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INTRODUCTION

VIEWS: 1 PAGES: 136

									INTRODUCTION
Societies we live in depend more and more on materials and energy flows that sustain the economic
process and, through it, the standard of living of the Earth inhabitants.
But the biosphere within which we operate has its own limited carrying capacity, a closed tank of natural,
organic and inorganic resources, that, if the pace of our economic behavior is not reduced, risks being
definitely compromised.
To reduce natural resource consumption, to reduce the use of energy, to save water, to reduce waste and
chemicals production: in other words to reduce our ecological footprint on the Earth. This is the general
purpose of every plan of action for sustainable development.
To reach this goal it is necessary to modify our production and consumption patterns. There is no easy path
and the challenge, to be fair, seems to find us still unprepared.
Inadequacy of policies, objectives, instruments and resources, but also the scarce capacity of raising the
necessary powers in the sustainability direction: it would be needed, instead, the maximum involvement of
all the actors that represent the engine in this essential process of ecological conversion: enterprises, civil
economy, consumers, research, school, citizens and public authorities.
Institutions, local ones in the first place, have the duty of “setting a good example” by orienting all their
activities in an ecological direction.
Towards this direction the Plan of Implementation of Johannesburg suggests that public authorities should
be encouraged to integrated sustainable development objectives in decision-making processes, including
those that regard planning for local development, investments and public purchasing, through the
development and the circulation of products and services compatible with the environment.
The European Union, through the Communication of the Commission of June 2003 on the Integrated
Product Policy, the Buying Green! Handbook, the Directives 17 and 18 of 2004, the Environmental
Technologies Action Plan (ETAP), defined Green Public Procurement (GPP) as an important instrument to
reduce the environmental impact of goods and services along the entire lifecycle, encouraging public
authorities to orient the market, through public procurement, to an ecological reconversion.
With the Communication Public procurement for a better environment (COM(2008) 400 final), the
Commission proposed the target that by the year 2010, 50% of all tendering procedures should have been
green, where "green" means compliant with endorsed common core GPP criteria.
All Member States are setting specific targets in their National Actions Plans for Green Public Procurement.
How can those targets be concretely reached?
In which way can the Public Administration exercise in full its role of conscious and sustainable consumer?




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1. A FIRST APPROACH TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
The explosion of the use of the term “sustainable” associated with an extensive range of subjects
(development, growth, economy, project, planning, work, economy, future), intended to qualify them
differently with regard to the past, but this term has now become increasingly more vague and imprecise.
Sustainable stands for acceptable, supportable, desirable, preferable, compatible, with reduced
environmental impact, balanced, harmonious and perhaps even more.
Taking the road to sustainable development means finding a balance between man and the environment,
that is, between human activities and the conservation of environmental functions, with the purpose of
avoiding the association of wealth production with a thoughtless use of natural resources and with the
decline of the environmental heritage.
The commonly shared definition of “sustainable development” - development is sustainable if it “meets the
needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. (Our
Common Future - Brundtland Report WCED 1987) - seems to suggest that development is acceptable if it
does not impoverish our future.
An even more precise definition considers sustainable development that ensures “the satisfaction of the
quality of life, staying within the limits of the carrying capacity of ecosystems”. (IUCN, 1991).
But perhaps the point is not to trace clearer and more exhaustive definitions of the concept of sustainable
development, but rather to be aware that this concept, in its more complex meaning, does not appear
unexpectedly in the history of human thought, but is the fruit of the evolution of approaches that
emphasized:
      the physical dimension (energetic-material) of the economy;
      the full knowledge of bio-physical limits of the planet and their consequence on the goals of growth
         and infinite development;
      consideration of the economy as sub-system of the biosphere;
      the rejection of the “reduction” of wellness only on the availability of goods (products and
         consumer goods);
      the conviction that technology is not only a solution but also the cause of environmental problems.

The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) contains the evaluation of the status and the progress of
services provided by ecosystems at global level.
The report shows that in the last fifty years human beings modified the ecosystems more quickly and
deeply than in any other period of history.
Because over the course of the centuries human civilization became always more complex and
technologically advanced, it is easy to have the impression that it no longer depends on natural systems. It
is however a matter of dangerous illusions that do not consider the enormous benefits that nature brings
to the more than six billion people that live on the planet. It is true that we have strayed from nature, but
we continue to depend entirely on the services that it provides.
The different types of ecosystems can provide various types of services to the human population; their
capacity to provide services depends on complex biological, chemical and physical interactions that, in turn,
are influenced by human activities.
The MEA has analyzed points of crisis and rupture of four types of environmental services provided by the
ecosystems to human survival.

Supply services: goods produced or guaranteed by
                                                       Support services: services necessary to produce
the ecosystems
                                                       other ecosystem services
• Food
                                                       • Soil formation
• Fresh water
                                                       • Nutrient cycle
• Wood and fibers
                                                       • Primary production
• Fuel for energy
                                                                                                           2
                                                        Cultural services: non-material benefits that come
Regulation services: benefits obtained through the
                                                        from ecosystems
regulation of processes of ecosystems
                                                        • Spiritual and inspirational
• Climate regulation
                                                        • Recreational
• Illness regulation
                                                        • Esthetic
• Flood regulation
                                                        • Educational

Providing food, water, energy and material to a continuously growing population has led and will lead to a
very high price for the complex systems of plants, animals, microorganisms, functions and biological
processes that allow life on our planet.
The deterioration underway is increasing the possibility of unexpected and unpredictable changes that may
have a very serious impact on humanity, such as, for example, the emergence of new diseases, the
deterioration of the availability and quality of water, the creation of dead areas along the coasts, the
collapse of fishing and profound changes in the climate.

MEA thus promotes three important messages.
   First, it is improbable that the protection of nature’s services will be considered a priority as long as
      they are perceived of as free and unlimited by those that use them; effective polices will be those
      that require accounting for environmental costs in all economic decisions.
   Second, local communities are much more apt to act in order to conserve natural resources if they
      have any influence on the decision-making process that the use establishes, and if they can obtain a
      fair share of benefits.
   Finally, natural heritage will receive greater protection if their importance is recognized by the
      centres of decision-making power of governments and private companies, instead of leaving
      policies associated with the ecosystems only in charge of environmental departments with little
      power.

The more articulated key messages of the MEA are the following:
1. each human being depends on nature and the services that the ecosystems offer to permit the
conditions for a decent, healthy, and safe life;
2. human beings have caused, in the last decades, unprecedented changes to the ecosystems, to meet the
growing demand for energy, food, water and raw materials;
3. these changes have been associated with the improvement of the conditions of life for billions of human
beings but, at the same time, weakened the capacity of nature to provide fundamental services such as
purification of air and water, protection from disasters and the basis for extracting medicines;
4. among the primary problems identified by the MEA are the dramatic conditions towards which the
fishing stocks in the major world fishing areas are heading, the great vulnerability of two billion people that
live in arid zones and that are losing important services of ecosystems such as the water supply and the
growing threat to ecosystems deriving from climate change and pollution due to the nutrients;
5. human activities have led the planet to the threshold of a massive wave of mass extinction of existing
species, which represents an additional threat to our well-being;
6. the loss of services deriving from good vitality of ecosystems constitutes a significant barrier to reaching
the Millennium Objectives of reduction of poverty, hungry and diseases wished by governments around the
world in the Millennium Summit of the United Nations of 2000;
7. the pressure on the ecosystems is destined to increase globally in the decades that will occur if human
attitudes and actions do not change;
8. the measures to conserve natural resources will be easier to reach if the responsibility for their land is
left to local communities, together with the share of benefits that derive from their use and if those
communities will be involved in the decisions;
9. with the current technologies and the knowledge available, the human impact on ecosystems can be
considerably reduced; it is, however, essential to ensure that the services of the ecosystems cease to be


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considered as free and without limits and that, however, their full value is considered in all the political and
economic decisions;
10. the best protection of the natural basis of the planet requires coordinated and integrated efforts by all
the sectors of government, of the private world and international institutions; the productivity of
ecosystems depends, among others, by the chosen policies of investments, commerce, subsidies, taxes,
and rules.

An important part of the MEA was to propose possible solutions to the growing tension created on the
natural structures of the planet. Rather than the vain attempt to find a single solution for all problems, it is
necessary to take a methodical look at the type of interventions the efficiency of which is proven and
toward some of the barriers exist, that must be removed if this pressure is to be reduced.
The solutions, which shall ensure a true change of direction, turn on four axes.

Change the economic basis on which we make our choices
    Ensuring that the whole value of ecosystems services is taken into consideration, and not only the
       market value, when choices are made.
    Eliminating subsidies to agriculture, to fishing and energy policies that harm people and the
       environment.
    Introducing incentives for landowners as compensation to land management that protects
       ecosystem services, advantageous to society, such as the quality of water and storage of coal.
    Creating economic mechanisms that reduce the release of nutrients and carbon emissions in a
       more economically effective manner.

Improve policies, planning and management
    Integrating the decision-making process between various departments and sectors as well as
       between international institutions, to ensure that policies are focused on the protection of the
       ecosystem.
    Including solid management of the ecosystem in all territorial planning policies and legally
       recognize the principle of belongings of natural resources to local communities.
    Establishing new protected areas, especially regarding the marine systems, and providing greater
       financial support and management to the existing ones.
    Using as a support to decision-making all the notions and the knowledge acquired regarding the
       ecosystem, without excluding the knowledge of local and indigenous groups.

Influence individual behaviour
      Providing public instruction on methods to reduce the consumption of services of the ecosystem
        placed at risk.
      Establishing reliable systems of certification to give people the possibility to acquire products
        produced in a sustainable manner.
      Guaranteeing to all the access to information regarding ecosystems and to decisions regarding the
        services they provide.

Development and use of technologies of low environmental impact
    Investing in science and technology applied to agriculture intended to increase food production
       with minimal dangerous consequences.
    Re-establishing the damaged ecosystem.
    Promoting technologies that increase energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

The system in which we live is a closed system and, as such, presents limits: territorial limits, limits of
absorption of waste and of pollutants, limits regarding the major lifecycles (air, water, oxygen, etc.).


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Also natural resources, which we use as input for our processes of production and consumption, are not
present per se in nature in infinite quantities and thus their excessive use, along with the impoverishment
caused by environmental degradation, accelerates their exhaustion.

The economic process “neither produces nor consumes matter-energy, but only absorbs it and expels it”;
so that what enter the economic process are precious natural resources and so that what is expelled is
refuse without value. Economic activity is thus a process of the transformation of nature into waste
produced by the enjoyment of life, which would be represented as follows:




For Georgescu-Roegen, a Rumanian ecological economist, only nature produces wealth and is truly
productive (that truly “produces” something) while the economic cycle of production-distribution-
consumption is the organizer and consumer of resources already created.
The key for reading the required change is primarily sought with regard to physical principles that regulate
the relationship between humans and nature, principles that are included in the First and Second Law of
Thermodynamics and in the concept of carrying capacity.
According to the First Law of Thermodynamics, matter and energy cannot be created or destroyed.




                                                                                                          5
Kenneth Boulding, in his famous essay The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth, proposes the idea of
an economy where the land has become a spaceship, without any unlimited resources, both for the use of
natural resources as input and as the discarded products (output).
In this situation, the carrying capacity of the land corresponds to the level of population and human
activities that the planet is able to sustain: any natural territory has a carrying capacity limited by the
populations that live there and the amount of substances put into it.
The life of Boulding’s spaceship, however, is also complicated by the operation of the Second Law of
Thermodynamics, that tells us how the energy used to produce work (production, consumption) changes
forms as it becomes less available (entropy in fact, measures this loss of utility); a balance is possible only if
the external source of energy (solar energy) with low entropy, compensates for the increase of entropy
that is produced in the system.
Economist Philip Lawn visualized the relationships between the economic system and ecosystems in this
way:




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The ecosystem provides three basic functions:
• it offers, according to a determined rate of use “q”, the flow with low entropy to socio-economic system,
or makes available (of energy e and matter M) non-renewable (NnR) and renewable (Nr) natural resources,
through the solar flow;
• it functions as a deposit for non-recyclable waste of the economic system (W) according to the capacity of
assimilation of the natural environment (A);
• provides fundamental services (free time, landscape value, cultural value, general support for human life).
If the socio-economic system uses natural resources at a given rate(q), in turn adding to the rate of use of
the renewable and non-renewable resources (q = qNr + qNnR), greater than the capacity of regeneration of
renewable resources (sNr), the stock of natural capital will be eroded. Or, if the natural capital is used
above its ability for regenerating itself, the stock of natural capital is eroded and the ecosystemic services
that it is able to provide (see point 4 in the graphic. Loss of biodiversity and lower support for vital
functions).
Similarly, there will be “loss of biodiversity and lower support for vital functions”, if the rate of waste
production (W) is greater than its capacity of assimilation A by the ecosystem.
Therefore, the metabolic flow that allows making the socio-economic system function is subject to a double
bond:


                                                                                                            7
• on the side of inputs, because the rate of use of the flow with low entropy – natural resources – must be
such as to not exceed the rate of regeneration of renewable natural resources (non-renewable resources,
obviously, cannot regenerate);
• on the side of outputs, because the discarded products at the end of the production-consumption cycle
must not exceed the absorption capacity by the environment.
From this graphic emerge the principles of sustainability defined by Herman Daly:
• the withdrawal of renewable resources must not exceed their capacity of reproduction (principle of
sustainable performance);
• waste production (waste, dumping, emissions) must not exceed the absorption capacity by receptors
(principle of the absorption capacity);
• the withdrawal of non-renewable resources must be replaced with renewable resources (principle of
replacement);
• the overall weight of the metabolic flow that allows the functioning of the socio-economic system must
not exceed the carrying capacity of nature (principle of the carrying capacity).

In substance then, an economy aware of the existence of physical and spatial limits must pay attention not
only to the productivity of factors but rather to the maintenance of natural resources capacity to reproduce
continually, although in presence of a removal of these reserves and their pollution.
Use fewer natural resources and produce goods and/or services that have a reduced environmental impact
thus constitute fundamental sustainability objectives.
In order for these objectives to be reached, lifestyles (eco-sufficiency) and economic processes must
change (production and consumption of goods and services), and reconsidered on the base of eco-
efficiency and dematerialization criteria.
Environmental efficiency indicates the relationship between a good produced (or a service performed) and
the quantity of material and/or energy used to make this product (or perform this service). Improving
efficiency means making the same product using less material and/or energy.
Dematerialization consists of the reduction of the intensity of material and energy that people remove from
nature. The goal of the next decades must be the reduction of a factor 10 of flows of material and energy
used in human activities. In particular, directives of application of the idea-guideline of the reduction of
material flows are: the reduction of waste, the increase in the durability of goods, the closing of material
production-consumption cycles.




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2. EUROPEAN POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
2.1 The principles
Already with the Fifth Environmental Action Program, the field of European environmental policy stretched
from environmental protection to sustainable development, going from the improvement of environmental
standards and parameters in the sectors of waste, water, soil and air emissions to the definition of systems
for global evaluation of scenarios and for the integration of environmental policies in the various sectors.
This approach has been consolidated by the Sixth Environmental Action Program, which has the following
fundamental principles:
     the precautionary principle;
     the “polluter pays” principle;
     the prevention principle;
     the integration principle.

The precautionary principle represents a rational answer to the peculiarities of the relationship between
man and nature and to the many issues arising from it. All human activities have an impact, more or less
negative, on the environment. Not always, however, the entity of this impact, which in some cases can
prove to be not only particularly heavy but also irreversible, is known. Uncertainty and the risk of
irreversibility have therefore to lead to prudence and thus to avoid causing damages resulting in the
permanent loss of some fundamental environmental functions which is impossible to restore.
The “polluter pays” principle, already mentioned in the Fifth Environmental Action Program, expresses the
intention of assigning responsibility to the ones causing environmental damage, so that the cost of
environmental externalities is not unjustly charged on society.
The prevention principle answers to the necessity of preventing negative impacts on the environment,
rather than patching them. Acting on the root of the problem and avoiding its occurrence rather than
remedying it, is more effective for environmental protection as well as economically more efficient.
For this reason, environmental policies should be integrated upstream of the strategies for sustainable
development both at a national and European level. In the same way, every enterprise, in order to reduce
its environmental impacts, should always prefer measures applied upstream of the production process
(cleaner production) rather than downstream (end-of-pipe).
The integration principle can be considered the supporting axis of the Community strategy for sustainable
development. The Communication to the Commission of the 15th May 2001, Sustainable development in
Europe for a better World: a European Union strategy for sustainable development, is oriented to
strengthen the coherence between policies and to enable sustainable development to be the priority for all
of them. This direction appears also in the European Council Conclusion of Gothenburg, confirming what is
sanctioned by the 6th article of the Amsterdam Treaty: “Environmental protection requirements must be
integrated into the definition and implementation of the Community policies and activities”.

The key points of the environmental policy defined by the Sixth Environment Action Programme identify
those aspects of the environment that must absolutely be confronted to attain sustainable development:
            climate change;
            nature and biodiversity;
            environment and health and quality of life;
            natural resources and wastes.

To face these environmental aspects EU considers necessary to adopt a mix of approaches, strategies,
policies, plans, programs and actions that lead to the change of lifestyle, and means of production and
consumption.
The starting assumption, however, is that environmental policy, on its own, is not able to face the
challenges of sustainable development. The changes necessary to reverse the trends underway in sectors
(such as fishing, agriculture, the energy and transportation) where pressures on the environment are

                                                                                                          9
particularly strong can be activated only integrating the environmental dimension in these sectors and
considering economic and social factors applicable to these sectors.
Also the document Review of environmental policy (2003) affirms that we “will manage to reverse the
unsupportable trends only by including responsive policies in an approach to environmental policy further
renewed and founded on the concepts of integration, action and information.
The efficiency of the Union strengthening the environmental component of the strategy of Lisbon thus
depends on its capacity to:
     promote an integrated decision-making approach and provide incentives for the integration of the
        environmental dimension in all the other community and national policies;
     create a new action approach that guarantees on one hand the adequate compliance with
        community environmental regulations (in order to contribute the maximum benefit to the
        environment) and on the other the modernization of the regulatory framework for the environment.
     base environmental policy on solid information and knowledge in order to increase its efficiency;
     fully disseminate the information on the effect on the environment to promote environmental
        changes necessary for sustainable development”.

The Sixth Program provides some strategies regarding thematic areas in which only a complex of
coordinated measures may guarantee results. These strategies define the general political approach and
the package of measures proposed to obtain the objectives and the environmental goals in an economically
efficient manner.
These will be in turn determined based on sound scientific-economic analysis and of a process of
consultation and open dialogue with the various parties involved.
The seven thematic strategies concern:
a) air quality
b) soil protection
c) sustainable use of pesticides
d) protection and conservation of the marine environment
e) prevention and recycling of waste
f) sustainable use of natural resources
g) urban environment.

Furthermore, each individual member country of EU has approved a national strategy of environmental
policy that allows better defining the objectives, to quantify them, establishing the times and the resources.
The objectives and actions of national strategies shall find continuity in the system of Local Administrations,
in light of the principle of subsidiarity, through the elaboration of sustainability strategies, at all levels, with
regard to their own specificities and priorities in collaboration and partnership with all the actors involved.

This process was better articulated, at the European and national level, in environmental improvement
goals, that can be translated in appropriate indicators.
The environmental improvement goals can be identified as the following:
1. reduction of the consumption of natural resources (water, minerals, forests, …) and energy;
2. maintenance of the vitality of ecosystems and of vital environmental functions;
3. replacement of non-renewable energy sources with renewable energy sources;
4. reduction of the use of chemical substances and of hazardous substances;
5. increased recovery, recycling and reuse of resources and of waste;
6. reduction of waste (wastewater, emissions, trash, ...)
7. improvement of environmental management “downstream”.

Managing to reach objectives of such great scope as those listed is the challenge of EU political action.
To orient its own actions toward a sustainable future, EU has identified four major areas for environmental
improvement:


                                                                                                                 10
a) products and services: with the goal of reducing their environmental impact along the phases of the
lifecycle (e.g.: LCA, EMAS, Ecolabel, EPD, GPP);
b) plans and programmes: with the goal of integrating the environmental component in all the aspects of
planning and public programming;
c) coordination of the actions of various actors on the territory (e.g. Agenda21): with the goal of orienting
the actions of various entities toward environmental improvement;
d) environmental accounting: with the goal of monitoring the effectiveness of actions of environmental
reconversion.


2.2 Integrated Product Policy
To intervene in the area regarding products, the policy suggested by EU is the Integrated Product Policy -
IPP – as defined in the Green paper on Integrated Product Policy (COM, 2001/68) – that is offered as a
strategy intended to strengthen and re-orient the environmental policies concerning the products in order
to promote the development of a market for more ecological products. The Commission underlines that IPP
does not represent a “new” policy that will be added to those preceding, but rather a new way of linking
instruments and policies already implemented.
IPP, according to the definitions by the European Commission is “an approach that attempts to reduce the
environmental impact of products during the entire lifecycle”.

The Green Paper strategy on the IPP foresees to use the strengths of the market at their maximum and to
include all the parties involved at all the possible levels of action along the lifecycle of the product. A goal as
ambitious as the promotion of the environmental quality of goods and services can be achieved only if the
various actors recognize their potential and make an effort to put it into practice.
The industry and retailers, adopting the IPP approach, will have the opportunity to review their productive
process according to eco-compatible criteria, may develop new products to expand their own market share
orienting their offer toward green consumers. Proactive businesses in terms of ecological efficiency will
have, furthermore, the possibility to direct a process of transformation of the market and thus to enjoy
future competitive advantages with regard to the competitors.
The consumers will have the advantage of better information on the environmental characteristics of
products that will make them able to address various goods and services also from the point of view of the
environmental impact rather than of the price.
Among the parties involved, the document of the European Commission does not neglect to include the
NGO-Non-Governmental Organizations, recognizing their role in identifying topics of comparison and
creation of practical solutions intended to reduce the environmental impact of products.
The local initiatives and thus the local authorities are indicated as “a constitutional element of the
community policy…given that allow adopting an approach from below to above oriented to the practices”.
The local initiatives, linked for example to the processes of Local Agenda 21, have a very significant
background of practical experiences in the involvement of local actors and sustainable planning, which risks
being consumed by local action when instead it must be transferred on a larger scale.
Finally, the IPP must represent a challenge especially for the activity of research and development that must
seek technological and planning solutions able to meet the needs of people, producing lower
environmental impacts.

Beginning from the presentation of this strategy along with the foundational idea of the centrality of the
market, with the Green Paper, the Commission stimulated the public debate that led to the final drafting of
Communication 302 on the IPP (June 18, 2003).
The established points of the IPP approach are:
             consideration of the lifecycle to promote the overall consistency of interventions
                (interventions for reduction of environmental impacts in the phases in which they are more
                effective);


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                the collaboration with the market encouraging the supply and ecological demand and
                 rewarding innovative companies;
              the involvement of parties involved in order for each to intervene in their won sphere of
                 influence;
              the continual improvement thus set a precise ceiling to reach; each company can set its
                 own objectives for improvement and concentrate on the intervention with the best cost-
                 effectiveness relationship;
              the multiplicity of tools for action, the variety of products requires a variety of tools for
                 intervention with preference for voluntary instruments.
The integrated product policy, according to the logic of the Green Paper and of the later Communication, is
articulated in the following areas of intervention:
              on the side of demand;
              on the side of supply;
              on the mechanism of prices definition extending the adoption of adequate methodologies.

Interventions act directly, through appropriate instruments, on the environmental quality of goods and
services contributing to making the processes of production more efficient from the ecological and
economic point of view and avoiding waste of matter and energy.
The tools are:
             Environmental labels;
             Ecolabel;
             Environmental Product Declaration (EPD);
             Environmental Management Systems (EMAS or ISO 14001);
             Green Public Procurement;
             Ecodesign;
             Sustainable tourism.
These are voluntary instruments that contribute to re-orienting producers’ choices toward products and
services with better environmental performance.

Interventions on the side of demand collect a group of tools for dissemination of private and public
demand oriented in an ecological sense.
The tools are:
             For private demand: dissemination of Ecolabel and EPD;
             For public demand: Green Public Procurement, eco-design, sustainable tourism.

Interventions on the side of price are mostly the results of decisions at the institutional level intended to
correct the lacks of the market applying the principle “the polluter pays” to internalize environmental costs.
The tools are:
              Environmental rates;
              Insurance for environmental risks;
              Incentives;
              Extension of the producer responsibility;
              Facilitated credit;
              Green Financing.

The requirement to internalize costs arises from the fact that often the prices of products do not reflect the
costs of their impact on the environment; in consequence, these are sustained by society as a whole,
creating an imbalance in the market.
On the other hand, the producers that voluntarily reduce the environmental impact of their products must
be able to enjoy preferential treatment in fiscal matters, government assistance, and insurance.


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The primary methods that can be used to activate an integrated product policy at the level of production
industry, but also of management of territorial authorities:
             Life Cycle Analysis (LCA);
             Environmental accounting;
             New Approach;
             Product study groups;
             Indicators of environmental impacts of products;
             Voluntary Agreements.

In particular, LCA is the logical foundation of the entire IPP approach, as is often repeated in the Green
Paper.

Environmental accounting is a useful methodology for “adding to the account” physical and economic flows
linked to the production of goods and services.

The New Approach is a new regulation technique adopted in the community legislative framework that sets
only the essential general requirements of a product, reducing the control of public authorities prior to
release onto the market and favouring greater integration of quality guarantees and of the evaluation of
compliance.

The ultimate GPP goal is the substitution of the existing products and services with others having a reduced
impact on the environment: the substitution starts on the consumer side (PA in this case) choosing to
purchase and utilize products and services with a lesser environmental impact, but it falls directly on the
manufacturer that must substitute the products and services he manufactures with products and services
with a reduced environmental impact if he wants to maintain his market positioning.

Adopting GPP means supporting both ecological demand and supply. Public demand represents 14% of
GDP in European Union Countries with peaks equal to 25% in the Scandinavian area.
These few numbers shall give an idea of the role played by the PA as a consumer and of the effect that the
adoption of ecological purchasing criteria by public authorities may have on the domestic market.
If PAs decided to substitute products and services they currently use and supply with others having a
reduced impact on the environment, GPP would be able to green the product/service offer without
intervening through legislative instruments or bans, but simply by acting on public demand.
Furthermore, GPP, through the example of good practices from the central administration and the local
authorities, sets out to trigger a righteous process of environmental improvement towards other subjects
such as companies, private institutions and citizens.
This is made possible by the fact that the reasons that make the purchase of low-environmental-impact
products interesting for the public sector and for the corporate reality are manifold. These are partly
common to corporate and institutional realities: it is the case, for example, of the reduction in waste
production, the energy and raw material savings and the economic savings related to them.
The importance of the GPP in many strategies of integration of environmental considerations in the sector
policies and the fact that the GPP constitutes the means to activate strategies of environmental protection
integrated without the use of additional resources for the planning and implementation of these latter,
made the use of this instrument central in the framework of sustainability policies.


2.3 The role of GPP in sustainability strategies
International bodies (OECD; United Nations), the European Union, national legislations have all included the
policy of “green purchases” in their strategies and Action Plans oriented to sustainability.
The most recent and significant references at EU level are:
 the Communication of the Commission on the Action plan for sustainable Consumption and Production
    and for sustainable industrial policy, COM (2008) 397/3 that specifies that GPP shall be later reinforced
                                                                                                          13
    by voluntary measures that will be complementary to some obligatory interventions. The Commission
    will give public authorities Guidelines and tools to make their green purchases; targets to be reached
    will also be identified and models of technical specifications to be included in tenders will be provided;
   the Communication Public Procurement for a better environment, COM(2008)400/2 that is the first
    specific communication on GPP and contains indications on targets, on the definition of common
    environmental criteria, on the priority sectors. The Communication is accompanied by a technical
    working document (Commission staff working document SEC (2008)2126/2).

We report, below, other important documents that have in the last years opened the way to GPP
implementation.

Green Paper: public procurement in the European Union – Communication adopted by the Commission on
November 27, 1996 – par. VI of Chapter 5 of “Public procurement and environment:”
Following the growing importance of environmental protection in the community environment and express
disposition of Art. 130 R (CE treaty – version consolidated by Maastricht) that provides the integration of
the requirements of environmental protection in the other community policies, sponsors, according to the
quantitative relevance of the sector of public bids (14% of the PIL of the European
Community), that the directives in the matter of public bids expressly provide the possibility to introduce,
within certain limits, considerations of an environmental nature of the invitations to bid.

Decision of the Commission of January 24, 2001, on the Sixth Environment Action Programme of the
European Union (Article 3 Strategic approaches to meeting environmental objectives).
To help ensure that individual consumers, enterprises and public bodies in their roles as purchasers, are
better informed about the processes and products in terms of their environmental impact with a view to
achieving sustainable consumption patterns requires, among the other things, promoting a green public
procurement policy, allowing environmental characteristics to be taken into account and the possible
integration of environmental life cycle, including the production phase, concerns in the procurement
procedures while respecting Community competition rules and the internal market, with guidelines on best
practice and starting a review of green procurement in Community Institutions.

Green Paper on Integrated Product Policy of February 27, 2001
In Chapter 4.2 (Tools and incentives for greener consumption) is emphasised the role of the public
administration in orienting the offers toward ecological products and make these more competitive on the
market.
If a substantial part of public authorities increases their demand for green products this will have an
enormous effect on the market of environmentally friendly products and will get industry to increase their
production of green products substantially. The Commission will also look at the feasibility of promoting
green purchasing by introducing an obligation to carry out, before purchasing, an assessment of the
environmental impact of the different alternatives available that meet the needs of the contracting
authorities. In this way, decisions will be taken with full awareness of the environmental consequences.
Furthermore, the Commission considers of strategic importance the information of the administrations
responsible for the purchases since the purchasing authorities do not have sufficient specific information
regarding the environmental characteristics they must seek in products. For this purpose, it is the intention
of the Commission to set the bases to establish a European exchange network of “good practices” among
public administrations.
A Sustainable Europe for a better world: A European Union Strategy for Sustainable Development (May 15,
2001) – Proposal of the Commission for the European Council of Göteborg.
In the Chapter on the need to “Invest in science and technology for the future” is stated (among the
actions) that: “Drawing on the guidance document the Commission will issue shortly, Member States
should consider how to make better use of public procurement to favour environmentally-friendly products
and services”.


                                                                                                           14
Communication on Integrated product policy – Building on Environmental Life-Cycle Thinking developing the
concept of environmental life cycle (June 18, 2003).
This document is a result of the consultations with the interested parties launched by the Commission after
the publication of the Green Paper and specifies the objectives of the latter.
In Chapter 5.1 (Tools for Creating the Right Economic and Legal Framework) green procurement is expressly
mentioned as a tool to promote continuous environmental improvement, necessary to encourage
producers to make new generations of more ecological products and encourage consumers to purchase
these products.
In Chapter 5.3 (Giving Consumers the Information to Decide) the Commission affirms that it will elaborate
measures for public authorities to assist them in greening their purchasing policies.
In particular:
     a practical handbook for public authorities;
     a database on product groups;
     a website dedicated to the integration of environmental needs in public bidding.

Communication of the Commission of February 11, 2004 – Towards a thematic strategy on the urban
environment.
In Chapter 2.3.3 “Further measures needed to achieve widespread sustainable construction” it states: “All
Member States, local authorities and other public purchasers will be encouraged to introduce sustainability
requirements in their own tendering procedures for buildings and other construction works and in relation
to the use of public funds for buildings and other construction works. They will be encouraged to develop
fiscal incentives for more sustainable buildings”.

Environmental technologies Action Plan (COM (2004) 38 final of the 28/01/04): supports the necessity of
the public authorities to orient the market toward cleaner technologies, in at least two chapters.
Chapter 4.2 “This situation needs to be significantly improved for environmental technologies to prosper.
Bold policy measures are required to further environmental technologies. Positive incentives and an
appropriate regulatory framework are important, as are public procurement and voluntary instruments”.
[…]
«… During 2004 the Commission will also investigate the possibilities for promoting environmental
technologies through the setting of performance-based requirements in public procurement procedures.
This could be a way of pulling environmental technologies into the market place. Buyers, or groups of
buyers, could formulate technical specifications that challenge companies to go beyond the current best
available technologies. Industry then knows that if it produces such products it has better chances of
winning relevant contracts. This results in competition to meet these criteria, thereby pulling the market
upwards. This type of procurement, which has sometimes been called technology procurement, has been
used for energy efficiency products by a number of Member States (e.g. Sweden for refrigerators and heat
pumps). ...”

Towards a thematic strategy on the prevention and recycling of waste COM (2003) 301 final of May 27,
2003.
Chapter 5.2 “Instruments to promote waste prevention” provides that “There could be added value in the
co-ordination of national approaches that address the players in the marketplace. In particular the
consumer’s choice as well as voluntary schemes implemented by public purchasers are potentially a
powerful signal for the development of greener products, including products which in their production, use
and consumption generate less waste.”
Chapter 5.5.3 “Demand-side measures” declares that “Demand for recycled materials is affected by many
factors, from consumer perceptions to product specifications, public procurement rules and corporate
purchasing patterns. […]. However, the use of recycled materials is one factor among others which affect
the life-cycle performance of products. Proposals to introduce demand-side measures should therefore be
based on a life-cycle perspective.”


                                                                                                        15
Towards a thematic strategy on the sustainable use of natural resources COM (2003) 572 final of October 1,
2003.
The introduction clarifies the link existing between integrated product policy (and therefore GPP), strategy
for the reduction of waste and strategy for the sustainable use of natural resources when it affirms « The
Resources Strategy will focus on understanding and mapping the links between the use of resources and
their environmental impacts in order to identify where action is needed. The Integrated Product Policy (IPP)
provides a toolkit of instruments that can be applied to reduce the environmental impact of a product
throughout its life cycle. The two initiatives are therefore complementary. The Waste Prevention and
Recycling Strategy takes the waste phase as its starting point. It should, over time, focus on areas linked to
the priority issues identified by the Resources Strategy. Parallel implementation of the three initiatives will
allow frequent feedback between them and thus help to gradually improve the overall approach through
an iterative learning process. Tackling the environmental issues of resources and products simultaneously
at different stages of their life-cycles will also improve understanding of trade-offs: how measures adopted
to reduce environmental impact at one stage can increase impact at another stage. Clearly, a coherent
approach needs to ensure that reduction of environmental impact is assessed over the entire life-cycle.”

Buying Green! Handbook SEC (2004) 1050 of August 18, 2004:
An essential document, of more than forty pages, destined for the public local and national authorities,
focused on the GPP.

The First report on the implementation of ETAP COM(2005) 16 final 27/01/05 that, in Chapter 3, affirms
that “National action plans for green public procurement should be drawn up. Such plans should establish
objectives and benchmarks for enhancing green public procurement as well as guidance and practical tools
for public procurers.”

Draft declaration on guiding principles of sustainable development COM(2005) 218 - that provides, among
the fundamental objectives, the protection of the environment, prevention and reduction of environmental
pollution and promotion of sustainable production and consumption to break the link between economic
growth and environmental degradation.

Communication of the European Commission on the Policy Coherence for Development – Accelerating
progress towards attaining the Millennium Development Goals” COM (2005) 134 places, in paragraph 3.2.1,
the actions of the EU to “reduce non-sustainable models of consumption and production” among the
principal actions and considerations on which the consistency of the EU rests in a matter of commitments
to development.

The document of the European Council “Review of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy” (DOC
10917/06 of the 9/6/2006), places the general goal of the “Sustainable consumption and production”
among the seven principal challenges that must counteract the trend toward worsening of the
environment and affirms: “In this context the Commission will propose an EU Sustainable Consumption and
production Action plan by 2007, which should help to identify and overcome barriers for SCP and to ensure
better coherence between the different related policy areas and to raise awareness among citizens and
change unsustainable consumption habits. The Commission and the Member States should engage in a
dialogue with business and relevant stakeholders aiming at setting environmental and social performance
targets for products and processes. The Commission and Member States will develop a structured process
to share best practice and expertise on GPP taking into account the potential to promote GPP at local and
regional levels. The Commission will facilitate regular EU-wide benchmarking of GPP performance,
according to an assessment methodology based on agreed and objective parameters, and examine with
Member States how best to promote GPP for other major product groups by 2007.”




