RELF Meeting 20 July 2007 Minutes - HumanitarianInfoorg

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					Draft minutes of the Regional Emergency Livestock Forum (RELF) held on 20th July 2007 at the FAO Regional Emergency Office for Africa, Nairobi, Kenya. LIST OF PARTICIPANTS
NAME AND TITLE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Sophie Bruas Country Representative Andreas Jenet Head of Programs Caroline Pougin Food Security Adviser Robert Allport Regional Programme Manager Els Bedert Program Support East Africa Mauro Pavone PM TZ/VET Coord S.Sudan Romona Ndanyi CVL, Kabete Fred K. Wandaka Eunice Mwende Robert Masibho Joseph N. Matere Dr. Kisa Juma Ngeiywa Daniel McGahey Mohamed M. Yusuf Robert Bowen Johnson Irungu Mario Younan Seif Maloo Paul Rwambo Gilles Stockton Uswege Minga Haan Joseph Litamoi William Amafu Jeff Mariner Mohamed Mursal Claudie Meyers Ilona Glucks Program Manager – Kenya Dan Irura Program manager VSF Belgium Kenya Okino Moses Livestock Adviser Murekefu W.K Piers Simpkin Bruno Minjauw Regional Emergency Livestock Advisor ORGANIZATION AND DUTY STATION Action Against Hunger – USA Veterinaires sas frailiases Germany ECHO Regional Support Office Nairobi VSF B VSF – Belgium Brussels VSF-G Veterinary Department COOPI COOPI ECHO Regional Office I.LR.I AAARNET MOLFD CB-LEWS ALLPRO Nairobi IUCN-WISP VETAID - Nairobi VETAID - Nairobi CRS/Kenya VSF-Germany Somalia Program Manager VSF Suisse FAO Kenya USAID/EA FAO, RAHC Nairobi FAO – RAHC Nairobi FAO – RAHC Nairobi FAO-RAHC Nairobi ILRI Nairobi OXFAM GB Nairobi OXFAM GB Nairobi VSF - Suisse VSF Belgium Turkana ACTED DVS Kabete ICRC - Nairobi FAO Regonal Emergency office for Africa

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Time 10.00 – 10.15 10.15 – 10.30 10.30 – 10.45 10.45 – 11.00 11.00 – 11.15 11.15 – 11.30 11.30 – 11.45 11.45 – 12.00 Presentation Camel sudden death Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) Rift Valley Fever Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standard (LEGS) IPC and livestock tracking system RELF: level of expectations Any other business Topic Responsible FAO Regional VSF-Germany, Suisse & DVS Kenya FAO Kenya & VSF Belgium ILRI VSF Belgium ICRC FAO Regional

INTRODUCTION (Bruno Minjauw, FAO-REOA) The meeting began by Bruno Minjauw,FAO welcoming the participants to the REOA facilities. Participants then proceeded to introduce themselves stating their organization (introduction was done by type of organizations: NGOs, Ministries, Research Organizations and UN agencies were represented). No private sector was present. Over the last few months, the FAO Regional Emergency Office for Africa (REOA) facilitated a series of technical working group‟s and it was felt that a new platform for information sharing on regional livestock emergency activities was required. REOA noted that they were happy to offer the secretariat of this newly formed forum and to ensure its integration within the Food Security Nutrition Working Group (FSNWG). Therefore, the minutes of RELF will be presented during the FSNWG meetings. Details of the modus operandi of RELF were discussed during this meeting and are reported under “RELF: level of expectations paragraph”. CAMEL SUDDEN DEATH SYNDROME (Mario Younan, VSF Germany, Ilona Glücks,VSF Suisse, Ramona Ndanyi, DVS) Mario, VSF Germany, gave a short resume of the epidemiology of this unknown disease explaining that it appeared nearly 2 years ago in Northeast Ethiopia. The disease slowly moved down, across Somalia and now is affecting North East Kenya. In December 2005, an unusually high number of camel deaths were reported from Afar and Oromia Region of Ethiopia. In 2006, reports were made from Somaliland and Puntland by camel owners claiming their camels were dropping dead without any prior symptoms. Mainly affected were adult camels, especially lactating females and breeding bulls or bulls used for transport. Reports from Central and South Somalia have been received as well. VSF Germany managed to secure funding from UN OCHA through FAO Somalia to investigate the ”Camel Sudden Death Syndrome” in Somalia. From the end of March/early April 2007 reports received from various people (DVOs, VOs, Field staff, area Chiefs) in Mandera District are claiming an increase in the number of death in camels. According to reports made, mainly female camels, either lactating or in their late pregnancy were dying. No symptoms were witnessed prior to death. The disease spread to Wajir, Isiolo, Samburu, Garissa, Moyale, Marsabit and Kajiado Districts. VSF Suisse in cooperation with the Department of Veterinary Services carried out a survey in Moyale, Wajir, Garissa and Isiolo Districts. The project is funded by FAO Kenya. The four veterinary teams 2

