Elements of Surveying _CEL271_

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					Elements of Surveying (CEL271)
               Gazala Habib
           Dept. of Civil Engg.
         Room No. 303, Block-4
          Phone: 1192 (Office)
•   Surveying by S K Duggal, Tata McGraw Hill, Vol 1
•   Surveying: Theory and practices, S. S Bhavikatti
•   Surveying and levelling by N. N Basak
•   Plane surveying A M Chandra
•   Surveying (Vol-1) by B. C. Punmia, Ashok K. Jain and Arun K.
• Lab timing for all group: 2-4 pm (Monday-
• Room Number: Block IV, 335
• Contact: Mr. Rajeev Sharma (Phone: 6442)
                   Attendance policy
• All students must attend all classes. Attendance record will be maintained
  and will be periodically uploaded through the UG web-site.

• Lectures: 70 marks for attendance, surprise quizzes, homework,
  assignments and exams

• Laboratory: 30 marks for attendance, surprise quizzes, notebook, viva

• If attendance of the student is greater than 90%, result of the best three
  quizzes will be considered else average of all quizzes will be considered.

• If a student’s attendance is less than 75%, the student will be awarded one
  grade less than the actual grade that he(she) has earned. For example, a
  student who has got A grade but has attendance less than 75% will be
  awarded A- grade.
            Marks, Exam, Assignment

Lectures                                                      Lab
Minor 1                                                  10   Viva            10
Minor 2                                                  10   Surprise quiz   10
Major                                                    30   Notebook        5
Surprise Quiz (any number) + Assignments +               10   Attendance >=   5
Homework                                                      90%
Attendance (>=90%) + class participation (>=80% of       10
time) means out of 10 question asked in class at least
8 should be correct
         Attendance Policy                               …Contd.
• If a student has a valid medical certificate (from IITD hospital or a registered
  medical practitioner) because of which he/she has missed an evaluation
  component the compensation will be decided and put on notice board.

• If a student has missed any of the minors due to medical reasons or family
  emergency alternatives will be arranged. For example if a person misses
  minor-1 because of health problem he/she should produce the medical
  certificate immediately after re-joining the class and the re-minor will be
  conducted last working day of next week after minor-1.

• If a student misses Major examination he should apply for an I-grade or an
  extended-I grade. HOD will approve I-grade based on his/her assessment of
  the situation. In that case examination must be conducted within 10 days of
  completion of the majors. Dean, UGS will award the extended-I grade and in
  that case examination must be conducted within the first ten working days of
  the next semester.
                            Marks policy
•   Full marks will be awarded for correct procedure and correct answer. 3/4 marks for
    correct procedure but wrong answer. Zero marks for wrong procedure and correct

•   All evaluation components including Minor and Major scripts will be shown to the
    students. Within 7-15 days after exam along with the model answer.

•   The date and time for showing script will be displayed in the notice board. The
    schedule will be group wise.

•   Grading of a course will be finalized and displayed after following the process of

•What is surveying?
Surveying may be defined as the science of determining the
position, in three dimensions, of natural and man-made features
on or beneath the surface of the Earth. These features may then
be represented in analog form as a contoured map, plan or
chart, or in digital form as a three dimensional mathematical
model stored in the computer.
              Objective of course

• To understand the basic concept of surveying

• Apply the surveying concept and equipments in real life

• You should be able to use a set of tools to solve the problems
  in an optimal way

• You should be able to understand the pitfalls (sources of
  error) to avoid them
        Application of surveying in civil
• The planning and design of all Civil Engineering projects such as
  construction of highways, bridges, tunnels, dams etc are based upon
  surveying measurements.
• Project of any magnitude is constructed along the lines and points
  established by surveying. Thus, surveying is a basic requirement for all Civil
  Engineering projects.
• Other principal works in which surveying is primarily utilized are
• • to fix the national and state boundaries;
• • to chart coastlines, navigable streams and lakes;
• • to establish control points
• • to execute hydrographic and oceanographic charting and mapping; and
• • to prepare topographic map of land surface of the earth.
                                                                   Levelling Staff
                                           Tilting Level
          Dumpy Level

