua and the judges, including
  Deborah, won back territory in                                             7.                  Main Idea Write
  central Canaan for the Israelites.                                              a paragraph by adding support-
                                                  Jewish Ideas                    ing details to this main idea:
                                                                                  The Phoenician alphabet
                                                                                  had an impact on many

                                                           CHAPTER 3       The Ancient Israelites              85
                       The Kingdom
                         of Israel
             What’s the Connection?                          Meeting People
                 In Section 1, you read about                Philistine (FIH • luh • STEEN)
             the constant fighting between the               Saul (SAWL)
             Israelites and the Canaanites. The              David
             tribes of Israel longed for peace.              Solomon (SAHL • uh • muhn)
             Many thought the way to peace                   Nebuchadnezzar
             was to unite as one nation.                            (NEH • byuh • kuhd • NEH • zuhr)
             Focusing on the                                 Building Your Vocabulary
             • The Israelites chose a king to unite          prophet (PRAH • fuht)
                 them against their enemies. (page 87)       empire (EHM • PYR)
             • King David built an Israelite empire          tribute (TRIH • byoot)
                 and made Jerusalem his capital city.        proverb (PRAH • VUHRB)
                 (page 89)

             • The Israelites were conquered and             Reading Strategy
                 forced to leave Israel and Judah.           Categorizing Information Complete
                 (page 90)                                   a chart like the one below identifying
                                                             characteristics of Israel and Judah.

             Locating Places                                  Location
             Jerusalem (juh • ROO • suh • luhm)               Capital City
             Judah (JOO • duh)
                                                              Date Conquered
                                                              Conquered By

                             1000 B.C.                   750 B.C.                           500 B.C.
                                  c. 1000 B.C.           722 B.C.                597 B.C.
                                  David                  Assyrians               Nebuchadnezzar
                                  becomes king           conquer Israel          captures Jerusalem

86   CHAPTER 3     The Ancient Israelites
                             The Israelites Choose a King                              The Rule of King Saul
Mary Evans Picture Library

                                                                                                                   Around 1020 B.C.
                                                                                       the Israelites asked Samuel to choose a
                                           The Israelites chose a king to unite        king. Samuel was a judge and a prophet
                             them against their enemies.                               (PRAH • fuht). A prophet is a person who the
                             Reading Focus What does “united we stand, divided         ancient Israelites thought was instructed by
                             we fall” mean to you? Read on to find out what it meant   God. Samuel warned that a king would tax
                             to the 12 tribes of Israel.                               the Israelites and make them slaves. The
                                                                                       Israelites still demanded a king, so they
                                 Around 1000 B.C., the strongest people
                                                                                       chose a warrior-farmer named Saul (SAWL).
                             living in Canaan were not the Israelites,
                                                                                           Samuel anointed Saul as king. In other
                             but the Philistines (FIH • luh • STEENS). The
                                                                                       words, he blessed him with oil to show that
                             Philistines had strong cities, and they knew
                                                                                       God had chosen him. Saul was tall and
                             how to make iron tools and weapons.
                                                                                       handsome and had won many battles.
                             According to the Hebrew Bible, some
                                                                                           Saul defeated the Israelites’ enemies in
                             Israelites began copying the Philistine reli-
                                                                                       battle after battle. However, according to
                             gion. It suggests the Israelites began to
                                                                                       the Hebrew Bible, the king displeased God
                             think they needed a king of their own to
                                                                                       by disobeying some of his commands. God
                             prevent this problem. They probably
                                                                                       then chose another king and instructed
                             believed a king would unite the tribes and
                                                                                       Samuel to anoint him in secret. The new
                             help them fight off the Philistines.
                                                                                       king was a young shepherd named David.
                                                                                                            Explain Why did the
                                                                                       Israelites want a king?
                                Web Activity Visit and click
                                on Chapter 3—Student Web Activity to learn
                                                                                         According to the Hebrew Bible, David had to be
                                more about the ancient Israelites.                       called in from the fields where he was tending
                                                                                         his sheep when Samuel arrived to anoint him.
                                                                                         Why did God have Samuel anoint David?
                                                                                                           (t)Bettmann/CORBIS, (b)Private Collection/Bridgeman Art Library
   ed c.                              B.C.
                                              eral books of the
    The story of David’s life is told in sev
                                          II and Psalms. During his
Hebrew Bible, including Samuel I and
                                          g Saul’s court. While at
youth, David worked as an aide in Kin
                                            h the king’s son,
court, he formed a close friendship wit
                                          against the Philistines as
Jonathan. David fought courageously
                                           the Philistine giant,
a soldier in Saul’s army. He also killed
                                           nes. The first book of
Goliath, with only a slingshot and sto
                                            pleased King Saul.
Samuel tells how David’s harp playing
                                              ndship with Jonathan
 But the king grew jealous of David’s frie                                               King David
 and of David’s gro  wing popularity as a brave soldier.
                                                   desert. During
     To save his own life, David fled into the
 this time, David led a group of other
                                           outlaws. David and              “The sweet psalmist
 his band protected people from raid
                                           ers and returned                 of Israel”
                                             the time David                        —David, 2 Samuel 23:1
 possessions that had been stolen. By
                                              own throughout
  returned to Jerusalem, he was well-kn
  the land.                                                                                      second
                                                        the Hebrew Bible, David became the
      After the death of King Saul, according to                                            red
                                                 all the tribes of Israel. He then conque
  king of Israel. David successfully united                                      capital. During his
                                    Jerusalem and made it the kingdom’s
                                                                                  and dominated
                                    reign, David built Israel into an empire
                                    neighboring kingdoms.
                                                                                  and successful
                                          David was not only a brave warrior
                                                                               Many of the hymns
                                     leader, he was also a talented poet.
                                                                                 have been credited to
                                     in the Hebrew Bible’s Book of Psalms
                                                                                ins “The Lord is
                                     David, including Psalm 23, which beg
                                                                                kes me lie down
                                      my shepherd, I shall not want; he ma
                                                                                  still waters; he
                                      in green pastures. He leads me beside
                                                                                hs of righteousness
                                      restores my soul. He leads me in pat
                                      for his name’s sake.”