managed to carry out ten post mortems. Ilona showed a series of post mortem pictures and detailed the clinical sign of the diseases. Ramona, DVS Kenya gave a summary of the laboratory results. Although there is some indication of viral infection, no definitive diagnosis is possible at the moment. Histology of tissue samples from three camels revealed that all three animals were affected by myocarditis and hepatitis. No significant bacterial or parasitical pathogens were found in specimen from Somalia and Kenya so far. Virology analysis carried out on samples from Kenyan camels showed a Cytopathic Effect in three cases, indicative of a viral infection. See also: Camel sudden death post mortem.pdf RIFT VALLEY FEVER (Jeff Mariner, ILRI) Following a period of heavy rains, a RVF outbreak was reported in Kenya in mid December 2006.Tanzania also reported the disease at the beginning of 2007. ILRI conducted a participatory epidemiology study to identify lessons that could be learned from this last epizootic and to identify recommendation for the control of future outbreak. The study was conducted in selected areas in north-eastern and Coast provinces of Kenya where the outbreak occurred. The objectives of the study included: (i) to describe the symptoms of RVF in livestock and people, assess socio-cultural economic determinants of knowledge and the effectiveness of interventions as perceived by stakeholders in order to develop better surveillance and response systems; (ii) to assess stakeholder perception on the impact of RVF from the household to the local market level; (iii) to evaluate the local and national response capacity using key informant interviews and data collection in governmental and nongovernmental organizations; (iv) to foster communication between public health and livestock professionals and between professionals and the communities. The RVF outbreak was perceived to have had a relatively higher impact on the livelihoods of the pastoralist with 83% of sheep, 20% of cattle and 40% of goats affected in the North eastern province of Kenya. The survey established that the participants could consistently describe the clinical signs and the risk factor associated with RVF. This indicates that livestock owners could play an essential role in epidemio-surveillance for livestock diseases, including RVF. The survey shows that livestock owners identified clinical symptoms in livestock as early as the first week of October. If this is the case, the early warning call provided by FAO-Empress coincided with the first clinical case in the field meaning that community early warning system could provide very useful data for the design of early responses. The participatory data still needs to be confirmed with some empirical data like meteorological data but ILRI should be in a position to publish the full results of the survey shortly. See also: RVF Lessons learned.pdf Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) (Dan Irura, VSF B) Dan, VSF B gave a short description of the PPR disease followed by a report of the FAO-VSF B vaccination campaign conducted in Turkana, Kenya. Slightly under 1.5 million small ruminants were vaccinated against PPR in collaboration with the DVS Kenya and other NGOs. Despite Kenya being the only officially affected country, the neighboring countries are under real risk of infection i.e. Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia. A regional control strategy is therefore needed if the disease has to be controlled. It is believed that PPR has been around the region for some time and therefore the disease might be already endemic with epidemic peak devastating livestock population. Uganda performed a serology survey and a PPR workshop will be organized in Soroti, Uganda to discuss possible control strategies during the coming week. 3