                                                                                                            16
GPP can on one side stimulate the use of different Integrated Product Policy instruments, and on the other
side become the instrument for the implementation of some of them, as illustrated here below.




The knowledge base for choosing a product or service with a reduced environmental impact comes from
the lifecycle analysis of that product or service. This means that a local authority can choose a
product/service by looking at the impacts that the latter may have in the phases of raw material extraction
and consumption, production, use and disposal. In this regard, an authority can obtain information relating
the environmental quality of the various products and services by referring to eco-labels, environmental
product declarations (EPDs), company’s environmental certifications, EMAS and ISO 14001.
On the other hand, green purchases can easily represent concrete actions to achieve environmental
improvement objectives defined within Local Agenda 21 or within a local authority’s Environmental Policy
aimed at EMAS registration, as well as objectives and targets included in other plans (e.g. Energy Plan,
Urban Traffic Plan) as already mentioned earlier.
Starting from the identification of the environmental impacts of goods and services utilized and supplied by
a Public Administration, GPP leads to the substitution of the latter with goods and services with the same
function but a reduced environmental impact. Once the nature and the crucial environmental effects of the
different goods and services have been identified, GPP can be strategically implemented, by taking into
account environmental protection priorities, when choices about the goods/services to be substituted and
about the ecological criteria to be used in purchasing procedures are made. This aspect must not be
underestimated: GPP implementation yields immediate, tangible and quantifiable results, and this meets
the need for the local authorities to communicate with citizens and to account for their own actions, in
particular with respect to programs such as the Local Agenda 21. GPP monitoring and reporting activities
can be aided by the adoption of physical and monetary environmental accounting tools. Environmental
pressure indicators can help verifying the environmental effectiveness of GPP practices. Monetary
environmental accounting can be used to verify the status of implementation in terms of environmental
expenditure but also to assess the overall economic efficiency in reaching environmental improvement
objectives.




                                                                                                         17
3. STATE OF IMPLEMENTATION OF GPP
As for other Integrated Product Policy instruments, GPP is a voluntary instrument, whose introduction
procedures and implementation status vary according to the location and the size of the authorities
involved, and of the products and services concerned.
Furthermore, it must be highlighted that, as GPP concerns the purchasing practices of an authority, it is not
always so immediate to recognise in its use an environmental protection policy. The choice of buying green
can in some cases have different underlying reasons from environmental protection, such as economic
saving, health protection, or product and service quality.
As a result, the state of implementation of GPP is rather changeable and it is virtually impossible to provide
a comprehensive picture of all experiences made, in terms of tender notices, specifications and service
contracts containing ecological criteria.

At European level, the Scandinavian countries can be considered the pioneers of GPP, for the experience
both at national level and at local level (with the Municipality of Kolding, in Denmark, that reached 100% of
purchases of green products).
Another significant experience to point out is that of the Swedish municipalities of Malmoe and Goteborg,
of the Province of Vorarlberg and of the Municipality of Vienna (Austria), and the cities of Barcelona (Spain)
and Lille (France).

Aside from the places of GPP diffusion, it is useful to look at the ongoing experiences in order to verify:
     what public policies are generally adopted to introduce GPP,
     what instruments are available to promote GPP,
     what obstacles must be tackled and overcome.

In particular, the different strategies for GPP introduction and diffusion can be classified along two main
lines of actions, which can also integrate each other:
     the use of regulation;
     information and training activities, sharing of good practices


3.1. Legislation concerning procurement
It is the concept of the European Union that procurement in the member states should follow common
rules in order to be able to keep up with the common European market in the future. Public procurement,
with some exceptions, is subject to Community and international rules. Under these rules public sector
procurement should follow transparent open procedures ensuring fair conditions of competition for
suppliers.
The importance of Public Procurement varies significantly between Member States ranging between 11%
and 20% of GDP. The opening up of public procurement within the Internal Market has increased cross
border competition and improved prices paid by public authorities. There remains potential for significant
further competition in procurement markets and for further savings for taxpayers. It is still true, that some
purchases may be exempted from Community rules under certain conditions (e.g.: arms, munitions and war
material, if this is necessary for the protection of the essential interests of security) and also purchases
below thresholds must respect the principles of the Treaty only.

Main directives, regulations and legislation in the countries participating in the project are mentioned
below.

Mandatory legislation concerning purchasing in Public Sector

                                                                                                              18
Directive 2004/17/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 31 March 2004
Procurement procedures of entities operating in the water, energy, transport and postal services sectors


BOSNIA ERZEGOVINA         "SgBiH" no. 49/04

                          The Directive has been implemented by the Public Procurement Act (Official - SG.
                          28 on 4/6/2004; later. Am. and supplemented. Pcs. 82 of 16.10.2009, in force on
BULGARIA                  16.10.2009)Директивата е въведена със Закона за обществените поръчки
                          (Обн. - ДВ, бр. 28 от 06.04.2004 г.; посл. изм. и доп. бр. 82 от 16.10.2009 г., в
                          сила от 16.10.2009 г.)

GREECE                    Presidential Decree Nr 59 (ΦΕΚ 63/A/2007, Προεδρικό Διάταγμα 59)


                          Act No 2005/172 modification of the Act No 2003/129 regarding the public
HUNGARY
                          procurement. (Hungarian code No: J2005T0172P)


ITALY                     Leg. Dec. 163/06 Procurement and public contract code

                          ORDINANCE no.34/2006 Emergency Ordinance regarding the award of the public
ROMANIA                   procurement contracts, public works concession contracts and service concession
                          contracts which was subject to later changes and amendments.




Directive 2004/18/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 31 March 2004
Procedures for the award of public works contracts, public supply contracts and public service contracts


BOSNIA ERZEGOVINA         "SgBiH" no. 49/04

                          The Directive has been implemented by the Public Procurement Act (Official -
                          SG. 28 on 4/6/2004; later. Am. And supplemented. Pcs. 82 of 16.10.2009, in
BULGARIA                  force on 16.10.2009)Директивата е въведена със Закона за обществените
                          поръчки (Обн. - ДВ, бр. 28 от 06.04.2004 г.; посл. изм. и доп. бр. 82 от
                          16.10.2009 г., в сила от 16.10.2009 г.)

GREECE                    Presidential Decree Nr 60 (ΦΕΚ 64/A/2007, Προεδρικό Διάταγμα 60)

                          Act No 2005/172 modification of the Act No 2003/129 regarding the public
                          procurement. (Hungarian code No: J2005T0172P) and amendments (Hungarian
                          code No. of amendments: J2006R0105K, J2006R0196K, J2003T0129P,
HUNGARY
                          J2006R0002IM, J2004T0097P, J2005T0029P, J2005T0029P, J2004R0034K,
                          J2005R0102K, J2004R0137K, 2006R0001PM, J2007R0257K, J2007R0122K,
                          J2007R0018SZMM, J2004R0001FMM)

                                                                                                           19
Directive 2004/18/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 31 March 2004
Procedures for the award of public works contracts, public supply contracts and public service contracts


ITALY                     Leg. Dec. 163/06 Procurement and public contract code

                          ORDINANCE no.34/2006 Emergency Ordinance regarding the award of the public
ROMANIA                   procurement contracts, public works concession contracts and service
                          concession contracts which was subject to later changes and amendments.




Commission Regulation 1564/2005 of 7 September 2005
Establishment of standard forms for the publication of notices for public procurement procedures

Commission Regulation 2083/2005 of 19 December 2005
Application thresholds for the procedures for the award of contracts (amending Directives 2004/17/EC &
2004/18/EC)

Commission Regulation 213/2008 of 28 November 2007
Common Procurement Vocabulary (CPV) and Public procurement procedures (as regards the revision of the
CPV)
                        Regulations are directly applicable to all member countries




Briefly, these are the contest procedures depicted in the current legislative framework:
OPEN PROCEDURE represents the procedure for awarding the public procurement contract to which any
interested economic operator is entitled to submit a tender. The open tender is initiated by sending for
publication a participation notice whereby the economic operators are requested to submit tenders.
The open tender is regularly conducted in one stage.

RESTRICTED PROCEDURE represents the procedure whereby any economic operator is entitled to submit
its candidacy, and only selected candidates will be entitled to submit a tender.
The restricted procedure is initiated by sending for publication a participation notice whereby the economic
operators are requested to submit candidacies.
The restricted tender is conducted regularly in two stages:
         •     the candidate selection stage;
         •     the stage of evaluation of the tenders submitted by the selected candidates.

COMPETITIVE DIALOGUE represents the procedure to which any economic operator is entitled to submit
candidacy and whereby the contracting authority carries on a dialogue with the accepted candidates, for
the purpose of identification of one or several solutions fit to meet its requirements, and, based on the
identified solution(s), the selected candidate to elaborate the final tender.
The competitive dialogue is applied only when the terms are fulfilled, in a cumulating manner:
         •     the relevant contact is deemed to be highly complex;
         •     the application of the open procedure or restricted procedure would not allow the awarding
             of the relevant public procurement contract.
The competitive dialogue procedure is conducted in three stages:
         •     candidates pre-selection stage;
                                                                                                           20
        •     stage of dialogue with the candidates accepted following the preselection, for identification
            of the solution/solutions fit to meet the requirements of the contracting authority based upon
            which the candidates will elaborate and submit the final tender;
       •      the stage of evaluation of the final submitted tenders.
Competitive dialogue is initiated by sending for publication a participation notice whereby economic
operators are requested to submit candidacies.


NEGOTIATION is the procedure whereby the contracting authority carries on consulting with the selected
candidates and negotiates the contractual terms, including the price, with one or several of these.
Negotiation can be with or without the prior publication of a participation notice;
The procedure is regularly conducted in two stages:
       •      the stage of candidate selection;
       •      the stage of evaluation of the tenders submitted by the selected candidates.

THE TENDER REQUEST represents the simplified procedure whereby the contracting authority requests
tenders from several economic operators.
The tender request is applied only if the estimated value of the public procurement contract, without the
VAT, is lower than the following thresholds:
         •     for the supply contract: EUR 100.000 ;
         •     for the service contract: EUR 100.000 ;
         •     for the works contract: EUR 750.000.
The tender request is initiated by publication of an invitation for participation in the awarding procedure.

DIRECT PURCHASE The contracting authority has the right to apply direct purchase in the following cases.
Direct purchase is applied in case where products, services or works are purchased, the value of which
(without VAT), cumulated throughout one year, and does not exceed EUR 15.000.



Open procedure and restricted procedure are usually for the award of procurement contracts.

Competitive dialogue negotiations, tender offer and competition of solutions are exceptions.
The choices of the public procurement procedures, which are exceptions from the rule, are in charge
exclusively of contracting authority.


3.1.1. BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA

Law on Public Procurement SgBiH n° 49/04 (hereinafter “Law”) defines public procurement process and
bodies in charge of implementation of the Law. By the Art. 48, establishment of the Public Procurement
Agency is defined.

Art. 3 of the Law defines authorities obliged to apply the Public Procurement process, and these are:

a) any administrative authority, Entity, Brčko District, Cantonal, City or Municipal level (hereinafter referred
to as authorities at State or local levels of administration);

b) any public entity as defined in paragraph (2) of this Article;

c) any public enterprise carrying out one of the activities defined in paragraph (3) of this Article over which
a contracting authority may exercise a dominant influence by virtue of its ownership of it, its financial
participation therein, or the rules which govern it.


                                                                                                             21
The Commission for Joint public procurement is responsible for the public procurement for state
institutions.

Other contracting authorities individually apply public procurement procedures for goods, services and
works in accordance with the law. Register of Contracting Authorities, which are obliged to apply the law
on public procurement, is available on the Public Procurement Agency web site
(http://www.javnenabavke.gov.ba).

Law defines the compulsory contents of Tender Documents.

Public procurement contracts for goods, services or execution of works are awarded through one of the
following proceedings (Art. 10) and according to the conditions set out (Art. 11):

a)   open procedure;
b)   restricted procedure with pre-qualification;
c)   negotiated procedure with publication of a procurement notice;
d)   negotiated procedure without publication of a procurement notice;
e)   design contest.


The Public Procurement starts with publishing of the Notification about public procurement in the B&H
Official Gazette, in the Agency for Public Procurement website, and additionally the notification may be
published in other media: publication of the notification about public procurement is mandatory for
procurement whose value is equal to or greater than 50.000 KM (25.565 €) in case of goods and services, or
80.000 KM (40.903 €) in case of works.

When the value of the contract is lower than 50.000 KM (25.565 €) in case of goods and services, or 80.000
KM (40.903 €) in case of works, the contracting authority may directly call a certain number of suppliers to
submit bids. In the case when the estimated value of the contract for goods, services and works is less than
or equal to 6.000 KM (3.067 €) contract may be awarded directly.

When the value of the contract in case of goods and services is equal to or greater than 500.000 KM
(255.645 €) for state organs or 700.000 KM (357.904 €) for local organs or public entities defined in Art. 3 of
the Law, or in the case when the value of the works is equal to or greater than 2.000.000 KM (1.022.583 €),
the procedure, except in case of services listed in Annex II, part B of the Law (hotel services, railway
transportation services, waters transportation services, etc.), will be open to international competition, and
the summary of procurement, in English, will be published in international public media.

The Law does not treat specifications of textile or other products separately.
Art. 14 of the Law says that the technical specifications, respecting existing obligatory technical regulations
that are defined in the Laws on Standardization in B&H, will refer to the:

1)      national standards that are in conformity with European standards, technical approvals or common
technical specifications used in EU, or
2)      internationally accepted standards, technical regulations or norms, or
3)      other national standards or other references of a technical nature accompanied by the indication
that products, services or works meeting other standards or technical references approved by
internationally recognised standardisation institutions of other states that are at least substantially
equivalent to the specified references.



                                                                                                            22
3.1.2. BULGARIA

The national legislation for public procurement is regulated and based on two main documents:

◦ Public Procurement Act (PPA), (published in the State Gazette n° 28, published on 04/06/2004; as last
amended by State Gazette n° 19, published on 08/03/2011, in force as of 01/10/2004);

◦ Ordinance For the Award of Small Public Contracts (hereinafter “Ordinance”), (Adopted with Council of
Ministers’ Decree n° 249 dated 17/09/2004, published in the State Gazette n° 84, dated 27/09/2004, later
amended and supplemented in the State Gazette n° 86 dated 02/11/2010, in force as of 01/10/2004).

The objective of public procurement legislation is to ensure both transparency and efficiency of budget
expenses, as well as funds, related to activities of public importance.

Both Public Procurement Act (PPA) and Ordinance for the Award of Small Public Contracts regulate
expenditures of budget (public) funds, related to the award of works to the economic operators.
PPA has the power of a common law: its provisions should be applied in all cases, when there are no special
reasons for carrying out procedures under the Ordinance.

PPA guarantees the requirements for publicity and transparency, free and fair competition, equality and
non discrimination in the implementing procedures for GPP. The document regulates the following
procedures: supply of goods; services; construction works, including building or engineering,
implementation or design of construction and renovation works.

                                                      Types of tender procedures
  Types of tender procedures
                                                      under the Ordinance for the Award of Small
  under Public Procurement Act
                                                      Public Contracts
                                                       Open competition is a procedure in which all the
                  Open procedure
                                                       people who are interested may submit their bids.
                                                       Negotiation upon call is a procedure in which the
                                                        assignor negotiates for the determination of the
                Restricted procedure
                                                         contract provisions with one or more persons
                                                                        appointed by him.
                                                        Contest for a project is held to acquire a plan or
                                                      idea project, selected by a jury, based on a contest
                Competitive dialogue                      with or without prices, mainly in the field of
                                                       spatial planning, architecture, engineering or data
                                                                            processing.
                                                      The assignor should collect not less than 3 offers,
                                                      containing technical and financial proposals,
                                                      unless it is objectively impossible, when the
                                                      proposals cover the following amounts for public
                                                      procurement, without VAT:
                                                            for construction works:
               Negotiated procedures
                                                                - from 45.000 to 200.000 levs;
                                                                - from 500.000 to 1.500.000 levs when
                                                                   the place of execution is abroad;
                                                            for supplies and services :
                                                                - from 15.000 to 50.000 levs,
                                                                - from 50.000 to 100.000 levs, when the
                                                                                                         23
                                                                     place of execution is abroad.

                                                        The assignor may collect 3 offers, when the
                                                        amount without VAT is as follows:
                                                             for construction works:
                                                                - less than 45.000 levs;
                                                                - less than 500.000 levs when the place
                                                                   of execution is abroad;
                                                             for supplies and services:
                                                                - less than 15.000 levs;
                                                                - less than 50.000 levs when the place of
                                                                   execution is abroad


The application of the procedures, stipulated in PPA or under the Ordinance is determined by the value of
the public procurement.

The conditions of procurement, as stated in the PPA, are mandatory for the execution of public contracts
having the following values (without VAT):

  Activity                                              Thresholds
  Construction works                                    Above 1.099.277 €
                                                        Above 3.067.751 € when the place of execution is
                                                        abroad
  Supplies                                              Above 92.032 €;
                                                        Above 127.823 € when the place of execution is
                                                        abroad
  Services                                              Above 56.242 €;
                                                        Above 127.823 € when the place of execution is
                                                        abroad

The competitive dialogue and the negotiated procedures are applied only in case of explicitly stipulated by
the law grounds, in compliance with the directives related to PPA.

Small public contracts, as stipulated in the Ordinance, should be mandatory applied below the thresholds
set in the table here above:

  Activity                                              Thresholds
  Construction works                                    Less or equal to 1.099.277 €
                                                        Less or equal to 3.067.751 € when the place of
                                                        execution is abroad
  Supplies                                              Less or equal to 92.032 €
                                                        Less or equal to 127.823 € when the place of
                                                        execution is abroad
  Services                                              Less or equal to 56.242 €
                                                        Less or equal to 127.823 € when the place of
                                                        execution is abroad
  Contest for the project                               From 15.338 € to 56.242 €

The assignor determines the contractor on the basis of evaluation of offers, by one of the following criteria,
specified in the procurement notice:
     the lowest price;
                                                                                                           24
       the most economically cost efficient offer.

Within the period of 5 working days, after the completion of the Commission’ evaluation, the assigner
issues a motivated decision, declaring and classifying the participants and after that designates a
Contractor. With this entity he signs a public procurement contract.

Complaints may be lodged within 10 days by any interested party after announcement of the relevant
decision or action. Every interested party may bring an action for nullity/ negligibility of the contract, under
the Civil Procure Code.

The Minister of Economy, Energy and Tourism is responsible for conducting the public procurement policy.
A special body is established – the Public Procurement Agency (APP), which carries out activities, related to
project design of regulations, main directives, the methodology and maintenance of the national Public
Procurement Register. The Register is public with free database, including:
     decisions on opening and cancellation of public procurement procedures, as well as decisions for
        extension of deadlines of the offers or of the declarations for participation;
     notices, provided for registration;
     information on awarded public procurement;
     information on implemented public procurement contracts;
     other information.

The control on the proper implementation of legislation, realized by the contracting entities should be
performed by the Agency for State Financial Inspection and the Audit Office of Bulgaria.



3.1.3 GREECE

Officially Responsible for the public procurement in Greece is the General Secretariat of Commerce, General
Directorate of Public Procurement. The Guide for public procurement is available electronically under the
website of General Secretariat of Commerce, where definitions and procedures are explained:

       Definition of public procurement
       Organisations responsible for public procurement
       Unified National Procurement Programme
       Legal status of public procurement (National or European based, depending on budget)
       Type of contests (Open, Restricted or Brief contest, Negotiation Procedure)
       Publication of contest
       Proclamation content
       Technical specifications
       Participation criteria for public procurement
       Deadlines for participation
       Offer of tenders and submission by suppliers
       Financial guarantees for participation in a contest
       Involved bodies
       Phases of the contest procedure
       Criteria for award
       Evaluation of the offers
       Complaints, appeals and other judicial issues
       Delivery of goods – final receipt
       Supplier’s payment

                                                                                                             25
         Inconsistencies, penalties
         Quality systems and certification
         Publication


Certain goods mainly for security and defence purposes, like weapons, ships, submarines, etc. are excluded
from above procedures and have different defined processes.

Municipalities and Public Utilities (DEKO) usually develop their own specifications and have relevant
contest procedures, but run their own contests and deliveries.

Outline of the procedure

          Stage                          Operation

 1.       Drafting of the public         A public body informs the General Secretarial of Commerce (GSC)
          procurement annual             for the next year requirements and submits relevant technical
          programme                      specifications
 2.       Specifications on goods to Verification of technical specifications is realised by a Committee,
          be purchased               with members of General Secretariat of Commerce, the public body
                                     involved and independent consultants. Έρχονται από τον φορέα και
                                     ελέγχονται από αυτή την επιτροπή
 3.       Supporting documentation       GSC develops relevant documentation and follows special
                                         procedures for the public contest to be realised:
                                                 publications of the participation notice
                                                 awarding documentation
                                                 answers to the requests for clarifications in cooperation
                                                  with technical departments
                                                 rules for participation and avoiding the conflict of interests
 4.       Calling to competition         Public Contest
                                                 Purchasers may appeal against technical or other issues
 5.       Conducting the awarding       Committee with members from General Secretariat of
                                         Commerce, the public body involved and independent
          Procedure     –    technical   consultants checks technical issues on data given by purchasers
          issues
                                          Consulting response of Technical Committee
                                                 Competitors may appeal against technical or other issues
 6.       Conducting the awarding         Committee checks financial documentation and other relevant
                                           data given by purchasers
          Procedure – financial issues
                                          Conclusion on competitors after checking financial data


 7.       Closure of competition          National Committee of Government Supplies [with members
                                           from Ministry of Finance, Hellenic General Confederation of
                                           workers (GSEE) and Hellenic Federation of Enterprises (SEV)]
                                           makes its proposal on final contest competitor
                                          Decision is made by the Relevant Department of GSC


                                                                                                               26
                                       Adjudication is signed by the Minister of Development
 8.    Implementation                  The public body involved is responsible for the convention
                                        implementation and goods purchased




3.1.4. HUNGARY
The Hungarian Parliament has recently accepted the new Act on Public Procurement (CVIII/2011),
published officially on 20 July 2011. The Act, that will be in effect from 21 August 2011, is mostly in line
with the relevant European rules for public procurement and defines several particular details.
Nevertheless the Act does not mention specifically Green Procurement. As the European Parliament will
discuss issues related to public procurement in the fall of 2011, it may lead to further modifications of the
Hungarian Act on Public Procurement in the near future.

The Act defines the actors who shall follow the Act on Public Procurement in procuring goods or services
from the market. These actors are among others: ministries, the Office of the Prime Minister, the state as a
whole, local governments, all budgetary authorities, public foundations, local and central minority
governments, development associations of local governments, regional development councils.

In addition - crucial from the point of view of green procurement - the Act states that the Act on Public
Procurement must be followed in procurement procedures in state grants and in grants where the majority
of the financial support comes directly from European Union funds. This is important as – similarly to many
other Easter European countries – EU Funds, Structural Funds play a major role in investment and
development, as well as these procurement procedures represent a significant share of public
procurements. Therefore there is a room for European-level intervention to public procurement policies: if
the European Union would emphasize the need for Green Procurement when spending Community funds,
the share of Green Procurement could be seriously increased.

In general, and in line with the European rules for public procurement, the client has four main phases
where green preferences can be presented:
    - at the definition of the subject of public procurement
    - at setting the eligibility criteria for successful tenderers,
    - at setting the evaluation criteria,
    - at setting the conditions of fulfilment of public contract.

According to the Act, the call for tender must include the technical specifications of the goods or services to
be procured. These include the exact definition of the subject of the procurement. Therefore Hungarian
actors should have the opportunity to include green preferences, nevertheless in this case the procurer
must set at an early phase, in the beginning of the procedure, that the procured goods/services should be
environment-friendly, and there is no opportunity to prefer (later on) at the evaluation phase the “greener”
vendors.

The same applies for setting the eligibility criteria – in this case, once the procurement procedure has
started, there is no chance to “rather choose” the environment-friendly supplier. The same eligibility
criteria shall imply for all tenderers.

The Act specifies (55. § (1)) the main categories of eligibility criteria that can be set by the procurer: a)
professional experience and skills, b.) technical conditions, c.) quality assurance or environmental
standards, d.) economic and financial standing. Therefore there is a clear possibility to request that the
tenderer fulfils specific environmental criteria, meets the requested standard or possesses a specific
environmental label. Important to note that this does not cover product labels, as the subject of the
eligibility criteria is not the procured product or service but the vendor of that product or service.

                                                                                                            27
Regarding the evaluation criteria, the procurers must decide before publishing the call for procurement
that they choose as evaluation criteria a.) the offer with the lowest price, or b.) the most advantageous
offer (71. § (1)). Environmental preferences can be better applied if evaluation is based upon choosing the
most advantageous offer, unless it was set in the eligibility criteria that only tenderers meeting specific
evaluation criteria can apply. If the procurer wishes to prefer environment-friendly products or services, it
is advisable to set the evaluation criteria on choosing the most advantageous offer.

Furthermore, in this case, the procurer has the right to set the weights and points used for comparison of
the offers. In this case, tender applications offering environment-friendly products and services can receive
significant weights, points in the evaluation procedure. Article 71. § (4) point c. states that the specific
criteria applied must be relevant for the procured goods or services, and environmental aspects and
sustainability are explicitly mentioned (among quality, technical value, design, functionality, operational
costs, guarantees and technical services, supply of replacement parts).

The most important part of the regulation – when it comes to green procurement – is that the procurer can
explicitly state specific environmental criteria as the conditions for fulfilment of the contract. Article 125. §
(1) states that the procurer may include particular conditions in the contract, especially in the fields of
social, environmental and quality assurance conditions. These conditions must be presented in the call for
tender and the draft contract attached to the call for tender.

The choice of the procurement process itself can also influence the outcome in terms of procuring
environment-friendly products or services. Under specific circumstances, the procurer may decide not to
launch an open call for tenders but to choose a by-invitation-only procedure (Article 84. § - 88. §), a
negotiated procedure upon published notice (Article 89 § - 93. §), or a call for framework contract(s).
(Article 108 § - 110. §). In these cases, by the pre-selection of the tenderers, environment friendly public
procurement can be ensured.

Upon very specific conditions, the procurer may also launch a negotiated procedure without published
notice (Article 94. § - 100. §), a tender dialogue (Article 101. § - 107. §), but these procedures must be
heavily justified.

In conclusion, it is clear that the new Act on Public Procurement does not target very strongly the issue of
green procurement (does not “push” the procurement actors towards green procurement). As the
“Justification” chapter of the document published on the website of the Parliament states, the most urgent
motivations behind the new regulation were to ease the administrational burdens on public procurement
procedures while at the same time to ensure transparency, and – as it is a very heavily debated issue in
Hungary – the protection of small and middle sized enterprises in public procurement procedures (to
prevent “circular debt” or “chain of debt” where smaller partners and subcontractors are in a very
vulnerable position).

Nevertheless it is important that if a procurer wishes to prefer environment-friendly goods and services,
the Act allows for the preference of those, by permitting to set the definition, the evaluation criteria and
the criteria for the fulfilment of the contract according to various environmental requirements and
standards.

It is hoped that the Hungarian regulation will dedicate further attention to green procurement, as the
European Union has already done so. Domestic regulation shall follow the Communities’ principles in the
near future in the domain of environment-friendly procurement that can lead to sustainability in
environmental, economic and social terms as well.




                                                                                                              28
3.1.5. ITALY
The Public Contracts Code (D. lgs. 163/2006) specifically introduces:
 new thresholds;
 a new common vocabulary (CPV);
 changes in the definition of the technical specifications;
 new rules on the award criteria, expanding the application of the criterion of the most economically
   convenient bid and binding the contracting authority to specify in the tender (or in the specifications)
   the weighting and evaluation criteria;
 new requirements for the admission to the tender;
 enlarged competences to the existing national Monitoring Bodies (e.g.: definition of standard prices for
   goods and services).

Procurement is divided in three basic types:
 Work contracts: construction, demolition, recovery, restoration and maintenance activities.
 Service contracts: activities such as consulting services, information technology services, engineering
    services (identified by the Leg. Dec. 157/95).
 Supply contracts (goods): purchase, lease, rental or hire-purchase of products. The products concerned
    may belong to any product category.

It is not rare to find more than one type of contract in the same tender (“mixed contracts”). The applicable
legislation is the one of the sector for which the economical relevance exceeds 50% of the total amount of
the contract.
Tenders for “excluded sectors”, such as use and commercialization of water, electricity, gas, thermal
energy, transport and telecommunications, are regulated by further specific laws: in this case, the
applicable discipline is that of Part I Item II of the Leg. Dec. 163/2006.

Public sector purchases in some cases fall into the area of applicability of the European regulations and in
others in the one of national laws.
The difference consists of the value of the contract: the community discipline is applied for supply/services
the estimate value of which is, at the time of publication of the tender, equal to or greater (net of VAT)
than the equivalent established by Art. 7 of the Directive 2004/18/EC, while the national regulations of the
member state are still applied in the case of bids for lower value.

Public bids for labour                                      5.278.000 €
                             137.000 € for procurement of supply and services, awarded by contracting
                         administrations that are central governmental authorities indicate in attachment
                                                  IV of the directive 2004/18/EC.
                                                            211.000 EUR
                                  for procurement of supply and services awarded by contracting
Public bids for supply
                                   administrations different from those indicated in attachment IV;
    and services
                          for procurement of supply awarded by contracting administrations indicated in
                                           attachment IV that operate in the defence sector;
                           for the bids awarded by any administration regarding particular categories of
                            research development services and telecommunication services, and for all the
                                                 services described in attachment II B.


Once the subject matter has been established and the tender procedure chosen, the process for awarding
the contract is triggered.
The tendering procedure is made up of 5 fundamental stages:

                                                                                                          29
 definition of the subject matter of the contract
  The subject matter of the contract is defined when the PA has to prepare the initial project of the
  contract notice.
  The subject matter of a contract indicates the type of product, service or work to be contracted. The
  process of determination of the subject matter of the contract generally involves a basic description of
  the product, service or work, but may also assume the form of a definition based on the services.

 definition of the technical specifications in relation to the subject matter of the contract
  Technical specifications include all the requirements of contracting Administration in order to make the
  product or service qualified for the use for which it is intended, and describe in an objective and
  measurable manner the characteristics of the subject matter of the contract.
  Generally the requirements are contained in the section “specifications” of the tender documentation
  (indicating the conditions that refer precisely to the subject matter of the contract in addition to the
  nature of the guarantees, to the criminal clauses and the pertinent means of action of the
  administration).
  To increase transparency in the contract procedure, the directives obligate the contracting authorities to
  indicate the technical specifications in general or contractual documents pertinent to each contract.

 candidate selection
  Assessment of the suitability of a candidate to perform the contract, according to economic/financial
  capacity and technical capacity

   In the bids for services and supply the demonstration of the technical capacity of competitors may be
   provided in one or more of following manners, according to the nature, of the quantity or importance
   and the use of the supply or services:
   a) presentation of the list of principal services or of principal supply provided in the last three years with
   the indication of amounts, of date and of recipients, public or private, of the services or supply
   themselves; if these are services and supply provided in favour of PA or entities, these are proven by
   certificates issued and approved by administrations or by the entities themselves; if it is a matter of
   services and supply provided privately, the effective performance of the service is declared by these or,
   lacking that, by the same competitor;
   b) indication of technicians and of technical entities, taking precedence, or less, over the competitor
   and, in particular, those in charge of quality controls;
   c) description of equipment technical such as to allow their precise identification and traceability, of the
   measures adopted from the provider or from the service provider to guarantee the quality, as well as of
   tools for study or research available;
   d) monitoring, performed by the contracting authority or, in the case of a competitor not established in
   Italy, under the responsibility of the contracting authority, from a competent official organization of the
   Country in which the competitor is established, as long as this organization allows, since the products or
   the service to provide are complex or must meet, exceptionally, a certain goal; the monitoring is focused
   on the capacity of production and, if necessary, study and research of the competitor and on the
   measures used by this latter for quality control;
   e) indication of educational degrees and professionals of service providers or managers of the
   competitor company and, in particular, of individuals specifically responsible for the provision of
   services;
   f) indication, for the bids for services and only in appropriate cases, established from the regulation of
   environmental management measures that the operator may apply during the execution of the
   contract;
   g) for the bids for services, indication of the average annual numbers of subsidiaries of the competitor
   and the number of managers used in the last three years;
   h) for the bids for services, declaration indicating the arrangement, the material and the technical
   equipment regarding the service provider made available to perform the contract;

                                                                                                              30
   i) indication of the rate of contract that the competitor intends, eventually, to subcontract;
   l) in the case of supply, production of samples, descriptions or photographs of goods to provide, the
   authenticity of which is certified at the requirement of the contracting authority;
   m) in the case of supply, production of a certificate issued by the institutes or official services in charge
   of the control quality, of recognized competence, which attests to the consistency of goods with
   reference to certain requirements or regulations.

   It is, furthermore, possible to exclude from a tender any business owner against whom a judgment was
   pronounced, with a verdict made in court (or according to Art. 444 Civil Proceedings Code on plea
   bargain), for any violation regarding professional morality; or a business owner may be excluded who
   has committed, in professional matter, a serious error, ascertained through any means of proof adopted
   by the administration.

 awarding of the contract
  There are two criteria for awarding a contract:
      the lowest price;
      the most economically advantageous tender that gives relevance not just to the price but also to
          the quality of the offer and has the purpose of determining which offer better satisfies the
          requirements of contracting authority.

   To determine the most economically advantageous tender:
        the principle of non discrimination must be respected, that is national tenderers or candidates
          must not be preferred when the contract is awarded;
        the environmental criteria must concern the nature of the works to be carried out or the
          manner in which they are executed and must provide an economic advantage to the contracting
          authority.

 contract performance clauses
  The contracting authorities may define specific clauses on the contract’s performance. These requisites
  are binding for who wins the contract that has to comply with the content of the clauses. Moreover, for
  transparency, the clauses must be communicated to every candidate before awarding the contract.



3.1.6. ROMANIA
According to G.E.O. 34/2006 public procurement contracts are contracts for pecuniary interest (for
consideration), concluded in writing between one or more economic operators and one or more
contracting authorities and with the execution of works, supply of products or services.

The following types of GPP contracts are subject to laws governing public procurement:
    a. Works contract
    b. Supply contract
    c. Services contract

Tenders for “excluded sectors”, are stipulated at art. 12-16 of G.E.O. 34/2006.


Thresholds for contracting authorities to implement G.E.O. 34/2006:
                   Supply contract                                           over 15.000 €
                  Services contract                                          over 15.000 €

                                                                                                             31
                   Works contract                                          over 15.000 €



Thresholds for legal entities acting which are not contracting authority to implement G.E.O. 34/2006:

                                                 In the case where it meets the following conditions:
                                                -   the contract is funded / subsidized directly, the rate of
                                                                    more than 50% by a CA;
              Works contract
                                                - the estimated value of the contract is greater than the
                                                               equivalent in lei of 4.845.000 €

                                                 In the case where it meets the following conditions:
                                                -   the contract is funded / subsidized directly, the rate of
           Services contract                                        more than 50% by a CA;
                                                - the estimated value of the contract is greater than the
                                                                 equivalent in lei of 193.000 €

For the purposes of the introduction of environmental criteria, there is no differentiation shown between
bids below the ceiling and above the ceiling in Romanian legislation.