                                                                                              to excel
                                                        In David’s time, kings were expected
                                                        in battle. Conduct research to find at
                                                        three U.S. presidents who built their
                                                         reputations in the military.
       David versus Goliath
David and Solomon                                                                Proverbs
             King David built an Israelite empire and      Solomon’s proverbs are recorded in the
made Jerusalem his capital city.                           Hebrew Bible. Read these three, then answer
Reading Focus What person do you think was most            the question.
important in the history of the United States? Read to     “What you gain by
learn why King David is so important to the history of     doing evil won’t help
the Jewish people.                                         you at all, but being
                                                           good can save you
    Even before he became king of Israel,                  from death.
David was known for his bravery and lead-                  At harvest season
ership. In the Hebrew Bible, the story of                  it’s smart to work
David and Goliath describes how he                         hard, but [unwise]
became famous. Before a battle against the                 to sleep.
Philistines, a giant Philistine named Goliath              You will be safe,
dared any Israelite to fight him one-on-one.               if you always do
David stepped forward with his shepherd’s                  right, but you will
staff, a slingshot, and five smooth stones.                get caught, if you
    Goliath roared and rushed forward with                 are dishonest.”
a heavy spear. David hurled one stone                            —Proverbs 10: 2, 5, 9
straight at the giant’s forehead, and Goliath                                            King Solomon
dropped dead on the spot.
    Saul put David in charge of the army. As
his victories grew, Israelite women sang his                How would the third proverb above
praises. “Saul has slain his thousands, and                 convince people to tell the truth?
David his ten thousands.” Saul grew envi-
ous and plotted to kill David.
    David hid out in enemy territory until
Saul and his three sons were killed in battle.
The bitter rivalry was over. David was able              would finally have a permanent home.
to take the throne in about 1000 B.C.                    David died before he built the temple, but
    Once in power, according to the Hebrew               the Israelites remembered him as their
Bible, David drove the Philistines from the              greatest king, as do Jews today.
area. He conquered other neighboring
nations and created an empire (EHM • PYR).               The Rule of King Solomon        When David
An empire is a nation that rules several                 died, his son Solomon (SAHL • uh • muhn)
other nations. Conquered peoples had to                  became king. It was Solomon who built a
pay David tribute (TRIH • byoot). Tribute is             splendid stone temple in Jerusalem. It
money or slaves given to a stronger ruler.               became the symbol and center of the
    David made the Israelites pay heavy                  Jewish religion. In the Hebrew Bible,
taxes. He needed money to expand Israel’s                Solomon was known for his wise sayings,
capital, Jerusalem (juh • ROO • suh • luhm). He          or proverbs (PRAH • VUHRBS), but many
wanted a fine temple there so that sacred                Israelites hated his rule. Solomon taxed the
religious objects cherished by the Israelites            people to pay for his great buildings.

                                                          CHAPTER 3      The Ancient Israelites                      89
                                                                                                  Stock Montage/SuperStock
        The Israelites in the north were espe-
    cially unhappy with Solomon. To get more
                                                                                          A Troubled Time
    money, Solomon had made many of their                                                               The Israelites were conquered and
    young men work in the mines of a neigh-                                               forced to leave Israel and Judah.
    boring country.                                                                       Reading Focus Have you ever moved and left a home
        When Solomon died, the northerners                                                you loved? Read to find out why many Israelites were
    rebelled and fighting broke out. Ten of the                                           forced to leave their home.
    12 tribes set up their own nation in the north.
    It was called the kingdom of Israel, and its                                              While the Israelites were dividing their
    capital was Samaria. In the south, the other                                          kingdom, the Assyrians and Chaldeans
    two tribes founded the smaller kingdom of                                             (kal • DEE • uhns) were building empires in
    Judah (JOO • duh). Its capital was Jerusalem,                                         southwest Asia. These peoples wanted to
    and its people were called Jews.                                                      control the trade routes that ran through the
                                       Explain Why did Solomon                            Israelite kingdoms. Small and weak, the
    tax the people so heavily?                                                            kingdoms of Israel and Judah felt threat-
                                                                                          ened by their powerful neighbors.

                                Ancient Israel                              In

         33°E                                           36°E
                                                                                                 The temple built by Solomon was thought
                                                                                                 to be about 180 feet long. It contained
           Cyprus                                                                                large quantities of imported cedar wood
                                                                                                 and fine stone. Why did some Israelites
                                                                                                 become unhappy with Solomon?
                               Sidon                       Damascus

                           Tyre                                S YR IAN
                                                               DES ERT
                                       Jo r d a n R .

       W             Samaria
                    Jerusalem                                         Kingdom of Israel
                                        Dead                          Kingdom of Judah
0                     100 mi.           Sea

0           100 km
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area

         SIN AI
                          After the death of Solomon, the
            Mt.           Israelites split into two kingdoms—
                          Israel and Judah.
                          1. Which kingdom lost access to
                             the Mediterranean?
                          2. Which kingdom shares a border
                             with Phoenicia?
                          Find NGS online map resources @

                                    Hebrew Prophets
Name               Time Period               Teachings
Elijah              874–840 B.C.             Only God should be worshiped—not idols
                                              or false gods.
Amos                780–740 B.C.             The kingdom of King David will be restored
                                              and will prosper.
Hosea               750–722 B.C.             God is loving and forgiving.
Isaiah              738–700 B.C.             God wants us to help others and promote justice.
Micah               735–700 B.C.             Both rich and poor have to do what is right
                                              and follow God.

Jeremiah            626–586 B.C.             God is just and kind—he rewards as well as
Ezekiel             597–571 B.C.             Someone who has done wrong can choose
                                              to change.