 Telescope is fixed cannot be tilted
 or moved
                                        Telescope can be tilted slightly
                                        about its horizontal axis with the
                                        help of tilting screw.
                                        The line of collimation is made
                                        horizontal for each observation
                                        with the help of tilting screw

                             Instrument can be levelled automatically
Digital level                within a certain tilt range
Levelling staff
                  Sewer Projects
1. Firm under contract
2. Preliminary studies
  1.   General layout map
  2.   Buildings located on general layout
  3.   Treatment site search
  4.   Preliminary paper layout
       1. Make sure every building and potential building site
          can be served
       2. Manhole system placed on general layout
                    Sewer Projects
5.   Preliminary filed work
     1.   Preliminary profiles
          1.   BM system established
          2.   Manholes set
          3.   Profiles run
          4.   Basement elevations acquired
     2.   Design mapping
          1. Final plans
     3.   Treatment area
     4.   Boundary survey
     5.   Complete topo of area
                      Sewer Projects
3. Design process
  1.   Sewer line design
       1.   Preliminary profiles drawn
            1. Basement elevations plotted
       2.   Manholes placed on profiles
       3.   Slope between manholes computed
       4.   Problem areas – alternate service routes selected
            1. Manholes set in field
            2. Profiles run
            3. Revert to 3A
              Sewer Projects
2. Treatment plant design
   1. Topo map prepared
   2. Type system verified
   3. Treatment system sized based on existing and
      projected population
   4. System designed
3. Plans drafted
   1. Sewer plans normally prepared on plan/profile sheets
                 Sewer Projects
     2. Treatment plant drawn using plan sheets and cross
     3. Quantities computed
     4. Specifications
        1. Written instructions on how every item to be built
        2. Include contract documents and bid proposal

