1. Match the following terms with their definition.
1. to emigrate 1. a person who has been forced to leave their country or home, because there is a war or for political, religious or social reasons 2. a person who hides in a ship or a plane before it leaves, in order to travel without paying or being seen 3. To leave your own country and live permanently in another country 4. To come and live permanently in a country after leaving your own country 5. a person who is not a citizen of the country in which they live or work 6. a person who has been forced to leave a country 7. To move from one part of the world to another according to the season (of birds, animals)
2. to immigrate 3. to migrate 4. stowaway 5. refugee 6. expellee 7. illegal alien
2. Complete the following sentences with words taken from the previous exercise and other deriving from those words. 1. Moving to another place is referred to as ________________ 2. A person, animal, or bird that moves from one place to another is a _____________ 3. If people leave their own country and go to live in another, they ______________ . These people are ______________ and their action is called ___________________ . 4. People ______________ if they come to live in a country from another one. The people coming into a country from abroad to make their life and home there, are __________ and their action is _______________ . 3. In human history there have always been populations who migrated for different reasons (invasion, colonization, exodus, etc.). Read the sentences about British and American History and complete them with the names the of countries and populations given. 1.Roman 2.American 3.Germany 4.India 5.North America 6.Australia 7.West Indies 8.Africans 9.Europe 10.Celts 11.African 12.Indians 13.Canada 14.Irish 15.Ireland 16.New Zealand 17.Scandinavia 18.USA 19.Americans 20.France 21.South Africa 22.Anglo-Saxons 23.Spain 24. England 25.Romans
1. The first people to come to Britain were the 1_____. They crossed the English Channel in 700 B.C. 2. In 55 B.C. Julius Caesar visited Britain but it was only in 43 A.D. that the 2 _______ conquered the island under Emperor Claudius. They occupied England and Wales for 300 years, but didn‟t succeed in beating Scotland‟s fierce tribes. In fact, Emperor Hadrian built a wall across northern 3 ______ to defend the 4 _______ territories. They also invaded other European countries, just like 5 ______ and 6______. 3. After the Romans left, people called 7_______ came to Britain from 8______. In the 7th century they controlled most of the island which they called Angleland. 4. The first Vikings raiders came to Britain in 789. They came from 9_______ and first conquered the northern province of Northumbria. 5. Indians were the first 10______. They had populated the continent for thousands of years before the European settlers came. The 11_____ was created in 1783, when the British colonies in North America won the revolutionary war and became independent from British rule (=governo). At first the 12_______ nation was a narrow strip of 13 states along the east coast, but very soon the expansion of the USA towards the West began. Thousand of white people expelled the 13_____ from their lands. The Government sent soldiers and compelled the Indians to live on reservations from 1851.
6. The early 1600s saw the beginning of a great time of emigration from 14_____ to 15_________. Most European immigrants left their homelands to escape political oppression, to seek freedom to practice their religion, or for adventure and opportunities denied them at home. 7. Between the 16th and the 19th century millions of 16______ were enslaved. Many European nations were involved in the slave trade, but by the 18th century Britain had the monopoly of this trade. Slave traders left England in ships full of manufactured goods and sailed to the 17_____ west coast. Here they exchanged their goods for black slaves and then sailed towards America, where they sold them to masters for their plantations. The slave traders then bought precious raw materials like cotton, tobacco, sugar and coffee for the European markets and sailed back to Europe. 8. One of the most important periods in British history was the reign of Queen Victoria from 1837 to 1901. Victoria was named Empress of 18_____. Britain had many colonies in all five continents: some of these colonies, like Australia, New Zealand and Canada were inhabited by English settlers (=coloni); other colonies like 19________ or the 20________ were trading posts (=basi commerciali). When Victoria died, Britain was the richest country in the world. India was the richest and most important colony and was called “the Jewel in the Crown”. 9. Many of Britain‟s colonies began fighting for independence: 21______, 22______ and 23_______ were the first to leave the Empire and this was bad for the economy. In 1931 the Commonwealth was founded. It was an association of 50 countries which used to be part of the Empire. They cooperate economically and culturally. Many Commonwealth citizens have come to live in Britain making her a multi-racial nation. 10. 24______ began a permanent English colony in the 17th century and from that moment the 25 _____ people were deprived of their lands and exploited in many ways. In the 19th century two thirds of the people depended on agriculture and the potato was the most important food for them. In the years 1845-51 a great calamity, the potato famine (=carestia), decimated the Irish population. About one million people died and many more had to emigrate to America or other English colonies. Today there are Irish large communities all over the world. 4. Think of international immigration today. First read the following text, then use the questions to start a discussion.
The basic reasons for migration are “push” and “pull”. Push refers to the need to leave your own country to escape from political or religious persecution, or war. People who migrate for these reasons are called refugees. Pull, on the other hand, is the attraction for the new country. Most people migrate for economic reasons: they want to find a better job and to have a better life. Migration has played a fundamental role in the history and development of the USA. Between 1800 and 1950 over 50 million people left Europe and most of these settled in North America. Ellis Island in the Upper New York Bay was the main immigration port for people entering the USA and is now home to the Ellis Island Immigration Museum. There‟s no doubt that migration is now a permanent characteristic of the European society. At present there are over 15 million immigrants in the European Union and this number will continue to grow. The five European countries which receive most immigrants are France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK.
Ex-colonies like India, Pakistan, West Indies Ex-colonies like Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Greece, Italy, Turkey, ex-Yugoslavia, Southern Europe Northern and Central Africa, the Far East (Philippines), Eastern Europe and Balkans Northern and Central Africa
UK France Germany, Belgium, Szwitzerland Italy Spain
1. What do you know about the immigrants to Europe and to Italy? 2. Why have they decided to immigrate? What are the problems they have to face? 3. Do you personally know any immigrants? 4. Are or were there any foreign students in your present or previous class/school? 5. Did/Do you behave with them in the same way as with Italian people? Why/why not?
5. Emigration, especially of people from less developed countries to more developed ones, has increased in recent years and has become a very controversial topic. Here are some points of view: a. many people are strongly opposed to immigration; b. others defend immigration; c. others say the situation is much more complicated: immigration might be right in some cases and wrong in others. Which of these points do you share? Explain your reasons. Now read the following opinions and decide which point of view each of them expresses (a, b. or c.) „Immigrants take jobs away from the citizens of that country‟ „Since many immigrants come into a country illegally, they are forced to accept jobs which other people don‟t want and they are badly paid‟ „Stereotypes are sometimes wrongly created when associating immigrants with crime and drugs; the majority of immigrants are honest people who just want to have a decent (=dignitosa) life‟ „People who are suffering serious or violent persecution because of their political or religious beliefs should be allowed to emigrate‟ „It‟s unfair that immigrants, who are often poor when they arrive, should benefit from social services financed from taxes paid by the citizens of the host country‟ „Some immigrants come from economic situations which are not terrible – only because they want to become richer‟ „More immigrants mean more crime; they are responsible for bringing drugs into the country‟ „Immigrants actually add to the culture of a city‟ „It‟s important to look at whether immigrants are legal or illegal: if they have legal jobs, it also means that they will pay taxes; then it‟s more unlikely that they will turn to drugs or crime‟ „Many immigrants are highly educated or very talented people who could contribute a lot to the host country‟ „Immigration corrupts the traditions and culture of a country; many immigrants don‟t take the trouble to learn the language of the host country‟.