                                                   The Israelites believed that God shared his
                                                   word with them through a series of prophets.
Who Were the Prophets?         During this         1. Which prophet taught that both the rich and
troubled time, people who became known                the poor needed to obey God’s word?
as prophets brought hope to the kingdom            2. Compare What do the teachings of Isaiah,
of Israel. The prophets emphasized that               Micah, and Ezekiel have in common?
people should please God by leading a
moral life and helping others. Their special
message was that being faithful meant              empire. Over time, the Israelites who were
more than going to a temple to worship. It         forced to move lost contact with those who
meant working for a just society. The              remained in Israel and Judah. Historians do
prophet Amos said that justice should “roll        not yet know what happened to these
down like waters and righteousness as a            tribes. They are often called the “lost tribes
mighty stream.” The Jewish goal of a just          of Israel.”
society also became an important part of               The Assyrians brought people from
Christianity and Islam.                            elsewhere in their empire to live in Samaria.
                                                   These settlers mixed with the surviving
What Caused the Fall of Israel?      The war-      Israelites who had not been killed or forced
like Assyrians were feared everywhere in           to move. A new culture developed and the
the region. When they conquered a nation,          people became known as Samaritans.
the Assyrians destroyed its main buildings             The Samaritans adopted many Israelite
and scattered the population. Assyrians            beliefs. They worshiped the God of Israel,
then settled in the territory.                     read the Torah, and followed the Israelites’
    In 722 B.C. the Assyrians conquered            religious laws. Over time their religious
Israel and scattered the 10 tribes across their    practices developed separately, and they

                                                     CHAPTER 3    The Ancient Israelites            91
had little contact. Judaism developed from                    Nebuchadnezzar (NEH • byuh • kuhd • NEH •
the religious practices of the tribes of Judah.               zuhr) of the Chaldeans captured Jerusalem.
                                                              He punished the Jews severely. He made
Why Did Judah Fall? Now, only the small                       10,000 Jews leave the city and live in
kingdom of Judah was left of the once
                                                              Babylon, the Chaldean capital. Then he
proud empire of David. It did not last long,
                                                              appointed a new Jewish king.
because the Egyptians conquered it about
                                                                 Soon the new king of Judah was plan-
620 B.C. The Jews were able to keep their
                                                              ning a revolt against the Chaldeans. A
king but paid tribute to Egypt.
                                                              prophet named Jeremiah warned him that
    However, Egyptian rule was cut short
                                                              another revolt was dangerous, but the king
when the Chaldeans conquered Egypt in
                                                              did not listen. In 586 B.C. he revolted. This
605 B.C. The Chaldeans became the new
                                                              time, the Chaldean ruler crushed Jerusalem.
rulers of Judah. At first, the Chaldeans
                                                              He destroyed the temple, bound the king in
treated the Israelites like the Egyptians had
                                                              chains, and took him and thousands of Jews
before. They allowed the Jews to keep their
                                                              to Babylon. In Jewish history, this time
king as long as they paid tribute.
                                                              became known as the Babylonian Captivity.
    Several years later, the Jews united with
the Egyptians to rebel against the Chaldeans.                                      Explain Why did the
Judah held out against the Chaldean                           Assyrians and Chaldeans want to control the land
invasion until 597 B.C. That year, King                       belonging to the Israelites?

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                                            What Did You Learn?
Reading Summary                             1. Why was David anointed king
                                               while Saul was still in charge
                                                                                  4. Summarize What happened
                                                                                     to the Israelites after the death
Review the                                     of the Israelites?                    of Solomon?
• Saul was the first king of the
  Israelites. He united the 12 tribes       2. Who were the prophets, and         5. Describe Who were the
  into one kingdom.                            why were they important to            Samaritans?
                                               the Israelites?
                                                                                  6. Infer Why do you think
• King David built an Israelite             Critical Thinking                        the Assyrians, and later the
  empire and made Jerusalem
                                            3. Compare Draw a chart like             Chaldeans, moved Jews
  his capital. Solomon built a
                                               the one below. Use it to com-         away from Israel and Judah
  great temple at Jerusalem, but
                                               pare the accomplishments of           after those areas were
  after he died, the Israelites
                                               King David and King Solomon.          conquered?
  split into two kingdoms—Israel
  and Judah.                                    King David     King Solomon       7.                Main Idea
                                                                                       Choose one paragraph from the
• The Assyrians and then the
                                                                                       Biography on page 88. Create
  Chaldeans conquered Israel and
                                                                                       a graphic organizer to show
  Judah, and forced many Israelites
                                                                                       the main idea and supporting
  to leave their homeland.
                                                                                       details in that paragraph.

92              CHAPTER 3         The Ancient Israelites
                            The Growth
                              of Judaism
What’s the Connection?                        Meeting People
    In Section 2, you learned that the        Judas Maccabeus
Chaldeans forced thousands of Jews              (JOO • duhs        MAK • uh • BEE • uhs)
to go to Babylon. Life in Babylon was         Herod (HEHR • uhd)
very difficult. Many of Judah’s people        Zealot (ZEH • luht)
looked to their religion for hope and         Yohanan ben Zaccai
strength.                                       (YOH • kah • nahn        behn • zah • KY)
Focusing on the                               Building Your Vocabulary
• The Jews continued their religion           exile (EHG • ZYL)
 during their exile in Babylon. (page 94)
                                              Sabbath (SA • buhth)
• Jews spread their beliefs to the Greek      synagogue (SIH • nuh • GAHG)
 world and regained control of Judah.         Diaspora (dy • AS • pruh)
 (page 95)
                                              messiah (muh • SY • uh)
• Religion shaped the Jewish way of           rabbi (RA • BY)
 life. (page 97)
• Under Roman rule, the Jews were             Reading Strategy
 divided and rebellious. In response,         Summarizing Information Use a
 the Romans destroyed the temple              diagram like the one below to describe
 and exiled the Jews. (page 100)              the Maccabees.

Locating Places                                 Maccabees
Babylon (BA • buh • luhn)

                                 600 B.C.                   250 B.C.                        A.D. 100
                                   538 B.C.             168 B.C.                              A.D. 66
                                   Cyrus allows Jews    Judas Maccabeus                       Jews revolt
                                   to return to Judah   rebels against Antiochus              against Romans