4. Bidding procedure
  1. Notice of bid advertised on local paper
  2. Pre-bid meeting
              Sewer Projects
3. Bidding
  1.   Each contractor submits sealed bid
  2.   Bids opened and tabulated
  3.   Engineer reviews proposals
  4.   Engineer recommends which bid to accept
4. Contract awarded
                Sewer Projects
5. Construction
  1. Surveying
     1. Contractor required to hire surveyor for stakeout
     2. Manholes referenced
     3. Staking methods
        1. Batter board method
        2. Laser method
     4. Measurement of quantities
6. As Built
       Water distribution systems
1. Put under contract – water district formed
2. Preliminary studies
  1.   General layout prepared
  2.   Water district signs up users
  3.   Water source located
  4.   Waterlines placed on general layout
       1. Hydraulic gradient plotted from USGS topo
       Water distribution systems
  5.   Pump station and water storage sites
       1.   Property acquired by perpetual easement or purchased
       2.   Boundary survey performed for each site
       3.   Topo each site
3. Field work
  1.   Plan preparation
       1.   Normally photogrammetrically
            1. Flight plan sent on general layout
            2. Take photos and post measure horizontal control
            3. Plan sheets marked on photos using template
   Water distribution systems
  2. Waterlines placed on plan sheets
2. Crossings and easements
  1. Every location where waterline crosses paved road,
     railroad – has to be topo, cross sectioned, and tied to
     nearest stationing or milepost
  2. Crossings plotted and permits applied for – railroads,
     state DOT, township and county roads
  3. Easement descriptions prepared
     Water distribution systems
4. Final design
  1. All waterlines and appurtenances on plans,
     easements, acquired and in docket form, rock
     excavation on plans
     1. Quantities computed
     2. System driven to make sure nothing missed
  2. Tanks and P.S.
     1. Designed and sized
     2. Quantities computed
        Water distribution systems
5. Bidding
6. Construction
   1.   Water distribution system
        1.   Waterline stakeout
             1. Each easement plotted on plans
             2. Crossings as permitted staked
        2.   Quantities
   2.   Tanks and PS
        1.   Foundation staked
        2.   Must be checked for plumb
7. As built
               Architectural Projects
1. Firm Under contract
2. Preliminary fieldwork
   1.   Boundary survey
        1.   Description provided
        2.   Fieldwork
             1. Monument search, traverse site
             2. Compute data and analysis
             3. Final stakeout
        3.   Easement and encroachment search
        4.   Plat of survey
        Architectural Projects
2. Topo – grid method most common
  1.   Grid pattern 25’ – 100’
  2.   BM – USGS
  3.   Entire tract topo and adjacent areas to access
  4.   Utilities – nearest tied in
  5.   Include all objects above, on or below, ground
  6.   Prepare topo map
  7.   Field check map
          Architectural Projects
3. Construction
  1. Control
     1. If large building – you may want to establish TBM’s on
        control Mon.
  2. Stakeout
     1. Convert architects dimensions to engineering
     2. Layout clearing and excavation limits
     3. Layout underground piping
         Architectural Projects
   4.   Layout footings and foundations
   5.   Layout building corners and supports
   6.   Locate roads and parking areas
   7.   Locate lighting and other project extras
3. As built
    Structure and Terrain Movement
•    Used to monitor:
    1.   Movement of buildings ( x, y, and z)
    2.   Movement of bridges
    3.   Movement of dams
    4.   Landslides and earthquakes
    5.   Amusement park rides
    Structure and Terrain Movement
•    Description – error within system must be
     less than smallest movement to be observed
•    2 groups of monuments installed
    1. Reference or control monuments
    2. Deformation or movement monuments
 Structure and Terrain Movement
• Control – generally concrete pillars extending
  3-4 feet out of ground with tribrach
  permanently attached
• Movement monuments – for earthquake or
  landslide may be similar deep monuments
    Structure and Terrain Movement
•    Equipment:
    1.   GPS
    2.   Turned angles
    3.   Angle/Distance
    4.   Leveling
    Classification of surveying: Based on
    Primary division based on shape of the
    – Geodic survey: if the area surveyed is more than 1000 km2 geodic
      surveying must be employed
    – Plane survey
• Classification based on function of survey
    – Control surveying: establishing the horizontal and vertical positions of
      widely spaced control points using geodic method.
    – Land surveying: to determine the boundaries and areas of parcel of
    – City surveying: urban planning
    – Topographic surveys: depiction of topography of a region. Including
      natural and man made features
    – Engineering survey: for laying out engineering projects.
    – Route survey: planning designing and execution of highways, railways,
      canals, pipelines etc.
    – Construction surveys: required to establish points lines, grades and for
      staking out engineering works after the plans have been prepared and
      the structural design has n=been done.
Classification of surveying: Based on
– Astronomic survey: are conducted for the determination of
  latitudes, longitudes, azimuths, local time etc. for various
  places by observing heavenly bodies such as suns and stars.
– Geological survey: to determine the strata of the earth’s crust
  for geological studies.
– Archaeological surveys: unearthing relics of antiquity
– Mine surveys: exploration of mineral deposits, and to guide
  tunnelling and other operations associated with mining.
– Satellite surveys: to establish intercontinental, interdatum and
  interisland geodic ties over the world by making satellite
– Military surveys: conducted for military purpose.
     Classification of surveying: Based on
• Chain survey: only linear measurements are made with chain or tape no angular
  measurements are taken
• Compass survey: horizontal angles are measured with the help of magnetic
• Plane table survey: The map is prepared in the field itself by determining the
  directions of various lines making linear measurements, and plotting the details
  on paper using a plane table
• Levelling survey: this type of survey is used to determine the elevations and
  relative heights of the points with the help of instrument known as level.
• Theodolite survey: theodolite survey is primarily used in traversing and
  triangulation for providing controls. The horizontal and vertical angles are
  measured with the help of theodolite.
• Tacheometric survey: a special type of theodolite known as tacheometer, is used
  to determine horizontal and vertical distances directly.
• Photogrammetric survey: measurements are made with help photograph.
• EDM Survey: linear measurements are made with the help of EDM instruments.
         Principles of surveying
• Fixing the points in relation to points already
          Principle of surveying
• Working from whole to part:
• to localize the errors and
• to control the accumulation of errors.

  – Establish primary control points with high precision
  – Establish secondary and tertiary control points within
    the system boundary and form triangle/rectangle may
    be with less precision.
  – This will help in localizing the error and to control the
    propagation of error.
Working from whole to part

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