See also: PPR in Turkana.pdf LEGS (Robert Allport, LEGS Steering Group member) From early 2000, various agencies and individuals involved in livestock relief work began to question the quality and professionalism of their interventions. For example, inputs such as emergency veterinary care often arrive too late to be of any value and when delivered to people free-of-charge, undermine local service providers. In these situations, although some animals may have been saved in the short-term, the capacity of local services to provide more long-term support is damaged by the relief response. These kinds of problems are compounded because donors and NGOs often lack in-house livestock expertise and decisions on livestock programming are made without professional input. Over time, these concerns were linked to current thinking on livelihoods and the concept of „saving lives and livelihoods‟. The challenge is to design emergency responses which both save human lives while also protecting people‟s assets and the local services and systems needed for post-disaster recovery. In this connection, some agencies began to explore ways to deliver emergency livestock de-stocking programmes using local traders. Others began to deliver emergency veterinary care through the private sector. The LEGS process gathers all these initiatives together to produce a single set of international standards and guidelines for livestock emergency interventions. As the first draft of the LEGS is available on the web, agencies are invited to send their comments before the end of August. It was suggested to conduct a half day workshop to discuss the LEGS and prepare combined responses and comments. See also: Introduction to LEGS.pdf LIVESTOCK TRACKING SYSTEM (Piers Simpkin, ICRC) The ICRC Regional Livestock Study published in 2005 proposed that to achieve better impact of livestock interventions a Tracking Strategy response is required. The Tracking Strategy is not a new phenomenon. It is in fact how many nomadic livestock owners themselves manage their herds, involving different herd management responses at different times in response to different environmental, social, economic or political stimuli. The first promotion of tracking strategy or "opportunistic management" emanated from the "New Thinking" on range management and pastoralism developed in the early 1990s by various researchers. Although based on sound range management theory, few humanitarian organizations or development agencies have incorporated it into their planning or response. Even fewer governments or research and educational institutes, even in the most affected countries, have recognized it as a valid pastoralist livelihood management tool. The tracking strategy approach is especially relevant in non-equilibrium systems which are common to regions with less than 500 mm annual rainfall and variability in rainfall of more than 30%. ICRC have proposed to use a tracking strategy approach combined with noting relevant "threshold values" in livestock ownership when responding to livestock emergencies in the Horn of Africa. However to have any major impact, it will require the adoption of the tool by other emergency response and development agencies, as well as governments and donors. Independent, uncoordinated small-scale interventions undertaken in emergency situations may actually be creating a bigger problem than they solve. A tracking strategy approach can overcome this by encouraging better coordination, harmonization and cooperation. 4

To be implemented effectively, the tracking strategy requires flexibility in funding and the development of a set of indicators as to when to switch from one intervention to another. The integrated food security and humanitarian phase classification (IPC) is a situation analysis tools that define the food security level of a given region. The livestock tracking system and the LEGS are both response analysis tools to define which livestock emergency activities will be the most relevant in a defined situation. A recently formed working group is investigating how one could link the IPC and LTS and LEGS to provide a comprehensive decision making tool. See also: IPC-LTS.pdf RELF: Level of expectations (Bruno Minjauw, FAO) A simple questionnaire was circulated to the participant during the meeting and the results were as follows: How frequently would you like to have a RELF meeting? Monthly Bi-monthly Quarterly 6 9 How long should a RELF meeting last? 1 hour 2 hours Half a day 13

Other Thrice/year 10

Full day 13

How many topics should be discussed during a RELF meeting? 1 to 2 2 to 3 More? 3 to 4 9 16 Where should the venue of the RELF meeting be? Please indicate name of organization and address: 5 times cited: FAO REOA at Eden square 2 times cited: rotating between organization members VSF-G Lenana Rd, Horton Court VSF-Suisse Marcus Garvey Road The following suggestions were made:  Presenters are responsible to submit a summary of their presentation to Bruno for inclusion in the minutes.  Participants should send topics they would like addressed during the next RELF to Bruno.  Request to participate in existing technical Working Groups (Camel Sudden death, LEGS/IPC/LTS, RVF and PPR) should be sent to Bruno.  New technical Working Group could be formed upon request.  Ad hoc meetings could be organized in case of emergency.  Invitation for future RELF meetings should be conveyed at least 2-3 weeks in advance to allow non Nairobi-based colleagues to plan their travel accordingly.  Participants should send their evaluation and comments about the RELF meeting by email. All suggestions are welcome!


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