                                                            CHAPTER 3         The Ancient Israelites           93
Exile and Return                                                                           Why Did Jews Return to Judah? During
                                                                                           the 500s B.C., a group of people called
              The Jews continued their religion during                                     Persians swept across southwest Asia. The
their exile in Babylon.                                                                    Persians defeated the Chaldeans and took
Reading Focus Have you ever learned something                                              over Babylon. In 538 B.C. the Persian king
important by experiencing a hardship? Read on to find                                      Cyrus permitted Jews to return to Judah.
out what lessons the Jews learned from hard times.                                             Some Jews stayed in Babylon, but many
                                                                                           went home. They rebuilt Jerusalem and the
    The Jews called their time in Babylon                                                  temple. Cyrus appointed officials to rule the
(BA • buh • luhn) an exile (EHG • ZYL). This                                               country and collected taxes from the peo-
means they were forced to leave their                                                      ple. The Persians did not allow the Jews to
homeland. During their exile, the Israelite                                                have their own government or king, so the
religion became what we call Judaism.                                                      Jews depended mainly on their religious
    While in Babylon, small groups of Jews                                                 leaders—not temple priests and scribes—to
met on the Sabbath (SA • buhth). This was                                                  run their society.
their weekly day of worship and rest. The                                                      Many scribes became religious scholars.
Jewish Sabbath goes from sundown Friday                                                    Under a scribe named Ezra, the Jews wrote
to sundown Saturday. These weekly meet-                                                    the five books of the Torah on pieces of parch-
ings took place at synagogues (SIH • nuh •                                                 ment. They sewed the pieces together to make
GAHGS), or Jewish houses of worship. The                                                   long scrolls. The Torah and writings that were
synagogue meetings gave the people hope.                                                   added later made up the Hebrew Bible.

                                                                     Torah scrolls are carried in decorated cases
                                                                     such as this one from the main synagogue
                                                                     in Jerusalem. What larger text is made up
                                                                     of the Torah and other important writing?

                                                                                                                                 Torah scrolls

                                                                                  A rabbi reads
                                                                                  from the Torah.

(l)Richard T. Nowitz/CORBIS, (c)Bill Aron/PhotoEdit, (r)SuperStock
                                                                                                  What Is in the Hebrew Bible?                     The Jews and the Greeks
Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, Merseyside, UK, National Museums Liverpool/Bridgeman Art Library

                                                                                                                                    The Hebrew
                                                                                                  Bible is really a series of 34 books collected
                                                                                                  together. The Torah, the Prophets, and the                    Jews spread their beliefs to the Greek
                                                                                                  Writings that were added later make up the       world and regained control of Judah.
                                                                                                  Hebrew Bible. Some of these books describe       Reading Focus How do you show loyalty to friends
                                                                                                  events in Jewish history. Others are books       and family? In the following paragraphs, you’ll learn
                                                                                                  of poetry, literature, and proverbs.             how Jews showed loyalty to their religion and country.
                                                                                                      For example Genesis, the first book of
                                                                                                  the Torah, tells how God punished the               In 334 B.C. a king named Alexander the
                                                                                                  world for its bad behavior. In Genesis, God      Great set out to conquer kingdoms in west-
                                                                                                  tells Noah to build an ark, or large boat.       ern Asia. In 331 B.C. his armies defeated the
                                                                                                  Noah, his family, and two of every animal        Persians, so Judah came under his control.
                                                                                                  on Earth boarded the ark. Then a great           Fortunately, Alexander allowed the Jews to
                                                                                                  flood covered the land, and only those on        stay in Judah. However, Alexander, who
                                                                                                  the ark escaped drowning. After the flood,       loved all things Greek, introduced the
                                                                                                  God created a rainbow as a symbol of his         Greek language and Greek ways to Judah.
                                                                                                  promise to never again destroy the world         What Was the Diaspora?       At the time,
                                                                                                  with a flood.                                    Jews were living throughout Alexander’s
                                                                                                      Genesis also explains why the world          empire. Many still lived in Babylon. Some
                                                                                                  has languages. It tells how the people of        lived in Egypt and other lands bordering
                                                                                                  Babel tried to build a tower to heaven. God      the Mediterranean Sea. The scattering of the
                                                                                                  disapproved and made the people speak in         Jews outside of Israel and Judah became
                                                                                                  different languages, then scattered them         known as the Diaspora (dy • AS • pruh).
                                                                                                  across the earth.

                                                                                                  The Jews Look to the Future     Parts of the        According to the Hebrew Bible, Daniel was
                                                                                                                                                      thrown into a lion’s den for refusing to worship
                                                                                                  Hebrew Bible describe God’s plan for a              the Babylonian gods. God, however, kept Daniel
                                                                                                  peaceful future. The book of Daniel                 safe from the lions. What lesson did this story
                                                                                                  addresses this issue. Daniel lived in               present to the Jews?
                                                                                                  Babylon and was a trusted adviser
                                                                                                  of the king. However, he refused to
                                                                                                  worship Babylonian gods. The
                                                                                                  Chaldeans threw Daniel into a
                                                                                                  lion’s den, but God protected
                                                                                                  Daniel from the lions. The story
                                                                                                  was meant to remind Jews that
                                                                                                  God would rescue them.
                                                                                                      The Jews believed that evil and
                                                                                                  suffering would eventually be
                                                                                                  replaced by goodness. Christians
                                                                                                  and Muslims share this idea of
                                                                                                  good triumphing over evil.
                                                                                                                    Identify Who
                                                                                                  allowed the Jews to return to Judah?
Diaspora is a Greek word that means              (JOO • duhs MAK • uh • BEE • uhs) and his fol-
“scattered.”                                     lowers rebelled. They fled to the hills and
   Many Jews of the Diaspora learned the         formed an army known as the Maccabees.
Greek language and Greek ways but                    After many battles, the Maccabees drove
remained loyal to Judaism. A group of them       the Greeks out of Judah. They destroyed
copied the Hebrew Bible into Greek. This         all traces of Greek gods and goddesses in
Greek version helped people who were not         their temple and rededicated it to the wor-
Jews to read and understand the Hebrew           ship of God. Each year Jews recall the
Bible. As a result, Jewish ideas spread          cleansing of the temple when they celebrate
throughout the Mediterranean world.              Hanukkah (HAH • nuh • kuh).
                                                     Priests from Judas Maccabeus’s family
Who Were the Maccabees?        In 168 B.C. a     became the new rulers of Judah. Under
Greek ruler named Antiochus (an • TY • uh        their leadership, Judah took over land that
kuhs) controlled Judah. He decided to make       had been part of the kingdom of Israel.
the Jews of Judah worship Greek gods and                               Analyze How did Alexander
goddesses. A priest named Judas Maccabeus        the Great affect the Israelites?