The articles of the EU public procurement Directives and Romanian public procurement legislation where
reference is made to the inclusion of environmental criteria are listed below:


                                                                          G.E.O. 34/2006, approved with
     Directive 2004/18/CE                Directive 2004/17/CE
                                                                          amendments and completions

 art. 23 Technical specifications    art. 34 Technical specifications                 art. 35, 37

     art. 26 Conditions for              art. 38 Conditions for
                                                                                        art. 35
   performance of contracts            performance of contracts
  art. 27 Obligations relating to     art. 39 Obligations relative to
taxes, environmental protection,    taxes, environmental protection,        art.35, art.37, art.39, art.176,
     employment protection               employment protection            art.188, art.194, art.195, art.196,
            provisions                        provisions and                            art.199
     and working conditions                 working conditions
                                       art. 52 Mutual recognition
                                       concerning administrative,        art.17, art.33, art.35, art.36, art.37,
    art. 48 Technical and/or
                                    technical or financial conditions,      art.38, art.88, art.95, art.104,
       professional ability
                                             and certificates,                  Art.187, 188, 189, 190
                                            tests and evidence
                                                                         art.37 (Ecolabel), art.194, art.195,
    art. 50 Environmental
                                                                           art.196 (EMAS and equivalent
    management standards
                                                                                    certificates)
 art. 53 Contract award criteria     art. 55 Contract award criteria                 art.198,199


Outline of the procedure

      Stage                           Operation


                                                                                                              32
     Stage                         Operation
1.   Drafting of the public        Identification of the requirement
     procurement annual             estimation of value
     programme
                                    hierarchy establishment
                                    election of the procedure
                                    identification of funds
                                    elaboration of the schedule
                                    finalization and approval of the programme
                                    if mandatory, elaboration and sending of the notice of intention
2.   Elaboration of the awarding    establishment of technical specifications or of the descriptive
     documentation                   documentation
                                    establishment of the contractual terms
                                    establishment of the minimum qualification requirements, if
                                     applicable, of the selection criteria
                                    establishment of the awarding criterion
                                    if applicable, requesting of a participation security
                                    filling in the procurement date Record
                                    establishment of forms and models
                                    notice to the Ministry of Public Finances regarding the procedural
                                     verification
                                    finalization of the awarding documentation
3.   Calling to competition         publication of the participation notice
                                    making available the awarding documentation
                                    reply to the requests for clarifications
                                    rules for participation and avoiding the conflict of interests
4.   Conducting the awarding        if applicable, reception of candidacy and selection of candidates
     procedure                      if applicable, conducting the rounds of discussions
                                    deadline for tender preparation
                                    tenders’ reception
                                    tenders’ opening
                                    tenders’ review and evaluation
                                    establishment of the successful tender
                                    annulment of the procedure, if the case may be
5.   Awarding the public            notification of the outcome
     procurement contract or        waiting period
     entering the framework
                                    if the case may be, settlement of the oppositions
     agreement
                                    signing the contract or entering the framework agreement

                                                                                                         33
      Stage                          Operation
                                      sending an awarding notice for publication
6.    Conclusion of the public        finalization of the public procurement dossier
      procurement dossier
7.    Conducting the framework        if the case may be, establishment of the good execution bond
      agreement                       entering in effect
                                      fulfilment of the undertaken obligations and partial hand-over
8.    Contract finalization           final reception
                                      if application, the release of the good execution bond
9.    Process review                 Conclusions
                                      steps for improvement



Main Romanian Bodies involved in the public procurement procedures are:

Body / Service                      Responsibility                                         Link
National Authority for Regulating     Draws up, promote and implement of            www.anrmap.ro
and       Monitoring       Public      public procurement policy.
Procurement                           Main tasks: monitoring, analysis,
(ANRMAP)                               assessment and supervision of public
                                       procurement contracts assignment;
                                       methodological      counselling     of
                                       contracting authorities in the process
                                       of public procurement contracts
                                       assignment, acting as support for the
                                       due application of the legislation in
                                       the field and for the increasing the
                                       contracting authorities’ capacity to
                                       implement the relevant legislation
National Council for Complaints       Resolves the complaints lodged within            www.cnsc.ro
Settlement (CNSC)                      the assignment procedure, before the
                                       contract is concluded, by specialised
                                       chambers constituted in conformity
                                       with its Organisation and Working
                                       Regulations;
                                      Decides on the legality of procedures
                                       and operations carried out by the
                                       contracting authority in the process of
                                       assigning a public procurement
                                       contract, under the law;
                                      Comments on the proceedings before
                                       the Court, upon demand of the latter.
Court of Audit                      Public Authority in charge of subsequent      www.curteadeconturi.ro
                                    external financial control of the
                                    formation, administration and utilisation
                                    of the financial resources of the state and

                                                                                                        34
Body / Service                     Responsibility                                 Link
                                   the public sector

Unit for Public Procurement Operates as general department within           www.mfinante.ro
Coordination and Verification the Ministry of Economy and Finance and
(UCVAP)                       is in charge with the verification of
                              procedural aspects related to assignment
                              of public procurement contracts, public
                              works concession contracts and services
                              concession contracts financed from
                              public funds and that fall under the public
                              procurement law
National Centre for                According to Government Decision          www.cnmsi.ro
Management of                      1439/2009, CNMSI:                        www.e-licitatii.ro
Information Society(CNMSI)           is operating Electronic System of
                                      Public Procurement (SEAP)
Contracting Authorities            Have the obligation to make public
                                   procurement under the law in the field
Ministry of Environment and          for the implementation of the green   www.mmediu.ro
Forests, National Agency for          procurement system
Environmental        Protection,
National Environmental Guard
when the National Green Public
Procurement Action Plan (PNAPE)
2008-2013 comes into force




                                                                                                 35
3.2. Legislation concerning GPP
While there is no law that prescribes the modification of tenders in an environmental sense, some
authorities utilize ad hoc regulations in order to encourage GPP introduction. In practice, specific
requirements or targets for the purchase and/or use of certain products or services are set.

Requirements for GPP implementation have been included in the following EU Directives and Regulations:
 Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on energy end-use
   efficiency and energy services (see in particular article 5 “Energy end-use efficiency in the public
   sector”);
 Regulation (EC) No 106/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 January 2008 on a
   Community energy-efficiency labelling programme for office equipment (see in particular Article 6
   “Promotion of energy-efficiency criteria”);
 Directive 2009/33/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion
   of clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles (see in particular Article 5 “Purchase of clean and
   energy-efficient road transport vehicles”).


3.2.1. BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

The public sector in B&H currently has no experience in terms of Green Public Procurement. Only ecological
aspect that companies should be aware of is “environmental permit”.

B&H in order to preserve natural resources, and enabling the development of small and medium
enterprises, has established a system of environmental permits, based on modern European standards and
procedures, which treats all influences that businesses and facilities may have on certain segments of the
environment (soil, water, air and noise) and the environment in general.

According to IPPC Directive, EU Member States are required to establish an integrated system of issuing
permits for industrial plants. This requires coordination between institutions involved in the licensing
process. Permits should be based on selecting the best available techniques (BAT).

In accordance with the guidelines of the European Union (IPPC Directive (Integrated pollution prevention
and control) and the Seveso II), in the Environmental Protection Law was introduced the "environmental
permit" in order to create a special responsibility for production in general and energy systems on the
environment. Unique environmental permit takes into account the complete environmental control
facilities, including air emissions, water and soil, waste generation, use of raw materials, energy efficiency,
noise, emergency situations that threaten the environment and the rehabilitation of sites after closure of
the facility. Clear responsibility for the consequences to the environment, which provides license, brings a
series of new obligations for companies that are financially demanding, but in the long run cost.

Companies in B&H, who wants to export its products to countries in European Union, must inter alia have
the environmental permit.

The legal framework for environmental permits is:
    • Environmental Protection Law (Official Gazette of BiH n° 33/03 dated 19/07/2003)
    • Amendments to Law on Environmental Protection (Official Gazette of BiH n° 38/09 of 10/06/2009)
    • Manual on conditions and criteria to be met by holders of the Environmental Impact Study and the
        amount of fees and other costs incurred in the process of environmental impact assessment
        (Official Gazette of BiH n° 45/09 of 15/07/2009)
                                                                                                            36
    •   Regulation on the contents of the report on the state of security, contain information about
        security measures and content of internal and external intervention plans (Official Gazette of BiH n°
        68/05 of 07/12/2005)
    •   Regulation of the deadlines for submitting applications for environmental permits for plants and
        facilities that have permits issued before the entry into force of the Environmental Protection Act
        (Official Gazette of BiH n° 68/05 of 07/12/2005)
    •   Regulations on preparation of annual / semi-annual inspections of Environmental Protection
        (Official Gazette of BiH n° 68/05 of 07/12/2005)
    •   Regulations on plant and facilities for which a mandatory environmental impact assessment and
        plants and plants that can be developed and put into operation only if they have an environmental
        permit (Official Gazette of BiH n° 19/04 of 10/04/2004)
    •   Regulation on conditions of the requirements for the issuance of environmental permits for plants
        and plants that have been granted before the entry into force of the Law on Environmental
        Protection (Official Gazette of BiH n° 45/09 of 15/07/2009)
    •   Regulation adopting the best available techniques that achieve standards of environmental quality
        (Official Gazette of BiH n° 92/07 of 19/12/2007)
    •   Regulation on registers of plants and pollution (Official Gazette of BiH n° 82/07 of 19/11/2007)
    •   Manual for education, training programs, professional examination and certification of experts to
        review the action plans and studies on environmental impact assessment in the process of issuing
        environmental permit (Official Gazette of BiH n° 39/10 of 07/07/2010)

Environmental Protection Law provides basic prevention solutions to protect the environment with the aim
of fulfilling conditions for the construction of new buildings and facilities, and provides for transitional
arrangements and the terms and adjusting standards and requirements established by law and regulations
for existing plants and facilities.

Acting in accordance with the jurisdiction issuing environmental permits for plants and facilities is divided
between the Federation and cantonal levels, depending on whether they are large or medium-sized and
small plants, a jurisdiction is defined in the Regulations.



3.2.2. BULGARIA

The Bulgarian legislation for Green Public Procurement includes ecological criteria, which are stipulated in
the following Articles of the Public Procurement Act (PPA – see Par. x.x):

Technical specifications                          Article 30 (1) items 1 -5
                                                  Article 30 (2) items 1 - 4
Directive 2004/17/EC - art. 34                    Article 30 (3), (4)
Directive 2004/18/EC - art. 23                    Article 32 (1), (2)
                                                  Article 33 (2)
                                                  Paragraph 1, items 27, 30 and 31 of the Additional
                                                  Provisions
Conditions for performance of contracts
                                                  Article 26(1), (2)
                                                  Article 30 (1), (2), (3)
Directive 2004/17/EC - art. 38
                                                  Paragraph 1, point 8 of the Additional Provisions
Directive 2004/18/EC - art. 26




                                                                                                          37
Obligations related to taxes, environmental Article 26(1), (2)
protection, employment protection provisions Article 51(1), item 11
and working conditions                       Article 128(v)
                                             Article 30
Directive 2004/17/EC - art. 39
Directive 2004/18/EC - art. 27
Technical and/or professional ability        Article 33 (3), item 11
                                             Article 51 (1), items 6 and 11
Directive 2004/17/EC - art. 52               Article 53 (1), (2), (3), (4)
Directive 2004/18/EC - art. 48               Paragraph 1, item 18 of the Additional Provisions
Environmental management standards           Article 26, (1)
                                             Article 30, (1) items 1-5, (2) items 1-4, (3), (4)
Directive 2004/18/EC - art. 50               Article 33, (2)
                                             Article 53, (2), (3), (4) items 1-5

                                                   Paragraph 1, item 18 of the Additional Provisions
                                                   Paragraph 1, item 27 of the Additional Provisions
Contract award criteria
                                                   Article 41, (2)
Directive 2004/17/EC - art. 55
Directive 2004/18/EC - art. 53


The Decrees with ecological character under PPA cover all stages of public procurement concerning the
Project:

 OPENING                                CONDUCTING                         COMPLETION
 of procedure under PPA                 of procedure under PPA             of procedure under PPA
  Documentation: provisions            Proving technical capabilities     Selecting the Contractor –
 concerning                technical   (art. 51, paragraph 1, item 6);     clauses       for      contract
 specifications (art. 30)              certificates;                       implementation in compliance
  Notice for public procurement        Public works and services         with        the      ecological
 procedures:                           contracts:     description     of   requirements and the subject of
      Setting of environmental        environmental measures for          the public procurement
          requirements (Article 26)    contract implementation (art. 51,
      Indicators, related to          paragraph 1 item 11)
          ecological requirements,      Presentation of standards,
          applying the criterion of    issued by independent persons
          “the most cost effective     or on the basis of European and
          bid ” (§1, item 8 of the     international standards (art. 53,
          Additional Provisions        paragraph 1-4)

The institutions responsible for GPP are:
     Council of Ministers;
     Ministry of Economy and Energy;
     Public Procurement Agency;
     Ministry of Environment and Water.


The national policy covers the following schemes concerning Green Purchasing:


                                                                                                         38
ЕU policy                                     National policy
EC Regulation 1980/2000                         Enforces the regulation by the Law on Environmental
Ecolabel award scheme                                       Protection (EPA) art.132-142


                                              Regulation repeals Regulation 1980/2000.
EC Regulation 66/2010                         Implementing measures will be provided by Act for
EU Ecolabel                                   Revision and Amendment of Environmental Protection
                                              Act (EPA)

EC Regulation 1221/2009                   Enforces the regulation by the EPA, art. 132-142 and
EMAS - Environmental Management and Audit Ordinance n°2 of 29/10/2008 the Minister of
Scheme                                    Environment and Water.

Directive 2006/32/EC                   Energy Efficiency Act (ЕЕA), Published in the State
                                       Gazette n° 98 of 14/11/2008, last amended by the State
Energy efficiency of the end users and Gazette n° 15 of 23/02/2010, in force as of 14/11/2008:
performance of energy                  The public sector applies at least two requirements,
                                       related to purchasing of energy efficient equipment,
                                       transport means and buildings.

                                              According to Paragraph 6 of the previous and the final
                                              provisions of ЕЕA, regulations for identification of the
                                              mandatory criteria for estimation should be elaborated,
                                              concerning the mineralization of costs expenses for
                                              equipment exploiting and motor vehicles, which are
                                              considered as supplies realized by public procurement;

                                              National Action Plan was elaborated in accordance with
                                              ЕЕA.

Commission Decision No. 598/2009/EC           The decision is directly applicable. Minister of
                                              Environment and Water is the competent authority
Ecolabel for mattresses                       designated by the EPA.



Commission Decision 2009/567/EC            of The decision is directly applicable. Ministry of
09/07/09                                      Environment and Water is the competent authority
Ecolabel - Criteria for Textile products      designated by the EPA.

                                         Action Plan for the implementation of the National
                                         Strategy for Environment 2009-2018 :
                                         Measure 5. Encouraging the “green” purchasing
ETAP - Environmental Technologies Action schemes.
Plan                                     The compliance with the ecological requirements for
                                         public procurement and with PPA, will stimulate the
                                         industrial development of eco technologies and
                                         products;
                                         National Action Plan

                                              Strategic document encouraging Green Public
                                              Procurement 2012-2014 by the Interagency Working
                                                                                                      39
                                                  Group, with coordinating functions, subordinated to the
                                                  Public Procurement Agency (Ordinance n° RD-16-
                                                  1223/28.10.2010 by the Minister of Economy). At the
                                                  moment, the document is not approved.
                                                  Groups of products had been adopted and the minimum
                                                  ecological requirements had been defined, related to
                                                  concrete objectives for the implementation of GPP by
                                                  both the central administration and the local authorities.


In accordance with the National Action Plan, the following objectives had been envisaged aiming at
encouraging the eco-criterion of GPP, related to the approved groups of products (Draft project):

For Central Administration Assignors

  Product group                        2012                      2013                       2014
  1. Paper for copying
                                       60%                       80%                        90%
  and graphic paper
  2. IT office equipment               60%                       80%                       100%
  3. Office lighting                   80%                       90%                       100%
  4. Air conditioners                  90%                       95%                       100%
  5. Cleaning products                                                                      50%
                                       30%                       40%
  and services

The groups of products and the objectives for the relevant year are mandatory.


For Local Administration Assignors

  Product group                        2012                      2013                       2014
  1. Paper for copying
                                       40%                       50%                        60%
  and graphic paper
  2. IT office equipment               40%                       60%                        80%
  3. Lighting                          50%                       60%                        70%
  4. Street lighting                   40%                       50%                        60%
  5. Air conditioners                  70%                       80%                        90%
  6. Cleaning products                                                                      50%
                                       30%                       40%
  and services


3.2.3. GREECE

There are not so far specific procedures for subsidizing Green Procurement and other criteria that are
considered as a plus to public procurement in general in Greece.
Nevertheless, Green Procurement is considered as a main topic of the Programme of Development
Interventions to the real economy of the Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change (YPEKA).

The usage of Ecolabel is protected legally through:

       the Greek Market Provision 218/1998 [FEK 139/Β/1998];
       the Regulation 66/2010 (article 10 & article 17)

                                                                                                          40
Main Bodies involved are:

Body / Service                 Responsibility                                               Link

General Secretariat of           Data base on Products Specification                   www.gge.gr
Commerce (GGC)                   Control / Validation of Specification
                                 Realisation / Control of public contests
General Secretariat of           Market control                                      www.efpolis.gr
Consumers                        Consumers’ safety
Ministry of Health             Procurement in health textiles (in                    www.yyka.gov.gr
                               cooperation with GGC)
Ministry of Defence            Procurement in military textile goods (in            www.geetha.mil.gr
                               cooperation with GGC)
Ministry of Economics          Port Police workwear (in cooperation with                www.yen.gr
                               GGC)
                               Hellenic Fire Service (in cooperation with           www.fireservice.gr
                               GGC)
Ministry of Citizen            Hellenic Police - uniforms                           www.astynomia.gr
Protection


3.2.4. HUNGARY



3.2.5. ITALY

The primary regulations in matters of environmentally preferable purchases appearing at the regional level
made reference to some types of recovery materials: biodegradable materials, paper, plastic, generic
materials. The interventions have more broadly concerned activities of promotion of the use of recycled
paper with relative establishment of minimum goals of coverage of the need for products with recycled
materials that range from 20 to 50%.

The first Italian document that points out the need to activate Green Public Procurement is the
Environmental Action Strategy for Sustainable Development in Italy, approved by the CIPE on 02/08/2002
with Decision No. 57 (GU No. 255 of 30/10/2002): Chapter 2.3 “Integration of the environmental factor in
the markets” affirms that “The demands of consumers and companies are being shown as sensitive to
products and services of higher environmental quality. Our Country, which has made the esthetic-
functional quality of products the key to commercial success, even finding it difficult to evaluate the
competitive scope of “global quality;” it is a matter of three steps: dematerialization; “greening,” that is,
the proactive integration of the environmental factor, the technological innovation of manufacturing
processes and the quality of products and of services”.
Furthermore, it states, unequivocally that “It is appropriate to modify the behaviour of some major
consumers, first among them the public sector, which absorbs 15% of products and services on the
community scale, but also banks, universities, hospitals etc. Internalizing environmental requirements in
the public procurement is thus an obligatory step for integration. Appropriate actions must be developed
to produce and make available guidelines and databases that privilege environmental quality in the
contractors and in purchases”.
Chapter 6.3 points out the position of the OECD, that “has also implemented a suitable Sustainable
Consumption and Production Program that has identified the priority of acquisition and use of reduced-
impact goods and services by the Public Administration (Green Procurement or Green Public Purchasing)”.


                                                                                                          41
“With regard to the consumption of the PA, the only known data evaluates the affect of public spending on
the PIL equal to approximately 18%; it can be assumed that, analogous with what is demonstrated in other
EU Countries, approximately 50% is imputable to acquisition of goods and services for the functioning of
the PA; the most evident expenses concern the acquisition of goods for the functioning of offices, energy
consumption and services for functioning (cleaning and maintenance). It is appropriate to remark that the
action of an environmental policy in the PA, either passes through the acquisition of goods and services
with reduced environmental impact, or through their correct use”.
The same document, on the instrumentation plan, confirms that “Other tools for action on product policy
are ecological labeling, the promotion on the market of products with lower environmental impact, the
commitment by the PA to include environmental requirements among the characteristics required for the
products and services used in the context of rules established at the community level”.

The Environmental Action Strategy confirms even more clearly the progress of sustainability: in fact, it
affirms that “an economic system in growth is sustainable only if the amount of resources used for the
creation of wealth remains, in quantity and quality, within appropriate limits of use and not overloading the
absorption capacity provided by the ecosphere. If this does not occur the economy will continue to use and
compromise the quality of natural resources that sooner or later will be exhausted or no longer usable”.
And continually maintaining that “the land is a closed system with limited resources that can only count on
the contribution of solar energy. Each natural resource, food, water, wood, minerals, petroleum, and gas
finds its limits in the availability and in the absorption capacity of the ecosystem. The ecological dimension
of sustainability implies leaving intact the stability of internal processes of the ecosphere, a dynamic and
self-organizational structure, for a period of indefinite length, without growing entropic balances”.

Among the objectives and targets that could be reached in 5 years (up to 2007) it was stated that “in the
environment of the PA (GPP), at least the 30% of the goods purchased must also meet ecological
requirements”.
Finally, it is strongly confirmed that “It is appropriate to configure the consumer PA as the first purchaser
and user of reduced impact goods. This translates as the modification of specifications for acquisition of
goods and services by the PA, by including the environmental requirements without contravening
Community regulations; the best form is a system a point system that attributes specific value to the
environmental services of a product, without automatically excluding those that do not have these
requirements.”

Financial Law 296 of 27/12/2006 provided, in article 1 paragraphs 1126, 1127 and 1128, the creation of a
“Plan of action for environmental sustainability of consumption in the public administration sector.”
The goal of this Plan is:
     reduction of the use of natural resources;
     replacement of non-renewable energy sources with renewable energy sources;
     reduction of waste production;
     reduction of emissions pollutants;
     reduction of environmental risks.

The Financial Law provided, furthermore, for the Plan to introduce green purchases in the following
merchandise categories:
    Furnishings;
    Construction materials;
    Road maintenance;
    Management of the public greens;
    Lighting and heat;
    Electronics;
    Textiles;
    Office products;
                                                                                                           42
       Restauration;
       Material for health;
       Transportation

Finally the Financial Law provided a monitoring system of the action status of the GPP, capable of:
     influencing the market, as well as the other actors operating around it (companies, other
         consumers);
     favouring the integration of environmental considerations in other sectors’ policies;
     facilitating the integration and implementation of different instruments within the integrated
         product policies of local authorities.

With D.M. 135/2008 the Action Plan for the environmental sustainability of consumption in the sector of
the public administration (National Action Plan) was adopted and these are its main aims:

 dissemination of GPP among PA;
 definition of national goals;
 identification of priority goods and services categories for which environmental requirements declaring
  the sustainability of the tender in the different stages of the purchase procedures (minimum
  environmental criteria, m.e.c.) shall be defined;
 specific prescriptions for PA:
   o analysis of internal needs, in order to rationalize consumption and to promote the decoupling
       between economic development and environmental damage;
   o identification of the functions involved in GPP with internal planning and scheduling;
   o improving of energy efficiency in public buildings (starting from school buildings).
 2 permanent bodies for the definition of m.e.c., according to EU Directives (starting from the European
  toolkit) and to the peculiarities of national productive system;

    o   Steering Committee (MATT, MISE, MEF, Technical Agencies, Regions, external experts);

    o   Working Table between Regions, Environmental Agency, Agenda 21 Committees, environmental
        and consumers associations;

 yearly monitoring of dissemination actions, applications and benefits.



In the last years has been seen also an evolution of the regional regulatory context that tends to encourage
the introduction of green purchasing systems.

In Lombardy, L.R. 26/2003 - Regulation of local services of general economic interest stated that Region,
Provinces, Municipalities, companies with primarily public capital, public service contractors, subsidiary
entities, institutes and firms subject to the vigilance of those, operating in the regional territory, should
realize an operative program for the introduction of environmental criteria in the purchase procedure for
goods and services and intended to obtain the goal of reconversion at least the 35 % of their own supply at
the end of the three years period; the use of recycled materials shall be included in the technical specifics
of public procurements.

L.R. 24/2006 Regulations for prevention and reduction of emissions promoted, among the others:
 programmes and pilot projects in GPP;
 the purchase of low emissions vehicles;
 the improvement of energy efficiency in office products.



                                                                                                          43
D.G.R. 10831 of 16/12/2009, implemented by D.D.U.O. 3766/2010, set a voluntary agreement between
Regione Lombardia, ARPA, Regional Procurement Office and the Lombard Chambers of Commerce to boost
eco-innovation through the promotion of green goods and services


Here following, two briefly illustrated examples of similar initiatives in other Italian regions.

The Draft Law n° 17 of 04/19/2006 - Regulations for the promotion of ecological public purchases and for
the introduction of environmental aspects in the procedures for acquisition of goods and services of public
administrations of the Puglia Region provides that the Region, the Province, Municipalities with more than
5.000 residents, companies with primarily public capital in which they participate, public service
contractors, the other subsidiary entities, institutes and firms or subject to the vigilance of those operating
in the regional territory approve an action plan of three year duration intended for the definitions of an
operative program for the introduction of environmental criteria in the purchase procedure for goods and
services and intended to obtain the goal of reconversion at least the 30 % of their own supply at the end of
the three year period.

Decision n° 2/6 of the 01/16/2007 - Promotion of the introduction of criteria and actions for eco-efficiency
and environmental sustainability in the procedures for acquisition of goods and services of the Regional
Administration of the Region of Sardinia contains dispositions for:
 the adoption of a policy of Green Public Procurement that leads to reaching a rate of green purchases
    by 2008 (recycled materials, machinery with ecological brands etc.) in the amount now lower than 30%
    of the regional needs;
 the definition of an action plan that evaluates how to rationalize the needs of the Regional Entity,
    identifies the products and services on which to apply the introduction of ecological criteria to include
    in the procedures of acquisition and defines a program of training, information and sensitisation to
    Green Public Purchases directed to those responsible for acquisition of Consulting, Local Entities of the
    Region of Sardinia, of General Management of other Regional Consultants, and of other provincial and
    community entities.


3.2.6. ROMANIA

The public sector in Romania currently has little experience in terms of green procurement.
Ecological model of public procurement was overtaken in the same time of joining the European Union
(2007).

The Romanian political will is expressed through the following documents:

                 EU legislation                                         Romanian legislation


                                                           Ministerial Order n° 50/2004 establishes the
                                                         organisation procedure for the organisation and
 Eco-Management and Audit Schemes (EMAS)
                                                       coordination of EMAS, in order to allow the voluntary
                                                          participation of organisations to these schemes




                                                                                                            44
                 EU legislation                                       Romanian legislation


                                                        Governmental Decision no. 236/2007 establishes
                                                      measures to ensure the applicability of the Regulation
         Regulation (CE) n° 1980/2000
                                                    (CE) no.1980/2000 regarding the revised system to award
                                                                    the European eco-label

                                                    According to G.E.O. 22/2008 regarding energy efficiency:
                                                         - the local and central public administration shall
                                                              apply at least 2 measures mentioned in Annex 2
                                                              (Annex VI from Directive 2006/32/EC) regarding
                                                                    the promotion of energy efficiency;
             Directive 2006/32/EC
                                                          - Romania Agency for Preservation of Energy &
                                                             National Authority for Regulating and Monitoring
                                                              Public Procurement will establish the main lines
                                                                regarding the energy efficiency as possible
                                                                 criteria for awarding public procurement
                                                                                  contracts
                                                    Romanian National Strategy on Sustainable Development
                                                             (Governmental Decision no. 1460/2008)
                                                    According to the Strategy, a system of GPP will be phased
                                                    in with an aim to come close to fulfilling, by 2013, the EU
                                                    objective to reach, by 2020, the average level attained by
                                                           the best performing Member States in 2006.
                                                     Environmental Technologies Action Plan (Governmental
                                                                      Decision no. 1568/2008)
                                                         - GPP is an axis of ETAP and is promoted through
                                                                         this Romanian Action Plan
ETAP – Environmental Technologies Action Plan
The plan includes priority actions to be taken at
                                                         HG n° 1568/2008, sets Working Group for the
      the level of EC, national or regional
                                                    elaboration of the National Action Plan on Green Public
   governments, industry, and other factors
                                                               Procurement (PNAPE) 2008-2013.
     involved in order to develop and use
                                                                     The PNAPE 2008-2013:
 environmental technologies at a large scale.
                                                                     - is still in the draft form;
  GPP represents one of the ETAP priorities.
                                                          - introduces a mix of voluntary and obligatory
                                                              “green” targets for 8 groups of products and
                                                                          services (see below);
                                                             - introduces a GPP monitoring scheme;
                                                                   - encourages electronic GPP.



PNAPE sets out green criteria for 8 groups of products and services of interest to the public administration,
and the national targets (voluntary or mandatory) related to each group of products and services:




                                                                                                            45
Group of products/services          2009           2010          2011           2012            2013

  Cleaning products and
     services (universal
    detergents, sanitary
                                                                                              13%
      detergents, glass          7% voluntary 9% voluntary
                                                                11% mandatory target        mandatory
  detergents, handwash              target       target
                                                                                             target
   detergents for dishes,
    laundry detergents,
  dishwasher detergents)

                                 7% voluntary
    Construction works                             9% voluntary target          11% voluntary target
                                    target

                                    50%
Lighting equipment (only for
                                  voluntary                      50% mandatory target
 street and interior lighting)
                                   target

     Food products and                                           9%
                                 7% voluntary 9% voluntary
   beverages obtained by                                      mandatory        11% mandatory target
                                    target       target
     biological farming                                        target

 Furniture (wood products
                                     7%             9%                                        13%
and panels; metals; plastics;
                                  voluntary      voluntary       11% voluntary target       voluntary
   textiles; polyurethane
                                   target         target                                     target
           foams)

IT equipment: computers,
                                    15%           15%                                         19%
monitors, printers, copiers,
                                  voluntary     mandatory       17% mandatory target        mandatory
multifunctionals, scanners
                                   target        target                                      target
     and fax machines

                                    15%           15%
        Copy paper                voluntary     mandatory                17% mandatory target
                                   target        target

                                                                                          10% voluntary
Buses, bus-related services          5% voluntary target         7% voluntary target
                                                                                             target




                                                                                                        46
3.3 Mandatory legislation concerning textiles

There are several pieces of legislation relevant to the textiles industry, particularly in relation to the use of
certain chemicals and substances in production.

Council Directive 96/61/EC on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) requires Member States
to regulate certain industrial activities, including the textile industry, by means of granting integrated
operating permits.
This integrated approach considers:
•        emissions to air, water and soil;
•        aspects of waste-management;
•        resource and energy efficiency.

A key element of the Directive is the use of Best Available Techniques (BAT): the Directive obliges the
European Commission to organise an exchange of information between Member States and industries
concerned on BAT. The results of the information exchange for each sector are laid down in so called BAT
Reference Documents (BREF). The BREF Textile Processing can be found on the EIPPCB website:
http://eippcb.jrc.es/pages/FActivities.htm.

Finally, much of the information presented below is taken from the Handbook of Sustainable Textile
Purchasing, developed by EcoForum in Denmark.


Organic production
The main EU Regulation on organic production of agricultural products (Council Regulation n° 2092/91)
creates the framework for the production, labelling and inspection of organic farm products and foodstuffs.
This will be replaced from 1 January 2009 when the newly approved Council Regulation (EC) No 834/2007
will apply. Due to the rapid growth in organic production in recent years, the existing regulations have
become insufficient in some respects.
Any agricultural product sold in Europe using the term “organic” must meet certain minimum standards. In
general terms, the organic production criteria set by EU Regulation (2092/91) include:
      specific procedures to maintain soil fertility and to control pests or other diseases;
      limited use of fertilisers, soil conditioners, pesticides, feed materials, additives, cleaning and
         disinfection products;
      use of seeds or vegetative propagating material produced by organic production methods;
      exclusion of the use of genetically modified organisms, although it allows a certain contamination
         from technically unavoidable GMOs;
      original plants produced following organic criteria for at least one generation or, in the case of
         perennial crops, two growing seasons;
      livestock origin, feeding, disease prevention, reproduction, transport, free range and housing
         conditions.

Substances used for impregnation
Directive 76/769/EEC and its subsequent amendments restrict the use of hazardous substances. Council
Directives 79/663/EEC, 83/264/EEC and 2003/11/EC amending or supplementing the Annex to
76/769/EEC, for example restrict the use of tris (2,3 dibromopropyl) phosphate [CAS No 126-72-7], tris-
(aziridinyl)-phosphinoxide, polybrominatedbiphenyls (PBB), pentabromodiphenyl ether (pentaBDE) and
octabromodiphenyl ether (octaBDE) in fireproofing garments. This, together with other legislation
presented below, limits the potentially hazardous substances which may be found in textile products.


                                                                                                              47
Dyes
Azocolourants make up a significant proportion of the dyes used in textile production, however there are
concerns about possible health impacts such as potentially carcinogenic properties. Directive 2002/61/EC
amending 76/769/EEC, restricts the use of certain azocolourants, which may produce certain amines, which
in turn may pose cancer risks.
Further restrictions were set by Directive 2003/3/EC on the marketing and use of the “blue colourant”, due
to its potentially negative impact on the environment, adding a list of restricted “azodyes”. This regulatory
framework ensures that the worst of the impacts related to azocolourants are now effectively dealt with
and need not be addressed by GPP.

Metals
The use of lead (Directive 89/677/EEC) and cadmium (Directive 91/338/EEC) is also restricted, covering
their use in dyes and other applications for textiles.


REACH and GHS

Commission Regulation 1907/2006 of 18 December 2006
Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH)

Commission Regulation 1272/2008 of 16 December 2008
Classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures

Commission Regulation 552/2009 of 22 June 2009
Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals - Annex XVII (valid from 01.06.2009)

Commission Regulation 790/2009 of 10 August 2009
Classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (valid from 01.12.2010)

                        Regulations are directly applicable to all member countries


Starting from 1 June 2007, enterprises which manufacture or import more than one ton of a chemical
substance per year will be required to register it in a central database administered by the new EU
Chemicals Agency.
A new Chemicals Agency, based in Finland, will act as the central point in the REACH system: it will run the
databases necessary to operate the system, co-ordinate the in-depth evaluation of suspicious chemicals
and run a public database in which consumers and professionals can find information.
In future, this will provide not only a rigorous testing and restriction procedure for all chemicals on the
European market, but also provide a highly valuable centralised information source which could be used by
contracting authorities.
The "Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)" is a UN initiative which
aims to harmonise the human health and environment information provided by manufacturers worldwide,
given the global nature of the trade. This initiative was endorsed by the Plan of Implementation of the
World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), adopted in Johannesburg in 2002, with a view to
having the system fully operational by 2008.
The Regulation n° 790/2009 aligns the EU system of classification, labelling and packaging substances and
mixtures to the GHS. It is expected to facilitate global trade and harmonised communication of hazard
information of chemicals and to promote regulatory efficiency. It will complement the new REACH
Regulation on the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals.
More information can be found on the Commission website at:
                                                                                                            48
http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/reach/ghs_en.htm.


The REACH Regulation has replaced all relevant Directives for forbidden substances in (not only) textile
products. Following Directives have been implemented by member countries (see relevant surveys),
concern textile products (are now replaced by REACH Regulation) and are given for reference purposes:

Directive 94/27/EC & 2004/96/EC
Restrictions on the marketing and use of nickel in accessories

Commission Decision 99/815/EC of 7 December 1999
Toys and childcare articles containing forbidden phthalates

Directive 2002/61/EC & 2003/3/EC
Restrictions on the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances and preparations (forbidden
azocolourants)



Directive 96/74/EC
Naming and labelling of textile products

Directives 97/13/EC, 2004/34/EC, 2006/3/EC & 2007/3/EC
Naming, marking of the fibre composition and labelling of textile products

Directive 2008/121/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 January 2009
Textile names (and acceptable tolerances for the declared composition)
BULGARIA             o Ordinance for labelling and textile names, adopted by Decree n° 114 of 2006.

