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Total and Spectral solar Irradiance Sensor - GOES-R

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					  NOAA's Joint Polar Satellite
   System Climate Sensors
92nd American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting

                  Stephen Walters
      NOAA Climate Sensors Program Manager
Mitch Goldberg, John Furgerson & Jim Gleason JPSS

                 January 25, 2012
                 Stephen.Walters@noaa.gov             1
     Climate Sensors Overview
• The Climate Sensors for JPSS are:
   – The Total and Spectral solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS)
   – The Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES)
• They support the Research to Operations transition for
  key Earth Radiation Budget measurements
   – Extending data continuity from beyond current NASA research
     missions
• Achieving this transition requires the coordination of
  three separate projects
   – The Climate Sensors Program to provide the space flight
     sensors
   – The JPSS Program to provide the host spacecraft, launch and
     mission operations
   – The National Climatic Data Center’s Climate Data Record
     (NCDC CDR) project to incorporate the measurements into CDR
     and Climate Information Records (CIR) process

                                                                   2
      Earth Radiation Budget Components
             CERES          TSIS   CERES
  Top of
Atmosphere




                 Kiehl &
                Trenberth
                  1997


                                           3
                             Sustained Climate Information Flow
(In Collaboration with GEO Climate Architecture & CEOS Working Group on Climate)

Satellite & In Situ               Near Real Time                                 Long-term Information Preservation
Observations                                                                                                                              Observing system
                                                                                                                                          performance
                                                                                         Essential Climate Variables                      Monitoring
                                                                                                                                          and automated
                                                                                                                                          corrections
                                                                                                  Fundamental
                                     Satellite data                  Archives                     Climate Data
                                                                                                    Records


Inter-calibration                                                                                                                         Re-calibration
                                                                                                                                          Inter-calibration
                                                                                                                                          Reprocessing


                                                                                                   Thematical
                                                                                                  Climate Data
  Sustained                                         Interim                                         Records
                         Environmental                                                                                                    Data conversion
  Coordinated                                    Climate Data
                         Data Records
  Processing                                       Records
                                                                                                                                          User Services


  SCOPE-CM                                                                                                               Climate
                                                                                                  Major
                                                                                                                       Information
                                                                                               model-based
                                                                                                                         Records
                                                                                                Reanalysis




        Sustained         Short scale        Operational Climate                                                       Adaptation
                                                                                Longer term climate variability
                      physical phenomena     Monitoring supporting                                                + mitigation planning
       Applications
                           monitoring         Climate Services
                                                                                  & climate change analysis
                                                                                                                   (decision making)
                                                                                                                                                    4
CDR Processing Flow Diagram
      Raw Data Records (RDRs)

   Aggregate, Consolidate,
   Package for Reprocessing

                        Climate Raw Data   NCDC Development
                        Records (C-RDRs)

   Homogenize
   and (Co-)Calibrate

                          Fundamental
                          Climate Data
                        Records (FCDRs)

   Convert to
   Bio-Geophysical
   Variables

                    Thematic Climate        Grants, CICS and
                  Data Records (TCDRs)     NCDC Development
   Value-Added
   Derivatives,
   Focus Phenomena

                     Climate Information
                       Records (CIRs)

                                                               5
Example: CDRs Supporting Investment Decisions in Energy Sector
  Collaboration of NOAA, NASA, Academia, Industry and NREL


                                                                             Climate Information
                           Fundamental CDRs              Thematic CDRs
   Raw Observations                                                           (Derived Goods &
                            (Calibrated Data)          (Geophysical Data)
                                                                                  Services)


       NOAA & NASA          Merged and corrected          Standards of the   Siting information for major
      raw satellite data        NOAA & NASA                  renewable            solar energy farms
                           data provide trustworthy      energy community
                           multi-decadal time series           applied