                             Major Jewish Holy Days
     Name       Time       Length         Reason for                        Customs
               of Year                   the Holy Day

 Passover     April        8 days     to celebrate the escape      foods with leavening are
                           (7 in      of the Jews from slavery     not eaten to remember
                           Israel)    in Egypt and their return    the haste of the flight
                                      to the Promised Land         from slavery to freedom
                                                                   when there was not time
                                                                   for the bread to rise

 Rosh         September    2 days     to celebrate the Jewish      plan changes for the new
 Hoshana      or October              New Year                     year; no work; synagogue
                                                                   services; a shofar (ram’s
                                                                   horn) is blown in synagogues

 Yom Kippur September      25 hours   to make amends for           no work; synagogue services;
            or October                sins of the past year        pray; fast; apologize for
                                                                   wrongs during the past year

 Hanukkah     December     8 days     to celebrate religious       light candles each night;
                                      freedom and the              eat fried foods; play a game
                                      rededication of the          called dreidel; give gifts
                                      temple in Jerusalem


The Jewish Way of Life                                   laws emphasized self-control and reminded
                                                         Jews of their religion.
             Religion shaped the Jewish way of life.
                                                         Family Life   The Jews placed great impor-
Reading Focus What types of things influence the         tance on family. Sons were especially val-
way you live? Read to find out how religion influenced
                                                         ued because they carried on the family
Jewish life.
                                                         name. Upon a father’s death, the son
                                                         became head of the family.
    Jewish law set out many rules for Jews to
                                                             Education was also important. Jewish
follow that affected their daily life. These laws
                                                         children’s first teachers were their mothers.
influenced their education, the foods they ate,
                                                         When sons grew old enough, fathers taught
and even the clothes they wore. They also
                                                         them how to earn an income and to wor-
required Jews to provide for the poor, visit
                                                         ship God. Later, elders took over the reli-
the sick, do good deeds, give to charity, and
                                                         gious education of boys and taught them
apply just laws to rich and poor alike. The
                                                         the Torah. Because reading the Torah was

 Head Coverings
                                                               Jews in modern-day head coverings
          Under Greek rule, Jewish leaders began
 covering their heads to distinguish themselves
 from the Greeks and to remind themselves to
 think about God. Gradually, all Jewish men
 started wearing turbans or skull caps.
 Jewish women always kept their heads
 covered because a woman’s hair was
 considered very private.

                                                                           Jews still wear head coverings,
                                                               but only the most conservative—
                                                               Orthodox Jews—wear them at all times.
                                                              Most Jewish men wear skull caps called
                                                            yarmulkes, or kippahs. Jewish women wear
                                                         scarves, hats, or skull caps.

                  Ancient Jewish head covering

                                                           CHAPTER 3     The Ancient Israelites                                       97
                                                                          (l)Christie’s Images/Bridgeman Art Library, (r)Nathan Benn/CORBIS
                                           central to Jewish life, religious teachers

                                                                                            Lawrence Migdale/Getty Images
                                           became important community leaders.
                                               Mothers educated their daughters at
                                           home. The girls learned to be good wives,
                                           mothers, and housekeepers. This included
Education in Ancient Israel and Judah      learning Jewish laws about food and
Early Israelites placed a high value on    clothing. They also learned about the coura-
education. Rabbis—Jewish religious         geous women of ancient Israel. One of these
teachers—taught their followers, “If you   women was Ruth. Her biography appears
have knowledge, you have everything.”      on the next page. Her courage and devotion
    Fathers taught their young sons the    to her family provided an example for
commandments. They also taught them        Jewish girls to follow.
about the meanings of Jewish traditions    The Jewish Diet     Under Jewish law, Jews
and holy feasts. At age five, boys went    could eat only certain animals. For example,
to a school that was connected with        they could eat beef and lamb but not pork.
the synagogue. There, the hazan, a         They could eat scaly fish, like salmon, but
special teacher of the synagogue, taught   not shellfish or smooth-skinned fish, like
them the Torah. Everything the students    eels. Laws about food are known as kashrut,
learned—from the alphabet to Jewish        which means “that which is proper.”
history—they learned from the Torah.           Today, food that is prepared according to
    Jewish laws decided the stages of      Jewish dietary laws is called kosher. Animals
students’ education. Different subjects    used for kosher meat must be killed in a spe-
were introduced at the ages of 5, 10,      cial way. The meat must be inspected, salted,
and 13. Most Jewish boys finished          and soaked. To be kosher, Jews must not
their education at age 13. At that age,    cook or eat milk products with meat.
                                               In ancient times, everyday meals were
boys became adults.
                                           made up of fish, fruit, vegetables, and barley
                                           bread. Beverages included mainly milk,
                                           water, wine, and beer.
                                           Jewish Clothing  Jewish law forbade mixing
                                           some fabrics. So women used flax or wool
                                           to make cloth but did not combine the two.
                                              Jewish men wore tunics made of linen
                                           next to their skin. Some men layered
                                           another tunic on top of the first. In cold
  Children studying the Torah today        weather, they wore wool or sheepskin
                                           cloaks. On their heads, they wore caps or
                                           turbans. On their feet, they wore sandals.
                                           Women draped themselves in long, simple
Connecting to the Past                     dresses. They covered their heads with
1. Why was education important to the
   ancient Israelites?                     shawls. Wealthy women wore leather
2. What was a father’s role in his son’s   shoes, wore makeup, and owned jewelry.
   education?                                                Analyze Why were sons
                                           especially valued in ancient Jewish society?
RUTH AND NAOMI                                 and devotion, Jewish girls learned abo
                                                                                         ut the
     To show the importance of family love                                           tells about
                                          The Book of Ruth in the Hebrew Bible
relationship between Ruth and Naomi.                                                                     e
                                                            , Naomi. Years before, there was so littl
Ruth’s life and of her dedication to her mother-in-law                                          re, one
                                                   and their two sons moved to Moab. The
food in  Bethlehem that Naomi, her husband,                                               . Naomi
                                              mi’s husband and both of her sons died
of  their sons married Ruth. Tragically, Nao                                          parents and
                                            urged Ruth to stay in Moab with her
 wanted to return to Bethlehem, but she                                             h her to
                                         by herself. She insisted on traveling wit
 friends. Ruth refused to leave Naomi                                                             I will
                                                    gion, said to Naomi, “Wherever you go,
 Bethleh  em. Ruth, a convert to the Israelite reli                                  r God my God.”
                                            r people shall be my people, and you
 go; wherever you lodge; I will lodge; you                                                         at the
                                                     Naomi and Ruth arrived in Bethlehem
                                                                                         ause Ruth
                                                beginning of the barley harvest. Bec
                                                                                           an outsider
                                                was from Moab, she was considered
                                                                                             e Ruth was
                                                by the Israelites. Furthermore, becaus
                                                                                         she did not
                                                a widow and did not have children,
                                                have any property rights. To survive
                                                Bethlehem, she had to rely upon her
                                                 law’s advice and the kindness of a wea
                                                 landowner named Boaz.
                                                     During the harvest, Ruth worked in
                                                                                             the ground
                                                  fields, gathering grain left behind on
                                                                                            t began at
                                                  by the reapers. It was hard work tha
                                                  dawn and ended at dusk, but Ruth nev
                                                                                               ect and
                                                  complained. She soon earned the resp
                                                                                              e, Ruth
                                                   admiration of her new people. In tim
                                                   married Boaz. They had a son named
                                                   In the Hebrew Bible, at the end of the
                                                   of Ruth, Obed is named as the grandf
                                                   of David, the future king of Israel.