                      Implementation of directive [ΦΕΚ 636/B/1998] // Greek Market Provision 7/2009, by
GREECE
                      General Secretariat of Commerce [ΦΕΚ 1388/Β/2009]

                      o   Order of Minister of Economy and Transportation n° 84/2003. (XII. 13.) GKM
                          regarding modification of the Order of Minister No 5/1998 (I. 16.) IKIM relating on
                          fibre composition and labelling of textile products
                      o   Order of Minister of Economy and Transportation n° 25/2005. (IV. 29.) GKM
                          regarding certain requirements of textile products and conditions for placing on
                          the market
HUNGARY
                      o   Order of Minister No 27/2008. (XII. 20.) NFGM (Hungarian code No
                          J2003R0084GKM, J2005R0025GKM, J2008R0027NFGM)
                      o   Act n° 155/1997 and amendments, Act n° 47/2008, Order of Minister of Economy
                          and Trade No 25/2005 (IV.29.) and amendments regarding naming, marking of
                          the fibre composition and labelling of textile products and conditions for placing
                          on the market
                      o   Leg. Dec. 194/99
                      o   Min. Decr. 19/10/99
ITALY                 o   Min. Decr. 01/12/04
                      o   Min. Decr. 21/03/07
                      o   Min. Decr. 24/01/08
                                                                                                          49
Directive 96/74/EC
Naming and labelling of textile products

Directives 97/13/EC, 2004/34/EC, 2006/3/EC & 2007/3/EC
Naming, marking of the fibre composition and labelling of textile products

Directive 2008/121/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 January 2009
Textile names (and acceptable tolerances for the declared composition)
ROMANIA              Government Decision 527/2007 [03/02/1997]




Directive 88/378/EC
Toys for children made of textile

                      Directive was introduced by the Ordinance on the essential requirements and
BULGARIA              conformity assessment of toys, SG. 62 of 13.07.2001 on the Law on technical
                      requirements for products (LTRP). The directive was repealed by Directive 2009/48,
                      which will be transposed by the end of the year.

GREECE                Implementation of directive [ΦΕΚ 223/B/1989]

                      Joint Resolution of Minister of Economy and Transportation and Minister of Social
                      Welfare 56/2004. (IV. 24.) GKM-ESZCSM regarding toys for children and modification
HUNGARY               of Joint Resolution 24/1998. (IV. 29.) IKIM-NM (and amendments 24/1998. (IV. 29.)
                      IKIM-NM,     46/2002.     (XII.   28.)    GKM-ESZCSM   (Hungarian     code     No:
                      J2004R0056GKMESZCSM, J1998R0024IKIMNM, J2002R0046GKMESZCSM

ITALY                 Min. Decr. 20/10/04


ROMANIA               Government Decision 396 / 2003, with subsequent amendments [16/04/2003]



Directive 93/42/EC [and amendments 98/78/EC, 200/70/EC, 2001/104/EC, 203/12/EC]
Medical articles made of textile materials

                      Medical Devices Act - ordinance on the essential requirements and procedures for
BULGARIA              assessing conformity with the essential requirements of medical devices art. 2, par. 1,
                      item 3 of the Law on Medical Devices.

GREECE                Implementation of directive [ΦΕΚ 679/B/1994]

                      Order of Minister of Health Care n° 47/1999 (X.6.) regarding medical articles (and
HUNGARY               amendments n° 29/2002(V.24.) EuM, n° 52/2003ESZCSM, n° 74/2004ESZCSM, n°
                      69/2004ESZCSM) (Hungarian code n°: J1999R0047EuM, J2002R0029EuM,
                      J2003R0027ESZCSM, J2004R0052ESZCSM)


                                                                                                          50
Directive 88/378/EC
Toys for children made of textile

                      o   Leg. Dec. 46/97
ITALY
                      o   Leg. Dec. 95/98

                      Government Decision 911/2005 with subsequent amendments [14/06/1993 &
ROMANIA
                      27/10/1998]




Directive 89/686/EC
Essential safety requirements of Personal Protective Equipment and conditions for placing on the market

                      Ordinance on the essential requirements and conformity assessment of personal
BULGARIA
                      protective equipment, SG. 48 of 14/05/2002.


GREECE                Implementation [ΦΕΚ 187/B/1993]

                      Order of Minister of Social Welfare
HUNGARY               2/2002. (II. 7.) SzCsM regarding requirements of personal protective equipments
                      (Hungarian code n° J2002R0002SZCSM)

ITALY                 Leg. Dec. 475/92


ROMANIA               Government Decision 115/2004 with subsequent amendments [05/02/2004]

Directive 93/68/EC
Essential safety requirements of Personal Protective Equipment and conditions for placing on the market

Directive 93/95/EC
Essential safety requirements of Personal Protective Equipment and conditions for placing on the market
                       Ordinance on the essential requirements and conformity assessment of personal
BULGARIA
                       protective equipment, SG. 48 of 14/05/2002


GREECE                Implementation [ΦΕΚ 450/Β/1994]




                                                                                                          51
                     o   Order of Minister of Economy and Transportation n° 31/2004. (III. 16.) GKM
                         relating to appliances of burning gaseous fuels and modification of the Order of
                         Minister n° 22/1998. (IV. 17.) IKIM (and amendments: Joint Resolution n°
                         31/1999. (VI. 11.) GM-KHVM, Joint Resolution n° 3/2003. (I. 25.) BM-GKM-KvVM,
                         Order of Minister n° 86/2004. (VI. 10.) GKM, Order of Minister n° 79/1997. (XII.
HUNGARY                  31.)        IKIM        (Hungarian       code        n°        J2004R0031GKM,
                         J1999R0031GMKHVM,J2003R0003BMGKMKvVM,                          J2004R0086GKM,
                         J1997R0079IKIM
                     o   Order of Minister of Social Welfare n° 2/2002. (II. 7.) SzCsM regarding
                         requirements of personal protective equipments (Hungarian code n°
                         J2002R0002SZCSM)

ITALY                Leg. Dec. 10/97


ROMANIA              Government Decision 115/2004 with subsequent amendments [05/02/2004]


Directive 96/58/EC Essential safety requirements of Personal Protective Equipment and conditions for
placing on the market


BULGARIA             ORDINANCE on the essential requirements and conformity assessment of personal
                     protective equipment, SG. 48 of 14/05/2002

GREECE               Implementation [ΦΕΚ 113/B/1997]

                     Order of Minister of Social Welfare No 2/2002. (II. 7.) SzCsM regarding requirements
HUNGARY              of personal protective equipments
                     (Hungarian code No. J2002R0002SZCSM)

ITALY                Leg. Dec. 10/97


ROMANIA              Government Decision 115/2004 with subsequent amendments [05/02/2004]




Circular MATT 208/2004 – Indications for textile and clothing sector




3.4. Voluntary certification schemes concerning textiles

3.4.1. Product certifications

3.4.1.1. Ecolabel


                                                                                                        52
The European Ecolabel was launched in 1992 as a voluntary scheme, in order to help businesses to market
environment-friendly products and services. The label was designed as a special part of the Action Plan on
Sustainable Consumption and Production and Sustainable Industrial Policy adopted by the European
Commission on 16 July 2008. The current criteria were put into effect by the Commission Decision of 9 July,
2009. These criteria are valid until 10 July, 2013. Meantime, the EU Joint Research Centre is working on the
revision and further criteria development.
Products and services awarded the Ecolabel carry the flower logo, allowing consumers - including public
and private purchasers - to identify them easily. Ecolabel covers a wide range of products and services, with
further groups being continuously added. Product groups include cleaning products, appliances, paper
products, textile and home and garden products, lubricants and services such as tourist accommodation.

Ecolabel then, is an environmental label that can be requested on a voluntary basis. In order to obtain the
Ecolabel, organisations must match the selection criteria defined by the European Commission on the basis
of the life-cycle analysis of a product or service, starting from raw material extraction in the pre-production
stage, through the production, distribution and disposal.



The          logo on textile products indicates that any harmful substances (on water or air) have been
limited during the production, while the textile still fulfils various quality criteria, i.e. the products do not
loose colour or shrink more than a conventional textile product. In addition, the risks of allergic reactions
are also reduced.

Key Criteria

Concerning the textile products, there are Commission Decisions that set the criteria to be followed:

Commission Decision 2009/567/EC, sets up the criteria for
      • textile clothing and accessories: clothing and accessories consisting of at least 90 % by weight
          of textile fibres.
      • interior textiles: textile products for interior use consisting of at least 90 % by weight of textile
          fibres. Wall and floor coverings are excluded.
      • fibres, yarn and fabrics: intended for use in textile clothing and accessories or interior textiles.

Commission Decision 2009/598/EC sets up the criteria for bed mattresses.

Commission Decision 2009/563/EC sets the criteria for footwear.

In relevant directive, each product group criteria specifies the compliance declarations, testing and
verification required. The criteria may require the applicant to get also independent verification of test
results.
Concerning the textiles, main criteria refer to:
         • textile fibres criteria
         • processes and chemicals criteria
         • fitness for use criteria
The Ecolabel logo on textile products shows:
         • a limited use of substances harmful to the environment
         • limited substances harmful to health
         • reduced water and air pollution
         • textile shrink resistance during washing and drying
         • colour resistance to perspiration, washing, wet and dry rubbing and light exposure

                                                                                                              53
        •   no mineral fibres, glass fibres, metal fibres, carbon fibres and other inorganic fibres have been
            used
        •   there are limitations (of residues) of certain pesticides
        •   there aren’t lead based pigments used
        •   there is a certain limitation to the use of zinc and copper
        •   no heavy metals and formaldehyde are present
        •   no azo-dyes, no dyes classified as carcinogenic, mutagenic, toxic for reproduction, no
            plasticizers or solvents have been used, etc.

Quality Assurance System

The compliance with Ecolabel is ensured through certain measurements taken:
       • the requirements to achieve certification (i.e. the chain of custody, the site visits, other metrics)
       • audit and surveillance requirements, as well as
       • the duration of certification, time to achieve certification, reviewing, retesting, etc.

Steps to be followed

A company that wants to certify one product or more should follow these steps:
  i.    Selection of the product group to be certified
  ii.   Building up the dossier
        A dossier should contain information of the product to be certified (materials, way of
        manufacturing or producing, etc.), along with technical information like a general description of the
        company, the description of the manufacturing processes, the recording of chemicals used, the list
        of suppliers, or additional supporting Information like o other certifications, etc.
        Moreover, results of the product(s) tests provided by a certified laboratory are to be included in the
        dossier and then submitted to the Competent Body (CB)
 iii.   Testing the product
        -       the laboratory has to be certified under ISO 17025 or equivalent;
        -       the applicant must communicate all the required information on the laboratory to the CB;
        -       the laboratory has to be accepted by the CB.
 iv.    Application for approval
        -       ecological and performance criteria for the products will be assessed, according to the
                documentation sent.
        -       a visit of the manufacturing facility may be organised in order to ensure compliance with
                the criteria.

        After receiving all the documents, the CB will assess the products environmental performance and
        their compliance with the criteria according to relevant EU Decision and product assessment/
        criteria.
        Contract holders must be ready at any time for the CB to inspect the production site and test the
        products. The award of the Ecolabel applies the continuous compliance with the requirements. The
        contract holder must keep a journal on the test results and the relevant documentation. If the data
        on the tests suggest that the products are not meeting the criteria any more, the contract holder
        must inform the CB which will make the appropriate decisions (e.g. a demand for additional
        measurements, suspension of the label, etc).
        Evaluation of Application is made by auditors of National Competent Body. If Application is
        approved, then Auditing of the company by national auditors, follows.
  v.    Awarding of the EU Ecolabel
                                                                                                           54
        The CB will send an official certificate. CBs are independent and impartial organisations, responsible
        for implementing the EU Ecolabel scheme at national level. They are members of the EUEB,
        responsible for drafting Ecolabel criteria, assessing applications and awarding the Ecolabel to
        companies that apply. They play a central role in the operation of the EU Ecolabel scheme and
        should be the first point of contact for any questions.

        The use the logo (EU flower) on the products is only permitted after the certificate is awarded.


Important information

Validity
Certification award lasts for 3 years, and/or until revision of the criteria, and the manufacturer is obliged:
      • to follow all the relevant criteria;
      • to test products and keep records proving that all specifications are met at least annually;
      • to inform the certification body on any change on suppliers or in manufacturing process;
      • to pay relevant fees to the national certification body.

Technical Support and Consulting can be given by the National Competent Body.

Certification bodies
In each EU country there is established the National Competent Body, which is responsible for the
management and award for Eco-label Scheme. Only accredited Independent Textile Institutes, recognised
by the National Competent Body may perform the testing needed and also consult the company.

Costs for the certification
Application fee (depending also on size of the company) - paid with application. Application fee covers the
costs of processing the application, and may vary from 200 to 1.200 €. Reductions can be at a max of 600 €
for SMEs and applicants from developing countries, and at a max of 350 € for micro-enterprises. A 20%
reduction for companies registered under EMAS or certified under ISO 14001 is also provisioned.
Maintenance fees – paid annually. Annual fee for the use of the Ecolabel equals to a max of 1.500 €. A fee
of 750 € for SMEs and applicants from developing countries and a max of 350 € for micro-enterprises is
provisioned.
Preparation costs include costs for testing of the products (depending on the product) and costs for the
consulting (when necessary)

Benefits
The labelling of products with the EU flower, may also offer several benefits:
    • marketing tool
    • competitive advantage for Green Procurement
    • respect to the consumers and environment
    • sustainability of enterprise
    • corporate social responsibility for SMEs and purchasers

Communication tools are made available to enhance the value of the label:
   • ecolabelled products are promoted at international fairs
   • news on the EU Ecolabel and awarded companies are published and sent
   • ecolabelled products are listed online in the Green Store
   • marketing guides and brochures are also available in the Ecolabel website.

Important!

                                                                                                                 55
Ecolabel certification for products refers to the product itself and not to the company! It must not be false
considered that all the products of the company are labelled.

Official website: http://www.ecolabel.eu

3.4.1.2. GOTS
The Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS) is a global, textile-specific standard, for organic fibres, including
ecological and social criteria, backed up by independent certification of the entire textile supply chain. Its
first version was launched in early 2006, and its current second version (2.0) was published in June 2008.
Since 2010 there is a current revision by the member organisations of the International Working Group
ongoing, but no 3.0 version is defined yet.
Only textile products that contain a minimum of 70% organic fibres can become certified according to
GOTS. All chemical inputs such as dyestuffs and auxiliaries used must meet certain environmental and
toxicological criteria and also the choice of accessories is limited under ecological aspects.
Key Criteria

The standard defines requirements for fibre products, yarns, fabrics and clothes and covers the production,
processing, manufacturing, packaging, labelling, exportation, importation and distribution of all natural
fibre products in order to ensure organic status of textiles.
This standard focuses on compulsory criteria only.
First of all, the fibres should be natural and have to be grown in an organic way, based on the production
standards such as those laid down in the EC organic Regulation 834/2007, or USDA NOP regulations. The
key criteria for fibre production can be identified as:

     Organic certification of fibres on basis of recognised international or national standards (e.g. EC
      834/2007, USDA NOP)
     Certification of fibres from conversion period is possible if the applicable farming standard permits
      such certification
     A textile product carrying the GOTS label grade ‘organic’ must contain a minimum of 95% certified
      organic fibres whereas a product with the label grade ‘made with organic’ must contain a minimum
      of 70% certified organic fibres

Secondly, the entire production process should be taken into account. The criteria for the production
process are laid down in the GOTS: they encompass every process-step of textile production (spinning,
weaving, washing, etc) and for every step it is laid down which processing aids may (and may not) be used,
in order to gain as much environmental profit as possible.
All chemical inputs, dyestuffs and auxiliaries used must meet certain environmental and toxicological
criteria and also the choice of accessories is limited under ecological aspects.
A functional waste water treatment plant is mandatory for any wet-processing unit involved and all
processors must comply with social minimum criteria.
Key criteria for processing and manufacturing include:

     at all stages through the processing, organic fibre products must be separated from conventional
      fibre products and must be clearly identified
     all chemical inputs (e.g. dyes, auxiliaries and process chemicals) must be evaluated and meet basic
      requirements on toxicity and biodegradability/eliminability
     prohibition of critical inputs such as toxic heavy metals, formaldehyde, aromatic solvents, functional
      nano-particles, genetically modified organisms (GMO) and their enzymes
                                                                                                             56
         the use of synthetic sizing agents is restricted; knitting and weaving oils must not contain heavy
          metals
         bleaches must be based on oxygen (no chlorine bleaching)
         azo-dyes that release carcinogenic amine compounds are prohibited
         discharge printing methods using aromatic solvents and plastisol printing methods using phthalates
          and PVC are prohibited
         restrictions for accessories (e.g. no PVC, nickel or chrome permitted, any polyester must be post-
          consumer recycled from 2014 onwards)
         all operators must have an environmental policy including target goals and procedures to minimise
          waste and discharges
         wet processing units must keep full records of the use of chemicals, energy, water consumption and
          waste water treatment, including the disposal of sludge. The waste water from all wet processing
          units must be treated in a functional waste water treatment plant.
         packaging material must not contain PVC. From 1st January 2014 onwards any paper or cardboard
          used in packaging material, hang tags, swing tags etc. must be post-consumer recycled or certified
          according to FSC or PEFC
         technical quality parameters must be met (such as rubbing, perspiration, light and washing fastness
          and shrinkage values)
         raw materials, intermediates, final textile products as well as accessories must meet stringent limits
          regarding unwanted residues
         minimum social criteria based on the key norms of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) must
          be met by all processors

The two label’s grades

There are two specific subdivisions of the label (two grades), depending on the minimal percentage of
organic components in the product.

          100 - 95% organic (the product can contain a maximum of 5% of non-organic fibres)
          94 - 70% organic (the product can contain a maximum of 30% of non-organic fibres)

The non-organic fibres may also include defined regenerated and synthetic fibres, with some further
restrictions (this can reach a maximum of 25% in case of socks, leggings and sportswear and 10% for all
other textile products).

It is prohibited to use organic and non-organic fibres of the same type (e.g. cotton) in one product.

Quality Assurance System

Generally a company participating in the GOTS certification scheme must work in compliance with all
criteria of the standard. GOTS relies on a dual system to check compliance with the relevant criteria
consisting of on-site auditing and residue testing.

Certification of the entire textile supply chain
           Fibre producers (farmers) must be certified according to a recognised international or national
              organic farming standard that is accepted in the country where the final product will be sold
           Certifiers of fibre producers must be internationally recognised according to ISO 65 and/or
              IFOAM accreditation. They also must be accredited to certify according to the applicable fibre
              standard


                                                                                                             57
            Operators from post-harvest handling up to garment making and traders have to undergo an
             onsite annual inspection cycle and must hold a valid GOTS operational certificate applicable
             for the production / trade of the textiles to be certified
            Certifiers of processors, manufacturers and traders must be internationally accredited
             according to ISO 65 and must hold a ‘GOTS accreditation’ in accordance with the rules as
             defined in the “Approval Procedure and Requirements for Certification Bodies”

Residue Testing
         Stringent orientation values for unwanted residues are defined in the standard
         Licensed operators must undergo residue testing according to a risk assessment of
            contamination
         Additional samples may be taken by auditors and sent for analysis to ISO 17025 accredited
            labs

Steps to be followed

Companies who wish to be certified should contact the appropriate GOTS approved certification body
(available in Switzerland, Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, France, Turkey, Argentina, US, Great Britain -
http://www.global-standard.org/certification/approved-certification-bodies.html).
Generally a company participating in the GOTS certification scheme must work in compliance with all
criteria of the standard. To apply for a GOTS certification, an organisation should follow the next steps:
      identify the requirements of the standard GOTS;
      establish activities in conformity with GOTS;
      describe and implement the activities in conformity with GOTS;
      contact a Certification Body and send:
        - the application for certification
        - the Organic Handling and Production Plan. The plan will describe the recordkeeping, sources of
            organic product and inputs, environmental management practices, and the methods used to
            prevent contamination with any prohibited inputs.
      a trained organic inspector will contact the company to schedule the annual inspection visit. The
         inspector will examine each component of the operation to verify that the Plan is an accurate
         description of organic standards compliance and will summarize the findings during an interview.
         The following list describes the main elements that will be inspected (additional elements may also
         be used if the certifier sees that necessary):
                  - review of bookkeeping in order to verify flow of GOTS goods (input/output
                      reconciliation, mass balance calculation and trace back lots and shipments). This is a
                      key aspect of the inspection of any operation that sells/trades GOTS goods.
                  - assessment of the processing and storage system through of visits to the applicable
                      facilities
                  - assessment of the separation and identification system and identification of areas of
                      risk to organic integrity
                  - inspection of the chemical inputs (dyes and auxiliaries) and accessories used and
                      assessment of their compliance with the applicable criteria of the GOTS
                  - inspection of the waste water (pre-)treatment system of wet processors and
                      assessment of its performance.
                  - check on social minimum criteria (possible sources of information: interview with
                      management, confidential interviews with workers, personnel documents, physical on-
                      site inspection, unions/stakeholders)
                  - verification of the operator's risk assessment of contamination and residue testing
                      policy potentially including sample drawing for residue testing either as random
                      sampling or in case of suspicion of contamination or non-compliance.

                                                                                                         58
       Certification Body conducts a review of the application and of the inspector’s report to evaluate
        compliance with the organic standards. A summary is presented to the Application Review
        Committee that makes the final certification decision.

There are strong limitations for products with a GOTS certification regarding the use of chemicals,
especially dyestuffs, prints and auxiliary agents. More than 2000 dyestuffs and 2850 auxiliaries have
received the approval of the certifiers and therefore are allowed to be used in GOTS-certified production.
The GOTS Certification Bodies keep on evaluating and monitoring the relevant chemical products. GOTS-
conform chemical inputs must have available a material safety data sheet (MSDS) prepared according to
one of the following norms/directives and containing appropriate information with regard to GOTS criteria
in order to be used as accepted basic tool for evaluation:

       ANSI Z400.1-2004
       ISO 11014-1
       1907/2006EEC (REACH)
       2001/58/EEC
       GHS (Global Harmonised System)

In addition, certifiers may conduct further information collection or laboratory tests before certifying a
chemical input as GOTS-conform.
After a successful audit, a certificate of registration to GOTS will be issued.
Other Important information

Validity
     depends on the type of the label and the contract with the Certification Body
     organic certification is valid for one year at which time it is necessary to renew and the above
         process is repeated.

Certification bodies
Only Certification Bodies recognized by the International Working Group on Global Organic Textile
Standard.
There are certain limitations regarding the accredited scope for which a certifier may offer GOTS
certification. Certifiers of textile supply chain operators may be accredited to the following scopes:
     certification of mechanical textile processing and manufacturing operations and their products;
     certification of wet processing and finishing operations and their products;
     certification of trading operations and related products;
     release of positive lists of chemical inputs (such as dyes and auxiliary agents) to the chemical
         industry.

Costs
    preparation costs: the cost for implementing, developing and maintaining the system
    certification cost: certification fees are determined by the type of operation, the products
      produced, and/or services provided.

Benefits
Besides being a positive ethical choice, ecological production and sustainable sourcing can lead to some
important benefits for the business. These include:
     make sure that the advantages of the natural fibres during the production of a garment are
        maintained;


                                                                                                       59
          all production steps, from fibre cultivation to the finished garment must correspond to the quality
           guidelines controlled by independent testing organisations;
          helping to comply with legislation by reducing the environmental impact;
          reducing costs for materials, equipment and running expenses (particularly when whole-life or
           'cradle to grave' costs are considered);
          increasing revenue by enhancing the company image for environmentally aware customers or end
           users;
          forming an important part of the environmental management system, is helping towards
           certification of this system;
          attracting investors who work to environmental or ethical principles efficiently.

Important!
Commercial activity is a crucial link in the textile value chain and the participation of traders, exporters,
importers is necessary regarding the GOTS certification process. Those importers that sell GOTS certified
final products that are received ready packed and labelled directly to the end consumer without having any
trade function (such as selling to other retailers) are exempt from this certification requirement.

Official website: http://www.global-standard.org



3.4.1.3. OekoTex® Standard 100
The Oeko-Tex® Standard 100 is a green label for textile products, a “uniform testing and certification
system for textile raw materials, intermediate and end products at all stages of production.”

         The use of the label depends on successful laboratory tests on all elements of the product.
         The criteria that define the use of the Oeko-Tex label are globally uniform, making the certification an
          easy, standardised and transparent procedure for all potential actors.
         The validity of the certificate is one year, with the option of further annual renewal.
         The label works with a modular concept, therefore products in various phases of the textile process
          chain can be certified.

Key Criteria

Tests for harmful substances comprise substances which are prohibited or regulated by law, chemicals
which are known to be harmful to health, and parameters which are included as a precautionary measure
to safeguard health, in order to reassure the Human Ecology: safety for skin-friendly clothing and other
textiles.
The internationally binding test catalogue according to Oeko-Tex® Standard 100 is based on scientifically
proven parameters and is revised annually in line with the latest legislation and research. It includes:
   substances which are prohibited by law, such as carcinogenic dyestuffs;
   substances which are regulated by law, such as formaldehyde, softeners, heavy metals or
      pentachlorophenol;
   substances which according to current knowledge are harmful to health, but which are not yet
      regulated or prohibited by law, such as pesticides, allergy-inducing dyestuffs or tin-organic
      compounds;
   parameters such as colourfastness and a skin-friendly pH-value, which are precautionary measures to
      safeguard consumers’ health.

Types of certification


                                                                                                               60
There are 4 different classes for certification: delicate items worn next to the skin such as baby clothes,
underwear or lingerie, for example, meet tougher standards than textiles that have little or no contact with
the skin such as fabrics used for decorating.

     Product class I, refers to textiles and textile toys for babies and children up to the age of three, e.g.
      underwear, romper suits, bed linen, bedding, soft toys, etc .
     Product class II, refers to textiles which, when used as intended, have a large part of their surface in
      direct contact with the skin, e.g. underwear, bed linen, terry goods, shirts, blouses, etc.
     Product class III refers to textiles which, when used as intended, do not come into contact with the
      skin, or only have a small part of their surface in contact with the skin, e.g. jackets, coats, interlining
      materials, etc.
     Product class IV refers to furnishing materials for decorative purposes such as table linen and
      curtains, but also textile wall and floor coverings, etc.

Some of these laboratory test parameters are simulation tests in order to decide whether harmful elements
can infiltrate the human body through the skin or by inhalation.
Credibility of the testing system

In order to raise the credibility of the testing system and the value of the label, the test institutes
themselves are trained and tested as well through:
   regular training and knowledge exchange exercise for the test institutes;
   specific round-robin tests between the test institutes.

Test institutes have to follow a strict testing system defined in the internal guide book and are audited by
the representatives of the International Oeko-Tex® Association.

Quality Assurance System

The Oeko-Tex® Standard 100 is a voluntary system, but participating companies shall make a legally binding
statement regarding the materials sent for testing (that they are identical to the textiles produced). This
legal statement adds to the quality guarantees of the testing system.
In the framework of this contract the applicant must sign a Declaration of Conformity, accept the Quality
Assurance of the Oeko-Tex® Scheme and agree in any control testing that the Association or the Member
Institutes perform.
If new techniques or elements are introduced into the manufacturing, these should also have the relevant
certificates and the textile produced with the application of these new elements or techniques must be re-
tested.
If the textile products no longer comply with the relevant criteria, the manufacturer shall make immediate
steps in order to improve the production quality. After non-compliance on several occasions, the
withdrawal of the existing Oeko-Tex® certificate may be completely withdrawn.
In addition, the International Oeko-Tex® Association carries out test inspections on at least 15% of all issued
certificates, including unannounced random samples at participating companies and also products bought
on the open market.
Since testing methods are designed for Oeko-Tex®, all the tests carried out may be functioned exclusively
by the authorised, independent textile research and testing institutes and only members of the Oeko-Tex®
Association can perform testing.
External auditors


                                                                                                              61
Besides the regular product controls, there are two independent auditors making unannounced site
inspections on behalf of the International Oeko-Tex® Association. These audits may confirm if the
production conditions satisfy the requirements of the Oeko-Tex® Standard 100 or if further steps should be
taken in order to optimise the existing quality assurance system.
Steps to be followed

For a product or group of products to be certified, the company must fill the Application form to
Certification Body with details of the product and production and select representative sample material
from your production/purchasing that will be tested. Then an individual test plan by OekoTex® Institute will
be drawn up and the testing of the materials. Then a Declaration of Conformity by the applicant is signed,
as a commitment of the applicant to respect Quality rules followed by the Oeko-Tex® Certification Scheme.
Schematically this is the procedure:




                                                                                                         62
Other Important information

Validity

Certification award lasts for 1 year, always under obligation of the manufacturer:
     to accept OekoTex® Regulations (quality assurance, copyright of label, etc.);
     to inform OekoTex® Association on any changes on product or suppliers




Certification bodies
     There is only one Institute member of the OekoTex® Association per country;
     The Oeko-Tex® Institute can also provide Technical Support to the company, while Oeko-Tex®
         Association can provide marketing advices and support for companies that have certified products.

Costs
One year fee for certificate per product group, and testing costs depending on necessary testing are
included in the cost for certification. The modular principle adopted by the Oeko-Tex® Scheme permits
lower certification costs when requirements are fulfilled by suppliers and already certified materials. The
company visit and auditing cost is upon first certification and then every 3 years.

Benefits
The scheme Market Direction, globally uniform testing and certification system recognised for textile raw
materials, intermediate and end products at all stages of production by large distributors worldwide:
Test label provides an important decision-making tool when purchasing textiles:
     for purchasers: OekoTex® Association performs testing on products in the market
     for companies: checking of suppliers with spot-testing on B2B buyers
OekoTex® certified products may be found everywhere in the market – you can recognise products by the
“Confidence in Textiles” flower label on the packaging or on the product.

Important!
Oeko-Tex® Standard 100 refers to the product itself and not to the company!

Official website: http://www.oeko-tex.com



3.4.1.4. Organic Exchange

Organic Exchange (OE) was founded in the US (Texas), but by now it has grown to being a successful non-
profit organisation with a global multi-stakeholder approach to developing markets in the textile value
chain. It has an European office (Upperwood, Freshford, Co. Kilkenny, Ireland). The organisation issues two
standards, OE 100 Standard for organic cotton products and OE Blended Standard for mixed, blended
textile products containing organic cotton elements. These standards are voluntary; companies are
encouraged to use it as a way to ensure that they are receiving what they have requested from their
suppliers, and to prove the integrity of their own claims.



                                                                                                        63
OE 100 Standard

The OE 100 Standard is a standard for tracking and documenting the purchase, handling and use of 100%
certified organic cotton fiber in yarns, fabrics and finished goods. The OE 100 Standard helps ensure that
consumers of organic cotton products can be confident that the product contains 100% certified
organically farmed ingredients. It also provides a tool for companies to use in confirming that the products
they are buying or selling contain the percentage of organic cotton that they have stated.


Labelling to the OE 100 Standard

If the company chooses to label the finished products as containing organic cotton, it may make reference
to the OE Standard and use
      “Made with 100% organically grown cotton” only for products that contain 100% organic cotton
      “Made with organically grown cotton” for products that contain 95% or more organic cotton, as
         long as the remaining content is not cotton.


Requirements

The OE 100 Standard requires companies to:
     use cotton that was purchased from a farmer who is a certified organic producer
     have 100% organic cotton content in their products exclusive of sewing thread and non‐textile
       accessories. Note that there is an allowance of up to 5% non-cotton content;
     handle the cotton in a manner that maintains its identity until it is spun into yarn;
     handle and label the yarns, fabrics and finished goods containing organic cotton so that the
       purchase and use of certified organic cotton can be verified at each step of the manufacturing
       process;
     maintain records that confirm that all required steps have been taken;
     have an independent, licensed third party certify compliance with the OE 100 Standard for every
       party involved in producing the product.


OE Blended Standard

The OE Blended Standard was developed in order to allow the labelling of goods made of mixed, blended
components where there is a minimum 5% of organic cotton used. OE Blended Standard is applied for
tracking and documenting the purchase, handling, and use of certified organically farmed cotton fiber in
blended yarns, fabrics, and finished goods.


Labelling to the OE Blended Standard

If the company chooses to label the finished products as containing a blend, it should use the “Made with
X% organically grown cotton” language, and make reference to the OE Blended Standard. “X” must
represent the final percentage of organic cotton by weight in the finished product.


Requirements

Companies shall:
    use cotton that was purchased from a farmer who is a certified organic producer

                                                                                                         64
   have a minimum of 5% organic cotton content in their products (exclusive of sewing thread and
    non‐textile accessories);
   handle the cotton in a manner that maintains its identity until it is blended into yarn;
   handle and label the yarns, fabrics, and finished goods containing organic cotton so that the
    purchase and use of certified organic cotton can be verified at each step of the manufacturing
    process;
   maintain records that confirm that all required steps have been taken;
   have an independent, licensed third party certify compliance with the OE Blended Standard for
    every party involved in producing the product.




                                                                                               65
66
COMPARISONS? – Main comparisons should be included I believe

                                   Eco label                       Oeko-Tex® Standard 100                               GOTS                          Organic Exchange (OE)
Concept            What is safe for the environment is also       What is safe for the man is also    Save natural resources & Social Criteria –    The Organic Exchange is focused
                   safe for the man.                              safe for the environment.           Sustainability of the environment.            on creating environmental and
                                                                                                                                                    social benefits through the
                                                                                                                                                    expansion of organic agriculture.
Policy             The EU Ecolabel scheme is part of the          The Textile Ecology, as a product   Ecology & Social Responsibility: ensuring
                   sustainable consumption and production         certification aiming mainly in      organic status of textiles, from harvesting
                   policy of the Community, which aims at         Human Ecology (concerning the       of the raw materials, through
                   reducing the negative impact of                effects that textiles and           environmentally and socially responsible
                   consumption and production on the              chemicals contained in them on      manufacturing up to labelling in order to
                   environment, health, climate and natural       the health and well being of the    provide a credible assurance to the end
                   resources.                                     consumer).                          consumer
Description        Ecolabel is a voluntary label in order to      The Oeko-Tex® Standard 100 is a     The Global Organic Textile Standard           The OE 100 Standard is a
                   provide customers with a quality guarantee     globally uniform testing and        (GOTS) is the worldwide leading textile       standard for tracking and
                   they can trust. The criteria to be met are     certification system for textile    processing standard for organic fibres,       documenting the purchase,
                   set at European level, based upon              raw materials, intermediate and     including ecological and social criteria,     handling and use of 100%
                   consultation with experts. The label is only   end products at all stages of       backed up by independent certification        certified organic cotton fiber in
                   awarded after the product proves that it       production                          of the entire textile supply chain.           yarns, fabrics and finished
                   meets these high environmental and                                                                                               goods.
                   performance standards.
Who can apply      Textile manufacturers                          Textile or clothing                 Textile manfufacturers
                                                                  manufacturers, distributors,
                                                                  traders
Status             Regulation (EC) No 66/2010 of the              Internationally registered          Trade name of International Working           Under no legal bases. (Mainly
                                                                                             ®
                   European Parliament and of the Council of      trademark of the Oeko-Tex           Group on Global Organic Textile Standard      referred to India, China, North
                   25 November 2009 on the EU Ecolabel            Association protected in law by                                                   America, Turkey and countries
                   Under no legal bases.                          the Madrid Agreement.                                                             in Africa and South America, still
                                                                  Under no legal bases.                                                             expanding)




                                                                                                                                                                             67
                                   Eco label                        Oeko-Tex® Standard 100                               GOTS                         Organic Exchange (OE)
Representative    EU label - The label was designed as a           The International Oeko-Tex®          The International Working Group on          OE, Organic Exchange was
organisation(s)   special part of the action plan on               Association (comprised of 15         Global Organic Textile Standard             founded in the US (Texas), but
                  Sustainable Consumption and Production           well-known textile research and      (comprised of 4 member organizations:       by now it has grown to being a
                  and Sustainable Industrial Policy adopted        test institutes in Europe and        namely OTA (USA), IVN (Germany), Soil       successful non-profit
                  by the Commission on 16 July 2008..              Japan, responsible for the           Association (UK) and JOCA (Japan), plus     organisation with a global multi-
                  Meantime, the Joint Research Centre of the       independent tests for harmful        further international stakeholder           stakeholder approach to
                  EU is working on the revision and further        substances according to Oeko-        organizations and experts)                  developing markets in the
                  criteria development.                            Tex® Standard 100.)                                                              textile value chain. It has a
                  The European Union Ecolabelling Board                                                                                             European office (Upperwood,
                  (EUEB) is made up of the Competent Bodies                                                                                         Freshford, Co. Kilkenny, Ireland).
                  from each Member State and the
                  interested parties that form the
                  Consultation Forum.
Certificates      Certification for specific products only         Certification for group of similar   Organic natural fibres’ products only (at   OE 100 Standard for organic
                                                                   products:                            least 70% in final product, excluding       cotton products and OE Blended
                                                                   Class I: products for babies         accessories)                                Standard for mixed, blended
                                                                   Class II: products with direct       Label-grade 1: ‚organic‘ ≥ 95% certified    textile products containing
                                                                   contact with the skin                organic fibres, ≤ 5 % non-organic natural   organic cotton elements
                                                                   Class III: products with no-direct   or synthetic fibres
                                                                   contact with the skin                Label-grade 2: ‚made with X% organic‘: ≥
                                                                   Class IV: products for decorating    70% certified organic fibres, ≤ 30 % non
                                                                   and decorative purposes              organic fibres, but a maximum of 10%
                                                                                                        synthetic fibres (up to 25% for socks,
                                                                                                        leggings and sportswear)
Applicable        All products (and services) can apply, not       All textile products can apply for   Only textiles made from at least 70%        Only products containing cotton
products          only textile. Concernign Textiles:               the label where all elements and     certified organic natural fibres            Non-organic cotton can not be
                  (a) textile clothing and accessories: clothing   techniques can be tested                                                         among the elements, not even
                  and accessories consisting of at least 90 %      against the Oeko-Tex criteria.                                                   in a small percent
                  by weight of textile fibres;
                  (b) interior textiles: textile products for
                  interior use consisting of at least 90 % by
                  weight of textile fibres. Mats and rugs are
                  included.
                  (c) fibres, yarn and fabric (including durable
                  non-woven) intended for use in textile
                  clothing and accessories or interior textiles.