                                                                                                  6
Operations                         CDR Evolution
                                              6 - Benchmark

                                              5 - Sustained

                                              4 - Demonstrated
                        Maturity




                                              3 - Provisional
             Research




                                              2 - Experimental

                                              1 - Initial

                                                                 7
                                 Maturity Matrix Indicates Product Quality

                                   Code          Metadata &                                                                 Public            Science &
Level     Sensor Use              Stability         QA              Documentation                Validation                Release            Application
                                                                                                                                                   s
                                  Significant                                                                              Limited data
  1      Research Mission          changes         Incomplete            Draft ATBD                 Minimal                availability to     Little or none
                                     likely                                                                             develop familiarity
                                                                                                                        Data available but
                                   Some                                                      Uncertainty estimated
                                                 Research grade                                                             of unknown           Limited or
  2      Research Mission         changes                             ATBD Version 1+             for select
                                                   (extensive)                                                          accuracy; caveats         ongoing
                                  expected                                                     locations/times
                                                                                                                         required for use.
                                                                                             Uncertainty estimated                              Provisionally
                                                 Research grade
                                                                                             over widely distribute     Data available but        used in
                                   Minimal         (extensive);       Public ATBD; Peer-
                                                                                               times/location by           of unknown         applications and
  3      Research Missions        changes             Meets         reviewed algorithm and
                                                                                             multiple investigators;    accuracy; caveats      assessments
                                  expected        international       product descriptions
                                                                                                  Differences            required for use.     demonstrating
                                                    standards
                                                                                                  understood.                                  positive value.
                                                 Stable, Allows
                                                                     Public ATBD; Draft      Uncertainty estimated         Source code          Provisionally
                                                   provenance
                                                                    Operational Algorithm    over widely distribute         released;             used in
                                   Minimal        tracking and
  4                                                                  Description (OAD);        times/location by        Data available but    applications and
        Operational Mission       changes        reproducibility;
(IOC)                                                                  Peer-reviewed         multiple investigators;       of unknown          assessments
                                  expected            Meets
                                                                    algorithm and product         Differences           accuracy; caveats      demonstrating
                                                  international
                                                                         descriptions             understood.            required for use.     positive value.
                                                    standards
                                                 Stable, Allows         Public ATBD,                                      Source code
        All relevant research                                                                      Consistent                                 Used in various
                                                   provenance       Operational Algorithm                                  portable and
           and operational                                                                   uncertainties estimated                             published
                                                  tracking and      Description (OAD) and                                released; Multi-
        missions; unified and     Stable and                                                        over most                                 applications and
  5                                              reproducibility;   Validation Plan; Peer-                              mission record is
           coherent record       reproducible                                                    environmental                                assessments by
                                                     Meeting         reviewed algorithm,                                publicly available
        demonstrated across                                                                   conditions by multiple                              different
                                                  international     product and validation                               with associated
          different sensors                                                                       investigators                                investigators
                                                    standards               articles                                   uncertainty estimate
        All relevant research
                                                                                              Observation strategy
            and operational                      Stable, Allows                                                           Source code
                                   Stable and                                                  designed to reveal                             Used in various
        missions; unified and                      provenance        Product, algorithm,                                   portable and
                                 reproducible;                                                  systematic errors                                published
        coherent record over                      tracking and      validation, processing                               released; Multi-
  6                              homogeneou                                                   through independent                             applications and
           complete series;                      reproducibility;       and metadata                                    mission record is
(FOC)                                 s and                                                    cross-checks, open                             assessments by
        record is considered                         Meeting          described in peer-                                publicly available
                                   published                                                     inspection, and                                  different
              scientifically                      international      reviewed literature                                from Long-Term
                                  error budget                                                      continuous                                 investigators
         irrefutable following                      standards                                                                archive
                                                                                                   interrogation
          extensive scrutiny
      JPSS Climate Sensor Status
• TSIS
  – Flight Model 1 (FM-1) is in integration
  – FM-1 Delivery is Dec 2012
  – TSIS cannot fit on JPSS-1, currently assessing
    alternatives

• CERES
  – CERES FM-5 was launched on NPP in October 2011
  – Instrument operating nominally, checkout continuing
  – CERES FM-6 is in final integration
  – Pre Environmental testing Review (PER) scheduled for
    Feb 2012
  – Delivery is scheduled for September 2012
  – FM-6 will be stored until required for JPSS-1
    integration
                                                       9
                TSIS Sensor Overview
Total and Spectral solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) is composed of two sensors
• Developed by the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) under contract
   with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)

TIM continues the collection of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) data following the SORCE
missions to update the long-term climate record
•   Sensor is an active cavity radiometer that monitors changes in TSI incident at the top of the Earth’s
    atmosphere

SIM continues the collection of Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) data following the SORCE
mission to update the long-term climate record
•   - Sensor is a prism spectrometer that monitors changes in SSI as a function of wavelength


                               TIM
                                                                                             TIM




                                                 SIM                                          SIM


                                                                                                       10
    TSIS Top Level Requirements
 Level 1 Performance             TIM Requirement                  SIM Requirement
Requirement Parameter
Measured Spectrum          Total solar spectrum            200-2400 nm