                                                                                                rely on
                                                         To survive in Bethlehem, Ruth had to
                                                         Naomi and Boaz. If a present-day wo
                                                         moved to a new city, what resources
                                                                                               , and
                                                         she use to help her find work, shelter
                                                         other necessities?
               Naomi and Ruth

The Jews and the Romans                                         The Rule of King Herod The most famous
                                                                ruler of Judaea during this time was
              Under Roman rule, the Jews were                   King Herod (HEHR • uhd). He is known for
divided and rebellious. In response, the Romans                 the additions he made to the Jewish temple
destroyed the temple and exiled the Jews.                       in Jerusalem. He made the temple one of
Reading Focus Do you consider freedom worth                     the most awe-inspiring buildings in the
fighting for? Read to find out what happened to the             Roman world.
Jews after they fought for their freedom.                           Shortly after Herod died, the Romans
                                                                replaced the Jewish king with Roman offi-
    In 63 B.C. a people known as the Romans                     cials. The Jews were divided over the best
conquered Judah. Led by powerful gener-                         way to deal with the Romans. Different
als, the Romans were intent on expanding                        groups had different opinions about the
their empire. The Roman capital was far to                      best course of action.
the west in what is today the country of                            One group of Jews was known as the
Italy. When the Romans conquered Judah,                         Pharisees (FAR • uh • seez). They taught the
they renamed it Judaea (joo • DEE • uh). At                     Torah and how to apply its laws to daily
first, the Romans allowed Jewish rulers to                      life. In doing so, they helped make Judaism
run Judaea.                                                     a religion of the home and family. The
                                                                Pharisees taught in synagogues and were
                                                                supported by the common people.
                                                                    One of the main teachings that set the
                                                                Pharisees apart from other groups was their
                                                                support of the oral traditions. These were
                                                                teachings of Jewish leaders and interpreta-
                                                                tions of Jewish writings that had been
                                                                passed down over time by word of mouth.
        Dead Sea Scrolls                                        The Pharisees believed the oral traditions
                                                                were very important in helping people
        In A.D. 1947 shepherd children in the                   obey the commandments.
        Judaean desert near the Dead Sea                            The Sadducees (SA • juh • SEEZ) also
        found the first of the Dead Sea Scrolls                 accepted the Torah. However, they were
        in a cave. The Dead Sea Scrolls are                     more concerned about how it applied to the
        ancient scrolls of leather, papyrus, and                priests in the Temple. This was because
        one of copper written between 200                       many of them were priests and scribes.
        B.C . and A.D. 68. The documents include                They did not agree with many of the
        the oldest complete copy of the Book                    Pharisees’ teachings.
        of Isaiah and pieces of many other                          For example, they did not hold to the
        books of the Hebrew Bible. Most                         oral traditions. Instead, they emphasized
        scholars believe that the scrolls were                  the written law and commandments.
        part of a library that belonged to an                       A third group was called Essenes (ih •
        early Jewish community.                                 SEENZ). They were priests who broke away
                                                                from the Temple in Jerusalem. Many
                                                                Essenes lived together in the desert. They

100                        CHAPTER 3   The Ancient Israelites
Richard T. Nowitz/CORBIS
                                       Today Jews come to the Western Wall to pray.
                                       What structure is the Western Wall the remains of?

spent their lives praying and waiting for         Romans also destroyed the temple in
God to deliver the Jews from the Romans.          Jerusalem. The Western Wall is all that
    Like the Sadducees, the Essenes strictly      remains of it today.
followed the written law.                            The Jews revolted again in A.D. 132.
    In A.D. 1947 ancient scrolls were found in    Three years later, the Romans crushed the
caves near the Dead Sea. Because of this, they    revolt. This time, the Romans forbade Jews
became known as the Dead Sea Scrolls. The         to live in or even visit Jerusalem. They
scrolls have helped historians understand         began calling Judah by the name of
more about Judaism during Roman times.            Palestine. This name refers to the
                                                  Philistines, whom the Israelites had con-
Jewish Revolts   During the A.D. 60s, Jewish      quered centuries before.
hatred of Roman rule was at its peak. Many
Jews were waiting for a messiah (muh • SY •       Jewish Teachers Despite losing their land,
uh), or deliverer sent by God. Other Jews         the Jews managed to survive. They no
known as Zealots (ZEH • luhts) wanted to          longer had priests. Instead, leaders called
fight the Romans for their freedom.               rabbis (RA • BYZ) became important. Rabbis
    In A.D. 66 the Zealots revolted against       were teachers of the Torah.
the Romans and drove them out of                      One of the most famous rabbis was
Jerusalem. Four years later, the Romans           Yohanan ben Zaccai (YOH • kah • nahn behn
retook Jerusalem. They killed thousands of        zah • KY). After the sacking of Jerusalem in
Jews and forced many others to leave. The         A.D. 70, he made sure the study of the Torah