                                                                                                                                                                            68
                                 Eco label                      Oeko-Tex® Standard 100                               GOTS                          Organic Exchange (OE)
Exceptions /     > Wall to wall floor coverings and wall       > Bedding covers: the Oeko-          > It is prohibited to use organic and non-   Non-organic cotton can not be
Restrictions     coverings are excluded;                       Tex® label may only be used          organic fibres of the same type (e.g.        among the elements, not even
                 > Textiles treated with biocidal products     visibly on the final product if      cotton) in one product.                      in a small percent
                 (except where those biocidal products in      both the cover and filling have      > The non-organic fibres may also
                 Annex IA to Directive 98/8/EC)                been successfully tested             include defined regenerated and
                                                               according to Oeko-                   synthetic fibres, with some further
                                                               Tex® Standard 100.                   restrictions (this can reach a maximum
                                                               > For products where the full        of 25% in case of socks, leggings and
                                                               production chain or all of the       sportswear and 10% for all other textile
                                                               elements can not be tested           products).
                                                               according to the Oeko-
                                                               Tex® criteria catalogue (e.g.
                                                               shoes, furniture, etc), the
                                                               product can not be visibly
                                                               marked with the Oeko-Tex®
                                                               label in order to avoid
                                                               misleading the consumer,
                                                               except for:
                                                               - Safety belts for cars
                                                               - Pushchair covers
                                                               - Cushions for sun loungers and
                                                               garden furniture
                                                               - Seat cushions available as
                                                               separate retail items
Environmental/   Focuses on safety issues, health issues and   Environmental policy and health      Aims at supporting the organic status of     Focuses on environmental
Health/Social    environmental policy.                         aspects are taken into account,      textiles (from the early steps: harvesting   policy.
                 In order to use the label, the company must   social policy is not. The focus of   of the raw materials), through the           In order to use the label, the
policy           pay a membership fee. The different levels    the label is to support the          manufacturing (environmental and             company must pay a
                 of membership start from contributor (USD     human ecological quality of          social aspects) until the product reaches    membership fee. The different
                 500-1000) , include supporter (USD 2500 -     textiles and a uniform safety        the end consumer.                            levels of membership start from
                 5000) and reach partnership (USD 10 000 -     standard for companies, to                                                        contributor (USD 500-1000) ,
                 25000).                                       eliminate the potential harmful                                                   include supporter (USD 2500 -
                                                               substances in textile products.                                                   5000) and reach partnership
                                                                                                                                                 (USD 10 000 -25000).




                                                                                                                                                                       69
                                  Eco label                      Oeko-Tex® Standard 100                              GOTS                           Organic Exchange (OE)
Application /    Application fee covers the costs of            Application follows a set          Initial request and application for GOTS       In order to use the label, the
Certrification   processing the application, and may vary       procedure to which all             certification is to be addressed to a          company must pay a
                 from 200 to 1.200 Euros. Annual                authorised Oeko-Tex® test          GOTS Approved Certification Body. Each         membership fee. The different
Fees             maintenance fees up to a max of 1.500€.        institutes are bound. The cost     certified entity must pay a licence fee        levels of membership start from
                                                                for Oeko-Tex® certification        (from 2011, set at 120 Euro for each           contributor (USD 500-1000) ,
                                                                consists of the annual licensing   facility that is inspected for the certified   include supporter (USD 2500 -
                                                                fee, costs for company visits by   entity).                                       5000) and reach partnership
                                                                the commissioned testing                                                          (USD 10 000 -25000).
                                                                institute, as well as lab costs.
Requirements     The full impact of the product (from raw       All used techniques and            All used elements must be certified in
on all           materials to production, distribution and      elements must be certified in      order to have the product certified.
                 disposal) on the environment must be           order to have the product
elements/techn   examined and taken into account                certified.
iques used
Logo             Yes – EU flower (same also for other type of   > Yes – Oeko-Tex® label (unique,   > Yes – GOTS Logo                              Yes
                 products)                                      identified per product group and
                                                                company) - only for textile
                                                                products
                                                                > One company may have
                                                                different label for different
                                                                product groups
Organisation     National Competent Bodies                      OekoTex ® Association and its      GOTS approved certifiers,
                 (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ecolabe       members in each country            http://www.global-
                 l/contacts/competent_bodies_en.htm)                                               standard.org/certification/approved-
                                                                                                   certification-bodies.html
Standard to be   > COMMISSION DECISION 2009/567/EC              Oeko-Tex® Standard 100             The GOTS standard; latest versions
followed         establishing the ecological criteria for the   (available at www.oeko-            available in GOTS website
                 award of the Community Ecolabel for            tex.com)
                 textile products
                 > COMMISSION DECISION 2009/568/EC
                 establishing the ecological criteria for the
                 award of the Community Ecolabel for bed
                 mattresses
                 > COMMISSION DECISION 2009/563/EC
                 establishing the ecological criteria for the
                 award of the Community eco-label for
                 footwear
                                                                                                                                                                        70
                                   Eco label                        Oeko-Tex® Standard 100                              GOTS                        Organic Exchange (OE)
Testing            International and European Methods are          The laboratory tests currently      The International Working Group on
principles         adopted for testing                             comprise around 100 test            Global Organic Textile Standard (IWG)
                                                                   parameters and are based on         has developed its own accreditation
                                                                   international test standards        system for this approval process as well
                                                                   ("Oeko-Tex® Standard 200 –          as for continuous monitoring of the
                                                                   testing procedures") and other      approved Certification Bodies, as
                                                                   recognised testing procedures.      outlined in the document “Approval
                                                                                                       Procedure and Requirements for
                                                                                                       Certification Bodies”.
Application        Application to National Competent Body          Application to Institute-member     Application to Certification Body
                                                                   only (one Institute in each         recognized by the International Working
                                                                   country)                            Group on Global Organic Textile Standard
Process for new üApplication contains information for the          üApplication contains               > Application to a Certification Body
certification   company, the process of manufacturing,             information for the company,        > Develop an Organic Handling and
                   the suppliers, the materials/chemicals          the process of manufacturing,       Production Plan respecting criteria of the
                   used, the products to be certified              the suppliers, the                  standard
                   > Audit of the company                          materials/chemicals used, the       > Audit by a trained organic Inspector
                   > Testing of the product(s) to be distributed   products to be certified
                   in the market by the manufacturer               > Company visit
                                                                   > Testing of the product(s) to be
                                                                   distributed in the market by the
                                                                   manufacturer
Follow up          Obligation to keep annual records for           üRetesting of certified             Annual inspections by site
                   certified products (including testing)          product(s) annually
                                                                   > Random testing of certified
                                                                   products from goods available in
                                                                   shops
Label              The EU flower                                   Unique numbered Oeko-Tex®           GOTS logo with Certifier’s identity &
                                                                   label referred to both product &    producer’s Licence Number
                                                                   company
Legal              Product fulfils legal requirements for EU       Product complies with all           All organic products comply with legal
compliance         market distribution                             applicable legal requirements       requirements.
                                                                   (i.e. REACH Regulation) and
                                                                   extra criteria proving
                                                                   friendliness to human skin


                                                                                                                                                                   71
                                 Eco label                     Oeko-Tex® Standard 100                               GOTS                       Organic Exchange (OE)
Auditor          > Independent auditors appointed by          > Oeko-Tex trained auditors in      only trained organic INSPECTORS,
                 National Body                                each Institute                      accredited by Certification Bodies
                                                              > Chief oeko-tex auditor
Audits           Company audit on application – usually re-   The certification is based on       At least annual inspection by site
                 audit every 3 years                          sample materials sent for
                                                              testing, but on-site audits are
                                                              realised:
                                                              > Audit is provisioned in all new
                                                              companies & in all companies
                                                              every three years.
                                                              > Random audits by chief Oeko-
                                                              Tex auditor are provisioned in
                                                              each country every 3-4 years.
Crieteria        > Raw materials, processing, chemicals’                                          Processing, manufacturing, packaging,
concern          used composition, performance of product                                         labelling, trading and distribution

Check validity   Through Eco-label website with name of       Through Oeko-Tex® website           -                                        -
on product       the product or the manufacturer:             with the number of the
                 http://www.eco-label.com/default.htm         certificate:
                                                              http://www.oekotex.com/Oeko
                                                              Tex100_PUBLIC/content.asp?ar
                                                              ea=hauptmenue&site=gueltigkei
                                                              tspruefung&cls=24
Publicity        Products/Companies may be found in           Products/Companies may be           Products/Companies may be found in
                 The European Eco-label Catalogue:            found in Shopping guide:            GOTS public database:
                 http://www.eco-label.com/default.htm         http://www.oeko-                    http://www.global-standard.org/public-
                                                              tex.com/OekoTex100_PUBLIC/c         database.html
                                                              ontent1.asp?area=hauptmenue
                                                              &site=einkaufsfuehrer&cls=02&
                                                              group=oetzgzertifikatsinhaber
Publicity to     > http://www.ecolabel.eu                     > Oeko-Tex® web site                Information Centre in www.global-
consumers        > information material may be found in the   > advertising material for          standard.org/information-centre.html
                 Eco-label website for several types of       consumers,
                 products                                     > informative material for
                                                              different type of products
                                                              > advertising material available
                                                              on request of manufacturer by

                                                                                                                                                              72
Eco label    Oeko-Tex® Standard 100   GOTS   Organic Exchange (OE)
            Oeko-Tex® Association




                                                            73
3.4.2. System certifications

3.4.2.1. Environmental Management Systems

An Environmental Management System (EMS) is a set of processes and practices that enable an
organisation to reduce its environmental impacts and improve operating efficiency. Increasingly,
organisations are seeking to implement accredited schemes through which their environmental credentials
can be evidenced. Traditionally, in order to assess the impact of their activities, products and services on
the environment, many organisations have undertaken internal environmental performance ‘reviews’ or
‘audits’. However, while such efforts can produce positive results, they are now increasing perceived as
insufficient to provide the assurances that performance not only meets, but will continue to satisfy legal
and strategic requirements. Hence, companies are now looking to adopt more structured environmental
impact assessment mechanisms by implementing Environmental Management Systems (EMS) that are
nationally or internationally recognised through accreditation by an independent third party.

Today, three market-leading systems have emerged: ISO 14001 (an internationally accepted standard),
EMAS (a robust European option), and BS 8555 (a more flexible and affordable British solution). Each has
unique advantages and weaknesses, and organisations must carefully consider their own objectives when
assessing the suitability of candidate schemes.


Stages of standardized EMS

Environmental Management Systems are very much related to quality management systems. They are
mechanisms that provide for a systematic and cyclical process of continual improvement. The cycle itself
begins with planning for a desired outcome (i.e. improved environmental performance), implementing that
plan, checking to see if the plan is working and finally correcting and improving the plan based on
observations from the checking process. Logically then, if the original outcome desired remains the same, a
system of this nature will, by default, generate increments of progress that continually move toward the
desired outcome .

In order for a company to achieve environmental performance through a management loop as mentioned
above, it will need to define responsibilities for environmental management, deploy resources to ensure
that action is taken on environmental issues, train staff to become aware of their environmental
responsibilities, monitor environmental performance and audit and review the system of achieving
environmental improvement. The basis of all of this activity is an organizational commitment to continual
environmental improvement and an environmental policy.

A typical EMS incorporates the following elements.
     Baseline Environmental Review/Audit
     Planning
            o Environmental Policy
            o Environmental Objectives and Targets
            o EM Programme
     Implementation and Operation
            o Operational Control
            o Emergency Preparedness and Response
            o Responsibility Allocation
            o Awareness and Training
            o Communications
     Check and Review

                                                                                                         74
            o Checks and Corrective Action
            o Ongoing Review & Improvement
     Documentation
A summary of each of these components is below.

Baseline Environmental Review/Audit
At the beginning of an EMS development, a baseline environmental review/audit is normally conducted in
order to determine the status of the organisation’s environmental performance. This audit should feature a
comprehensive identification and evaluation of all the significant environmental impacts and issues
relevant to the organisation’s activities at the site. The size of an audit and time scale for conducting it will
largely be determined by the size of the organisation and complexity of the site activities.
The issues to be considered in an audit will vary depending on the organisation, its location and the type of
activities conducted.

Typical factors normally considered in an environmental audit include the following:
     Compliance with environmental legislative requirements
     Air emissions (sources, composition, quantity, abatement systems, emission points, receiving
         environment)
     Water emissions (sources, composition, quantity, abatement systems, disposal routes, receiving
         environment)
     Waste generation, collection and disposal
     Waste management /minimization practices
     Energy usage and conservation measures
     Storage, handling and containment of hazardous/potentially hazardous substances
     Raw material usage especially for non-renewable resources
     Noise
     Odor
     Flora, fauna and landscape
     Surrounding land-use activities
     Environmental sensitivity associated with the site or its location, such as adjacency to a stream or
         overlying an aquifer
     Previous site uses and any residual contamination

Audits are normally conducted via site surveys, discussions with relevant site personnel and other third
parties as relevant. Depending on the site requirements, environmental monitoring of, for example, surface
water, groundwater, soil or air may be conducted. The baseline audit should be comprehensively
documented as it provides the basis for the development of the remaining EMS components. There are
currently three international standards in the ISO 14000 suite (ISO 14010 – 14012), providing guidance on
environmental auditing.

Planning
Based on the findings of the Baseline Environmental Review/Audit, the environmental improvements
necessary should be clear. The next phase is to plan a way forward for ensuring that improvement
measures are implemented in a realistic and timely manner. This involves specifying an Environmental
Policy, defining objectives and targets and devising an Environmental Management action Programme.

Environmental Policy
Based on the audit, an environmental policy statement is developed to define the overall environmental
aims of the company. This is typically a one-page statement, stating the actual, realistic (not inspirational)
environmental aims, committed to by the senior management and signed off by the head of the company.

Environmental Objectives and Targets

                                                                                                              75
Based on the audit, a schedule of objectives and targets is established for a specified time scale, following
on from the policy. Initially, the objectives are largely based on environmental legislative requirements,
such as the conditions of a license, where these are not already in place. As the aim is to improve
environmental performance over time, objectives and targets will be revised and updated over time, in
light of license reviews, site requirements etc.

Environmental Management Programme (EM Programme)
Finally, the EM Programme is developed as an action plan for achieving the objectives and targets. It
includes information on the means, time-frame and allocation of responsibility necessary to achieve these.


Implementation and operation

Operational control
Practical operational control seeks to oversee site activities, which, if they were not controlled, could have
a significant adverse environmental impact. Typical operational control measures include:
      Operation of site-related technology in line with relevant license requirements or best practice
      Development and use of operational procedures for operations, monitoring etc
      Implementation of environmental monitoring programmes as defined in relevant licenses or in line
         with best practice

Emergency planning and response
As environmental impacts can occur as the result of an emergency situation at an industrial facility (e.g.
spillage of a hazardous substance, fire generating contaminated fire water or explosion releasing a toxic
gas), these potential scenarios are identified and appropriate control measures are put in place to limit and
mitigate the likely environmental impacts.

Responsibility allocation
Within the EMS, the role of an Environmental Manager/Officer for the site is allocated. This person
champions the EMS development and takes responsibility for the day-to-day running of the EMS once
implemented. Specific requirements for site management and staff as required under the license would be
incorporated in this section of the EMS.

Awareness and training
Procedures for identifying the environmental training needs of personnel and providing training as relevant
are put in place.

Communications
A programme is developed to ensure appropriate internal and external communications regarding
environmental issues relevant to the site. This incorporates all relevant stakeholders and should ensure
appropriate access to information on the organisation’s environmental performance is made available.
Typically, the Environmental Policy Statement is used to disseminate information to the public on the
company environmental aims. Dependant on license requirements, a variety of environmental
performance data, such as environmental monitoring data, records and annual environmental reports are
made available to the Regulatory Authority and are in the public domain. It is increasingly common for
companies to include environmental performance information in Annual Reports, provide specific Annual
Environmental Reports and include environmental information on their websites.

Check and review

Checks and corrective action
Checks are normally conducted on an ongoing basis to ensure that the EMS is operating effectively and to
ensure corrective action is taken if EMS elements are not appropriately implemented.
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Review and improve

Inherent in the EMS concept is the requirement for on-going assessment of operations with a view to
improving environmental performance over time. Once the EMS is operational, reviews are conducted at a
suitable frequency in order to ensure the ongoing suitability and effectiveness of the EMS. After the review
process, the Policy Statement, Schedule of Objectives and targets, EM programme and other aspects of the
EMS may need to be updated. This review will not normally be as comprehensive as the baseline
environmental review, but many of the same issues will be considered.

Documentation
To facilitate implementation, the essential elements of the EMS are documented in electronic or paper-
based format. This may be in the form of an Environmental Management Manual and as part of the existing
site operational documentation. As resource conservation is likely to be a key aim in an EMS, the
documentation should not be highly paper intensive.

Records and reporting
Within the EMS documentation, a records and reporting system, typically based on regulatory authority
requirements, is developed. Examples of such records and reports include
     Records of all environmental monitoring
     Records of the waste generated and associated disposal and/or recycling routes
     Relevant licenses and/permits for waste contractors used
     Records of environmental audits and reviews
     Environmental performance reports.

The advantages of improved environmental management can be divided into two broad categories . The
first category addresses the fact that improved environmental management is good for our planet and a
fundamental requirement of global sustainability. This is because respecting that present business patterns
are fundamentally unsustainable, improved environmental management will serve at least to move our
business patterns towards sustainability.
The second category, which seems have a more direct relationship with companies, addresses the fact that
improved environmental management could benefit the company a lot.


ISO 14001
Currently, the most widely established and well known EMS verification standard is the International
Standard 14001. Based on the methodology of “Plan-Do-Check-Act”, this standard provides a framework
that enables an organisation to develop and implement an environmental policy that satisfies legal
requirements and efficiently addresses environmental impacts. Developed to apply to all types and sizes of
organisations, ISO 14001’s overall aim is to help participants achieve higher environmental standards,
comply with environmental legislation, reduce costs and improve general operational efficiency.

It owes its current popularity as an EMS verification standard to a number of factors. Firstly, due to its
widespread adoption and international recognition, it can lead to global business opportunities as well as
enhanced national and regional prospects. Secondly, with a relatively simple implementation profile, its
human resource requirements are viewed as low, making it a cost effective solution. Finally, ISO 14001 has
an independent accreditation process which has vastly improved its credibility and reassures organisations
and interested parties alike.

However, ISO 14001 is not without its critics. One of its most frequently criticised features is that it does
not require an organisation to regularly measure its actual environmental performance. While a guideline
exists (ISO 14031), there is no requirement for an organisation to continually improve its environmental
performance to maintain accreditation. Thus, the standard is based on the assumption that an effective
EMS will automatically lead to continual environmental performance improvement. Another criticism is the
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absence of any need to make environmental performance information available publicly. While an
organisation is required to publish its environmental policy (including a mandatory obligation to adhere to
all environmental legislation), there is no requirement to demonstrate how compliance is achieved.

ISO 14001 is based on the Plan-Do-Check-Act methodology, which has been expanded to include 17
elements, grouped into five phases:
     Environmental Policy
     Planning
     Implementation & Operation
     Checking & Corrective Action
     Management Review


General requirements

An organization must establish, document, implement, and continually improve their environmental
management system and show how they meet all the requirements of this standard. The organization
defines the scope of the EMS, i.e. the boundaries of the organization to which the EMS applies.


Environmental policy

The organization must have a policy, or commitment statement, developed by top management relative to
the scope of the EMS that conforms to the standard. This is generally a short statement that drives the
remainder of the EMS. There are specific items that must be committed to in the policy, such as compliance
with legal and other requirements, prevention of pollution, and continual improvement. In addition, the
policy must be communicated to all employees, and others working on behalf of the organization, and be
available to the public. The policy provides a framework for reviewing objectives and targets and be
appropriate to the nature and scale of the entity included in the scope. This policy must be documented,
implemented, and maintained.
This means that it is kept current through the EMS review and continual improvement process, and is
implemented through the remainder of the EMS elements.


Planning

Environmental Aspects
This element requires a procedure to identify environmental aspects and related impacts that the
organization can control or have influence over, and determine those which are significant to the
organization. ISO 14001 does not prescribe what aspects should be significant, or even how to determine
significance. However, it is expected that a consistent and verifiable process is used to determine
significance.
Aspects are defined as how an organization’s activities products and/or services interact with the
environment. An impact is how an aspect changes the environment. The intent of this element is to help
the organization identify how it affects the environment, prioritize aspects, and use the EMS to manage,
control, and improve upon the aspects. So the organization must ensure that the significant aspects are
taken into account in the EMS. In order to ensure that the system is continually improving and current, this
information must be kept up to date.

Legal and other Requirements
This is a requirement for a procedure that explains how the organization obtains information regarding its
legal and other requirements, and makes that information known to key functions within the organization.
The intent of this element is to identify the environmental legal and other requirements that pertain to its


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operations and activities so that the organization can ensure that they are taken into account in the EMS. In
doing so, the organization must also determine how these requirements apply to the significant aspects.

Objectives, targets and programmes
There is no requirement for a procedure in this element. However, there must be some process that
ensures that the objectives and targets are consistent with the policy, which includes the commitments to
compliance with legal and other requirements, continual improvement, and prevention of pollution. Also,
the organization must take into consideration significant aspects, legal and other requirements, views of
interested parties, and technological, financial, and business issues when deciding what it wishes to
accomplish as an objective. The objectives and targets need to exist at whatever functions and levels of the
organization, and be measurable, where practicable.
Management Programmes (MPs) are the detailed plans and programs explaining how the objectives and
targets will be accomplished. These MPs usually note responsible personnel, milestones and dates, and
measurements of success.


Implementation and operation

Structure and Responsibility
ISO 14001 requires that the relevant management and accountability structure be defined in this element.
Top management is expected to ensure that resources are available so that the EMS can be implemented,
maintained, and improved. These resources include human resources, organizational structure, financial
and technological resources, and others as needed. Roles, responsibilities, and authorities must be defined,
documented and communicated as appropriate: the organization must denote the Management
Representative who is responsible to oversee the EMS and report to management on its operation. This
person(s) ensures that the EMS is established, implemented and maintained consistent with ISO 14001, and
also reports to top management on the performance of the system including recommendations for
improvement.

Training, awareness and competence
The key point in this element is to ensure that persons performing tasks that have or can have significant
impact on the environment and/or relate to the legal and other requirements are competent to do those
tasks. Competence is ensured through appropriate education, training, and/or experience.

The organization needs to identify training needs as they relate to the EMS, the significant aspects, and the
legal and other requirements and make sure this training is provided (records of such are to be
maintained). A procedure is needed that makes sure such persons are: aware of the need to conform with
all EMS procedures and requirements and what they specifically need to do to do so; the significant aspects
and the legal and other requirements associated with their respective responsibilities and why improved
performance is beneficial; and the consequences of not following these procedures and requirements. In
addition to job-specific knowledge, it expected that all personnel within the EMS (including contractors)
have general awareness on items such as the policy and emergency response.

Communication
Procedures are required for both internal and external communications. Note that ISO 14001 only requires
procedures, and allows the organization to decide for itself the degree of openness and disclosure of
information. Whatever the decision is in terms of disclosure, the decision process must be recorded. There
is a specific requirement that the organization considers external communications about its significant
environmental aspects and records its decision.
For internal communications, the procedure needs to describe how it is done among the levels of the
organization. For external communications, it has to describe how external communications are received,
documented, and a response provided.

EMS Documentation
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This requirement ensures that the organization has documented the system in either electronic or paper
form such that it addresses the elements of the standard, describes how the organization conforms to each
element, and provides direction to related documentation. Not all ISO 14001 required procedures need to
be documented, as long as the system requirements can be verified. However, documentation must be
provided such that enough is available to ensure the effective planning, operation, and control of processes
related to the significant aspects, and to demonstrate conformance to ISO 14001. Such documentation at a
minimum includes policy, objectives and targets, a definition of the scope of the EMS, and other main
elements.

Document Control
The organization is required to control documents, such as system procedures and work instructions, to
ensure that current versions are distributed and obsolete versions are removed from the system. There is a
requirement for a document control procedure that ensures documents are approved prior to use, are
reviewed and updated as necessary, changes to versions are identified, that the current versions are
available at points of use, that they are legible, identifiable, and that obsolete ones are so noted to avoid
unintended use. It is acceptable to use documents of internal origin in the EMS, but those must be
identified as being essential to the EMS and their distribution controlled.


Operational Control
For this element, critical functions related to the policy, significant aspects, the legal and other
requirements, and objectives and targets are identified and procedures and work instructions are required
to ensure proper execution of activities. Requirements for communicating applicable system requirements
to contractors also need to be addressed in these procedures. The required procedures need to provide
instruction such that the organization conforms to the policy, objectives and targets, the legal and other
requirements, and addresses any impacts from significant aspects. Which procedures are needed can be
determined by the review of the significant aspects, objects and targets, the legal and other requirements,
and policy and then deciding what must be put into the procedures and documented to ensure that
deviations from planned arrangements do not occur.

In regard to the contractors, the organization will need to establish procedures related to the significant
aspects the legal and other requirements, of the goods and services it uses, and communicating the
relevant elements of those procedures to the suppliers and contractors.


Emergency preparedness
Although typically addressed through conventional emergency response plans, this element also requires
that a process exist for actually identifying the potential emergencies, in addition to planning and mitigating
them. Emergency incidents include those that may not be regulated, but may still cause significant impact
as defined by the organization.
As part of continual improvement, it is required that the organization not only responds to emergency
situations, but also reviews the emergency procedures and make improvements as necessary. This may
involve periodic testing of emergency procedures, if practicable.

Checking and corrective action, monitoring and measurement

Monitoring and measurement
In order to properly manage the system, measurements must be taken of its performance to provide data
for action. Procedures are required describing how the organization will monitor and measure key
parameters of operations. These parameters relate to the operations that can have significant impacts, to
monitor performance towards the objectives and targets, and to monitor conformance to the legal and
other requirements and other EMS requirements. Equipment related to environmental measurements,
such as temperature and pH meters and pressure gauges, must be calibrated according to procedures, and
records maintained.
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Evaluation of compliance
The first part of this element requires the organization to have a procedure(s) to periodically evaluate its
compliance with applicable legal requirements. The organization will need to keep records of these periodic
evaluations. ISO 14001 also requires a similar evaluation for compliance with other requirements.


Non-conformance, corrective and preventive action
This element requires procedures for acting on non-conformances identified in the system, including
corrective and preventive action. A non-conformance is a situation where the actual condition is not in
accordance with planned conditions. Someone not following a procedure, a regulatory non-compliance, or
an incident, is all examples of possible systemic non-conformances. Non-conformances may be identified
through audits, monitoring and measurement, and communications. The intent is to correct the system
flaws by addressing root causes, rather than just fixing the immediate incident only. The standard also
requires that trends in corrective actions be evaluated to see if deeper-rooted preventive actions can also
be implemented.

The procedure needs to make sure the non-conformances are not only first addressed to mitigate
environmental impact; but that further investigation occurs to determine their cause, and action taken to
avoid it happening again. Preventive actions would then be those actions resulting from an evaluation as to
why nonconformities are occurring and taking action to prevent their recurrence. The standard states that
the corrective action is appropriate to the magnitude of the problem and the impacts encountered; to
avoid either over-compensating or under-compensating for a problem. The organization must record the
results of corrective actions taken, and must also review the effectiveness of actions taken

Records
Records are expected to exist to serve as verification of the system operating and the organization’s
conformance to the standard and its own EMS requirements. Procedures in this element are required for
the maintenance of records, and specifically require that records are identifiable, retrievable, safely stored,
and legible, retained as appropriate, and traceable.

Environmental Management System Audits
ISO 14001 requires that the system provide for internal audits. This procedure could include
methodologies, schedules, checklists and forms, and processes used to conduct the audits. The purpose of
this audit is to determine whether the system conforms to the requirements of ISO 14001 and the
organization’s own EMS detailed requirements, and if the EMS has been properly implemented and
maintained. The procedure for internal audits has to address responsibilities and requirements for planning
and executing the audits, reporting results, and what records will be generated (and maintained in
accordance with 4.5.4). The procedures also address determination of audit scope, how often they will be
conducted, and specifically how they will be done.

Auditors need to be selected such that it ensures objectivity and impartiality of the audit process.


Management review

This element requires that periodically, top management will review the EMS to ensure it is operating as
planned, and is suitable, adequate, and effective. The organization needs to ensure that in the review:
results of internal audits (EMS and compliance); external communications; environmental performance;
status on objectives and targets; status of corrective and preventive actions; follow up on actions from
prior management reviews; and changing conditions or situations; and recommendations for improvement
are all discussed.


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Results and records of management review include: agendas, attendance records, minutes, and
documented agreed upon action items.

ISO 14001 requires that at a minimum your EMS be rationalized and articulated by:
       • 11 Documented Procedures
       • an EMS Scope statement
       • an Environmental Policy
       • at least 14 Record types
       • a description of the main EMS elements, including their interaction and related documents.


Required Documented Procedures:
       • Identification of environmental aspect and their significance
       • Identification of legal and other requirements
       • EMS awareness
       • Internal and external communication
       • Document control
       • Identification of potential emergencies and emergency preparedness and response
       • Monitoring and measurement of significant aspects
       • Evaluation of compliance with legal and other requirements
       • Corrective and preventive action
       • Record control
       • Internal audits


Once you have an EMS in place, you may choose to have it externally audited. Following a successful audit
by an accredited certification body, you will be issued with a certificate of registration to ISO 14001. This
demonstrates that your organisation is committed to environmental issues and is prepared to work
towards improving the environment. It also gives a competitive edge to the company's marketing and
enhances its image in the eyes of customers, employees and shareholders.

Benefits
ISO 14001 was developed primarily to assist companies’ in reducing their environmental impact.
In addition to an improvement in environmental standards and performance, organizations can reap a
number of economic benefits including higher conformance with legislative and regulatory requirements by
utilizing the ISO standard:
       minimizing the risk of regulatory and environmental liability fines, improving organization’s
          efficiency, leading to a reduction in waste and consumption of resources, operating costs can be
          reduced.
       as an internationally recognized standard, businesses’ operating in multiple locations across the
          globe can register as ISO 14001 compliant, eliminating the need for multiple registrations or
          certifications
This in turn can have a positive impact on a company’s asset value and can lead to improved public
perceptions of the business, placing them in a better position to operate in the international marketplace.



EMAS
The second most prevalent standard designed to improve an organisation’s environmental performance is
the EU Eco-Management and Audit Scheme or EMAS. Its aim is to recognise and reward organisations that
go beyond minimum legal compliance and continuously improve their environmental performance.
Although similar in many ways to the ISO 14001 standard, with a plan-do-check-review cycle, with several
stages either similar in name or function, they are somewhat different in their overall focus.

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One of the main areas where EMAS differs from the ISO 14001 standard is its emphasis on continual
environmental performance evaluation and legal compliance. Unlike the ISO 14001, which has relatively
little requirements in terms of reporting to external stakeholders, EMAS requires participants to publish an
environmental statement annually that reports their environmental performance, the accuracy and
reliability of which has been independently verified by a third party environmental assessor. Through such
rigorous assessments, organisations undertaking EMAS can demonstrate their environmental credentials.

Due to the added time and increased costs associated with implementing EMAS and its requirement to
produce an annual publicly available environmental statement, many organisations, particularly smaller
ones, are deterred from this option. Furthermore, due to the reporting emphasis and strict legislative
compliance requirement, organisations are sometimes concerned about potential de-registration if they fail
to report on time or are in minor breach of standards. Finally, one of the major limitations of EMAS is that it
is focused on the European Union and the European Economic Area and thus the absence of worldwide
recognition is perceived as an issue.

EMAS is a voluntary management tool for companies and other organisations that was designed to
evaluate, report, and improve their environmental performance. Since 1995, companies have been able to
participate in the scheme. It was originally restricted to companies in industrial sectors but has widened its
focus in 2001 and participation is now open to all economic sectors including public and private services.
The latest revision (EMAS III) came into effect on 11 January 2010.
EMAS was strengthened by the integration of EN/ISO 14001 as the environmental management system
required by EMAS, by adopting an attractive EMAS logo to signal EMAS registration to the outside world,
and by considering more strongly indirect effects such as those related to financial services or
administrative and planning decisions.
The main stages of EMAS

To receive EMAS registration an organisation must comply with the following steps:
  1. adopt an environmental policy containing commitment both to comply with all relevant
      environmental legislation and to achieve continuous improvements in environmental performance.
  2. conduct an environmental review considering all environmental aspects of the organisation’s
      activities, products and services, methods to assess these, its legal and regulatory framework and
      existing environmental management practices and procedures.
  3. in the light of the results of the review, establish an effective environmental management system
      aimed at achieving the organisation’s environmental policy defined by the top management. The
      management system needs to set responsibilities, objectives, means, operational procedures,
      training needs, monitoring and communication systems.
  4. carry out an environmental audit assessing in particular the management system in place and
      conformity with the organisation’s policy and programme as well as compliance with relevant
      environmental regulatory requirements.
  5. provide a statement of its environmental performance which lays down the results achieved against
      the environmental objectives and the future steps to be undertaken in order to continuously improve
      the organisation’s environmental performance.
  6. The environmental review, EMS, audit procedure and the environmental statement must be
      approved by an accredited EMAS verifier, and the validated statement needs to be sent to the EMAS
      Competent Body for registration and made publicly available before an organisation can use the
      EMAS logo.
The environmental review, EMS, audit procedure and the environmental statement must be approved by
an accredited EMAS verifier and the validated statement needs to be sent to the EMAS Competent Body for
registration and made publicly available before an organisation can use the EMAS logo.



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The core of EMAS is a ‘continuous improvement cycle’ or the Plan-Do-Check-Act process. The elements of
this circle are presented in Figure …….