Measurement Accuracy       0.01% with noise < 0.001%       0.2%

Measurement Stability      0.001% per year                 0.05%/yr (<400 nm)
(long term)                                                0.01%/yr (>400 nm)

Spectral Resolution        n/a                             1 nm: (< 280 nm)
                                                           5 nm: (280 to 400 nm)
                                                           35nm: (>400 nm)
Reporting Frequency        4 six hourly averages per day   2 spectra per day


Data processing approach   Consistent with SORCE           Consistent with SORCE approach
                           approach for continuity         for continuity




                                                                                       11
      Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM)


                                                                                Detector
                                                                                 Head
                                                                                 Board


Vacuum Door                                                                    Heat Sink


         Shutter
                                                   Radiometer
              Precision Aperture                                Vacuum Shell
                                   Light Baffles




                                                                                    12
 Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM)
                            Kinematic
                            Mounts (6)
                    Focal
                    Plane
                    Assy
     Thermal
     Straps (4)

                                                                              Fery Prism
                                                                              Drive


MLI
Blanket
interface
                                                               Viewports


                                                        Optical Cavity (SIM
                                                        Case)


                                                 Vacuum Door
             Fine Sun
                                 Patch Heaters   Mechanism
             Sensor
                                 (4)


                                                                                           13
CERES FM6 Sensor Overview
             Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System
              (CERES) is a broadband, multi-spectral
              scanning radiometer measuring the Earth
              Radiation Budget
               •   Products include both solar-reflected and Earth-
                   emitted radiation from the top of the atmosphere
                   to the Earth's surface
               •   Climate sensor providing better than 1.7%
                   accuracy and supporting decadal timescales
             CERES operates continuously making Earth
              observations with periodic in-flight solar and
              internal calibrations traceable to their pre-flight
              ground calibrations
             CERES FM6 is manufactured by Northrop
              Grumman (NG), for flight on JPSS-1
             Instrument Operations, Data Processing and
              Science historically provided by NASA LaRC
              (EOS & NPP)
             NGAS working under contract to NASA LaRC
               •   Build-to-Print and from spare parts
               •   Minor modifications to accommodate the JPSS-
                   1 interface, and improve calibration
                                                              14
     Primary CERES Measurements


Reflected
  Solar
 Energy




Emitted
Thermal
Energy

                                  15
    CERES FM6 Top Level Requirements
      Performance Parameter                                    Level 1 Requirement
Total Channel Spectral Range              0.3 mm to >50 mm

Shortwave Channel Spectral Range          0.3 mm to 5.0 mm

Longwave Channel Spectral Range           5.0 mm to >50 mm

Total Channel Radiometric Accuracy        Larger of 0.7 W/m2-sr or 0.7%, 1s

Shortwave Channel Radiometric Accuracy    Larger of 1.6 W/m2-sr or 1.7%, 1s

Longwave Channel Radiometric Accuracy     < 0.38 W/m2-sr or 0.5% 1s
Total Channel Radiometric Precision       < 0.2 W/m2-sr+ 0.1% of measured 3s
Shortwave Channel Radiometric Precision   < 0.3 W/m2-sr+ 0.1% of measured 3s

Longwave Channel Radiometric Precision    < 0.45 W/m2-sr + 0.1% of measured 3s
Total Channel Linearity                   < 1.5 W/m2-sr

Shortwave Channel Linearity               < 1.28 W/m2-sr

Longwave Channel Linearity                < 0.54 W/m2-sr




                                                                                     16
CERES Instrument

             Azimuth Control
                Assembly          Base Plate


                                        Pedestal
       Power                            Assembly
     Conditioning
      Assembly
                                          Instrument
                                            Control
                                           Assembly

                                        Sun Present
                                          Sensor
                                          DAA Power
                                         Conditioning
                                           Assembly
                                      SWICS / Blackbody
       Data                              Assembly
     Acquisition
     Assembly                            Elevation
                                          Control
          Alignment Cube                 Assembly
                               Sensor Module
                                 Assembly




                                                17
                  Summary
• The TSIS and CERES FM6 Instruments are
  on track for delivery to JPSS

• These instruments will provide climate data
  continuity with existing missions

• JPSS is working with NCDC to define the
  data processing interfaces and flow to
  provide the underlying measurements to
  support the Climate Data and Information
  Record production

                                             18

				
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