                                                   CHAPTER 3          The Ancient Israelites                                         101
                                                           (t)Dave Bartruff/CORBIS, (c)Gary Cralle/Getty Images, (b)Paul Chesley/Getty Images
continued. He founded a school in northern
Palestine that became a center of Torah
                                                                                        The Talmud
                                                                  One of the Ten Commandments tells Jews
studies for centuries. Other rabbis founded
                                                                  to keep the Sabbath holy. Part of the Talmud
Torah schools in places as far away as                            declares that most types of work and busi-
Babylon and Egypt.                                                ness are not allowed on the Sabbath, or
    The rabbis wanted to save and pass on                         Jewish day of worship. This passage identi-
teachings about the Torah. They combined                          fies the only times it is okay to break those
the teachings into books called commen-                           rules.
taries, the most important of which is the                        “One is permitted to remove debris on the
                                                                  Sabbath in order to save a life or to act for the
Talmud. It deals with almost every aspect of
                                                                  benefit of the community; and we may assemble
daily life, including agricultural activities,                    in the synagogue on the Sabbath to conduct pub-
feasts, prayer, and marriages. To this day, the                   lic business [i.e., matters of community concern].”
Talmud remains an important record of
                                                                                              —The Talmud for Today,
Jewish law.                                                                                 Rabbi Alexander Feinsilver,
    For 2,000 years, most Jews lived outside                                                            trans. and ed.
of Palestine. They made notable contribu-
tions to commerce and professions, but often
faced hatred and persecution. In A.D. 1947
Palestine was divided, and a new Jewish                              Why do you think these exceptions were
nation called Israel was created in 1948.                            made for the benefit of the community?

                           Explain How did the
Roman conquest affect the Jews?

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                                                                   material in this section? Visit

                                             What Did You Learn?
Reading Summary                              1. What was the Diaspora?             5. Identify Who was Yohannan
                                             2. What was education like within        ben Zaccai, and why was he
Review the
                                                a Jewish family?                      important?
• During their exile in Babylon, the
    Jews developed their religion,                                                 6. Draw Conclusions Do you
                                             Critical Thinking
    which is based upon the Hebrew                                                    think that Jewish beliefs and
                                             3. Organizing Information                values would have spread so
    Bible.                                      Draw a table to describe the          widely if the lands of Israel
• Jews spread their ideas to the                differences between these             and Judah had not been
    Greek world. About 168 B.C .,               three Jewish groups.                  conquered by other peoples?
    they fought the Greeks for                                                        Explain.
    control of Judah.                          Pharisees Sadducees    Essenes
                                                                                   7. Persuasive Writing Imagine
• Religious laws concerning food                                                      you are living in Judaea during
    and clothing affected everyday
                                                                                      the Roman conquest. Write a
    Jewish life.
                                                                                      letter to a friend describing how
• In 63 B.C. Judah was taken over                                                     you might have felt about the
    by the Roman Empire.                     4. Summarize How did the Jews            Romans and what actions you
                                                practice their religion during        would like to see taken to
                                                the exile in Babylon?                 make Judaea free again.

102                    CHAPTER 3    The Ancient Israelites
Peter Turnley/CORBIS
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                                                                        to your PDA from

Section       The First Israelites
Vocabulary   Focusing on the
monotheism   • The Israelites believed in one God who set
tribe          down moral laws for his people. They recorded
Torah          their history in the Hebrew Bible. (page 81)
covenant     • The Israelites had to fight the Canaanites to
alphabet       return to their promised land. (page 84)

                                               Moses with the
                                               Ten Commandments

Section       The Kingdom of Israel
Vocabulary   Focusing on the
prophet      • The Israelites chose a king to unite them against their enemies. (page 87)
empire       • King David built an Israelite empire and made Jerusalem his capital city.
tribute       (page 89)
proverb      • The Israelites were conquered and forced to leave Israel and Judah.
              (page 90)

Section       The Growth of Judaism
Vocabulary   Focusing on the
exile        • The Jews continued their religion
Sabbath       during their exile in Babylon. (page 94)
synagogue    • Jews spread their beliefs to the Greek
Diaspora      world and regained control of Judah.
messiah       (page 95)
rabbi        • Religion shaped the Jewish way of life.
              (page 97)
             • Under Roman rule, the Jews were
              divided and rebellious. In response,
              the Romans destroyed the temple
              and exiled the Jews. (page 100)

                                                                     Torah scrolls

                                             CHAPTER 3      The Ancient Israelites                           103
                                                                          (t)Stock Montage/SuperStock, (b)SuperStock
Review Vocabulary                                     Section 2 • The Kingdom of Israel
Match the definitions in the second column to         11. Why did the Israelites choose a king?
the terms in the first column.                        12. What happened when the Israelites were
 1. tribe             a. Jewish house of                  conquered?
                          worship                     Section 3 • The Growth of Judaism
 2. prophet           b. believed to be inspired      13. How did Jewish ideas spread throughout
                          by God                          the Mediterranean world?
 3. synagogue         c. family group                 14. How did Romans respond to Jewish
 4. Sabbath           d. holy day of worship              rebellions?
                          and rest
 5. messiah           e. forced absence
                                                      Critical Thinking
                                                      15. Contrast How was the Jewish religion
 6. monotheism         f. belief in only one god
                                                          different from religions of other ancient
 7. covenant          g. deliverer sent                   cultures?
                          by God
                                                      16. Analyze Why do you think the Israelites
 8. exile             h. agreement                        felt so strongly about a Promised Land?
                                                      17. Compare and Contrast How were Saul
Review Main Ideas                                         and David similar, and how were they
Section 1 • The First Israelites                          different?
 9. Where did the Israelites record their             18. Explain How did the Jewish religion
    history and religious beliefs?                        survive during the exile of the Jews?
10. Why did the Israelites fight the                  19. Describe What is celebrated on the
    Canaanites?                                           Jewish holy day of Hanukkah?

               Main Idea           Finding the Main Idea
   20. Read the paragraph below from page 101. Create a graphic organizer that shows
       the main idea and supporting details.
                  In A.D. 1947 ancient scrolls were found in caves near the
               Dead Sea. Because of this, they became known as the Dead
               Sea Scrolls. The scrolls have helped historians understand
               more about Judaism during Roman times.

                                                                          To review this skill, see pages 78–79.