                        Figure …………….. EMAS continuous improvement diagram


The environmental review is an initial comprehensive analysis of the environmental problems caused by an
organisation’s activities. The outcome is a report that includes hard data about consumption of raw
materials and energy and the production of wastes and emissions; information on the indirect
environmental impacts of the organisation’s activities; and an outline of the management structures in
place to deal with these impacts. The purpose of the initial review is to identify the most significant
environmental impacts – and thereby identify possible priorities to be set in the environmental programme
– and to lay down a benchmark to measure future success in reducing these impacts.
The formulation of an environmental policy, reflecting top management's commitment to continuous
improvement in environmental performance inside the legal framework is the first visible step of the
process. The environmental policy is a document that describes the organisation’s overall aims and
principles of action with respect to the environment. Developed at the highest managerial level, the
environmental policy is intended to be revised periodically. It should contain at least two central elements:
compliance with relevant environmental regulations and a commitment to continuous improvement.
The environmental programme translates the general objectives and targets established in the
environmental policy into specific targets, determining concrete measures, timeframes, responsibilities,
and the resources necessary in order to meet them. The measures laid out in an environmental programme
can be of a technical and/or organisational nature. All of the company's activities – from top management
to the lower levels – should be involved in these measures.
To ensure the successful implementation of the environmental programme, an organisation is required to
establish operating procedures and controls, or an environmental management system. Apart from the
environmental impact of production activities and housekeeping activities (property management,
procurement, energy consumption, waste production and management), an EMAS-registered
environmental management system has to include the indirect environmental impacts of an organisation’s
activities, products or services.



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Finally, an environmental audit is conducted to assess the management system in place and the whole
process is then described in the environmental statement. The statement has to include the following
information:
         • a description of the organisation, its structure and its activities, products and services
         • an assessment of all the significant direct and indirect environmental issues
         • a summary of year-by-year figures on pollution emissions, waste generation, consumption of
             raw material, energy and water, and noise
         • a presentation of the organisation's environmental policy, programmes and management
             system
         • the deadline for the next statement
         • the name and accreditation number of the environmental verifier and the date of validation

When the EMS has been implemented and the environmental statement has been prepared, the
organisation must have them validated by an independent accredited verifier: an independent external
party that examines the organisation’s environmental policy, management system, audit procedure(s) and
environmental statement to ensure that they meet EMAS requirements.
Once the environmental statement has been verified, the organisation then sends its validated statement
to the EMAS National Competent Body for registration. The organisation is then listed in the register of
EMAS organisations and has the right to use the EMAS logo. Organisations are required to update their
environmental statement annually, although in exceptional circumstances, for example, small
organisations, this renewal period can be extended with the agreement of the verifier, normally up to three
years.
EMAS is defined according to the ISO 14001 Standard. However, when implementing EMAS, participating
organisations must also:
     demonstrate legal compliance
     commit to continual improvement of their environmental performance
     demonstrate an open dialogue with all stakeholders
     extend employee involvement to the process of continually improving the organisation’s
        environmental performance

Potential benefits

       EMAS provides a systematic approach to implementing an environmental management system and
        can incorporate tools such as ISO 14001
       EMAS logo can help to promote an organisation’s active involvement in environmental issues to
        potential customers or service users.
       EMAS helps organisations reduce waste, energy use and resources that can help to reduce costs
       EMAS can provide a method for communicating environmental accountability to stakeholders
        including funders through periodic statements that have been externally validated by an
        independent verifier
       It seeks to instill continuous improvement
       Involving employees is central to EMAS, and it can be a good way of motivating action towards
        environmental improvement

Potential limitations

       EMAS has the potential to be expensive due to the cost of verification, training that may be
        required, and registration.
       Conformity to EMAS may be complicated or labour intensive for some small social enterprises,
        particularly if new to environmental management systems
       It deals with environmental impact only, and does not focus on social or economic impacts, except
        when they are concerned directly with the environment.
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       Though it has been applied in a variety of organisations, in the public and private sectors, third
        sector examples are limited.

Who can use EMAS?

EMAS is open to all types of organisations from all economic sectors. Small or large socially enterprising
organisations, local authorities, and multi-national companies can all participate in EMAS.
EMAS can be applied to the whole of an organisation or to specific sites.

What resources are needed?
Organisations will need to make sure that management levels are involved and support the EMAS
implementation project.

Proficiencies or skills: EMAS needs time, knowledge, human resources and potentially external advice.
External assistance can be useful for carrying out the steps of the system, such as the initial environmental
review and identification of the significant environmental aspects of your company's activities and legal
requirements.
The cost of implementing EMAS will vary depending upon the organisation and size. Though the guidance
notes for EMAS are free, the main costs relate mainly to those for the external verifier, registration fees and
implementation costs.

Staff time: Depending on the organisation's size, number of sites, previous experience with management
systems and the complexity of environmental impacts, the typical time span to implement EMAS varies
from a few months in a small organisation with few sites to several years in very large organisations with
many sites. Once EMAS is implemented and registration attained, system maintenance takes fewer
resources since many activities required for the first registration are no longer needed. The EMAS Small
Organisation Toolkit suggests that one day per week will be required to keep EMAS effective, whether a
large or small organisation.

Courses, support, and information: There are a number of web-based support tools available.
 The EMAS EU website is the main portal for information and support. This contains guidance on
implementing EMAS, leaflets, statistics, case studies and offers an ability to view and compare other
organisations’ environmental performance statements. The website also has details of the EMAS Helpdesk
that can be contacted with all queries regarding the system. EMAS also produces publications, such as the
Energy efficiency toolkit for small and Medium-sized enterprises, that can be used as a stepping stone to full
EMAS registration.
EMAS and the International Network for Environmental Management (INEM) produce a toolkit for small
organisations that may be particularly useful for socially enterprising organisations: http://www.inem.org.
This provides a web-based guide to the system and extensive information on how to implement EMAS, as
well as further information on financial support, case studies and other resources.



3.4.2.3. Oeko-Tex® Standard 1000 (I think we should keep the 3 basic environmental systems
together and on the end make a comparison (see table) – and then the other systems like 9001 &
SA. It is more clear like this I think.

To complement the product-related Oeko-Tex® Standard 100, the Oeko-Tex® Standard 1000 is a testing,
auditing and certification system for environmentally-friendly production sites throughout the textile
processing chain.



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To qualify for certification according to the Oeko-Tex® Standard 1000, companies must meet stipulated
criteria in terms of their environmentally-friendly manufacturing processes and provide evidence that at
least 30% of total production is already certified under Oeko-Tex® Standard 100.
Certification criteria include:
      use of environmentally-damaging auxiliaries and dyestuffs prohibited
      compliance with standard values for waste water and exhaust air treatment
      optimisation of energy consumption
      avoidance of noise and dust pollution
      defined measures to ensure safety at the workplace
      use of child labour prohibited
      introduction of basic elements of an environmental management system
      existence of a quality management system


The company guarantees in a declaration of commitment that they comply with all the criteria required by
the Oeko-Tex® Standard 1000. The incorporation of basic elements of an environmental management
system in the operational procedures is essential for this.


The certification procedure
An analysis is made of the strengths and weaknesses of the company’s manufacturing procedures. The
result is a record of the current environmental impact. This is used to ascertain what action is required and
to draw up plans for the implementation of any changes, plus a time schedule.

After the necessary measures have been carried out in the company, independent auditors check for
compliance with the Oeko-Tex® Standard 1000 on site. If the audit is successful, certification in accordance
with the Oeko-Tex® Standard 1000 is awarded. If any discrepancies are revealed during the audit, the
company has the opportunity to carry out improvements.

The audited sites have the right to use the environmental label for a period of 3 years and to promote this
production site. The company draws up an environmental report for the auditor every year, documenting
its activities, the targets it has achieved, and those which it has not achieved. A so-called conformity audit is
carried out on the basis of this.




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Advantages
The additional cost of certifying and production process according to Oeko-Tex® Standard 1000 offers
textile and clothing companies the following advantages:
   effective public relations documentation of the objectively stipulated ecological measures in place at
       a production site
   increased production efficiency and thus reduced costs
   waste minimization increased acceptance of a company's products on the market




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89
So, which one? I think here we should mention the 3 basic environmental systems, in short:

                   EMAS                                                  ISO 14001 : 2004                         OEKO-Tex Standard 1000
Concept            Emphasise EMS and continuous environmental            Emphasise EMS itself and assume good
                   improvement                                           EMS means good environment


Scope              EU                                                    Worldwide                                Worldwide



Aims Principles    Continuous improvement in operational                 Establishing and continuously
                   environmental characteristics and performance of      improving environmental management
                   environmental management system                       systems

Status             Under legal bases (EU Member States and EEA           Under no legal bases.                    Under no legal bases.(International: world wide)
                   countries).                                           (International: world wide) ISO          Öko-Tex® Standard 1000 - normative document
                   Regulation of the European Parliament and the         standard under private law               published by the "Öko-Tex® International -
                   Council under public law                                                                       Association for the Assessment of Environmentally
                                                                                                                  Friendly Textiles", located in Zurich, an association
                                                                                                                  of independent European textile testing institutes.

Organisation       The entity to be registered shall not exceed the      Does not go towards entities or sites    Textile companies in all production steps (spinning
                   boundaries of the Member State, and it is                                                      up to ready made garment )
                   intended to go towards entities and sites                                                      Precondition: 30% of the products have to be
                                                                                                                  certified according Oeko-Tex Standard 100


Environmental      Included commitment to continual improvement          Does not include a commitment to the     Included commitment to continual improvement of
policy             of environmental performance of the organization      continual improvement of                 environmental performance of the enterprise in its
                                                                         environmental performance but of the     activities, production, products and performances
                                                                         performance of the system
Initial            Obligatory preliminary review, when it is the first   Initial review is recommended, but not   Obligatory first environmental examination , when
environmental      time that the organization sets its environmental     required                                 the organization sets its current state of
                   status                                                                                         environmental performance
review




                                                                                                                                                                      90
                   EMAS                                                 ISO 14001 : 2004                          OEKO-Tex Standard 1000
Environmental      Identification and evaluation of the environmental   Required only a procedure able to         Identification and evaluation of the environmental
aspects            aspects (direct and indirect).                       identify environmental aspects            aspects.
                   Establishment of criteria for assessing the                                                    Establishment of criteria and limiting values for
                   significance of the environmental aspects                                                      testing and auditing of textile, clothing companies
                                                                                                                  and ancillary industries
Legal compliance   Obligatory to demonstrate it.                        Only commitment to comply with            Obligatory to demonstrate it.
                   Required full legal compliance. There is a           applicable legal requirements. There is   Required full legal compliance. There is a
                   compliance-audit                                     no compliance-audit                       compliance-audit

External           Open dialogue with the public.                       Not open dialogue with the public.        Not open dialogue with the public.
communication      Public Environmental Statement                       Only is required to respond to relevant   It is required to communicate with interested
                   (validated for verifiers)                            communication from external               parties on matters related to its environmental
                                                                        interested parts.                         management policy, performance and effects.
                                                                        Control by public is not possible         Public Environmental Report in regular intervals
Continual          Required annual improvement                          Required periodically improvement         Required annual improvement
improvement                                                             without a defined frequency

Management         Is wider and requires an evaluation of the           Required an environmental                 Requires an evaluation of the environmental
review             environmental performance of the organization,       performance in the management, but        performance of the organization, based in a
                   based in a performance-audit                         not through a performance audit           performance-audit


Contractors and    Required influence over contractors and suppliers    Relevant procedures are                   Relevant procedures are communicated to
suppliers                                                               communicated to contractors and           contractors and suppliers
                                                                        suppliers
Employees          Active involvement of employees and their            No                                        Active involvement of employees and their
involvement        representatives                                                                                representatives

Internal           Includes: system-audit, a performance-audit (=       Included only system audit against the    Includes: system-audit, a performance-audit (=
environmental      evaluation of environmental performance) and an      requirements of the standard              evaluation of environmental performance) and an
                   environmental compliance-audit (= determination                                                environmental compliance-audit (= determination
auditing           of legal compliance)                                                                           of Oeko-Tex 1000 compliance)
Auditor            Required the independence of the auditor             Advised the independence of the           Required the independence of the auditor
                                                                        auditor

Audits             Check for improvement of Environmental               Check environmental system                Check for improvement of environmental
                   performance.                                         performance. No frequency required.       performance.

                                                                                                                                                                     91
                      EMAS                                           ISO 14001 : 2004                         OEKO-Tex Standard 1000
                                                                                                              Frequency required: every year for first 3 years,
                                                                                                              followed by 1,5 years.

External              Accredited environmental verifiers             No                                       Independent auditors of the Association Oeko-Tex
verification                                                                                                  International

Verification/         Verifiers accredited according to NACE codes   Certifiers accredited according to EAC   Certifiers officially authorized by Oeko –Tex
Certification Scope                                                  code                                     International- Association for the Assessment of
                                                                                                              Environmentally Friendly Textiles
Authorities are       Obligation by Validation of Environmental      No obligation                            No obligation
informed              Statement

Logo                  Yes                                            No                                       Yes




                                                                                                                                                                  92
ISO 14001 remains that most dominant standard for EMS accreditation. From a European perspective,
organisations generally tend to opt for accreditation with ISO 14001 over EMAS.

One of the deciding factors to consider before pursuing accreditation with either standard is why you are
undertaking it, as the advantages of ISO 14001 and EMAS remain similar but distinctive in their own right.
For an organisation willing to implement an EMS with maximum environmental credibility, which has the
capacity to produce annual reports in line with environmental legal compliance and is focused on European
recognition, the EMAS standard is arguably the best option. However, for those organisations more
concerned with gaining compliance with a more standardised accreditation while indicating greater
environmental credentials to a wider international market as opposed to a European market, then perhaps
the ISO 14001 option would be better.

                                    Accreditation Systems Summary

                                              ISO 14001                               EMAS
Scope                                         Worldwide                                EU
                                                                         Continuous improvement in
                                     Establishing and continuously
                                                                          operational environmental
Aims, Principles                       improving environmental
                                                                       characteristics and performance
                                         management systems
                                                                        of environmental management
                                                                                     system
Eligibility                        Industry, services and commerce               All companies
Implementation Costs                  Lower cost (Only reporting       Higher cost on reporting system
                                        Environmental policy)             (Environmental Statement)
                                       Emphasise EMS itself and
Emphasis                                                               Emphasise EMS and continuous
                                    assume good EMS means good
                                                                        environmental improvement
                                              environment
Publication                                        No                                Yes
Recertification Frequency                       3 years                            3 years
                                     Focus on system rather than            Better environmental
Environmental Benefits
                                              environment                       performance


3.4.2.2. ISO 9001
ISO 9001:2008 is an international standard that specifies requirements for a quality management system
where an organization:
    • needs to demonstrate its ability to consistently provide product that meets customer and
        applicable statutory and regulatory requirements
    • aims to enhance customer satisfaction through the effective application of the system, including
        processes for continual improvement of the system and the assurance of conformity to customer
        and applicable statutory and regulatory requirements.

The major advantages of ISO 9001:2008 are:
    • easy to use, simple language and readily translatable
    • significant reduction in required documentation
    • directly linked to organisational processes and goals
    • a focus on improved organisational performance
    • emphasis on customer satisfaction
     compatibility with other management systems, including ISO 14001 environmental management
       systems.

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Any organisation can benefit from implementing ISO 9001:2008 as its requirements are underpinned by
eight management principles:
     a customer focused organisation
     leadership
     the involvement of people
     ensuring a process approach
     a systematic approach to management
     a factual approach to decision making
     mutually beneficial supplier relations
     continuous improvement


The standard is structured into four main chapters. These four chapters are:
     Quality Management System
     Management responsibility
     Resource management
     Product realization
     Measurement, analysis and improvement

Quality Management System
This section of the standard explains the requirements for specific documentation to control the quality
management system. This is to ensure that the company puts in place a system that is both auditable and
that records are kept by which will allow conformance to be verified and as a basis for continuous
improvement. The main sections are with regard to the creation and maintenance of a “quality manual”
and other documentation, as well as how documents and records will be controlled.


Management responsibility
This section requires top management’s commitment to the quality management system, it forms the top
level PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) loop for the whole organization;
Top management must define policy, objectives and plans to achieve customer satisfaction, (Plan). Then
they must assign responsibility and authority to those who have to execute the plan, (Do). All of this should
then be communicated and reviewed through the Management Review attended by top management and
monitored by the “management representative”, (Check).
The plan should be reviewed as part of the output of the Management Review meeting and communicated
to all (Act).

Resource management
As part of the planning for the quality management system the top management shall also ensure that the
required resources are in place to ensure the smooth running of the system, this includes physical
infrastructure, environment and trained competent people.

Product realization
The largest section, covering the planning, product development, purchasing and production. This is the
part of the business with the main interactions with the customer, the customer specifying their
requirements, then you planning and delivering their requirements.

Measurement, analysis and improvement
This section is not just about providing gauges and equipment to check production output and controlling
defective product, it is also about putting in place ways to monitor your attainment of your objectives,
measuring customer satisfaction, and auditing your management systems. It also requires that you take
preventative action before errors occur as well as corrective action when things go wrong. On top of all of
this you are required to continuously improve all of these systems and processes
                                                                                                          94
All requirements of ISO 9001:2008 are generic and are intended to be applicable to all organizations,
regardless of type, size and product provided.

Where any requirement(s) of ISO 9001:2008 cannot be applied due to the nature of an organization and its
product, this can be considered for exclusion.

Organizations complying with the ISO 9001:2008 standard are recognizable by the ISO 9001 logo given by
the certification body.


Certification process for an organization:

Pre-assessment
Before the actual certification audit, a CB auditor makes a preliminary visit of your facilities, briefly reviews
your QMS documentation and conduct an informal check of the QMS implementation. In essence, this
preliminary audit intended to uncover areas in your QMS that might need special attention. During the
initial visit the audit scope and audit program is agreed upon, as well.
A Pre-assessment is an optional activity. It adds value in that it provides an organization with a clear view of
the gaps in its state of readiness, a few months prior to the formal certification audit.
More and more organizations now prefer experienced consultant auditors to do the Pre- assessments as
they not just identify the gaps, but also provide solutions to correcting them. CB auditors may only report
on the gaps, but are not allowed to provide solutions.
Documentation review
The CB audit team evaluates your QMS manual to determine the adequacy of its scope and conformity to
the requirements of the standard. The documentation review report summarizes any findings from this
process. The report indicates if your organization is ready to proceed with the certification audit.
Certification audit
During the certification audit, the CB audit team conduct interviews, examinations and observations of the
system in operation. It provides the team essential information required for the certification process and
assesses the degree of conformity of the QMS with the requirements of the standard. When found
conforming, the CB issue the certificate of conformity to ISO 9001:2008.
Surveillance audits
Each issued certificate has a three-year life period. Upon certification, the CB create a periodic audit
schedule for surveillance audits over the three-year period. These audits confirm the on going compliance
of the QMS with specified requirements of the standard. At least one periodic audit per year is required.
Re-certification audit
After the three years are up, your certification will be extended through a re-certification audit.


Benefits

External
   Improves customer confidence and satisfaction in an organization’s QMS capability and
      consistency in meeting requirements;
   Improves conformity to quality requirements;
   Increases competitive edge and market share;
   Increasingly recognized as a requirement for contractual relationships in the global arena.
Internal
   Improves business efficiency and productivity;
   Reduces organizational waste, inefficiencies, and defects;
   Facilitates continual improvement in business processes and customer satisfaction;
   Improves process consistency and stability;
   Facilitates employee competence and consistency of performance;

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   Improves employee motivation and empowerment through improved participation,
    communication and interaction;
   Generates objective evidence to support the assessment of QMS conformity and
    effectiveness;
   Improves supplier performance by developing relationships that foster cooperative
     interaction in understanding and fulfilling customer requirements.


3.4.2.4. Social Accountability 8000
The Social Accountability 8000 (SA8000) is an international standard for improving working conditions
around the world.
SA8000 is based on conventions of the International Labor Organization (ILO), the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. It aims to guarantee basic rights of workers
involved in the production processes.

SA8000 composed the following requirements :
    Child labor is not permitted
    Forced labor is not permitted
    Health and Safety have to be assured
    Freedom of Association and the right to collective bargaining have to be guaranteed
    Discrimination is not permitted
    Disciplinary practices are not permitted
    Working hours shall not exceed 48 hours a week, with a maximum of 12 hours overtime
    Remuneration shall be sufficient
    Management systems shall guarantee that the requirements are effectively satisfied


The standard maps out how a company should incorporate the following aspects:

Child labour
SA8000 seeks to prohibit child labor, pursuant to most stringent of the following rules: minimum age of 15;
ILO Conventions; and national law or any other law or standard applicable to the workplace under review.

Companies are responsible for ensuring the remediation, and if necessary financing the remediation, of
those child workers displaced by the implementation of SA8000 and to eventually promote the effective
education of all their young workers while ensuring them a safe and healthy working environment. In the
event that child laborers were displaced during the process of the workplace coming into compliance with
SA8000, the remediation responsibility of the company applies.

It should be noted that, depending upon the age of the child in need of remediation, educational facilities
may need to take the form of day care, primary education, secondary or vocational education.

Forced labour
SA8000 prohibits all kinds of forced or compulsory labor under any and every condition, including bonded,
indentured, and/or compulsory prison labor.

SA8000 calls for full disclosure to every prospective worker of the terms and conditions of employment
prior to his or her recruitment, pre-employment procedures or employment. The terms of the employee
contract should be fully communicated to and understood by every worker and should in no way be linked
to the worker becoming indebted in any way.

In short, no one shall be forced to work.

Health and Safety

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The health and safety of all employees is the responsibility of the employer. SA8000 seeks to ensure that
workers have a safe and healthy workplace, where adequate preventive measures are taken to minimize,
and where possible eliminate health and safety risks both in the short and long term.

Management is responsible for workplace conditions, and therefore for ensuring that workers are able to
perform their functions throughout their adult lifetime without actual or latent health damage. An effective
system is the key to the achievement of a safe and healthy workplace. In order to ensure its effectiveness,
all employees should be regularly informed and trained.

Freedom of association and the right to collective bargaining
The intent of SA8000 is to promote ongoing, constructive social dialogue between workers collectively and
management. SA8000 requires that employers permit, without any direct or indirect impediment or
negative consequences for any workers, non-violent efforts towards worker organizing, trade union
membership, and collective bargaining.

SA8000 does not require the establishment of a trade union. SA8000 seeks to:

      protect workers’ right to organize and represent themselves in collective negotiation with
        management;
      protect against international trends in discrimination against worker representatives and members
        of worker organizations, particularly trade unions; and
      ensure that management does not unreasonably refuse to bargain collectively with workers’
        organizations that have been properly established.
In countries where some or all aspects of workers’ rights to freedom of association and collective
bargaining are restricted or prohibited by law -and only in those countries- employers have a special
obligation. They shall enable workers (if they so choose) to develop forms of collective representation and
to engage in collective negotiation with management. Even in these cases, management shall not seek to
influence or interfere with workers’ discussions, voting processes or related activities.

Discrimination
SA8000 seeks to ensure equal and respectful treatment for all workers in all matters. Employees shall be
employed, trained, promoted and compensated solely on the basis of their job performance and they will
be free from all types of indecent verbal, physical and sexual harassment and other discriminatory
practices.

Disciplinary practices
When determining disciplinary measures or giving performance reviews, employers should demonstrate
respect for workers’ mental, emotional and physical well-being. Procedures should be defined and followed
for matters relating to employee performance evaluations and disciplinary action. These procedures should
be applied consistently and not arbitrarily to every employee. If disciplinary action is necessary, SA8000
encourages a progressive course of action, beginning with verbal or written warnings before more serious
disciplinary action is taken. Fines or wage deductions for disciplinary purposes also violate SA8000.

Working hours
SA8000 aims to limit the widespread abuse of overtime. Overtime hours must be voluntary, unless a
collective bargaining agreement allows for required overtime under certain conditions, and are not to
exceed 12 hours per week, even when the regular workweek is less than 48 hours. Accordingly the 60 hours
rule should be regarded as a guide only.

Remuneration
Workers must be remunerated for the adequate performance of their work and they must be paid in full.
Wages earned for regular hours worked (i.e. no more than 48 hours a week or lower as prescribed by law)
must be sufficient to meet the basic needs of the worker and at least half of his/her dependents. It should
not be necessary to work overtime to earn a basic needs wage. Labor-only contracts or apprenticeship

                                                                                                         97
schemes should not be used to avoid paying benefits or to fulfill ongoing, routine tasks integral to the work
of the organization.

To ensure that the requirements are in place and respected, SA 8000 asks for a Social Management System
(SMS) which must include the following key elements:

       Social Policy
       Management Representative
       Planning
       Implementation
       Checking and Corrective Actions
       Management Review
       Communication
       Records


Social Policy
The social policy should cover social accountability and labor conditions, and ensures that the SA 8000
requirements are met, all local rules and regulation and all international recommendations and agreements
are fulfilled. It should state a commitment to continuous improvement. The policy must be documented,
implemented, communicated internally and externally and policy available.

Management representative
The Standard requires a senior manager to be appointed as representative who assures that the
requirements of the SA 8000 standard are met. A person from the non-management group shall be chosen
to facilitate communication between management and non-management staff on the SA 8000 standard

Planning
The company must ensure that the requirements on the SA8000 standard are fully understood, which
includes the ILO agreement and recommendations and the local regulations as well. The company should
use the following tools to support planning and implementation of SA 8000:
     define clear roles, responsibilities and authority
     train new or temporary employees upon hire
     periodically train existing employees
     periodically run awareness programs

A continuous monitoring of the system has to be designed to ensure that the system works as required and
is effective

Implementation
The implementation requires a continuous monitoring of activities and the results to demonstrate
compliance with SA 8000 and related requirements. In addition, the standard requires the organization to :
    establish and maintain a procedure to evaluate the suppliers based on the requirements of SA 8000
    keep records of the suppliers commitment of social accountability including the written
       commitment to conform to all requirements of SA 800 ( including this clause) , to participate in the
       monitoring activities when requested , to address a von-conformance status promptly , and to
       inform the company of relevant changes in its relationship with suppliers and sub-contractors


Checking and corrective actions
If specific requirements of the standard are not met, the company must undertake immediate corrective
action and allocate resources to get back on the track. The company must investigate any concerns- either
from internal or external sources- that point to a non-conformance issue. Any discriminative action against
employees that report a non-conformance is strictly prohibited. To ensure that employees can freely
                                                                                                          98
address concerns it is advisable to assign a third party to whom employees can report their concern in strict
confidence.

Management review
A systematic and periodical review of the social management system should ensure that the system
required by the SA 8000 is adequate, sustained and effective. This review can be based on the internal
audits or assessments respectively.

Communication
The company must establish procedures for third party communication which include access for
verification of documents if required by contract. The communication includes the results of reviews,
monitoring data, and the performance against the standard. Depending on the size of the company, it is
advisable to publish this information regularly and communicate it not only to third parties but also to
internal stakeholders.

Records
To facilitate outside verification and to demonstrate conformance, the company must keep records that
demonstrate conformance with the standard.



Implementation
SA 8000 being a management system follows the classical “Plan-Do-Check-Act” principle. These four stages
prepare the way for certification.

Preparing
Before stating the implementation it is advisable to take some initial preparatory steps which should
include an initial screening against the standard. In this process the existing social management system is
assessed against the SA 8000 elements. The current practice and procedures are benchmarked against the
local regulatory requirements and the ILO recommendations and conventions. The outcome is a gap-
analysis which is the core part of the report to be submitted to top-management

Beside the initial assessment the report should include a first estimate of costs and benefits. Based on the
report senior management has the appropriate information to decide whether to go on or stop the project.

Planning
The first step in planning the implementation is the assignment of a management representative to be in
charge of social accountability, the standard, and its requirements. The core element of every management
system is a policy that gives guidance in strategic and day-to-day management decision and action. Based
on this social policy and the initial social assessment, the company should determine social priorities and
objectives. These priorities should be operationalised through social targets. To achieve these targets,
action has to be taken by establishing social programs that improve the company’s social performance.

Implementing
To implement the SMS an organizational structure and clear responsibilities must be put in place. The
person in charge of the SMS must establish a system for document and operational control and establish
internal and external communication channels. A base documentation of the SMS is advisable. To make
sure that the system works as intended the company should conduct training covering the requirements of
the standard and the SMS itself.



A continuous monitoring system should assure that the requirements of the standard are met and
corrective action is taken in case of non-conformance. Additionally to the internal monitoring a continuous
control of suppliers and subcontractors is required by the standard. In that process the company should
                                                                                                          99
gather reasonable evidence that the social requirements laid out in SA 8000 are met by their business
partners as well. On a mandatory basis the company can even expand this control to their customers. If the
company discovers non-conformance with the standard immediate corrective action must be undertaken.

Beside this continuous monitoring and control, the company should conduct a yearly social performance
review. The review serves as the basis for a top - management review.

Certification
Once the SMS is in place and the organization is confident of having met all the requirements, the external
audit and certification process can be initiated. This process requires multiple steps:

     The first task is to identify the suppliers of the organization to be audited. The audit team then
      prepares checklists that help to verify the conformance with the standard , local regulations and
      other requirements
     The next step is a site visit by the certification body to audit the company with respect to the
      requirements of the standard. The audit includes interview, inspections of facilities and records.
      The time requirement for a small company is as little as one day. Larger organizations can expect
      the audit to be conducted within several days.
     After the site visit, an audit report will be submitted to top- management including the results and
      recommendations for improvements.
     The last step is the issue of the certificate. The certificate is valid for three years. After conducting
      the first audit and the certificate is issued, the certification body will conduct the surveillance audits
      on a regular basis ( yearly follow-ups)


Costs
The costs of implementing SA 8000 are largely dependent on the company. Basically the cost can be divided
into three categories:

     The cost of complying with ILO recommendation and agreements and local regulations can increase
      direct labour costs. Depending on the current conditions, there could be a need to invest in
      technical infrastructure to improve health and safety standards. This is likely to increase a
      company’s overhead costs.
     The implementation of the SMS that is required by the standard will add some initial costs and the
      maintenance of the system is not free of charge either
     The smallest parts of the overall costs are induced by the certification process.


Benefits
All stakeholders will benefit from adhering to SA 8000 standards. With assistance from a third-party, the
following can be achieved:
      Reduced risks
      Enhanced factory and brand reputation
      Qualify to customer requirements
      Improved supplier relationships
      Improved product quality due to enhanced work environment
      Improved labour conditions and safer work environment
      Clear and credible assurance for ethical purchasing decision


The SA 8000 process and certification is one of the most successful and best known tools for ensuring
decent work and working conditions. It provides for continuous training and verification.



                                                                                                            100
COMPARISONS?




               101
4.2. Information and training activities, sharing of good practices

Green Public Procurement is a tool with great potential, able to play a very strategic role within the
framework of the strategies for sustainable development of a Local Authority. The purchase of goods and
services with reduced environmental impact may be made functional for reaching specific environmental
protection objectives (for example, reduction of energy consumption, reduction of waste production, etc.),
in addition to providing an important contribution to the achievement of sustainability objectives defined in
the framework of national and European policies and have a significant influence also on suppliers of goods
and services, thus on the dissemination of environmental technologies.
Under the directives that come from the European Commission, in particular with the Buying Green!
Handbook and with the GPP Toolkit and from governments with National Action Plans, it is essential for a
Local Authority to adopt a true strategy for green purchases. It must not limit itself, on the other hand, to
only occasionally include environmental criteria in the procurement procedure of certain goods and/or
services with the goal of replacing them with goods and/or services with reduced environmental impact.
The experiences gained by European local Authorities over the last few years have shown that the adoption
of a green procurement strategy may also lead to a rationalization of procurement policies overall and thus
to the achievement of economic benefits other than environmental. Furthermore, all the obstacles
connected with resistance to change that often characterize various sectors of the administration may be
overcome by adopting an organized policy and specific support tools for the introduction of GPP.

This section of the manual arises from the framework delineated above and provides the methodological
indications for the adoption and implementation of a green procurement policy.
The final goal is to show potential obstacles, knowledge-based or organizational, that local authorities
traditionally have to face when they decide to introduce GPP and to suggest methods and solutions to
overcome them.


The methodological aspects in particular are examined regarding the two different and fundamental
phases:

         definition of the policies and organization for GPP;
         inclusion of environmental criteria in the procurement procedure.


Greening the Public Procurement

          Stage             Operation

 1.       SUBJECT       Contracting authorities may give some indications on the environmental
          MATTER OF THE characteristics that the good or service shall have already in the phase of
          CONTRACT      definition of the subject matter of the contract. For example, they may include in
                        the subject matter the statement that the good or service shall have “a low
                        environmental impact” or they may give a first indication of the environmental
                        performances (e.g. printer “with low energy consumption”) or of raw materials
                        (e.g. supply of “recycled” paper).
 2.       TECHNICAL         Once the subject matter of the contract has been defined, contracting
          SPECIFICATIONS    authorities have to specify the characteristics of the subject matter, so that it
                            corresponds to the use that the contracting authority has to make of it. Basically,
                            we refer to the technical characteristics required in the tender so that the
                            matter of the contract fulfils the use for which it is intended by the public
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       Stage              Operation

                          authority. Ecological criteria in this section may concern:
                           the basic or primary materials that shall be used;
                           the possibility to require the use of a specific production process;
                           the possibility to refer to ECO-labels.
 3.    SELECTION OF When assessing the suitability of a candidate, environmental considerations can
       THE          be take into account in relation to:
       CANDIDATES
                     grounds for exclusion from participation in the contract; any candidate who
                        has been convicted of an offence concerning his professional conduct or has
                        been found guilty of grave professional misconduct in the field of
                        environmental legislation could be excluded;
                           technical capacity of the candidates; it is possible to require specific
                            environmental experience or to require suppliers to operate under an
                            environmental management scheme.
 4.    CONTRACT           In order to introduce ecological criteria in this phase it is necessary to award
       AWARD              tenders according to the ‘most economically advantageous tender’ as this option
                          attributes importance not just to the price but also to the quality of the offer
                          with the purpose of choosing the one that better satisfies the needs of the
                          purchasing entity. In this way it is possible to consider the costs deriving from
                          the use of the product, such as:
                           running costs – water, energy, other resources used;
                           maintenance, disposal and recycling costs;
                           expenditures to realize future savings.


 5.    EXECUTION          Contracting authorities have wide possibilities to define the contract clauses
                          having as their object the protection of the environment, in relation to the
                          manner of execution of the contract. Examples of specific additional conditions:
                           delivery/packaging of goods in bulk rather than by single unit;
                           recuperation or re-use of packaging material and the used products by the
                            supplier;
                           delivery of goods in re-usable containers;
                           collection, take-back, recycling or re-use of waste produced during or after
                            use or consumption of a product by the supplier;
                           transport and delivery of chemicals in concentrate and dilution at the place
                            of use.



Information and training play an important role in all strategies pursuing the goal of the systematic
introduction and implementation of GPP, because the lack of knowledge in the matter is generally the main
obstacle to its diffusion.
The information and training activities cover the following issues:
    – the possibilities of including ecological criteria in the public administration’s purchasing practices
        without clashing with the principles of free competition and non-discrimination;
                                                                                                        103
    –    the nature and characteristics of the products and services with a lower impact on the
         environment;
      – the advantages of GPP.
These activities, mainly the information ones, must be addressed not only to the managers and employees
of public institutions, but also to the suppliers of goods and services used by the Public Administration.
It is necessary to raise awareness and prepare manufacturers to the changes required by GPP introduction,
so as to guarantee on one hand the availability on the market of products and services with a low
environmental impact, and on the other hand, the start of a process of continuous environmental
improvement.
The most widely spread means of communication for the diffusion of relevant information is surely the
electronic one. Thus, there are several authorities using internet sites for the publication of databases
containing:
      – pilot experiences;
      – ecological criteria relating to products and services used by PAs;
      – lists of products and services with a low environmental impact.

The sharing of good practices represents a key approach of all sustainable development strategies. In the
GPP field, the transfer of experiences from a local authority to another may prove to be extremely useful,
because the inclusion procedures of ecological criteria in tender notices can be standardised. The same
ecological criteria can be chosen by taking as an example those used by others. It is also possible to identify,
through the existing experiences, the best approach to take towards suppliers, both when they have to be
involved and informed and when it is necessary to carry out supplies’ control and monitoring activities.
Last but not least, the introduction of green purchasing practices can start from those sectors, or specific
products or services, for which there are already some consolidated experiences proving that not only is it
possible to buy green from a legislative point of view, but also that the adoption of GPP does not
necessarily result in increased costs.
The creation of networks of local authorities choosing to opt for GPP policies is a first step towards the
sharing of good practices that can occur through the organization of meetings, the distribution of
newsletters, the training of Round Tables and theme working groups. It shall be highlighted that
networking can lead to further collaboration forms in GPP implementation, for example through the
creation of collective competitive tenders, which guarantee the exploitation of scale economies, aiding the
authorities from an economic point of view.


4.2.1. BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA


4.2.2. BULGARIA

After harmonization with the European legislative framework, the theme Green Public Procurement has
gained popularity in Bulgaria. Regardless of its initial delay, Bulgaria made a significant progress in the field
of GPP. Basic information is published, including different types of manuals, methodological materials and
others, revealing information about the assignors and the bidders.
Both international and national conferences were held, as well as training for the Public Procurement
Agency jointly with the Ministry of Environment and Water. Universities and training centres had made
proposals to carry out such courses and for their realisation Bulgaria has enough available experts, advisers
and companies specialized in Environmental Management Systems. The process has well developed legal
framework and strategic documents, as well as elaborated methodology and the relevant manuals. There is
a strong media interest in the theme for GPP.

The Bulgarian experience in the field of GPP is presented as follows:


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Applicant                                     Project                                   Results
Foundation TIME         Project European Ecolabel scheme in Bulgaria      Elaborated promotional
Donors - Programme                                                        materials;
МАТRА КAP of the        http://www.ecoshemes.time-foundation.org          Created          thematic
Embassy of the                                                            website;
Netherlands                                                               Organized and carried
                                                                          out seminars with the
2007- 2008                                                                active participation of
                                                                          NGOs, business and state
                                                                          representatives, jointly
                                                                          contributing    to    the
                                                                          implementation of EC
                                                                          environment policy.
Ministry of             National Conference: The Benefits of Green Public Received information for
Environment and         Procurement                                       current EU initiatives on
Water (MEW), with                                                         green procurement.
the participation of    http://gpp.itcilo.org/index.php?id=163,167
some representatives                                                      Realized practical steps,
of EC D.G.                                                                in terms of Bulgarian
Environment                                                               GPP.
and the Training
Centre of the                                                                 Target Groups:
International Labour                                                          Representatives          of
Organization - ITCILO                                                         central     and       local
                                                                              administration, business
November 2009                                                                 and media.
Ministry of             Training of state administration experts for the Introduction          to     the
Environment and         implementation of GPP.                                ecological criteria in the
Water (MEW), Centre                                                           process of awarding of
for Human Resources     Carrying out regional public procurement training for public procurement;
Development             local administration experts.                         Practical application of
                                                                              the
September 2010          http://www.moew.government.bg/                        green        procurement
                                                                              approach

                                                                             Target Groups:
                                                                             25 experts – representing
                                                                             key national bodies and
                                                                             authorities responsible
                                                                             for green procurement;
                                                                             32 experts –regional level
Ministry of             Open procedure for green procurement: ”Supply of Implemented            public
Environment and         8.000 packages of 100% recycled copier paper, format procurement
Water (MEW)             А4 for the needs of Ministry of Environment and
                        Water (published in the Register of public
October 2010            procurement under the unique number 00258-2010-
                        0006)

                        http://www.moew.government.bg/
Ministry of             International Forum “Green Economy”                    Introduction   to  the
Environment and                                                                experience of some ЕU
Water (MEW)             http://www.economedia.bg/eventinfo.php?guid=10         Member States.
                                                                                                     105
                        28485
February 2011                                                                 Introduction     to   the
                                                                              concepts      of    green
                                                                              investments,        green
                                                                              incentive taxation, green
                                                                              social welfares.
Social Assistance       Open procedure for green procurement: “Supply of In the process of
Agency subordinated     posters, brochures, signboards and bags using implementation
to the Ministry of      recycled paper, plastic and textile for logistics in
Labour and Social       organizing and conducting seminars to promote and
Policy (SAA)            inform the public and the representatives of the
                        municipality authority and non-governmental
April 2011              organizations under the project “Support for a decent
                        life" under a scheme of direct provision of grant
                         BG 051РO001 - 5.2.09 under the operative
                        Programme “Human Resources Development 2007 –
                        2013”, published in the sector Public Procurement on
                        the internet website of the Social Assistance Agency
                        (SAA)

                        http://www.asp.government.bg
EC D.G. Environment     Project “Steering the Ecolabel”                        Popularization of the
in cooperation with     National Seminar “The ЕС Ecolabel– Your Challenge to experience         in     the
the Ministry of         the Market”                                            implementation of EC
Environment and                                                                Ecolabelling in Bulgaria.
Water (MEW)             http://www.moew.government.bg/
                        http://www.euecolabel.eu/display/cid/_10.html          Introduction      to    the
May 2011                                                                       experience of some ЕU
                                                                               Member States.
National Trust Eco      National scheme for green investments: elaboration In the process of
Fund                    of a portfolio of projects, which will be presented in implementation
                        the course of negotiations for the sale of emission
May 2011                units.

                        ecofund@ecofund-bg.org


4.2.3. GREECE


The Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change (YPEKA) started a pilot project Green
Procurement, through its own expenditure for such material, which includes environmental criteria.

The attempt of YPEKA will be evaluated and will follow the implementation of this policy for the whole
public sector. This would trigger for the development of new sectors and new products that are
environmentally friendly, stimulating the demand for these products. The development of the business will
have a positive influence on the Greek economy, and promote competitiveness, allowing the participation
of Greek enterprises on the market of environmental products both domestically and internationally.

For this purpose YPEKA established an Inter-ministerial Working Group for GPP Project, along with Ministry
of Economy, Competitiveness and Shipping (MECS).



                                                                                                      106
The main aim of this Commission is the formulation of national policy and the elaboration of National
Action Plan for the promotion of Green Procurement. The aim of National Action Plan is to provide
guidance and incentives for the development of products, services and construction projects that reduce
the burden on the environment.

This Working Group has drawn up a timetable for action, having as a first priority the recording of the
current situation with regard to contracts and procurement in the public sector, and the existing
institutional framework.

Working Group also decided to set up working sub-groups in each Ministry, which will collect all existing
items that will be discussed and evaluated within the following months. On this basis will provide the
priorities and set up new workgroups by category of products, services and contracts with a view to
proposing specific environmental criteria in cooperation and consultation with all relevant parties, including
representatives of the market.

There are several products that have been awarded with the Ecolabel:

                 All purpose & Sanitary cleaners                          5

                 Outdoor paints & varnishes                               77

                 Indoor paints & varnishes                                20

                 Bed mattresses                                           5

                 Textiles                                                 2

                 Tourist Accommodation (services)                         5




Moreover, concerning textile products there are more than 70 Greek companies and more than 100 textile
products that are certified according to the Oeko-Tex® Standard 100 – Confidence in Textiles.



Municipality of Maroussi, Attiki

Municipality of Maroussi in the framework of a Total Quality Management System has implemented
Quality Management System ISO 9001 and Environmental Management System EMAS for its services.
In this framework has succeeded in purchasing eco-friendly products, like recycled photocopy paper (in
cooperation with neighbour municipalities in order to have minimum price).


4.2.4. HUNGARY


KEOP

As mentioned in chapter 1.1, it is of crucial importance to set green priorities for the procurement
procedures in projects majority funded by European Community funds, most importantly by the Structural
Funds. The use of Structural Funds’ financial resources are defined and programmed in the national
development plan, now called New Szechenyi Plan1. The Plan delineates several thematic Operational

1
    http://ujszechenyiterv.gov.hu/download/32589/USZT_beliv_HU_vegl.pdf
                                                                                                          107
Programmes (OPs) such as the ones for economic development, social development, infrastructure
development, environmental development among others.

So far the green priorities have not been present in all of these Operational Programmes, but in one specific
area – the Environment and Energy Operational Programme (in Hungarian: “Környezet és Energia OP,
KEOP, also named in local documents as “Zöldgazdaság-fejlesztési Program”, Development of Green
Economy Programme)2 – the decision makers have made the most important step ahead.

The OP describes in Chapter “Demand-side, economic effects” (p. 137-138) that green procurement should
be favoured since it may – besides the positive environmental effects – also lead to the increase in research
and development (R&D) as well as innovation activities, may contribute to the support of Hungarian SMEs
and to the creation of an internationally competitive industry in Hungary.

The OP highlights the role of public actors (including authorities, educational and health institutes) in
setting the example and shaping societal attitude regarding sustainable development.

Moreover, the General Guide for Proposals and the individual calls’ Guides for Proposals also point out that
procurement procedures within the KEOP should follow the principles of green procurement34. The General
Guide for Proposals requires that the Contractor must ensure that all procurement documentation
prepared in the framework of the project should qualify as green procurement/green public procurement,
taking into account as many as possible, but at least one criteria of environmental sustainability.

The outstanding importance of this requirement becomes evident when it is confronted with the general
principles of public procurement (also expressed in the Act for Public Procurement), namely that unit prices
in the proposal budgets should not exceed the regular market. Having an explicit requirement for green
procurement makes the procurement of more expensive but green goods and services defendable in the
proposal evaluation and against the general text of the Act for Public Procurement.

The General Guide also expresses the need for green office and project management. The project
management team must agree to limit printing, and even in that case shall use recycled paper. Default
printing shall be two-sided, with small margins and fonts. Used paper must be collected for recycling, used
toners must be re-filled. Electronic communication shall be given priority compared to travels for personal
meetings.

In conclusion, the regulation for green procurement in the KEOP programme is a best practice that should
be followed by at least the other Operational Programmes of the Structural Funds, as its principles are well-
founded and defendable even when it comes to spending Community financial resources. Community
funds programming of other Eastern European and Southeast European (in IPA, etc) countries should follow
this example.



The Municipality of the capital city Budapest

The local government of the capital city, Budapest took significant measures towards green procurement in
2006, setting an example for other local municipalities as well as contributing to the dissemination of
environment-conscious thinking among the citizens of Budapest. The Municipality of Budapest is among


2
    http://ujszechenyiterv.gov.hu/download/32582/002_Zoldgazdasag2.pdf
3
    http://ujszechenyiterv.gov.hu/download/33108/Altalanos%20palyazati%20utmutato.pdf
4
 http://ujszechenyiterv.gov.hu/download/33086/Altalanos%20palyazati%20utmutato_telepulesi%20szilardhulladek%20lerakokat%
20erinto%20rekultivacios%20programok%20kiterjesztese.pdf

                                                                                                                    108
the biggest public procurers in Hungary. Therefore their preferences for green procurement represent a
major step towards sustainable development.

Important to note, that the principles of green procurement for the city are defined in a document only for
internal use, it is not publicly available. Taking into account that public procurement is spending public
funds, it is a highly questionable approach not to be open about the principles of dispensing tax payer’s
money. Our analysis is based upon expert’s reports and other available documents.

As the Head of the Department of Public Procurement presented5, the green preferences manifest in six
areas:

       -   Eco-friendly building and construction methods are preferred
       -   Energy saving solutions are preferred in offices
       -   Toxic ozone emission of office equipment, copy machines, printers is to be minimised, they should
           be energy-saving, toners must be refilled
       -   Plastic waste is to be limited, therefore pens, bottles should be refillable,
       -   In public lighting/street lighting, energy-saving, long-life lamps and equipment must be used,
       -   In general, products with the European Ecolabel shall be preferred.

The Municipality has not only set green priorities but also has re-modelled its procurement method,
prepared unified document templates and re-engineered the whole procedure.

The target of the Municipality is to achieve – in line with the Community principles – that at least 40% of
procurement include green preferences6. A problematic area is the procurement of energy, as only a small
share of energy production comes from sustainable technologies. Regarding electricity, the applied
business model does not allow for favouring sustainable energy (most of the producers of renewable
energy do not sell their electricity directly, but to the main electricity companies who then supply energy to
the consumers).

Nevertheless there are further steps to be taken, as Gergo Schmidt points out in his study. 7 An important
task would be to limit waste and especially plastic and paper waste at events (festivals, public concerts,
etc). Some of these events are (co-)organised by the Municipality or by one of its institute. As the
municipality has to issue various permits for several of these events (e.g. permit to use public land, etc), it
may as well set minimal environmental criteria for the organisers in terms of green aspects. Green solutions
(e.g. one specific glass per visitor, bio-degradable plates and plastic glasses, machines for washing plastic
glasses, etc) do exist in this area, but organisers of the event should be motivated to use those.



The Municipality of Miskolc

Miskolc is a city of about 170 000 inhabitants, placed in the North region of the country.8 The city has not
only introduced green procurement, but has an overall environment-conscious approach that includes an
Environment Protection Program,9 a Climate and Air Pollution Protection Action Plan 10, a detailed Waste
5
 Presentation of Orsolya Barna, PhD, Head of Department of Public Procurement at the Municipality of Budapest,
http://www.kozbeszerzok.hu/dokumentumok/konf0903/bo.pps
6
 Orsolya Barna, PhD, Head of Department of Public Procurement at the Municipality of Budapest, http://www.kosesbika-
reklam.hu/sites/default/files/korabbi_rendezvenyek/zoldenergia2/pdf/barna.pdf
7
 Ökopolitika az önkormányzatokban képzés háttéranyaga: Önkormányzati jó gyakorlatok
http://okopoliszalapitvany.hu/sites/okopoliszalapitvany.hu/files/files/2011/onkormanyzati_jo_gyakorlatok_-_okopolisz.pdf

8
    http://www.miskolc.hu/pages/template1.aspx?1=1&id=1653966&type=48

9
    Environment Protection Program of Miskolc City of County Rights, http://www.miskolc.hu/pages/template1.aspx?id=1663816
                                                                                                                             109
Management Plan11, and – important from this analysis’ point of view – a modern Environmental Policy of
the Municipality Office12.

The Policy declares that the Municipality shall:

       -    make a preference for environmental aspects in its decisions,
       -    give support and incentives for for the use of public transportation by the employees of institutions
            of the Municipality and by the general public,
       -    make a preference for green goods and goods prepared with the use of environment-friendly
            technologies,
       -    make a preference for local goods in order to decrease harmful emission of transportation,
       -    aim at decreasing the production of waste,
       -    disseminates information about eco-friendly thinking among the the employees of institutions of
            the Municipality and by the general public,
       -    prefer those partners to work with who pay attention to environmental performance.

In addition, the Municipality employes environment-friendly and energy-saving technologies in its activities.
The most important statement regarding green procurement is that the Municipality aims to follow the
EMAS (Eco-Management and Audit Scheme ) system requirements and gradually introduces the system in
its Office. This leads to preferences of EMAS-conform goods and services within the procurement
procedures as well.
Miskolc sets a good example for several Hungarian and Eastern/Southeast European cities, proving that a
middle-sized city can put into effect a good green procurement system, it works well if the dedication and
motivation is present at the decision-making level. The case of Miskolc is also a best practice in terms of
coherent and systematic thinking and startegical planning regaring environment protection and
sustainability, demonstrating that green procurement principles work best if they are integrated in an
overall environmental startegy of the given municipality.


Potential best practice of the future – the Municipality of Alsózsolca

It is important to demonstrate that GPP is not the luxury of central government or big governmental
entities, but a policy to apply at all levels of public decision making. Furthermore, as the city of Alsózsolca is
in a close proximity of the city of Miskolc, this example shows how the introduction of new policies can
diffuse, being picked up, carried on and developed further by others. The city of Alsózsolca, with a
population around 6000 inhabitants, is working on its environmental strategy and green procurement plan.
The local government, after being elected in September 2010, set up its 13 Economic Plan for the years of
2010-2014, where several environmental measures are described, such as the protection of the
environment, the environment-friendly management of waste (including setting up a bio-power plant).
Furthermore, the local government has participated in a proposal running under the Structural Funds (in
State Reform Operational Programme, ÁROP)14 for to develop its own green procurement system. The
relevant background study has already been prepared15, with policy proposals for the followings:


10
     Climate and Air Pollution Protection Action Plan http://www.miskolc.hu/pages/template1.aspx?id=1673378

11
     Waste Management Plan, http://www.miskolc.hu/pages/template1.aspx?id=1663727
12
     Environmental Policy of the Municipality Office, http://www.miskolc.hu/pages/template1.aspx?id=1663733
13
  Economic Programme of the city of Alsózsolca for 2010-2014,
http://www.alsozsolca.hu/letoltes/gazdprog/azs_gazd_prog_2010_2014.pdf

                                                                                                              110
       -   inclusion of green requirements, green criteria into public procurement calls
       -   overall proposal to introduce green procurement at the Municipality of Alsózsolca
       -   suggestions for nominating the responsible personell for ensuring environmental performance
           within public procurement procedures
       -   description of responsibility roles and tasks of person responsible for green procurement.

Although the system is not yet in effect, a promising start may make the example of Alsózsolca a best
practice of not being afraid of learning and applying innovative solutions, and even as a small settlement,
making the introduction of Green Public Procurement a priority and an important step towards a
sustainable future.


4.2.5. ITALY


The Province of Cremona has indicated GPP as an instrument to implement indispensable change in the
current means of production and consumption. The choice was transformed into a systematic policy with
the implementation of the project GPPnet - The Green Public Procurement Network financed by the
European Commission in the framework of the LIFE Environment program and lasting 24 months (from
December 2002 to December 2004).

The GPPnet became concrete in a process intended to create the necessary and enduring conditions for the
systematic introduction of GPP in the purchase procedure of the provincial administration and of the 13
Municipalities involved in the project.
The strategy executed in the framework of GPPnet for the introduction and the dissemination of GPP was
articulated through the following key points:
The creation of a network of ‘experimenter’ authorities and recipients of training and information activities:
these entities shared the experience of the GPPnet through the participation in work meetings and days of
training other than the direct experimentation of GPP, or of the inclusion of the ecological criteria within
sample bid competitions. The activity of information and training were supported by the distribution of
material ad hoc, by the use of the website of the project and by the activation of a toll-free phone number
for assistance to perform various tasks of the project.
Communication and information directed to suppliers: the suppliers were involved in the project with the
goal of making the introduction of GPP a common goal. Public demand for green products and services
must be precisely interpreted as a stimulus to environmental innovation and to ecological reconversion of
manufacturing activity, rather than as a discriminatory activity against local producers; the activities of
communication and information had the goal of sensitizing suppliers and placing them in positions to be
able to meet the demand of local PA. The dissemination of information and the relationship with suppliers
occurred through the distribution of informational material, a remote forum and the organization of
Roundtables.
The creation of a network for the exchange of best practices with other local Italian authorities: for the
purpose of disseminating the experiences of GPPnet and at the same time acquiring information on best
practices of other local authorities, the project established a dissemination committee, the GPPinfoNET,
that began with approximately 30 members among regional, provincial and municipal administrations,
spread over the national territories, Park authorities, Regional Agencies for environmental protection, the
Ministry of the Environment and of the Protection of the Territory, ICLEI. The primary instrument of
communication of the GPPinfoNET was the bimonthly bulletin of the same name.

14
     http://www.nfu.hu/download/2593/AROP_EN_adopted.pdf
15
 ”ZÖLD KÖZBESZERZÉS” RENDSZERÉNEK BEVEZETÉSÉT. ÉS ÉRVÉNYESÍTÉSÉT CÉLZÓ RÉSZTANULMÁNY,
www.etudasportal.gov.hu/download/.../09.+Zöld+közbeszerzés.pdf

                                                                                                          111
The fundamental products of GPPnet were:
• the creation and the experimentation of a methodology for the systematic introduction of ecological
criteria in the public supply;
• editing of the first GPP Handbook, comprehensive of a general, a methodological and an operational
section containing the ecological criteria for 189 goods and services;
• drafting of sample “green” tenders;
• the CD-Rom “A Plan of action for GPP”.
GPPnet was also selected by the European Commission among the best LIFE projects for the period 2005-
2006 and indicated as good practice in the LIFE publication for the city (European Commission, 2006).
The Province of Cremona is now bringing forward other important GPP projects:

The GPPnet 2
Essential points of the project that focuses on consolidating the activity of green purchases within the
provincial administration were:
• the review and the updating of the GPP Handbook, in particular with regard to the sections on the
regulations and ecological criteria;
• the creation of a Strategy of intervention for environmental aspects, that allows identifying the collection
of actions to implement to attain significant environmental improvements through the purchase policies;
• the editing of Product Documents, intended to define the environmental, economic, and social benefits
deriving from the acquisition of sustainable products and/or services;
• the creation of Provincial Product Tables for sharing objectives and the means of introduction of
ecological criteria in the procedures of acquisition of the Province;
• analysis of the conditions of market of goods and services for which ecological criteria are introduced;
• the elaboration and implementation of an action plan for GPP.

The project “At school of GPP”
Financed by the Lombardy Region in the framework of the Regional Tender for the Promotion of Local
Agenda 21 and tools for environmental sustainability, aimed at the dissemination of the GPP at the regional
level through the transfer of the experience of GPPNet to other local authorities.
The fundamental stages of the project were:
• the launch of the GPP School, that has seen approximately 40 Lombard entities involved in a process of
basic training and one advanced by GPP;
• the constitution of the Compraverde Forum that created important moments of discussion between the
entities involved to participate actively to the project and to promote green purchases on the territory;
• the establishment of the Lombardy Compraverde Award destined to the entities that are distinguished at
the regional level for activity in the field of green purchases.
• the birth of the Lombardy GPPinfoNET, regional informative bulletin on the GPP.

The Compraverde-BuyGreen Forum
The activation of a territorial network in the environment of the project “At School of GPP” strengthened
the conviction that it was necessary to collect around the topic of green purchases all the actors able to
play a significant role in the change of means of production and consumption. The Province of Cremona is
thus engaged in the promotion of an annual event that is a point of comparison and debate between public
administrations, large companies, SMEs, and organisations of civil society. The first edition of the exhibit-
convention on the GPP took place in Cremona in 2007 and now CompraVerde-BuyGreen Forum represents
an important moment of verification of the status of action of the National Action Plan for GPP (NAP GPP)
and hosts the National Day on GPP, promoted by GPPinfoNET.

The GPPinfoNET project
GPPinfoNET - The Green Public Procurement information network is a project financed by the European
Commission in the framework of the program LIFE+2007, the Point on Information and Communication.


                                                                                                          112
The project sees the Province of Cremona in the role of coordinating beneficiary and as associate
beneficiaries the Liguria Region, the Region of Sardinia and the Italian Local Agenda 21 Association.
GPPinfoNET intends to exceed the obstacles that limit the dissemination of GPP and to prepare the terrain
for the introduction and the implementation of National Actions Plans for the GPP.
Activities are provided for dissemination and promotion of green purchases in six Italian target regions
(Sardinia, Liguria, Lombardy, Lazio, Campania, Sicily) and in three European regions.
The regional networks for the GPP will be established on the model of the Green Public Procurement
Working Group of the Italian Local Agenda 21 Association that will have:
• a launch seminar;
• a periodical newsletter;
• four thematic discussion groups;
• a dedicated page on the website of the project.
Furthermore, the following events will be organised:
• the organization of the GPP National Day with fairs, topical seminars and video-conferences that will have
its central event in the framework of the CompraVerde-BuyGreen Forum of Cremona;
• three interregional meetings for the exchange of good practices;
• two European conferences.
Following the positive experience of GPPnet, the Italian Local Agenda 21 Association has proposed to the
Province of Cremona to coordinate the Green Public Procurement Working Group that was thus officially
constituted in March 2005 with the following objectives:
• identifying and sharing the obstacles for the adoption of ecological criteria in Public Administration;
• defining and sharing the instruments, and thus the solutions, for overcoming obstacles;
• drafting guidelines for the GPP that facilitate their adoption by Local Entities;
• stimulating the exchange of experience among authorities, also through a database of “green tenders”
that facilitate their replicability.

Following the approval by the Ministry of the Environment and the Protection of the Territory and of the Sea
of the National Action Plan for GPP and the role of the working group in the permanent table, an
organization with primarily consultative functions, a new objective was added:

• Promote the dissemination and the action of the NAP on GPP:
Having arrived in its second year of activity, the working group includes approximately 190 organizations,
including Municipalities, Provinces, Universities, Park entities, Regions, ARPA, Hospitals, CONSIP (National
Procurement Agency) and the Ministry of the Environment. The working group meets 4 times per year, in
various sites, made available by the participating entities.
During the first year of activity, it worked for the execution of the CD-Rom Open Book Green Public
Procurement: obstacles, instruments and solutions: 80 questions and 80 answers on the principal aspects of
GPP (principles, objectives, regulations, products, policies, ecological brands) to facilitate its dissemination
and action. The CD-ROM was later updated and presented on the occasion of the fair event Terra Futura. In
the second year it was decided to draft documents of technical positioning (DPT) on the aspects that need
additional details.
The following were performed:
• Reference to environmental management systems in public bidding (DPT 1/2006);
• Reference to ecologic labeling systems in public bidding (DPT 2/2007);
• Execution of a GPP monitoring system (DPT 3/2007);
• Reference to the Environmental Product Declarations (EPD) in public bidding (DPT 4/2008);
• The possibility to promote the short production chain in public bidding (DPT 5/2008);
• State of progress of the National Action Plan on the GPP (DPT 7/2008).
The DPT 6 will deal with the theme of Sustainable Construction and GPP.




                                                                                                            113
Currently, always in the framework of the activities provided in support of the GPP NAP implementation
the Working group participates in the definitions of minimum criteria for some categories of
product/services with reference to those contained in the GPP Toolkit of the European Commission.
The working group is also active in the promotion and dissemination of good practices through the website
www.compraverde.it, which contains updates and precise information on the activity underway, as well as
an easily consultable database of “green” tenders. An essential tool for communication and disclosure of
good practices is, furthermore, the bimonthly informative bulletin GPPinfoNET, edited and disseminated by
the Technical Secretary of the working group.


4.2.6. ROMANIA

 Authority/Project
                               Projects                                    Results
     Leader
                                                        The GPP Policy Framework
                                                        Buying Green! Handbook on GPP
                                                        Introductory Presentation - 'Buying Green!
    Ministry of           EC Tools for GPP in            Making a Difference through GPP
 Environments and             Romanian
      Forests                                         http://www.mmediu.ro/vechi/upp/achizitii.htm

                                                        http://gpp.itcilo.org/index.php?id=163,166

                          Promotion of GPP by
                          creating a favorable
                        environment for training        40 certified public purchasers as trainers in the
                           public purchasers.              field of GPP
                        Project cofinanced from         an operational manual to support training
                         European Social Fund              sessions in the field of GPP;
                          through Operational           network of "green" public purchasers of the
     Ministry of      Programme Administrative             central government.
    Environments      Capacity Development and          information materials to promote the concept
     and Forests      financed by the Ministry of          of green procurement
                             Environment.               conference to promote GPP
                         The total value of this
                        project is 943.681,64 lei. http://www.mmediu.ro/programe_finantare/promova
                                                                    re_achizitii_publice.htm
                            Project duration:
                               2009- 2010

                       Development of emerging            200 manufacturers, distributors and scientific
                       environmental markets in            community informed about the ecological
                        Romania (ECOEMERGE)                criteria for nine categories of products,
                         Project funded by the             services and works
                        Norwegian Cooperation             around 400 trained public purchasers on GPP
     Ministry of
                       Programme and cofunded              in the 8 regions of Romania
    Environments
                           by the Ministry of             new procurement scheme improved
     and Forests
                             Environment.                 environmental monitoring will be part of the
                         The total value of this           future National Action Plan for GPP
                         project is 1.919.083 €.
                                                       http://www.mmediu.ro/programe_finantare/ecoe
                           Project duration:                           merge.htm
                                                                                                      114
Authority/Project
                                Projects                                  Results
    Leader
                               2009-2011




                                 Project
     Ministry of
                          "Market research on
   Environments                                         Implementation in Romania of the first public
                         existing products and
     and Forests                                             database of products and services.
                           services that meet
    (partner AEA
                        environmental criteria in
       Mediu                                                  http://www.achizitiiecologice.ro
                               Romania"
     Consulting)
                                                      Manufacturers and distributors can enroll online
                                                  organic products, and those interested can find a piece
                                                                          of legislation.
                                                    Thewebsite was designed as a platform for dialogue
                                                   between companies, environmental NGOs and public
                                                      institutions, bringing together the two parts of a
                                                    emerging market in Romania (buyers and sellers) to
                                                      persuade people to be guided by a behavior eco
                                                                           consumer.
                                                  So far, sites have been registered about 70 companies.
                           Buy Green, the first
                                                     Companies can register for free up to 5 products /
                        website of eco products
                                                       environmental services, and for each additional
                       Buy Green is funded by the
                                                              product will pay a fee of 20 euros.
                        Governments of Iceland,
                                                  Companies that offer green products and services can
                       Liechtenstein and Norway
                                                               enroll in the following categories:
      Fundatia           through the European
                                                      - Building - House & Homes, Materials - Health &
  Terra Mileniul III    Economic Area Financial
                                                       Hygiene, Food bio, IT & Software, Environment,
                              Mechanism
                                                                            Transport.

                                                      So far the on website “www.achizitiiverzi.ro”is
                                                      registered only one supplier of organic textiles:
                                                      company ViitorPlus - Sustainable Development
                                                           Association (www. www.viitorplus.ro)

                                                    Also within Buy Green will be performed a catalog of
                                                    products and services. It will include approximately
                                                      100 companies of those who will join the Green
                                                     Procurement portal and will be distributed to 600
                                                             public administration in Romania.

                                                                   www.achizitiiverzi.ro
                                                                                                          115
Authority/Project
                               Projects                                  Results
    Leader




                       Promoting Green Products
                                  project
                      (LIFE+08/INF/RO/000507),
                       financed by the European
                        Commission through the
                        LIFE+ program, has as its
                            main objective the
                            development of a            To inform producers about green products;
                        campaign meant to raise         To raise consumers’ level of awareness
                          awareness in order to          regarding green products;
                        promote the production          To increase the recognition of green products
  Vasile Alecsandri   and consumption of green           compared to those non-environmentally
    University in     products. The term “green          friendly ones;
   Bacau (Project          products” refers to          To increase consumers’ preference for green
       Leader)         products that conform to          products by proving their benefits (financial
                      the highest environmental          and environmental benefits).
                        criteria, according to the
                       EU eco-labeling charts or               http://www.greenpro.ub.ro/
                             to other similar
                      instruments and initiatives
                        (e.g., EMAS, Energy Star,
                          Carbon Neutral, etc.).

                       Project duration: 2010-
                                2012

                                                                    Citizen Eco-Guide
                                                         http://www.mmediu.ro/ghiduri/Ghid_Eco-
                          Citizen Eco-Guide                           Cetatean.pdf
    Ministry of
                      Guide to eco-civil servant                 Guide to eco-civil servant
   Environments
                                                         http://www.mmediu.ro/ghiduri/Ghid_Eco-
    and Forests
                                                                     Functionar.pdf
                           Eco-tourist guide
                                                                   Eco-tourist guide
                                                     http://www.mmediu.ro/ghiduri/Ghid_Eco-Turist.pdf




                                                                                                    116
5. TECHNICAL ISSUES
The Background Product Report for textiles, part of the European Commission’s GPP Training Toolkit
Module 3, which presents recommended GPP purchasing criteria for 11 priority product and service
groups, is the most updated and advanced European document …
The report complements the Product Sheet on textiles, by providing more in-depth information on why the
purchasing recommendations included within the Product Sheet have been set.

Where possible, the criteria presented in Module 3 will mirror the criteria underlying the Ecolabel.
Where Ecolabel does not cover a product/service group, other criteria sources (such as further ecolabels or
national guidance) may be used.

For each product/service group two sets of criteria are presented:
• Core criteria – these are designed to be used by any European contracting authority. They address the
most significant environmental impacts, and are designed to be used with minimum additional verification
effort or cost increases
• Comprehensive criteria – these are intended for use by authorities who wish to purchase the best
environmental products available on the market, and may require additional administrative effort or imply
a slight cost increase as compared to the purchase of other products fulfilling the same function.

The report covers all products covered by Ecolabel for textile products, namely:

       Textile clothing and accessories: clothing and accessories (such as handkerchiefs, scarves, bags,
         shopping bags, rucksacks, belts etc.) consisting of at least 90 % by weight of textile fibres;
     Interior textiles: textile products for interior use consisting of at least 90 % by weight of textile
         fibres. Wall and floor coverings are excluded;
     Fibres, yarn and fabric: intended for use in textile clothing and accessories or interior textiles.
For ‘textile clothing and accessories’ and for ‘interior textiles’: down, feathers, membranes and coatings
need not be taken into account in the calculation of the percentage of textile fibres.

Most information sources on textiles focus on the environmental impacts related to the production and
processing of textiles, and/or possible health impacts related to the use of the products themselves. In
many cases these two impact areas overlap as they derive from the use of certain chemicals and other
substances which may have both environmental and health impacts.

A great variety of material types are used in today’s textile industry, some naturally grown, and some
synthetically produced. Both the production/cultivation and then the processing of such materials are
highly varied and consequently have a variety of different potential impacts. As with foodstuffs, for
naturally grown fibres such as cotton, the use of pesticides and fertilisers (organic or non-organic
production) is of particular importance from an environmental perspective, however the processing and
“finishing” of products is also significant. For synthetic fibres concerns relate to both the chemicals used to
manufacture the products as well as processing and “finishing”.

Fertilisers and pesticides
Modern agriculture, based on monocultural practices, requires heavy pesticide and fertiliser use, since
monocultures invite pests and draw a lot of nutrients out of the soil. Cotton is a particularly chemical
intensive crop – despite accounting for just 2.5% of global cropland, cotton is responsible for the release of
16% of global insecticides (by market share). Locally, substance use raises levels of nitrates and pesticides
(both hazardous to public health) in groundwater and reduces soil quality. Certain fertilisers can acidify the
soil, a condition that leaches out key nutrients and compromises the long-term productivity of the land.
                                                                                                              117
Worldwide, farmers use 10 times more fertiliser today than in 1950, and spend roughly 17 times as much -
adjusted for inflation - on pesticides. Yet the effectiveness of these applications has plummeted - a tenfold
increase in fertiliser use has coincided with just a threefold increase in food production, while the share of
the harvest lost to pests remains largely the same as in 1950 despite the use of much greater quantities of
pesticide.

Pesticides are biological, physical or chemical substances or mixtures of substances intended for
preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating pests. Though often misunderstood to refer only to
insecticides, the term pesticide also applies to herbicides, fungicides, bactericide and various other
substances used to control specific pests (such as insects, weeds, fungi, bacteria, mice, etc.).
By their very nature pesticides can cause harm to humans, animals or the environment because they are
                                                                     6
designed to kill or otherwise adversely affect living organisms . The World Health Organization estimates
that every year 3 million people suffer from severe pesticide poisoning, matched by a greater number of
unreported, mild cases that result in acute conditions such as skin irritation, nausea, diarrhoea, and
                    7

breathing problems . These are, however, only the health problems caused by direct use and contact with
pesticides. Pesticides also have ecotoxic effects when such products pollute soils and water-courses and, as
                                                       8

a consequence, bioaccumulate and are biomagnified through the food chain causing hazardous effects on
animals and consumers.
Fertilisers are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil,
for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. Fertilisers can be either organic
(from composted vegetal matter and/or animals dropping) or inorganic (such as peat, mineral depositions
or chemically produced compounds) and they contain plant nutrients in concentrated form. Although the
health risk of fertilisers is smaller than that of pesticides, their extensive and abusive use is responsible for
important environmental impacts such as:
     water pollution and eutrophication by nitrate and phosphate loss through leaching, which causes
         toxic algae blooms;
     species diversity reduction and the long-term disruption of aquatic ecosystems;
     acidification of soil and water, which helps mobilize heavy-metals that can enter food chains;
     reduction of natural soil productivity due to the loss of plant nutrients.

Substances used in the processing of textiles
With such a huge variety of different materials used in the production of modern textiles, there is a
correspondingly large variety of processing techniques. As well as individual techniques relating to certain
fibres, processes such as dyeing, finishing, bleaching, softening, increasing fire resistance tend to be
chemical intensive processes.
A great many different substances are used in the processing of fibres which have negative environmental
impacts when released into either water or air. They are often poorly degradable and toxic in the aquatic
environment, and can also cause health problems to users if remaining as residues in textiles, for example
through the use of certain potentially carcinogenic amines created during the dyeing process.
In most cases these impacts can be considerably reduced through using different techniques, substances or
through appropriate waste treatment.