104            CHAPTER 3     The Ancient Israelites
                                                                                           Self-Check Quiz To help you prepare for
Geography Skills                                                                           the Chapter Test, visit
Study the map below and answer the follow-
ing questions.
21. Location Which kingdom—Israel or                                                     Using Technology
    Judah—had an advantage when it came                                                  27. Organizing Information Search the
    to trade? Why?                                                                           Internet or your local library for informa-
22. Identify What advantage did Judah have                                                   tion about the early Phoenicians and
    over Israel?                                                                             Philistines. Use the computer to create
23. Analyze Why did the Phoenicians focus                                                    a chart comparing the two cultures.
    on trade rather than farming?                                                            Include headings such as Location,
                                                                                             Time Period, Major Contributions, and
                    Israelite Kingdoms
                                                                                         Linking Past and Present
                            Byblos                                                       28. Making Comparisons The Israelites
  Mediterranean                                                                              moved from place to place within the same
                                                                                             region along the Mediterranean. Trace the
                       Sidon                                                                 route of one of their journeys on a map
                                                                SY R I A N
                                                                DE SE R T                    of ancient times. Then trace the route
                     Tyre                                                                    again on a map showing that region as
                                                                  KEY                        it is today. Identify the current nations
                  Samaria                                    Phoenicians                     and landmarks in that region.
                               Jo r d a n R

    W       E                                                Kingdom of Israel
                                                             Kingdom of Judah


                               Sea 0                                           100 mi.

                                                0                100 km
                                                Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area
                                                projection                                    The following passage describes the
                                                                                              effects of the attack on Judaea. The
                                                                                              passage is written by Josephus, a
Read to Write                                                                                 Jewish historian in the Roman era.
24. Descriptive Writing Imagine you are liv-                                                  “Throughout the city people were dying
    ing in Jerusalem during the time of King                                                  of hunger in large numbers. . . . In every
    Solomon. Write a letter to a friend describ-                                              house the merest hint of food sparked
    ing the things Solomon is doing as leader.                                                violence, and close relatives fell to blows. . . .
    Be sure to mention which of these things                                                  No respect was paid even to the dying; the
    the people like and which they do not like.                                               ruffians searched them, in case they were
25. Summarize Choose three events in this                                                     concealing food somewhere in their clothes.”
    chapter that you think were the most                                                                  —Josephus, “The Siege of Jerusalem”
    important to the history of the Israelites.
    Write a headline for each that might have
    appeared in a newspaper of that time.
                                                                                              29. What does Josephus mean when he
26. Using Your                Use the information                                                 says “No respect was paid even to
    you wrote in your three-pocket foldable                                                       the dying”?
    to create a fill-in-the-blank quiz for a class-                                           30. How might this account have been
    mate. Write a paragraph about one of the                                                      different if it had been written by
    sections, leaving blanks for your classmate                                                   a Roman soldier?
    to fill in. Leave blanks for vocabulary
    words or significant places and people.

                                                                                                     CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites         105
                                Comparing Civilizations
                Compare the civilizations
             that you have read about by
             reviewing the information                                                  Chapter 1
             below. Can you see how the                                                 Chapter 2
             people of these civilizations                                              Chapter 3

             helped to build the world we
             live in today?

                                                                    First                   Ancient                      Ancient
                                                                Civilizations                Egypt                      Israelites
Where did these                                                   Chap ter 1                Cha p te r 2                C h a p te r 3

civilizations                                     • Between the Tigris and
                                                     Euphrates Rivers
                                                                                   • Along the banks of the
                                                                                    Nile River
                                                                                                                • In Israel and Juddah


                                                  • Sargon, c. 2340–2279 B.C.                                   • Abraham, c. 1800 B.C.
Who are some                                      • Hammurabi,                     • King Khufu, c. 2540 B.C.   • Moses, c. 1250 B.C.
important                                            c. 1792–1750 B.C .
                                                                                   • Hatshepsut, ruled          • David, c. 1000–970 B.C.
people in these                                   • Nebuchadnezzar,                 c. 1470 B.C .
                                                                                                                • The Maccabees, 168 B.C.
civilizations?                                       c. 605–562 B.C .
                                                                                   • Ramses II, c. 1279–
                                                                                    1213 B.C .
                                                                                   • Kashta, c. 750 B.C.

                                                  • Most people                    • Some people lived in       • Most people lived in
Where did                                            lived on farms                 large cities                 small villages or near
most of the                                          near walled
                                                                                   • Most people lived in        the city of Jerusalem

people live?                                      • The center
                                                                                    villages along the
                                                                                    Nile River
                                                     of the city
                                                     was the

(t)Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY, (b)Louvre Museum, Paris/Bridgeman Art Library
                             First                        Ancient                                                 Ancient
                         Civilizations                     Egypt                                                 Israelites
                          Chap ter 1                     Cha p te r 2                                            C h a p te r 3
What were
these people’s   • Worshiped many
                  different gods
                                               • Worshiped gods and
                                                                                                 • Worshiped one God
                                                                                                 • Wrote the Hebrew Bible
beliefs?         • The gods                    • Believed in                                       as a record of their
                  appointed                     life after                                         history and religion
                  the rulers                    death

                                                                                                 • Early Israelites were led
What was their                                                                                     by prophets
government       • Early Mesopotamians
                  were ruled by priests
                                               • Pharaoh was a ruler-priest
                                                and a god
                                                                                                 • Later, they
like?            • Later, kings ruled the      • Pharaoh owned all land
                                                                                                   were led
                                                                                                   by judges,
                  people; they believed         in Egypt                                           then kings
                  kings had divine approval

                 • Early: cuneiform: wedge-    • Hieroglyphics: images
What was their    shaped characters             that stood for ideas                             • Adapted Phoenician
language and     • Later: a Semitic language                                                       characters to form

writing like?                                                                                      letters and words

                 • Developed writing           • Built machines to move                          • Developed ideas of legal
What             • Created system of            water to crops                                     system
contributions     mathematics                  • Developed a calendar                            • Passed on ideas of
did they make?   • Studied systems of time     • Built large temples                               justice, fairness, and
                                                                                                   compassion in society
                  and created calendars         and pyramids
                                                                                                   and government
                 • Introduced iron weapons                                                       • Believed in one God

                 • Similar measurements        • Pyramids and other                              • Many religions today are
How do these      are still used in building    structures still amaze                             based on ideas similar
contributions     today                         people today                                       to those of the early
affect me? Can   • Our system of time is
                  based on seconds,
you add any?      minutes, and hours

                                                       (t)Boltin Picture Library, (tr)Stock Montage/SuperStock, (c)Smithsonian Institution, (b)CORBIS

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