Recycled fibres
The amount of textile products purchased has risen rapidly in recent years (in the UK consumption has risen
by 60% in the last 10 years, making it the country's fastest growing household waste stream).
The procurement of textile products which are completely or partly made up of recycled fibres is a useful
way to effectively address this growing waste problem and the most direct way to limit the impacts
described above by limiting the amount of virgin fibres used.




                                                                                                             118
                                   Key environmental impacts
                   Impacts                              GPP Approach
• Air pollution, ozone formation (smog),                • Purchase organically produced textiles
bioaccumulation or food chain exposure and              • Purchase used textiles which can be
hazardous effects on aquatic organisms or the           used again for their original purpose or
increased growth of undesirable aquatic                 purchase textiles that contain recycled
organisms which can degrade water quality,              fibres.
due to the use of certain pesticides and                • Purchase textiles which have been
fertilisers in the production of fibres, and            produced with a reduced amount of
substances used during the processing of fibres         environmentally harmful substances
and final textile products                              • Purchase textiles with lower residues
• Negative impact on the occupational health            of substances harmful to human health
of users due to residues of certain substances
harmful to human health




                                                                                               119
CRITERIA (I think that instead of copying only the Ecolabel directive
(which could be as an add) we should conclude some comparisons, as
the one presented in our meeting in Sofia, concerning both basic labels;
I believe that this would be more useful for the public officers),



The criteria are divided into three main categories, concerning textile fibres, processes and chemicals, and
fitness for use.

TEXTILE FIBRE CRITERIA
Fibre-specific criteria are set in this section for acrylic, cotton and other natural cellulosic seed fibres,
elastane, flax and other bast fibres, greasy wool and other keratin fibres, man-made cellulose fibres,
polyamide, polyester and polypropylene.
Other fibres for which no fibre specific criteria are set are also allowed, with the exception of mineral fibres,
glass fibres, metal fibres, carbon fibres and other inorganic fibres.
The criteria set in this section for a given fibre-type need not be met if that fibre contributes to less than 5
% of the total weight of the textile fibres in the product. Similarly they need not be met if the fibres are of
recycled origin. In this context, recycled fibres are defined as fibres originating only from cuttings from
textile and clothing manufacturers or from post-consumer waste (textile or otherwise).
Nevertheless, at least 85 % by weight of all fibres in the product must be either in compliance with the
corresponding fibre-specific criteria, if any, or of recycled origin.

Assessment and verification: The applicant shall supply detailed information as to the composition of the
textile product.

1. Acrylic
(a) The residual acrylonitrile content in raw fibres leaving the fibre production plant shall be less than 1,5
mg/kg.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide a test report, using the following test method:
extraction with boiling water and quantification by capillary gas-liquid chromatography.

(b) The emissions to air of acrylonitrile (during polymerisation and up to the solution ready for spinning),
expressed as an annual average, shall be less than 1 g/kg of fibre produced.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide detailed documentation and/or test reports
showing compliance with this criterion, together with a declaration of compliance.

2. Cotton and other natural cellulosic seed fibres (including kapok)
Cotton and other natural cellulosic seed fibres (hereinafter referred to as cotton) shall not contain more
than 0,05 ppm (sensibility of the test method permitting) of each of the following substances:
2,4,5-T,
aldrin,
captafol,
chlordane,
chlordimeform,
chlorobenzilate,
DDT,
dieldrin,
dinoseb and its salts,
endrin,
                                                                                                             120
heptachlor,
hexachlorobenzene,
hexachlorocyclohexane (total isomers),
methamidophos,
methylparathion,
monocrotophos,
pentachlorophenol,
toxaphene,
parathion,
phosphamidon.

This requirement does not apply where more than 50% of the cotton content is organically grown cotton or
transitional cotton, that is to say certified by an independent organisation to have been produced in
conformity with the production and inspection requirements laid down in Council Regulation (EEC) No
2092/91 of 24 June 1991 on organic production of agricultural products and indications referring thereto on
agricultural products and foodstuffs (1).
This requirement does not apply if documentary evidence can be presented that establishes the identity of
the farmers producing at least 75 % of the cotton used in the final product, together with a declaration
from these farmers that the substances listed above have not been applied to the fields or cotton plants
producing the cotton in question, or to the cotton itself.
Where 100 % of the cotton is organic, that is to say certified by an independent organisation to have been
produced in conformity with the production and inspection requirements laid down in Regulation (EEC) No
2092/91 the applicant may place the mention ‘organic cotton’ next to the eco-label.
The applicant shall either provide proof of organic certification or documentation relating to the non-use by
the farmers or a test report, using the following test methods: as appropriate, US EPA 8081 A (organo
chlorine pesticides, with ultrasonic or Soxhlet extraction and apolar solvents (iso-octane or hexane)), 8151
A (chlorinated herbicides, using methanol), 8141 A (organophosphorus compounds), or 8270 C (semi-
volatile organic compounds).

3. Elastane
(a) Organotin compounds shall not be used.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide a declaration of non-use.

(b) The emissions to air of aromatic diisocyanates during polymerisation and spinning, expressed as an
annual average, shall be less than 5 mg/kg of fibre produced.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide detailed documentation and/or test reports
showing compliance with this criterion, together with a declaration of compliance.

4. Flax and other bast fibres (including hemp, jute, and ramie)
Flax and other bast fibres shall not be obtained by water retting, unless the waste water from the water
retting is treated so as to reduce the COD or TOC by at least 75 % for hemp fibres and by at least 95 % for
flax and the other bast fibres.
Assessment and verification: If water retting is used, the applicant shall provide a test report, using the
following test method: ISO 6060 (COD).

5. Greasy wool and other keratin fibres (including wool from sheep, camel, alpaca, goat)
(a) The sum total content of the following substances shall not exceed 0,5 ppm:
α-hexachlorocyclohexane,
β-hexachlorocyclohexane,
γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane),
δ-hexachlorocyclohexane,
aldrin,

                                                                                                         121
dieldrin,
endrin,
p,p'-DDT,
p,p'-DDD.

(b) The sum total content of the following substances shall not exceed 2 ppm:
diazinon,
propetamphos,
chlorfenvinphos,
dichlorfenthion,
chlorpyriphos,
fenchlorphos.

(c) The sum total content of the following substances shall not exceed 0,5 ppm:
cypermethrin,
deltamethrin,
fenvalerate,
cyhalothrin,
flumethrin.

(d) The sum total content of the following substances shall not exceed 2 ppm:
diflubenzuron,
triflumuron.

These requirements (as detailed in (a), (b), (c) and (d) and taken separately) do not apply if documentary
evidence can be presented that establishes the identity of the farmers producing at least 75 % of the wool
or keratin fibres in question, together with a declaration from these farmers that the substances listed
above have not been applied to the fields or animals concerned.
Assessment and verification for (a), (b), (c) and (d): The applicant shall either provide the documentation
indicated above or provide a test report, using the following test method: IWTO Draft Test Method 59.

(e) For scouring effluent discharged to sewer, the COD discharged to sewer shall not exceed 60 g/kg greasy
wool, and the effluent shall be treated off-site so as to achieve at least a further 75 % reduction of COD
content, expressed as an annual average.
For scouring effluent treated on site and discharged to surface waters, the COD discharged to surface
waters shall not exceed 5 g/kg greasy wool.
The pH of the effluent discharged to surface waters shall be between 6 and 9 (unless the pH of the
receiving waters is outside this range), and the temperature shall be below 40 °C (unless the temperature
of the receiving water is above this value).
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide relevant data and test report, using the following
test method: ISO 6060.

6. Man-made cellulose fibres (including viscose, lyocell, acetate, cupro, triacetate)
(a) The level of AOX in the fibres shall not exceed 250 ppm.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide a test report, using the following test method: ISO
11480.97 (controlled combustion and microcoulometry).

(b) For viscose fibres, the sulphur content of the emissions of sulphur compounds to air from the processing
during fibre production, expressed as an annual average, shall not exceed 120 g/kg filament fibre produced
and 30 g/kg staple fibre produced. Where both types of fibre are produced on a given site, the overall
emissions must not exceed the corresponding weighted average.


                                                                                                        122
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide detailed documentation and/or test reports
showing compliance with this criterion, together with a declaration of compliance.

(c) For viscose fibres, the emission to water of zinc from the production site, expressed as an annual
average, shall not exceed 0,3 g/kg.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide detailed documentation and/or test reports
showing compliance with this criterion, together with a declaration of compliance.

(d) For cupro fibres, the copper content of the effluent water leaving the site, expressed as an annual
average, shall not exceed 0,1 ppm.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide detailed documentation and/or test reports
showing compliance with this criterion, together with a declaration of compliance.

7. Polyamide
The emissions to air of N2O during monomer production, expressed as an annual average, shall not exceed
10 g/kg polyamide 6 fibre produced and 50 g/kg polyamide 6,6 produced.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide detailed documentation and/or test reports
showing compliance with this criterion, together with a declaration of compliance.

8. Polyester
(a) The amount of antimony in the polyester fibres shall not exceed 260 ppm. Where no antimony is used,
the applicant may state ‘antimony free’ (or equivalent text) next to the eco-label.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall either provide a declaration of nonuse or a test report
using the following test method: direct determination by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The test shall be
carried out on the raw fibre prior to any wet processing.

(b) The emissions of VOCs during polymerisation of polyester, expressed as an annual average, shall not
exceed 1,2 g/kg of produced polyester resin. (VOCs are any organic compound having at 293,15 K a vapour
pressure of 0,01 kPa or more, or having a corresponding volatility under the particular conditions of use).
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide detailed documentation and/or test reports
showing compliance with this criterion, together with a declaration of compliance.

9. Polypropylene
Lead-based pigments shall not be used.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide a declaration of non-use.


PROCESSES AND CHEMICALS CRITERIA
The criteria in this section apply, where appropriate, to all stages of production of the product, including
the production of the fibres. It is nevertheless accepted that recycled fibres may contain some of the dyes
or other substances excluded by these criteria, but only if they were applied in the previous life-cycle of the
fibres.

10. Auxiliaries and finishing agents for fibres and yarns
(a) Size: At least 95 % (by dry weight) of the component substances of any sizeing preparation applied to
yarns shall be sufficiently biodegradable or eliminable in wastewater treatment plants, or else shall be
recycled.
Assessment and verification: In this context, a substance is considered as ‘sufficiently biodegradable or
eliminable’:
• if when tested with one of the methods OECD 301 A, OECD 301 E, ISO 7827, OECD 302 A, ISO 9887, OECD
302 B, or ISO 9888 it shows a percentage degradation of at least 70 % within 28 days,


                                                                                                           123
• or if when tested with one of the methods OECD 301 B, ISO 9439, OECD 301 C, OECD 302 C, OECD 301 D,
ISO 10707, OECD 301 F, ISO 9408, ISO 10708 or ISO 14593 it shows a percentage degradation of at least 60
% within 28 days,
• or if when tested with one of the methods OECD 303 or ISO 11733 it shows a percentage degradation of
at least 80 % within 28 days,
• or, for substances for which these test methods are inapplicable, if evidence of an equivalent level of
biodegradation or elimination is presented.
The applicant shall provide appropriate documentation, safety data sheets, test reports and/or
declarations, indicating the test methods and results as above, and showing compliance with this criterion
for all sizeing preparations used.
(b) Spinning solution additives, spinning additives and preparation agents for primary spinning (including
carding oils, spin finishes and lubricants): At least 90 % (by dry weight) of the component substances shall
be sufficiently biodegradable or eliminable in waste water treatment plants.
This requirement does not apply to preparation agents for secondary spinning (spinning lubricants,
conditioning agents), coning oils, warping and twisting oils, waxes, knitting oils, silicone oils and inorganic
substances.
Assessment and verification: ‘Sufficiently biodegradable or eliminable’ is as defined above in part (a). The
applicant shall provide appropriate documentation, safety data sheets, test reports and/or declarations,
indicating the test methods and results as above, and showing compliance with this criterion for all such
additives or preparation agents used.

(c) The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the mineral oil proportion of a product shall
be less than 1,0 % by weight.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide appropriate documentation, safety date sheets,
product information sheets or declarations, indicating either the content of polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons or the non-use of products containing mineral oils.

11. Biocidal or biostatic products
(a) Chlorophenols (their salts and esters), PCB and organotin compounds shall not be used during
transportation or storage of products and semi-manufactured products.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide a declaration of non-use of these substances or
compounds on the yarn, fabric and final product. Should this declaration be subject to verification the
following test method and threshold shall be used: extraction as appropriate, derivatisation with acetic
anhydride, determination by capillary gas-liquid chromatography with electron capture detection, limit
value 0,05 ppm.

(b) Biocidal or biostatic products shall not be applied to products so as to be active during the use phase.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide a declaration of non-use.

12. Stripping or depigmentation
Heavy metal salts (except of iron) or formaldehyde shall not be used for stripping or depigmentation.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide a declaration of non-use.

13. Weighting
Compounds of cerium shall not be used in the weighting of yarn or fabrics.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide a declaration of non-use.

14. Auxiliary chemicals
Alkylphenolethoxylates (APEOs),
linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS),
bis(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethyl ammonium chloride (DTDMAC),
distearyl

                                                                                                           124
dimethyl ammonium chloride (DSDMAC),
di(hardened tallow) dimethyl ammonium
chloride (DHTDMAC),
ethylene diamine tetra acetate (EDTA),
diethylene
triamine penta acetate (DTPA)
shall not be used and shall not be part of any preparations or formulations used.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide a declaration of non-use.

15. Detergents, fabric softeners and complexing agents
At each wet-processing site, at least 95 % by weight of the detergents, at least 95 % by weight of fabric
softeners and at least 95 % by weight complexing agents used shall be sufficiently degradable or eliminable
in wastewater treatment plants.
Assessment and verification: ‘Sufficiently biodegradable or eliminable’ is as defined above in the criterion
related to auxiliaries and finishing agents for fibres and yarns.
The applicant shall provide appropriate documentation, safety data sheets, test reports and/or
declarations, indicating the test methods and results as above, and showing compliance with this criterion
for all detergents, fabric softeners and complexing agents used.

16. Bleaching agents
In general, AOX emissions in the bleaching effluent shall be less than 40 mg Cl/kg.
In the following cases, the level shall be less than 100 mg Cl/kg:
• linen and other bast fibres,
• cotton, which has a degree of polymerisation below 1 800, and which is intended for white end products.
This requirement does not apply to the production of man-made cellulose fibres.
The applicant shall either provide a declaration of non-use of chlorinated bleaching agents or provide a test
report using the following test method: ISO 9562 or prEN 1485.

17. Impurities in dyes
The levels of ionic impurities in the dyes used shall not exceed the following:
Ag 100 ppm;
As 50 ppm;
Ba 100 ppm;
Cd 20 ppm;
Co 500 ppm;
Cr 100 ppm;
Cu 250 ppm;
Fe 2 500 ppm;
Hg 4 ppm;
Mn 1 000 ppm;
Ni 200 ppm;
Pb 100 ppm;
Se 20 ppm;
Sb 50 ppm;
Sn 250 ppm;
Zn 1 500 ppm.
Any metal that is included as an integral part of the dye molecule (e.g. metal complex dyes, certain reactive
dyes, etc.) shall not be considered when assessing compliance with these values, which only relate to
impurities.
The applicant shall provide a declaration of compliance.

18. Impurities in pigments

                                                                                                         125
The levels of ionic impurities for pigments used shall not exceed the following:
As 50 ppm;
Ba 100 ppm,
Cd 50 ppm;
Cr 100 ppm;
Hg 25 ppm;
Pb 100 ppm;
Se 100 ppm
Sb 250 ppm;
Zn 1 000 ppm.
The applicant shall provide a declaration of compliance.

19. Chrome mordant dyeing
Chrome mordant dyeing is not allowed.
The applicant shall provide a declaration of non-use.

20. Metal complex dyes.
If metal complex dyes based on copper, chromium or nickel are used:
(a) In case of cellulose dyeing, where metal complex dyes are part of the dye recipe, less than 20 % of each
of those metal complex dyes applied (input to the process) shall be discharged to waste water treatment
(whether on-site or off-site).
In case of all other dyeing processes, where metal complex dyes are part of the dye recipe, less than 7 % of
each of those metal complex dyes applied (input to the process) shall be discharged to waste water
treatment (whether on-site or off-site).
The applicant shall either provide a declaration of non-use or documentation and test reports using the
following test methods: ISO 8288 for Cu, Ni; ISO 9174 or prEN 1233 for Cr.

(b) The emissions to water after treatment shall not exceed:
Cu 75 mg/kg (fibre, yarn or fabric);
Cr 50 mg/kg;
Ni 75 mg/kg.
The applicant shall either provide a declaration of non-use or documentation and test reports using the
following test methods: ISO 8288 for Cu, Ni; ISO 9174 or prEN 1233 for Cr.

21. Azo dyes
Azo dyes shall not be used that may cleave to any one of the following aromatic amines:
4-aminodiphenyl (92-67-1)
benzidine (92-87-5)
4-chloro-o-toluidine (95-69-2)
2-naphthylamine (91-59-8)
o-amino-azotoluene (97-56-3)
2-amino-4-nitrotoluene (99-55-8)
p-chloroaniline (106-47-8)
2,4-diaminoanisol (615-05-4)
4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (101-77-9)
3,3'-dichlorobenzidine (91-94-1)
3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine (119-90-4)
3,3'-dimethylbenzidine (119-93-7)
3,3'-dimethyl-4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (838-88-0)
p-cresidine (120-71-8)
4,4'-methylene-bis-(2-chloraniline) (101-14-4)
4,4'-oxydianiline (101-80-4)

                                                                                                        126
4,4'-thiodianiline (139-65-1)
o-toluidine (95-53-4)
2,4-diaminotoluene (95-80-7)
2,4,5-trimethylaniline (137-17-7)
4-aminoazobenzene (60-09-3)
o-anisidine (90-04-0)
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide a declaration of non-use of these dyes. Should this
declaration be subject to verification the following test method and threshold shall be used: German
method B-82.02 or French method XP G 08-014, 30 ppm threshold. (Note: false positives may be possible
with respect to the presence of 4-aminoazobenzene, and confirmation is therefore recommended).

22. Dyes that are carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction
(a) The following dyes shall not be used:
C.I. Basic Red 9
C.I. Disperse Blue 1
C.I. Acid Red 26
C.I. Basic Violet 14
C.I. Disperse Orange 11
C. I. Direct Black 38
C. I. Direct Blue 6
C. I. Direct Red 28
C. I. Disperse Yellow 3
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide a declaration of non-use of such dyes.

(b) No use is allowed of dye substances or of dye preparations containing more than
0,1 % by weight of substances that are assigned or may be assigned at the time of application any of the
following risk phrases (or combinations thereof):
R40 (limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect),
R45 (may cause cancer),
R46 (may cause heritable genetic damage),
R49 (may cause cancer by inhalation),
R60 (may impair fertility),
R61 (may cause harm to the unborn child),
R62 (possible risk of impaired fertility),
R63 (possible risk of harm to the unborn child),
R68 (possible risk of irreversible effects),
as laid down in Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of the laws, regulations
and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous
substances, and its subsequent amendments.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide a declaration of non-use of such dyes.

23. Potentially sensitising dyes
The following dyes shall only be used if the fastness to perspiration (acid and alkaline) of the dyed fibres,
yarn or fabric is at least 4:
C.I. Disperse Blue 3 C.I. 61 505
C.I. Disperse Blue 7 C.I. 62 500
C.I. Disperse Blue 26 C.I. 63 305
C.I. Disperse Blue 35
C.I. Disperse Blue 102
C.I. Disperse Blue 106
C.I. Disperse Blue 124
C.I. Disperse Orange 1 C.I. 11 080

                                                                                                         127
C.I. Disperse Orange 3 C.I. 11 005
C.I. Disperse Orange 37
C.I. Disperse Orange 76 (previously designated Orange 37)
C.I. Disperse Red 1 C.I. 11 110
C.I. Disperse Red 11 C.I. 62 015
C.I. Disperse Red 17 C.I. 11 210
C.I. Disperse Yellow 1 C.I. 10 345
C.I. Disperse Yellow 9 C.I. 10 375
C.I. Disperse Yellow 39
C.I. Disperse Yellow 49
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall either provide a declaration of nonuse of these dyes or a
test report using the following test method for colour fastness: ISO 105-E04 (acid and alkaline, comparison
with multi-fibre fabric).

24. Halogenated carriers for polyester
Halogenated carriers shall not be used.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide a declaration of non-use.

25. Printing
(a) Printing pastes used shall not contain more than 5 % volatile organic compounds (VOCs: any organic
compound having at 293,15 K a vapour pressure of 0,01 kPa or more, or having a corresponding volatility
under the particular conditions of use).
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall either provide a declaration that no printing has been
made or provide appropriate documentation showing compliance together with a declaration of
compliance.

(b) Plastisol-based printing is not allowed.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall either provide a declaration that no printing has been
made or provide appropriate documentation showing compliance together with a declaration of
compliance.

26. Formaldehyde
The amount of free and partly hydrolysable formaldehyde in the final fabric shall not exceed 30 ppm for
products that come into direct contact with the skin, and 300 ppm for all other products.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall either provide a declaration that formaldehyde containing
products have not been applied or provide a test report using the following test method: EN ISO 14184-1.

27. Waste water discharges from wet-processing
(a) Waste water from wet-processing sites (except greasy wool scouring sites and flax retting sites) shall,
when discharged to surface waters after treatment (whether on-site or off-site), have a COD content of less
than 25 g/kg, expressed as an annual average.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide detailed documentation and test reports, using ISO
6060, showing compliance with this criterion, together with a declaration of compliance.
(b) If the effluent is treated on site and discharged directly to surface waters, it shall also have a pH
between 6 and 9 (unless the pH of the receiving water is outside this range) and a temperature of less than
40 °C (unless the temperature of the receiving water is above this value).
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide documentation and test reports showing
compliance with this criterion, together with a declaration of compliance.

28. Flame retardants



                                                                                                       128
No use is allowed of flame retardant substances or of flame retardant preparations containing more than
0,1 % by weight of substances that are assigned or may be assigned at the time of application any of the
following risk phrases (or combinations thereof):
R40 (limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect),
R45 (may cause cancer),
R46 (may cause heritable genetic damage),
R49 (may cause cancer by inhalation),
R50 (very toxic to aquatic organisms),
R51 (toxic to aquatic organisms),
R52 (harmful to aquatic organisms),
R53 (may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment),
R60 (may impair fertility),
R61 (may cause harm to the unborn child),
R62 (possible risk of impaired fertility),
R63 (possible risk of harm to the unborn child),
R68 (possible risk of irreversible effects),
as laid down in Directive 67/548/EEC and its subsequent amendments.
This requirement does not apply to flame retardants that on application change their chemical nature to no
longer warrant classification under any of the R-phrases listed above, and where less than 0,1 % of the
flame retardant on the treated yarn or fabric remains in the form as before application.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall either provide a declaration that flame retardants have not
been used, or indicate which flame retardants have been used and provide documentation (such as safety
data sheets) and/or declarations indicating that those flame retardants comply with this criterion.

29. Shrink resistant finishes
Halogenated shrink-resist substances or preparations shall only be applied to wool slivers.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide a declaration of non-use (unless used for wool
slivers).

30. Finishes
No use is allowed of finishing substances or of finishing preparations containing more than 0,1 % by weight
of substances that are assigned or may be assigned at the time of application any of the following risk
phrases (or combinations thereof):
R40 (limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect),
R45 (may cause cancer),
R46 (may cause heritable genetic damage),
R49 (may cause cancer by inhalation),
R50 (very toxic to aquatic organisms),
R51 (toxic to aquatic organisms),
R52 (harmful to aquatic organisms),
R53 (may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment),
R60 (may impair fertility),
R61 (may cause harm to the unborn child),
R62 (possible risk of impaired fertility),
R63 (possible risk of harm to the unborn child),
R68 (possible risk of irreversible effects),
as laid down in Directive 67/548/EEC and its subsequent amendments.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall either provide a declaration that finishes have not been
used, or indicate which finishes have been used and provide documentation (such as safety data sheets)
and/or declarations indicating that those finishes comply with this criterion.

31. Fillings

                                                                                                        129
(a) Filling materials consisting of textile fibres shall comply with the textile fibre criteria (Nos 1 — 9) where
appropriate.
(b) Filling materials shall comply with criterion 11 on ‘Biocidal or biostatic products’ and the criterion 26 on
‘Formaldehyde’.
(c) Detergents and other chemicals used for the washing of fillings (down, feathers, natural or synthetic
fibres) shall comply with criterion 14 on ‘Auxiliary chemicals’ and criterion 15 on ‘Detergents, fabric
softeners and complexing agents’.
Assessment and verification: As indicated in the corresponding criteria.

32. Coatings, laminates and membranes
(a) Products made of polyurethane shall comply with criterion 3(a) regarding organic tin and criterion 3(b)
regarding the emission to air of aromatic diisocyanates.
Assessment and verification: As indicated in the corresponding criteria.

(b) Products made of polyester shall comply with criterion 8(a) regarding the amount of antimony and
criterion 8(b) regarding the emission of VOCs during polymerisation.
Assessment and verification: As indicated in the corresponding criteria.

(c) Coatings, laminates and membranes shall not be produced using plasticisers or solvents, which are
assigned or may be assigned at the time of application any of the following risk phrases (or combinations
thereof):
R40 (limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect),
R45 (may cause cancer),
R46 (may cause heritable genetic damage),
R49 (may cause cancer by inhalation),
R50 (very toxic to aquatic organisms),
R51 (toxic to aquatic organisms),
R52 (harmful to aquatic organisms),
R53 (may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment),
R60 (may impair fertility),
R61 (may cause harm to the unborn child),
R62 (possible risk of impaired fertility),
R63 (possible risk of harm to the unborn child),
R68 (possible risk of irreversible effects),
as laid down in Directive 67/548/EEC and its subsequent amendments.

Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide a declaration of non-use of such plasticizers or
solvents.

33. Energy and water use
The applicant is requested, on a voluntary basis, to provide detailed information on water and energy use
for the manufacturing sites involved in spinning, knitting, weaving and wet processing.
Assessment and verification: The applicant is requested to provide, on a voluntary basis, the
abovementioned information.


FITNESS FOR USE CRITERIA
The following criteria apply either to the dyed yarn, the final fabric(s), or the final product, with tests
carried out as appropriate.

34. Dimensional changes during washing and drying


                                                                                                             130
Information on dimensional changes (%) shall be stated both on the care label and on the packaging and/or
other product information if the dimensional changes exceed:
• 2 % (warp and weft) for curtains and for furniture fabric that is washable and removable,
• 6 % (warp and weft) for other woven products,
• % (length and width) for other knitted products,
• % (length and width) for terry towelling.
This criterion does not apply to:
• fibres or yarn,
• products clearly labelled ‘dry clean only’ or equivalent (insofar as it is normal practice for such products to
be so labelled),
• furniture fabrics that are not removable and washable.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide test reports using the following test method: ISO
5077 modified as follows: 3 washes at temperatures as indicated on the product, with tumble drying after
each washing cycle unless other drying procedures are indicated on the product, at temperatures as
marked on the product, wash load (2 or 4 kg) depending on the wash symbol. Should any of the
abovementioned limits be exceeded, a copy of the care-label and of the packaging and/or other product
information shall be provided.

35. Colour fastness to washing
The colour fastness to washing shall be at least level 3 to 4 for colour change and at least level 3 to 4 for
staining.
This criterion does not apply to products clearly labelled ‘dry clean only’ or equivalent (insofar as it is
normal practice for such products to be so labelled), to white products or products that are neither dyed
nor printed, or to non-washable furniture fabrics.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide test reports using the following test method: ISO
105 C06 (single wash, at temperature as marked on the product, with perborate powder).

36. Colour fastness to perspiration (acid, alkaline)
The colour fastness to perspiration (acid and alkaline) shall be at least level 3 to 4 (colour change and
staining).
A level of 3 is nevertheless allowed when fabrics are both dark coloured (standard depth > 1/1) and made
of regenerated wool or more than 20% silk.
This criterion does not apply to white products, to products that are neither dyed nor printed, to furniture
fabrics, curtains or similar textiles intended for interior decoration.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide test reports using the following test method: ISO
105 E04 (acid and alkaline, comparison with multi-fibre fabric).

37. Colour fastness to wet rubbing
The colour fastness to wet rubbing shall be at least level 2 to 3. A level of 2 is nevertheless allowed for
indigo dyed denim.
This criterion does not apply to white products or products that are neither dyed nor printed.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide test reports using the following test method: ISO
105 X12.

38. Colour fastness to dry rubbing
The colour fastness to dry rubbing shall be at least level 4.
A level of 3 to 4 is nevertheless allowed for indigo dyed denim.
This criterion does not apply to white products or products that are neither dyed nor printed, or to curtains
or similar textiles intended for interior decoration.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide test reports using the following test method: ISO
105 X12.


                                                                                                             131
39. Colour fastness to light For fabrics intended for furniture, curtains or drapes, the colour fastness to light
shall be at least level 5. For all other products the colour fastness to light shall be at least level 4.
A level of 4 is nevertheless allowed when fabrics intended for furniture, curtains or drapes are both light
coloured (standard depth < 1/12) and made of more than 20% wool or other keratin fibres, or more than
20% silk, or more than 20% linen or other bast fibres.
This requirement does not apply to mattress ticking, mattress protection or underwear.
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide test reports using the following test method: ISO
105 B02.

40. Information appearing on the eco-label
Box 2 of the eco-label shall contain the following text:
• reduced water pollution
• hazardous substances restricted
• whole production chain covered
Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide a sample of the product packaging showing the
label, together with a declaration of compliance with this criterion.




                                                                                                             132
European Ecolabelled suppliers
Source: http://www.eco-label.com/default.htm




                                               133
Bibliography, Linkography

EU

• Commission Decision of 15 May 2002 establishing the ecological criteria for the award of the Community
eco-label     to    textile    products     and      amending       Decision   1999/178/EC   (2002/371/EC):
http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2002/l_133/l_13320020518en00290041.pdf
• Revision of the Textile Eco-label – Draft final report, July 13th 2007, produced by Asqual
• Worldwatch Institute: www.worldwatch.org
• US Environment Protection Agency (EPA):
http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/about/index.htm.
• Handbook of Sustainable Textile Purchasing: http://www.eco-forum.dk/textilepurchase/ index.htm
• Danish experience. Best Available Techniques - BAT - in the clothing and textile industry.
Document prepared for the European IPPC Bureau and the TWG Textile by the Danish Environmental
Protection Agency (2002):
http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publications/2002/87-7972-009-0/pdf/87-7972-010-2.pdf
• The Deadly Chemicals in Cotton, a Report by the Environmental Justice Foundation in collaboration with
the Pesticide Action Network UK:
http://www.ejfoundation.org/pdf/the_deadly_chemicals_in_cotton.pdf
• Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 of 24 June 1991 on organic production of agricultural products:
http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/consleg/1991/R/01991R2092-20000527-en.pdf
• Council Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 of 28 June 2007 on organic production and labelling of organic
products and repealing Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91:
http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2007/l_189/l_18920070720en00010023.pdf
• Council Regulation (EC) No 1804/1999 of 19 July 1999 supplementing Regulation(EEC) No 2092/91 on
organic production of agricultural products and indications referring thereto on agricultural products and
foodstuffs to include livestock production:
http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/consleg/1999/R/01999R1804-19990824-en.pdf
• Council Directive of 27 July 1976 on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative
provisions of the Member States relating to restrictions on the marketing and use of certain dangerous
substances and preparations (76/769/EEC):
 http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/consleg/1976/L/01976L0769-20030215-en.pdf
• (Impregnating chemicals) Council Directive 79/663/EEC of 24 July 1979 supplementing the Annex to
Council Directive 76/769/EEC on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of
the Member States relating to the restrictions on the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances
and preparations:
 http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31979L0663:EN:HTML
• (Impregnating chemicals) Council Directive 83/264/EEC of 16 May 1983 amending for the fourth time
Directive 76/769/EEC on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the
Member States relating to restrictions on the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances and
preparations:
http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31983L0264:EN:HTML
• (PentaDBE & octaDBE) Directive 2003/11/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 February
2003 amending for the 24th time Council Directive 76/769/EEC relating to restrictions on the marketing and
use of certain dangerous substances and preparations (pentabromodiphenyl ether, octabromodiphenyl
ether):
 http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2003/l_042/l_04220030215en00450046.pdf
• (Azocolourants) Directive 2002/61/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 July 2002
amending for the nineteenth time Council Directive 76/769/EEC relating to restrictions on the marketing
and use of certain dangerous substances and preparations (azocolourants):

                                                                                                       134
http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2002/l_243/l_24320020911en00150018.pdf
• (Blue colourant) Commission Directive 2003/3/EC of 6 January 2003 relating to restrictions on the
marketing and use of "blue colourant" (twelfth adaptation to technical progress of Council Directive
76/769/EEC) (Text with EEA relevance):
http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2003/l_004/l_00420030109en00120015.pdf
• (Lead) Council Directive 89/677/EEC of 21 December 1989 amending for the eighth time Directive
76/769/EEC on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the member
states relating to restrictions on the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances and preparations:
http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31989L0677:EN:HTML
• (Cadmium) Council Directive 91/338/EEC of 18 June 1991 amending for the 10th time Directive 76/769/EEC
on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating
to restrictions on the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances and preparations:
http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31991L0338:EN:HTML
• (REACH) Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December
2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH),
establishing a European Chemicals Agency, amending Directive 1999/45/EC and repealing Council
Regulation (EEC) No 793/93 and Commission Regulation (EC) No 1488/94 as well as Council Directive
76/769/EEC and Commission Directives 91/155/EEC, 93/67/EEC, 93/105/EC and 2000/21/EC:
http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2006/l_396/l_39620061230en00010849.pdf
• (REACH) Directive 2006/121/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006
amending Council Directive 67/548/EEC on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative
provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances in order to adapt it
to Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of
Chemicals (REACH) and establishing a European Chemicals Agency:
http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2006/l_396/l_39620061230en08500856.pdf
• Council Directive 96/61/EC of 24 September 1996 concerning integrated pollution prevention and control:
http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/consleg/1996/L/01996L0061-20060224-en.pdf
• Öko-Tex Standard 100:
http://www.oekotex.com/xdesk/ximages/470/16459_100def2007.pdf
• Öko-Tex Standard 1000:
http://www.oekotex.com/xdesk/ximages/470/15540_1000-DEF.pdf
• Swan labelling of textiles, skins and leather:
http://www.svanen.nu/Default.aspx?tabName=CriteriaDetailEng&menuItemID=7056&pgr=39
• Bra Miljöval: Environmental Criteria for Textiles:
http://www.snf.se/pdf/bmv/bmv-textiles-crit.pdf
• EKU criteria for textiles and leather:
http://www.msr.se/en/green_procurement/criteria/Furnishing-and-textiles
• Study on costs/benefits of Green public procurement in Europe, Öko-Institut & ICLEI 2007:
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/gpp/index_en.htm
• Accelerating the Development of the Protective Textiles Market in Europe – Report of the Taskforce on
Protective Textiles. Composed in preparation of the Communication “A Lead Market Initiative for Europe”
{COM(2007) 860 final}:
http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/leadmarket/doc/prep_tex.pdf &
http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/leadmarket/technical_textiles.htm

BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA

BULGARIA

GREECE

HUNGARY

                                                                                                           135
ITALY
Provincia di Cremona, Progetto GPPnet e Gruppo di Lavoro Acquisti Verdi
http://www.compraverde.it

ROMANIA
G.E.O. 34/2006 regarding the award of public procurement contracts, public works concession contracts
and services concession contracts, approved by Law 337/2006, amended and supplemented by Law
128/2007 and G.E.O. 94/2007

National Action Plan for Green Public Procurement 2008-2013

Trainer's Manual on Green Public Procurement

www.achizitiiverzi.ro




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